Free Essay

What Can Psychology Tell Us About Business Ethics?

In: Business and Management

Submitted By haffleck
Words 730
Pages 3
This article review is about an article entitled “What can Psychology Tell us About Business Ethics?” by David Messick (2009). This article was published in the Journal of business ethics. The article explores the relationship between business ethics and psychology through examining the concepts of discrimination and conflict of interest and how they influence ethics in business settings. The article affirms that as much as numerous studies have explored these two concepts from a psychological perspective; there is very limited information on how they influence decision making in business settings. The researcher explores various circumstances related to the two concepts while highlighting scholarly positions to position his arguments. The article is concluded by asserting that analysis of business ethics from a psychological perspective can enhance the ability of promoting high ethical standards business decision-making

The position taken by the author is well founded as it is generated through amalgamation of relevant scholarly sources in the positioning of the relationship between business ethics and psychology (Fassin et al., 2011; Shakeel et al., 2011). The author also highlights individual circumstances where his individual unconscious thoughts may have influenced his decision-making. This not only enhances the authenticity of the work, but also its effectiveness to address the research issue. For this reason, it is a good read both in writing and content.

Based on the position taken by the author, psychology is imperative in developing a better approach to addressing hidden ethical issues in organizational settings especially on decision-making. This position is evident as his argument is founded on affirming that as much as individuals may not be willing to conduct themselves in unethical manner, their unconscious thoughts which are uncontrollable by an individual influence decision making which may result in unethical situations in organizational settings (Shakeel et al., 2011). The author, therefore, suggests that psychological approach to organizational behavioral practices is imperative in developing a control for unconscious behaviors that may be unethical.

From the analysis of the thoughts presented in the article, I tend to agree with all of them. Research has demonstrated that an individual’s behavioural patterns are influenced by personality (Fassin et al.., 2011). Given the fact that personality is influenced by the unconscious mind (De Cremer et al., 2011), it is true to argue that some decisions in organizational settings may be beyond the control of individual's conscious mind. For instance, the approach taken by the author in exploring the concept of discrimination which illustrates that as much as individuals may be able to fully abide by regulations when handling an individual from other races, it is challenging to do so for a person within the races. This creates a powerful cover for discrimination, which is hard to detect. Adopting of psychological perspective to such issues is vital in the management of business ethics (Fassin et al., 2011). The approach adopted by the author in communicating this position is not only well thought but extensively researched. It is therefore, a powerful communication on how human psychology can provide deeper explanations of why conflicts of interest and discrimination are still a common phenomenon in contemporary business settings (De Cremer et al., 2011; Shakeel et al., 2011).
In addition, the author of this article managed to open up various avenues of research by demonstrating the limited lack of knowledge and explanations on how discrimination and conflict of interest influence decision-making. This clearly indicates a gap in knowledge about business ethics. The ability of the author to demonstrate the complexities that revolve around the two concepts from psychological point of view effectively demonstrated that psychology is an essential factor to consider when establishing, implementing and monitoring business ethics (Fassin et al., 2011). Consequently, this is a well thought research paper that has opened up numerous avenues that may offer solutions to emerging issues in business ethics.

References
De Cremer, D., van Dick, R., Tenbrunsel, A., Pillutla, M., & Murnighan, J. K. (2011). Understanding ethical behavior and decision making in management: A behavioral business ethics approach. British Journal of Management, 22(s1), S1-S4.
Fassin, Y., Van Rossem, A., &Buelens, M. (2011).Small-business owner-managers’ perceptions of business ethics and CSR-related concepts. Journal of Business Ethics, 98(3), 425-453.
Shakeel, M., Khan, M. M., & Khan, M. A. (2011).Impact of culture on business ethics. Far East Journal of Psychology and Business, 3(2), 59-70.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Business Ethics

...Business Ethics - Assignment 1 The case study outlines a number of major ethical dilemmas pertaining to the conduct of the employees of Galvatrens, and also shows a number of flaws in the way in which misconduct is reported. The first is the fact that the scheme could have happened in the first place. The second is that Terry had found out about Greg, had dealt with the problem, and then not reported it to anyone. The third is the lack of managerial intervention and their lack of oversight in the way this scheme was carried out. The Fourth was that the open door policy had been set up to the detriment of those who in management were busy and did not have the time to actually do anything about the problems. The fifth was that the channels for confidential reporting were not as confidential as they should have been. The biggest of these problems however seems to be Sydney Baydowns continued employment with the company, as a member of the ‘old guard’ his ideas seem to reflect those of an Authoritarian perspective, as such he does not seem capable of working in the new system. His moral individualisation was different from that of the rest of the company executives, and this has led to him implementing the requests of Chip Brownlee the CEO in a very different way to what Chip had intended. This change in style of leadership has meant that requests of Chip have been executed differently to how they were originally intended to operate. You can see in the final page of the...

