Premium Essay

What Changes in the Organisation of Time, Space and Discipline Are Associated with the Emergence of Modern Industrial Work?

In: Social Issues

Submitted By aasjad10
Words 1743
Pages 7
What changes in the organisation of time, space and discipline are associated with the emergence of modern industrial work?

Word Count: 1620

This essay will discuss the changes that occurred in the organisation of time, space and discipline, as a result of the emergence of modern industrial work, whereby society relied upon the use of science, technology and ultimately mechanisation to produce its goods and services. The transition of home based independent work to working for a boss in a factory had many accompanying impacts upon society.

Between the years 1300 to 1650, there was a major change in the intellectual culture of Western Europe, towards the apprehension of time (Thompson 1967, p.56). The pre-industrial era was characterized by the organisation work around the four seasons.
Work was focused upon the time of year, which would then determine the length of the task and the type of task which would be carried out. Thompson (1967, p.59) suggests there was a disregard for clock time, with focus on the work of Synge; who in his account of the Aran islands states a classic example of this indifference ‘and when I tell them what o’clock it is by my watch they are not satisfied, and ask how long is left them before twilight.’ This suggests during this pre-industrial period, workers were oblivious towards the clock time; rather the time of the day and its proximity to sunset would have a more significant effect in determining their working hours. Although Thompson’s example is of workers in Scotland, the disregard for clock time was not limited to that region. This irrelevance of clock time also occurred in Britain as well as other parts of the world; alongside the spread and rise of industrial capitalism. The movement of the clock emerged as a new form of labour to organise work. Thompson (1967, p.59) describe the notion of time as being task...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Consequences of Modernity!

...I: IntroductionIn what follows I shall develop an institutional analysis of modernity with cultural and epistemological overtones. In so doing, I differ substantially from most current discussions, in which these emphases are reversed. What is modernity? As a first approximation, let us simply say the following: "modernity" refers to modes of social life or organisation which emerged in Europe from about the seventeenth century onwards and which subsequently became more or less worldwide in their influence. This associates modernity with a time period and with an initial geographical location, but for the moment leaves its major characteristics safely stowed away in a black box. Today, in the late twentieth century, it is argued by many, we stand at the opening of a new era, to which the social sciences must respond and which is taking us beyond modernity itself. A dazzling variety of terms has been suggested to refer to this transition, a few of which refer positively to the emergence of a new type of social system (such as the "information society" or the "consumer society") but most of which suggest rather that a -- 2 -- preceding state of affairs is drawing to a close ("post-modernity," "post-modernism," "post-industrial society," "post-capitalism," and so forth). Some of the debates about these matters concentrate mainly upon institutional transformations, particularly those which propose that we are moving from a system based upon the manufacture of material goods to......

Words: 40503 - Pages: 163

Free Essay

Psychology

...Correct Counsels Ltd. P. O. Box 53 Akoka, Lagos. C E. Kolawole Ogundowole, 2003 ISBN: 978 -37004 - 0 – 5 This book is copyright. All rights reserved under the Copyright La Enquiries should be addressed to the Publishers. Printed in Nigeria by: Mustard Press Enterprises 16, Ogundola Street Sungas-BAriga. PREFACE A few words about the overall objectives of the course is appropriate as a starting point. Historically, philosophy was the first form of theoretical knowledge. As a rational theoretical tool of comprehending the world, philosophy arose in ancient Greece in stiff battle with mythology and religious consciousness. It came out to lay the foundation for the evolvement of scientific consciousness and the emergence and development of the sciences - Mathematics, Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, etc. In an environment rife with various and varying superstitions and myths, the study of the History of Science and Philosophy of Science becomes crucial, lest science itself falls within the ambit of mythology and superstition and becomes another form of myth even in the hands of the tutored. The study of the History of Science is particularly important since it is within its realm that the development of science can be made bare and the process clearly demonstrated stage by stage in a conscious manner as to show that science is the result of, and at once, itself a form of creative activity of man; a conscious creation for that......

