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Chapter Overview

Many of you are reading this manual as part of your efforts to prepare as a spiritual care professional who will be ready to respond during times of disaster. Your main role will be to provide emotional and spiritual support to those affected by disaster, but it is also critical for you to understand the context in which you will be providing this support—the bigger picture, so to speak.

Disaster relief operations are complex systems having more to them than just a response mechanism. They require a signiﬁcant amount of pre-planning. Disaster experts have long known that waiting until a disaster strikes to test a community’s response procedures can be disastrous. How communities respond to disaster can even induce more stress on individuals and place them at risk for developing a variety of adverse reactions and psychological consequences. This section takes the ﬁrst step towards introducing you to the key elements of disaster management and response at multiple levels.

The focus of this chapter is on the framework of disaster planning, preparedness, and response. In the event of a disaster in your community, you may be asked and/or may want to help. It will help you to have an understanding of the structure of the overall response so that you know how your efforts will enhance the overall operation that makes disaster response possible.

Disaster Management Continuum1

All disaster response begins at the local level and as such, communities must be prepared for whatever happens, no matter how big or small. Health care systems play an integral role in a community’s disaster response; therefore, these systems must also be prepared to meet the tremendous challenges

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...that can easily cause misrepresentation in data is the difference between association and causation—although “variables may be affected by a knowledge of another, does not mean that one variable causes another”(Armitage, Berry, & Matthews, 2008). Another way that data may be misrepresented is in the sample population used—whether they need to meet a specific criteria or random selection without background knowledge. The use of biased studies can often be seen in competitive markets, such as with pharmaceuticals. As many medications are available for the same purpose, they need to find a way to stand out. One way is through use of commercials, as they explain the benefits of the medications, you can often see in very small print information that says results are not typical, or results cannot be guaranteed. Armitage, P., Berry, G, & Matthews, S. ( 2008, April). Statistical methods in medical research. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from ProQuest database What are the characteristics of a population for which a mean/median/mode would be appropriate? Inappropriate The appropriate use of mean, median and mode to determine an average is based on the information gathered. “The mean is the arithmetic average, the median is the point representing the 50th percentile in a distribution, and the mode is the most common score” (Nursing Research, 2011). As the...

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...research: A practical workbook. Edinburgh: Elsevier Saunders. Topic 1 DQ 1: How can graphics and/or statistics be used to misrepresent data? Where have you seen this done? Statistics are used everywhere, every day to represent a multitude of data, or study sample. Sample characteristics are the traits that depict the study sample and can be portrayed in either some type of table or in an article (Grove, 2007). “Descriptive statistics are used to generate sample characteristics, and the type of statistic used depends on the level of measurement or the demographic variables included in the study” (Grover, 2007, p.75). It is this information and data that is presented can be misrepresented, either unethically or simply because the data is misunderstood. According to Statistics (2013), data can be misrepresented three ways: 1) misunderstanding the data presented, 2) using incomparable definitions, and 3) by deliberately misinterpreting the data presented, especially if it is a biased representation. An example of misunderstanding the data presented could be someone that is researching crime statistics in an area where they are looking to relocate and raise a family; if they do not understand the manner in which the data is being presented, it could be more than easy for them to misunderstand it, this can even apply to the person who wrote the article or table on the data, unknowingly in this situation. An example of using incomparable definitions typically occurs when data is compared...

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