Premium Essay

What Can We Do About Antibiotic Resistance

In: Science

Submitted By sarahcarey
Words 340
Pages 2
What can we do about Antibiotic-Resistance Bacteria?

After completing the assigned activity I learned that there were a few points of evidence that demonstrated the problem of antibiotic resistance. I also found recorded data of methods that have been successful in decreasing the number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains and some methods that were not so successful.

Since the 1930’s antibiotics have been administered to treat several types of infectious diseases. The unearthing discovery of antibiotics was a phenomenon. Death rates decreased by the thousands and there was hope for the people who would contract pneumonia or tuberculosis. However just like most happy stories there are trials and tribulations.

One of the approaches that were unsuccessful was antibiotic rotation on resistance. The method was instead of prescribing of a steady prescription of antibiotics to an individual at a constant, the doctor could rotate the prescription of antibiotics on occasion. So in other words the patient would interchange between antibiotics sporadically. The trial experiment was two separate groups. The control group was prescribed a single antibiotic during a short visit at the hospital and the rotation group was prescribed three different antibiotics on an alternating basis. The idea was a great one, however it was also unsuccessful. The incidence of antibiotic-resistance bacteria was higher in the rotation than in the control group.

Another approach that seemed to be successful was the reduction of prescriptions administered to the patients. The concept was to decrease the number of antibiotic prescriptions and with this sense it would slow down the antibiotic-resistance bacteria. The process was to put together two groups. One group would have been treated with an antibiotic drug called erythromycin, and the other group would have already built up an...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Bio Quiz

...101 Self-Study Quiz: What Can We Do About Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria? You Decide What Can We Do About Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria? Summarize, evaluate, and argue the validity of the data that demonstrate the problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Then present a plan for reducing this problem in the future. Keep these questions in mind: · What data supports the hypothesis that antibiotic-resistance is on the rise? What problems do you see in this data? Can you propose a way to overcome these problems · Which methods have been successful in decreasing the number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains? Which methods have not? · What shortcomings or errors do these given studies have? Can you design a new study that would overcome them? Student Deliverable: Summarize, evaluate, and argue the validity of the data that demonstrate the problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Can antibiotic resistance be over come? What can we do?Let's start with washing our hands often with soap and water this will help to prevent a disease and also the need for antibiotics. Also, while handling food such as meet make sure meat is cooked though, and the food is handled hygienically. This will help with food-borne illnesses. We need to make sure to take antibiotics only if needed. What is happening is more often than most is, we tend to go to the doctor for the mere ordinary cold. But do you really need that antibiotic? A cold is a virus antibiotic will not help cure......

Words: 1236 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Science

...Self-Study Quiz: What Can We Do About Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria? You Decide What Can We Do About Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria? Summarize, evaluate, and argue the validity of the data that demonstrate the problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Then present a plan for reducing this problem in the future. Keep these questions in mind: • What data supports the hypothesis that antibiotic-resistance is on the rise? What problems do you see in this data? Can you propose a way to overcome these problems? • Which methods have been successful in decreasing the number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains? Which methods have not? • What shortcomings or errors do these given studies have? Can you design a new study that would overcome them? Student Deliverable: |Summarize, evaluate, and argue the validity of the data that demonstrate the problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. | | | |Can antibiotic resistance be overcome? Let's start with washing our hands often with soap and water this will help to prevent a disease and | |also the need for antibiotics. Also, while handling food such as meet make sure meat is cooked though, and the food is handled hygienically. | |This will help with food-borne illnesses. We need to make sure to take antibiotics only if needed. What is......

Words: 852 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Antibiotics: Not Always the Answer

...Antibiotics: Not Always the Answer It was flu season. Almost everyone was getting sick. For a few days, my throat felt constricted, making it hard for me to swallow down food. Thinking that it was a cold, I ignored it and went on with my daily schedule. Two weeks passed, there was no change. I never really thought about looking at my throat to see what was going on, but once I looked, my tonsils were the size of golf balls. I went straight to my doctor, hoping it wasn't tonsillitis. The first thing we had to figure out was to see if this was a bacterial or viral infection. My tests results for strep throat, mononucleosis, tonsillitis, and blood samples to test for bacterial infection were all negative. My doctor reported that my results indicated that I had some sort of virus, and did not prescribe me antibiotics, raising questions for why I shouldn't be taking antibiotics for my infection. Since Alexander Fleming's discovery of them in 1927, antibiotics have played a profound role in ridding the population of bacterial infections. Antibiotics are chemicals that work to kill disease-causing, single-cell living organisms called bacteria ("The Danger of Antibiotic Overuse"). Bacteria can surpass our immune system, reproduce, and cause diseases or infection by producing chemicals that damage our bodies ("What Are Antibiotics? How Do Antibiotics Work?"). For instance, bacteria can invade our inner ear and cause a bacterial ear infection. Our immune system works to fight the...