Words: 54229 - Pages: 217

Premium Essay

Townley and Foucault

...® Acodemy of Management Heview 1993, Vol. 18, No. 3. 518-545. FOUCAULT. POWER/KNOWLEDGE. AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT BARBARA TOWNLEY The University of Alberta Drawing on the work of Michel Foucault. I argue that human resource management (HRM) may be best understood as a discourse and set of practices that attempt to reduce the indeterminacy involved in the employment contract. Here I reread HRM practices from a Foucauldian power-knowledge perspective and suggest that this provides an avenue to reorient contemporary, historical, and comparative analyses of the area. A glimpse at human resource management (HRM) texts would seem to give light to a comment by Beer, Spector, Lawrence, Mills, and Walton (1984) that HRM is a series of seemingly disjointed activities. This notion echoes an earlier view of Baldamus (1961: 347) that what is encompassed by HRM's subject matter is "anything from supervision, incentives and profit sharing to machine-paced production, methods of training and employee selection." Often this heterogeneity is excused in terms of HRM's reflecting the ad hoc and reactive nature of its origins (Jacoby, 1985; Niven, 1967; Ozanne, 1967). What the heterogeneity of HRM highlights, however, is the importance of an organizing principle, or analytical focus, as opposed to common sense description, which gives HRM practices a theoretical coherence. HRM's heterogeneity stresses the importance of an order "that turns a set of bits, which have......

Words: 12810 - Pages: 52

Premium Essay

Lucky Corporation V Badluck

...Demographic changes are being monitored on traditional and on the existing outbound markets respectively, since these are two markets having various influence factors on the individual exogenous changes which influence development of international tourism. Recent developments in Tourism on the 21st Century Introduction             Tourism is a significant economic factor of nations worldwide. Not only does this help contribute to overall economic gain, but this also enable countries to share their natural resources, gain international recognition and attract prospects for further business transactions. Despite the rise of previous tourism obstacles such as epidemic and terrorism attacks, countries from all over the world attempt to revive their tourism industry through extensive marketing and development. Indeed, the start of the 21st century witnessed various growing tourism trends that other nations followed and applied. Among these are the developments observed in global tourism’s latest visitor attractions. Thus, in this brief essay, the different tourism trends worldwide will be described. How these trends had affected the latest visitor attractions will also be discussed.  Latest Trends Sports Tourism Sports in general have been an important aspect of global culture; it is in the conduction of sports where language and cultural barriers are replaced by the universal eagerness for such activities. Recently, several sports activities are being held in different......

Words: 7427 - Pages: 30

Premium Essay

Industrial Relation

...INDUSTRIAL RELATION Directorate of Distance Education MBA Paper 4.33 ALAGAPPA UNIVERSITY KARAIKUDI – 630 003 Tamilnadu Dear Learner, Greeting from Alagappa University We extend a very warm welcome to you as a Student of Distance Education of Alagappa University. We appreciate your interest in enrolling for MBA Programme. The Programme content is designed to broaden the business acumen, administrative capacity and sharpen the analytical skill of the student. You are instructed to go through the course materials carefully and thoroughly to have better understanding of the subject. You are advised to attend the Personal Contact Programmes to have better clarity on the subject. At the end of the each unit, the review questions are given to enable you to prepare for Examinations. The Model Question Paper is given at the end of the course material for reference and practice. We wish you all the best in your endeavour for successful completion of the programme. Director Directorate of Distance Education Alagappa University Karaikudi, Tamilnadu. MBA PAPER 4.33 INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS SYLLABUS UNIT 1 Industrial Relations: Concept – Definition – Significance – Objectives – Scope – Approaches – Principles of good industrial relations – Role of State, Employers and the Unions in industrial relation. UNIT 2 Trade Unionism and Industrial Relations: Labour movement – Concepts – Trade union movement – Development of trade unionism in...