Words: 2167 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Ancient Philo

...Ancient Philosophy 3rd November 2011 Epistemology - The theory of knowledge. Theory of Forms or Ideas... • Plato believed that what the senses show us/what we see/what we perceive is called world observation. • Things are not as how we see them • If you are trying to produce an unphysical cause you would use different vocabulary • A physicist can say that the only answer to give a theory about the existence of the world you have to study physics. • Plato brings abstract ideas for examples what is justice? • Plato would say in order to know what justice is you have to get a certain essence of justice. 10th November 2011 • If you want to grasp on reality what you really need to think of is not the world of sense but the world of Ideas that can only be grasped by the philosophers. • What you start with at the bottom are simply dreams... as you climb up the ladder you move from the world of dreams to the world of Doxa(opinion/ordinary common sense) until you reach the epistemei(the only kind of knowledge that gives you Truth) • Plato says that you can never find the perfect justice. You cannot find perfection since perfection is only found in the abstract form of justice. • The ideal of the early Greeks was the perfect male model like hipieus. • Socrates tells hipieus and asks him what beauty is? • Hipieus answers that beauty is a beautiful woman... he thinks that this is obvious • But Socrates continues to challenge him that beauty is not just related to...

Words: 1511 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Ethical Research Paper

...Roberts Personal Values and Ethical Standards Before completing this paper, I have to make sure that I understand the difference between morals, values, and ethics. Values are something that we have learned from childhood. As a child we feed off the things our parents are doing as well as the influences of other adults surrounding us. Morals are believed to be the beliefs that we have developed based on the things that we value and how we feel that one should behave in any situation. Ethics is the way one behaves in a situation based on testing someone’s morals and values. Values are mainly established through childhood upbringing and then they are molded into citizen contribution to society. The environment where most values can be established includes home, church, school, one’s cultural background, neighbors and parties. I would have to say the values that I really up hold are integrity, openness, honesty, loyalty, respect and kindness. I guess I hold on to kindness the most because I believe in do until others as you want to be done until you, and I feel like it’s the right thing to do. Kindness also shows a sign of respect. When I think about integrity it is really a choice, which I have been rewarded for throughout the years. It encourages me to turn a negative situation into a good situation. When you have integrity u can use it at any given time. Honesty is takes on a whole know meaning, and it is kind of hard for people to rely on, but there will be no honesty......

Words: 1213 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Consensual Relationship Agreement

...environment to get to know your co-workers. Between get-togethers every Friday after work with alcohol, food, and possibly music (which leads to dancing) and the softball and volleyball teams, barbeques and pot lucks, there are plenty of opportunities for employees to enjoy each other’s company. HR Solutions’ 2009 National Normative data confirms that 88 percent of all workers strongly feel the people they work with are friendly. We all spend so much time at work and are often attracted to people who share common interests; it only makes sense that one of these very friendly co-workers is going to eventually jump to the top of your dating to-do list. A study by Vault.com shows that almost half of us have been romantically tied to someone at work and that workplace relationships often can be successful; roughly one-quarter result in long-term relationships and even marriage. It is believed that people are more likely to date a coworker in the office rather than someone outside of the workplace. Although, romantic relationships are common in the office, many employers are increasingly turning to consensual relationship agreements. A Consensual Relationship Agreement (CRA) is essentially a written “contract” in which the romantically involved parties acknowledge the following: Their relationship is voluntary and consensual, they agree to abide by the employers antidiscrimination , anti-harassment, and workplace conduct policies, they promise to report any perceived......