Words: 1937 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Antiresistancee

...What Can We Do About Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria? Essay Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria is bacteria that has mutated and have become immune to antibiotics to treat them. In science terms Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic; this was said in an article called Antibiotic Resistance on Daily Science website. In all the scientific terms it is hard to understand exactly what all of this means, the simplest way to explain it is when antibiotics become ineffective it is due to natural selection evolving in random mutation. When antibiotics become ineffective to killing bacteria it becomes a problem, but how do we fix it and what are we going to do about it? What I have gotten out of the articles I have read. Scientists are studying all the possibilities and were of how to prevent genes from mutation so that we will not become immune to the antibiotics that we have to help heal the infections we typically encounter. There are a lot of studies going on, these are to develop a way to make sure that we do not meet a “superbug," meaning a disease or infection that we cannot fight off because out genes have mutated and we have no antibiotics or treatment. If we do not find a way to prevent our genes from mutating it could result in the extinction of the human race. So in order for that not to happen we either needs to find a way to prevent our genes from mutating or come up with antibiotics or treatments to fight these......

Words: 323 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

...Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Kwame D. Brooks BIO/101 October 16, 2014 Prof. Rafael Frim Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Even though the indiscriminate use of antibiotics is enhanced by their free and uncontrolled availability ‘across the counter’, particularly in developing and Third World countries where regulatory mechanisms leave much to be desired. Alternately, even in developed countries, there is a clear connection between overall antibiotic intake and the rate of recurrence of the discovery of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. According to Barry Commoner, “First law of ecology: ‘Everything is related to everything else’.” As such, these antibiotic-resistant bacteria evolves into a most important health problem that becomes the foundation for some patients to be incurable to previously treated infections because the development of antibiotic resistance. This is primarily due to disproportionate and often superfluous use of antibiotics in humans and animals. According to G. Gopal Rio “Risk factors for the spread of resistant bacteria in hospitals and the community can be summarized as overcrowding, lapses in hygiene or poor infection control practices. Increasing antibiotic resistance in bacteria has been exacerbated by the slow pace in developing newer antibiotics and bacteria can be innately resistant or may acquire resistance to antibiotics” (1998). In essence, these two types of conflict are probably in the same way significant in the perspective of the......

Words: 962 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Antibotic Resistance

...Antibiotic Resistance Xzaviette Hill BIO/101 November 3, 2014 The first antibiotic was developed by Alexander Fleming in 1929. Since then, antibiotics have revolutionized the medical field. They were so revolutionary that many proclaimed them as a “wonder drug.” Many illnesses that were considered incurable became easily cured. So, what is an antibiotic? Well, an antibiotic is a medicine that can kill, or inhibit the growth or reproduction of, microorganisms. Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections alone; they have no effect on viral or fungal infections. The 1930’s marked the beginning of the antibiotic revolution. Since then, antibiotics have been used to fight off various bacterial diseases including, pneumonia, tuberculosis, leprosy, and typhus. These diseases can be fatal. Typhus alone has a mortality rate of 70% when left untreated. Yes, antibiotics have saved many lives. Nonetheless, antibiotics are by no means infallible. In recent years, a new problem has manifested; some bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics. Doctors have discovered that over-prescription contributes to the evolution of antibiotic- resistant bacteria. Over- prescription is the excessive prescription of a medication. Antibiotic over- prescription occurs when physicians prescribe antibiotics for small infections that the body could have otherwise fought off itself or for viral and fungal infections that, as I stated before, can’t be treated with antibiotics. The issue of......

Words: 525 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Antibiotics in the Production of Food Animals

...qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwer...

Words: 2989 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

What Can We Do About Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

...What Can We Do About Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Giana Dominguez SCI 214 September 04, 2013 Gloria Young, PhD   After reading the information in this assignment and looking at the plot values I honestly still do not understand everything that I read. So I will try to write this summary the best that I possibly can. What I understood from my reading was that antibiotics have been in development over the last eighty years. Antibiotics help fight infections we get from bacteria. Antibiotics come in different classes to fight multiple strains of a bacterial infection (Cummings). I also learned that over the years new antibiotic development has become slower. Over the last eighty years bacteria has become sort of built up immunity to some antibiotics. Not all infections can be treated with the same antibiotics. Sometimes a prescribed antibiotic does not cure an infection. I know this from my own personal experience. I had to have surgery. After the surgery I had gotten an infection and was given an antibiotic. The infection I had was resistant to the type of antibiotic that I was given. The antibiotic actually made my infection worse. The symptoms I felt at the beginning of my infection caused me so much more pain. I had to be put on a different class of antibiotic. The second antibiotic I was given was stronger and it was hopefully supposed to cure my infection. The new antibiotic cured the infection I had gotten but I had developed another infection and had to be put......