Words: 1914 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Consental Agreement

...environment to get to know your co-workers. Between get-togethers every Friday after work with alcohol, food, and possibly music (which leads to dancing) and the softball and volleyball teams, barbeques and pot lucks, there are plenty of opportunities for employees to enjoy each other’s company. HR Solutions’ 2009 National Normative data confirms that 88 percent of all workers strongly feel the people they work with are friendly. We all spend so much time at work and are often attracted to people who share common interests; it only makes sense that one of these very friendly co-workers is going to eventually jump to the top of your dating to-do list. A study by Vault.com shows that almost half of us have been romantically tied to someone at work and that workplace relationships often can be successful; roughly one-quarter result in long-term relationships and even marriage. It is believed that people are more likely to date a coworker in the office rather than someone outside of the workplace. Although, romantic relationships are common in the office, many employers are increasingly turning to consensual relationship agreements. A Consensual Relationship Agreement (CRA) is essentially a written “contract” in which the romantically involved parties acknowledge the following: Their relationship is voluntary and consensual, they agree to abide by the employers antidiscrimination , anti-harassment, and workplace conduct policies, they promise to report any perceived......

Words: 1926 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of a Multi-Perspective Approach to Understanding Organization?

...Mr Foo Hee Luan BOB | What are the advantages and disadvantages of a multi-perspective approach to understanding organization? | TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Cover Page 1 Table of Contents 2 Introduction 3 1. Multiple Perspective; Modern, Symbolic-Interpretive and Postmodern 3-4 Perspective on Organization Structure and Cultural 2. Modern Perspective 4-5 3. Symbolic-Interpretive Perspective 5-6 4. Postmodern Perspective 6 5. Multi-perspective Advantage & Disadvantage 6-7 6. Conclusion 8 Reference list 9-10 Word count: 1963 words Introduction Nowadays, organizations are becoming more and more complex. This may due to the globalization, advancement in technology and derelegulation of the market. From the past till now, we can learn about an organisation through theories and different perspectives that developed by different theorists. We need to understand the organisation in different ways and different perspective in order to face any problems that deal with different organization phenomena. Here comes in the Multiple Perspectives, where includes the – modern, symbolic-interpretive and postmodern perspectives, where they provide different theories and perspectives for us to be the tools to build the idea of what an organization is and......

Words: 2709 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Authentic Leadership

...J Bus Ethics (2015) 131:107–119 DOI 10.1007/s10551-014-2271-z Authentic Leadership and Whistleblowing: Mediating Roles of Psychological Safety and Personal Identification Sheng-min Liu • Jian-qiao Liao • Hongguo Wei Received: 26 July 2013 / Accepted: 22 June 2014 / Published online: 8 January 2015 Ó Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015 Abstract The issues of organizational wrongdoing damage organizational performance and limit the development of organizations. Although organizational members may know the wrongdoing and have the opportunity to blow the whistle, they would keep silent because of the interpersonal risks. However, leaders can play an important role in shaping employee whistleblowing. This study focuses on discovering the mechanisms of how authentic leaders influence employee whistleblowing with a sample from China. Results demonstrate that authentic leadership is positively related to internal whistleblowing. Team psychological safety partly mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and internal whistleblowing. Personal identification partly mediates the relationship between authentic leadership and internal whistleblowing. The study contributes to the extant theory by filling the gap between leadership and whistleblowing. Keywords Internal whistleblowing Á Authentic leadership Á Psychological safety Á Personal identification S. Liu Business School, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Jungong Road...

Words: 10084 - Pages: 41

Free Essay

Stress & Coping

...STRESS and COPING Will Seitz ABS 200 11/03/2014 Instructor Clark Ashford University STRESS 1 Throughout the course of this class we have been learning about the different disciplines of applied behavioral science, to understand what applied behavioral science is we have to define it. Applied behavioral science is the application of different disciplines or knowledge of psychology to understand and find solutions to human behavior. Here you would use the specific psychological discipline you are trained in to conduct risk assessments and delve into why we humans do what we do. In week three we were asked to choose a specific case study from a list and follow it through the course, my case study was about stress and coping. The subject of my case study was named Jamiel. I decided on this particular case study because it had to deal with stress and coping, something that everyone deals with on a daily basis. The focus of the study was a series of unfortunate events that kept compounding on top of each other to snowball frustrations into all out panic and the feeling of despair. Stress is a precursor to causing many different kinds of physiological and psychological troubles, but what is stress? Stress according to What is Stress, “Stress occurs when pressure exceeds your perceived ability to cope“, (Palmer & Cooper, 2007). It was this kind of pressure that our case study subject Jamiel had to deal with on his way to the office, once...