Words: 570 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

...Self-Study Quiz: What Can We Do About Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria? You Decide What Can We Do About Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria? Summarize, evaluate, and argue the validity of the data that demonstrate the problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Then present a plan for reducing this problem in the future. Keep these questions in mind: • What data supports the hypothesis that antibiotic-resistance is on the rise? What problems do you see in this data? Can you propose a way to overcome these problems? • Which methods have been successful in decreasing the number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains? Which methods have not? • What shortcomings or errors do these given studies have? Can you design a new study that would overcome them? Student Deliverable: |Summarize, evaluate, and argue the validity of the data that demonstrate the problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. | |The charts, when combined and looked at together all paint a nice picture of bacteria gradually becoming more resistant to more classes of antibiotics. When one | |looks at the charts it is easy to see that in 1989 & 1990, the amount of classifications of antibiotics was at a high (not including 2000). During that time the | |number of written prescriptions for a certain antibiotic (Erythromycin) was also at an all-time high. We can also see that generally the strain of the Strep | |bacteria became more......

Words: 571 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Antibiotics: a Harmful Misued Product

...Antibiotics: A Harmful Misused Product Today, the human race has way too much reliance on antibiotics and products associated with them. Many people are extremely unaware of what can happen if antibiotics are overused or used incorrectly. Nobody allows their body to heal itself. In certain cases antibiotics should be used to help cure one of an infection but not in the ways they are used today. Antibiotics can be found in many household that includes mostly all wipes and sprays. Antibiotics being included in all of these products can do nothing but hurt one in the long run. Placing antibiotics in cleaning appliances can cause all bacteria to become immune and change so that the antibiotic becomes unproductive and the bacterium becomes stronger. Antibiotics are used for anything from cuts to strep throat and pneumonia and have been for a very long time. They are becoming impotent because they are used incorrectly by nearly everyone: doctors, patients, and even people raising animals for meat. The misuse would be prescribing the drugs completely incorrectly. In doing this, superbugs are produced and they are extremely antibiotic resistant and almost impossible to stop. Antibiotics also kill some of the good and helpful bacteria inside of the body which may allow resistant bacteria to fill in. The human body itself has sets up its own defenses with pathogens and other walls that fight and harmful bacteria off without any use of antibiotics. It is very faulty to overuse any......

Words: 1676 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Finance

...http://cls.casa.colostate.edu/transgeniccrops/what.html What Are Transgenic Plants? A transgenic crop plant contains a gene or genes which have been artificially inserted instead of the plant acquiring them through pollination. The inserted gene sequence (known as the transgene) may come from another unrelated plant, or from a completely different species: transgenic Bt corn, for example, which produces its own insecticide, contains a gene from a bacterium. Plants containing transgenes are often called genetically modified or GM crops, although in reality all crops have been genetically modified from their original wild state by domestication, selection and controlled breeding over long periods of time. On this web site we will use the term transgenic to describe a crop plant which has transgenes inserted. Image:Results of insect infestation on Bt (right) and non-Bt (left) cotton bolls. Source: USDA | Why Make Transgenic Crop Plants? A plant breeder tries to assemble a combination of genes in a crop plant which will make it as useful and productive as possible. Depending on where and for what purpose the plant is grown, desirable genes may provide features such as higher yield or improved quality, pest or disease resistance, or tolerance to heat, cold and drought. Combining the best genes in one plant is a long and difficult process, especially as traditional plant breeding has been limited to artificially crossing plants within the same species or with closely......

Words: 11690 - Pages: 47

Premium Essay

The Connection Between Eating Meat and Climate Change

...way that factory farming is done today poses tremendous risks to climate change. This stems from a reliance on corn for feed, pooling manure into stagnant lagoons that release methane, use of petroleum-fueled machinery, and pollution to air and water which have unknown consequences for global warming. Two issues exacerbate the global warming issue. These are the corn and manure problems. The Corn Problem The US corn industry is the most heavily subsidized farm crop of all, and so we have a huge excess of corn. A good chunk of that corn does not taste good, has low nutrient value, and is meant to be used as livestock feed. However, cows have special stomachs meant to eat grass, not corn. This is explained in detail in this New York Times piece (Pollan, 2002): A corn diet can also give a cow acidosis. Unlike that in our own highly acidic stomachs, the normal pH of a rumen is neutral. Corn makes it unnaturally acidic, however, causing a kind of bovine heartburn, which in some cases can kill the animal but usually just makes it sick. Acidotic animals go off their feed, pant and salivate excessively, paw at their bellies...