Words: 2219 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Why Shared Moral Values by Team Players of the Firm Reduce Conflict and Dependency That Occurs Due to Bounded Rationality and Opportunistic Behavior.

...Why shared moral values by team players of the firm reduce conflict and dependency that occurs due to bounded rationality and opportunistic behavior. Term paper for the module “Ethics, Compliance, and Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms” at Hamburg School of Business Administration Prof. Dr. Christoph Niehus Simon Rybach Langenfelder Damm 90 22525 Hamburg Tel.: 0173/ 2196726 simon@rybach.de Matriculation number: 1896 MBA HL 2013 Charles Darwin described 1871 that “[…] an advancement in the standard of morality […] will certainly give an immense advantage to one tribe over another. A tribe including many members who, from possessing in a high degree the spirit of patriotism, fidelity, obedience, courage, and sympathy, were always ready to aid one another, and to sacrifice themselves for the common good, would be victorious over most other tribes” (Darwin, 1871/1981). His work about the antecedent of men pointed out to the importance of shared moral values as an element for the survival of certain tribes. These findings in the context of evolution are still valid and appropriate in the context of building high productivity teams in firms as a competitive advantage. Organizations have to cope with today’s complexity of a global business environment. Meeting this challenge requires a high degree of flexibility in companies in order to adapt to constantly, rapidly changing external factors. The globalization forces companies to develop new organizational structures...

Words: 1758 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Philosophy

..............................................…………...p.12 Nature of God............................................................………...p.16 Life and Death.........................................................…………..p.20 G582: Religious Ethics Meta-ethics...........................…………………………………….p.25 Free Will and Determinism………………………………….……p.28 Conscience.......................…………………………………….…p.32 Virtue Ethics………………………………………………………..p.36 Sexual Ethics…………………………………………………...….p.40 Environment and Business Ethics……………………………….p.44 Religious Language Introduction The problems of religious language: • If we use language univocally about God, then we are limiting him / making him like a human • If we use language equivocally about God, we cannot be sure what the word means when applied to God • Are statements about God supposed to be cognitive – if so, what evidence proves / disproves them? • Are statements about God supposed to be non-cognitive – if so, do they have any meaning? The Verification Principle The Vienna Circle This group of philosophers argued that a statement is only meaningful if it can be verified empirically, or if it is a tautology. This idea is known as the verification principle, or sometimes the strong verification principle. For example, ‘the chair is blue’ is easy to verify with our senses; ‘the widow’s husband is dead’ is a......

Words: 22600 - Pages: 91

Premium Essay

Leadership and Ethics

...contract report On Leadership and Ethics Compiled June 2015 by Rochak Bhatta Charles Stuart University Darlinghurst, Sydney. Table of content Headings Pages Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 Leadership and ethics…………………………………………………………………………. 4 Transformational Leadership………………………………………………….. 5 Learning contract outcome…………………………………………………………………. 5 Critical self-reflection and analysis of the outcome…………………………….. 6 Knowledge………………………………………………………………………….. 6 Skills……………………………………………………………………………………. 8 Ability…………………………………………………………………………………. 9 Action Plan…………………………………………………………………………………………9 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………….10 References………………………………………………………………………………………….11 Introduction Leadership, Ethics, social responsibilities are some of the common terms widely used inside classrooms and boardrooms. But surprisingly very little......

Words: 3699 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Chapter 1 Business Ethics

...BMB2033: BUSINESS ETHICS AND VALUES Course Leader: Shaharudin Yunus COURSE NOTES TOPIC 1: Fundamentals of Values, Ethics and Morality LEARNING OBJECTIVES At the end of this chapter, you will be able to: Define values List the sources of value Identify the roles of values in decision-making Identify the definition of ethics Identify the nature of ethical reasoning Identify the concept of ethical standards and judgement Define morality Identify the various phases of Kohlberg's theory of moral development Identify the differences between ethics and morality Identify the similarities between ethics and morality Identify the basic unification of ethics, values and morality NATURE OF VALUES 1.1.1 Definition A small company has just employed Rizal as a marketing executive. As a fresh graduate, Rizal feels enthusiastic about the job and is determined to be a good worker. On the first day of work, new employees were briefed on how work is done. At that point, Rizal realized that some of the company's marketing strategies somewhat deceived the customers. This is just one example of ethical issues in business that we will look at in this course. Values, ethics, and morality are three concepts used in discussing 'Business Ethics and Values'. We will see how they should be applied in businesses. However, in this section, we will discuss values first. Values are defined as fundamental principles or enduring beliefs about the most desirable conditions......

Words: 5857 - Pages: 24

Free Essay

Neuromarketing: the New Frontier of Marketing

...opposing arguments about the ethical repercussions of marketing to children. In this paper I have decided to take it to an alternative level and evaluate the forefront of marketing, where it is heading, how it works, and attempt to bridge the gap on how this form of research affect children of various ages. Along with all of this, another debatable topic is the moral and ethical issues faced with this expanding sect of marketing. Neuromarketing: What is it? Neuromarketing is a new field of marketing research that studies consumers' sensorimotor, cognitive, and affective response to marketing stimuli. According to some, neuromarketing will change market research and marketing fundamentally. This new form of research is derived from the argument that people don't and can't really know what motivates them, because much of our mental processes are unconscious. However, the truth is that most decisions do involve both automatic, instinctive reactions, and elements of control and consideration. Tools of Neuromarketing: There are many tools used in the study of neuroscience to determine specific chemical changes as well as neurological changes in the human brain. It is the understanding that the researcher’s use of these tools can measure various levels of change in the human body when visually confronted with images and/or video clips. The results of these changes are then compared to the scientific theories of where these changes took place in the brain and what......

Words: 2850 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Values and Ethics in Organizations

...Kasera 15P221 Soumitra Joysula 15P231 Human Behaviour in Organizations Submitted to: Prof. Radha Sharma Submitted by: Group 1 Abhinav Srivastava 15P181 Ashutosh Pandey 15P191 Aviral Jain 15P192 Divya Gulati 15P201 Rahul Kasera 15P221 Soumitra Joysula 15P231 Values & Ethics in Organizations Values & Ethics in Organizations Contents 1. Background 1 2. The Concept of Ethics and Values 1 2.1. Values 1 2.2. Ethics 1 2.3. Role of Leadership in Organizational Ethics and Values formation 1 2.3.1 Moral Spill-over Effect 1 2.4. Organisational Ethics 1 2.4.1 Basic Elements of Organizational Ethics 1 3 Motivation theories for building ethical organisations 1 3.1 Stakeholder Theory 1 3.2 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 1 3.3 Incentive Theory 1 3.3.1 Reinforcements in Incentive Theory 1 3.4 Operant Conditioning Theory 1 3.4.1 Modifying Operant Behaviour: Reinforcements and Punishments 1 3.4.2 Operant conditioning for changing human behaviour 1 4 Industry Practices 1 5 Values & Ethics: A Cross-Cultural Perspective 1 5.1 Considerations for Evaluating Values of another Culture 1 5.2 Comparison of business cultures between China and USA 1 6 Case Analysis 1 6.1 NAICOM may sanction operators on unethical practices in insurance 1 6.2 Unethical and unauthorized medical practice - an alarming situation 1 6.3 Analysis and Recommendations 1 7 Conclusions 1 8 References 1 1.......

Words: 9695 - Pages: 39

Premium Essay

Influence

...leader, Machiavelli famously said that, because it's not impossible to do both, leaders should opt for fear. Research from Harvard Business School's Amy Cuddy and consultants Matthew Kohut and John Neffinger refute that theory, arguing that leaders would do much better to begin with "love"—that is, to establish trust through warmth and understanding. Most leaders today approach their jobs by emphasizing competence, strength, and credentials. But without first building a foundation of trust, they run the risk of eliciting fear, resentment, or envy. Beginning with warmth allows trust to develop, facilitating both the exchange and the acceptance of ideas—people really hear your message and become open to it. Cultivating warmth and trust also boosts the quantity and quality of novel ideas that are produced. The best way to gain influence is to combine warmth and strength—as difficult as Machiavelli says that may be to do. In this article, the authors look at research from behavioural economics, social psychology, and other disciplines and offer practical tactics for leaders hoping to project a healthy amount of both qualities. Machiavelli says that when we judge others especially our leaders we look at two characteristics: how lovable they are? and how fearsome they are? These traits are so important because they are said to answer two critical questions “What are this person’s intentions toward me?” and “Is he or she capable of acting on those intentions?” People judged to be......

Words: 4274 - Pages: 18