Words: 1025 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

A General Review of Tetracyclines Antibiotics

...A General Review of Tetracyclines Antibiotics Chang Liu Instructor: Prof. Jasson Sello Department of Chemistry, Brown University Providence 02906, RI Tetracyclines are the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be applied to clinic use. Nevertheless, the increasing incidence of bacterial resistance of tetracyclines led to a series of studies on the development of semisynthetic tetracyclines to circumvent the resistant organisms. In order to better design the structures of tetracycline derivatives, research on the action mode of tetracyclines, mechanisms of resistance, biosynthesis and total synthesis of tetracyclines were also performed. Keywords: Tetracyclines, Structure-activity Relationship, Mode of Action, Mechanisms of Resistance, Biosynthesis, Total Synthesis 1. Introduction Tetracyclines are a group of polyketide broad-spectrum antibiotics that has activity against a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, mycoplasmas, chlamydiae and peotozoan parasites [1]. The discovery of tetracycline was in the 1940s. At that time, the problems related to the production of Pennicillin has been solved and pharmaceutical industry and academic institutes started to concentrate their energy on the development of new antibiotics. In 1948, the first member of tetracycline family—chlorotetracyclin, or Aureomycin was discovered as an isolate of Streptomyces Aureofaciens in an antibiotic screening program functioned in Lederle Labs [2]. In 1950, oxytetracycline or......

Words: 2838 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Hello

...that explains the context and framework to understand. The authors advocate why students should learn about it.! ! ! ! l.! ! ll.! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! lll. ! ! Introduction ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! A. Many parents of students have created issues for science professors to ! question whether or not to teach evolution in the classroom. !! B. Without evolution there would be a disappearance of all the facts that are put together as a whole, it is the fundamental framework of a unifying ! theory.! C. Evolution helps discover all the mysteries throughout our history and ! explains relationships between these species.! D. There are many questions as to why we study biology such as how !! organisms work, how we breathe, how fish swim, or how leopard frogs ! produce thousands of eggs at one time, but evolution truly explains the ! background of how these things occur. ! E. Evolution is such an inducing subject because it broadens the categories ! of applied sciences, philosophy, psychology, literature, and the arts. ! Why is evolution a unifying theory?! ! ! ! ! ! ! A. When evolution takes place, when a population of species change they ! end up favoring their survival with such characteristics. ! B. With these inheritable characteristics, are likely to live to their given age ! unlike ones who do not have those characteristics.! C. Organisms will increase the population making them survival of......

Words: 694 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Bacteria and Antibiotics Lab Report

...BACTERIA AND ANTIBIOTICS LAB REPORT Bryan Bennett Ms. Johnson Biology 09 period 8 March 12, 2013 Introduction: 1. Eubacteria -Has cell wall with peptidoglycan -They can live nearly anywhere on earth (sky to underground) -Unicellular -Prokaryotic -Reproduce Asexually Archaebacteria -Cell wall without peptidoglycan -Live in environments without oxygen (anaerobic) -Prokaryotic -Unicellular -Reproduce Asexually -Oldest bacterial form -Unique lipids in their cell membrane -DNA sequence is more like other Eukaryotes than other bacterial types (eubacteria) 2. Bacteria are classified into four groups: * PHOTOAUTOTROPHS * PHOTOHETEROTROPHS * CHEMOAUTOTROPHS * CHEMOHETEROTROPHS 3. 4. Many bacteria are heterotrophic which is to thrive off other organisms. The type of bacteria that causes disease are heterotrophic parasites. There are also many harmless bacterial parasites, many of which can be helpful to their hosts. Autotrophic bacteria manufacture their own food by chemosynthesis and photosynthesis. In aerobic respiration a series of reactions convert glucose to carbon dioxide and water and give off energy. Free oxygen is required as the final acceptor for electrons and hydrogen to form water. Bacteria, able to grow in the presence of oxygen, are called aerobic bacteria. Pseudomonas is an example of aerobic bacteria. In anaerobic respiration free oxygen isn’t required. Organic compounds are the final electron acceptors in......

Words: 1569 - Pages: 7