Words: 46761 - Pages: 188

Premium Essay

Industrialisation

...INDUSTRIAL RELATION Directorate of Distance Education MBA Paper 4.33 ALAGAPPA UNIVERSITY KARAIKUDI – 630 003 Tamilnadu Dear Learner, Greeting from Alagappa University We extend a very warm welcome to you as a Student of Distance Education of Alagappa University. We appreciate your interest in enrolling for MBA Programme. The Programme content is designed to broaden the business acumen, administrative capacity and sharpen the analytical skill of the student. You are instructed to go through the course materials carefully and thoroughly to have better understanding of the subject. You are advised to attend the Personal Contact Programmes to have better clarity on the subject. At the end of the each unit, the review questions are given to enable you to prepare for Examinations. The Model Question Paper is given at the end of the course material for reference and practice. We wish you all the best in your endeavour for successful completion of the programme. Director Directorate of Distance Education Alagappa University Karaikudi, Tamilnadu. MBA PAPER 4.33 INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS SYLLABUS UNIT 1 Industrial Relations: Concept – Definition – Significance – Objectives – Scope – Approaches – Principles of good industrial relations – Role of State, Employers and the Unions in industrial relation. UNIT 2 Trade Unionism and Industrial Relations: Labour movement – Concepts – Trade union movement – Development of trade unionism in......

Words: 46671 - Pages: 187

Premium Essay

Ijvsanfvuisdnv

...would like to thank NESTA for their support, and in particular Dr Michael Harris, as well as my colleagues at the Young Foundation, Julie Caulier-Grice and Geoff Mulgan, all of whom have given valuable comments on the text. Published September 2009 CONTENTS 1 CONTENTS 1. The argument 2 5 9 23 39 52 54 55 2. The context of crisis 3. The emerging economic landscape 4. Can the new social economy respond? 5. Social innovation and the crisis of policy Bibliography Weblinks Endnotes 2 DANGER AND OPPORTUNITY CRISIS AND THE NEW SOCIAL ECONOMY 1 THE ARGUMENT The rise of the new social economy This pamphlet argues that the early years of the 21st century are witnessing the emergence of a new kind of economy that has profound implications for the future of public services as well as for the daily life of citizens. This emerging economy can be seen in many fields, including the environment, care, education, welfare, food and energy. It combines some old elements and many new ones. I describe it as a ‘social economy’ because it melds features which are very different from economies based on the production and consumption of commodities. Its key features include: • The intensive use of distributed networks to sustain and manage relationships, helped by broadband, mobile and other means of communication. Blurred boundaries between production and consumption. An emphasis on collaboration and on repeated interactions,......

Words: 22113 - Pages: 89

Premium Essay

Organization

...2 APPROACHES TO ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT Organisational behaviour is a discursive subject and much has been written about it. The study of organisations and management has therefore to proceed on a broad front. It is the comparative study of the different approaches that will yield benefits to the manager. The study of organisations, their structure and management is important for the manager. Identification of major trends in management and organisational behaviour, and the work of leading writers, provide a perspective on concepts and ideas discussed in more detail in other chapters. Learning outcomes After completing this chapter you should be able to: ■ identify major trends in the development of organisational behaviour and management thinking; contrast main features of different approaches to organisation and management; evaluate the relevance of these different approaches to the present-day management of organisations; explain the relationships between management theory and practice; assess the value of the study of different approaches to organisation and management; recognise the relationship between the development of theory, behaviour in organisations and management practice; establish a basis for consideration of aspects of organisational behaviour discussed in subsequent chapters. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Critical reflection ‘It is often claimed that what leading writers say is an important part of the study of management and organisational behaviour. Others say......

Words: 19374 - Pages: 78

Premium Essay

Public Health Paper

...New Right, The Third Way, new public health. Public health, the new ideology may be taken to mean the promotion of healthy lifestyles linked to behaviour and individual responsibility supported by government action; whereas traditionally the description tended to relate more to sanitary reform and ‘healthy conditions’. The chronological development of public health is mapped out, supported by the outlining and discussion of the emerging themes and influences pertaining to the study of public health. The approach to public health is positioned alongside the health of the population and the prevailing political/societal influence at the time. Public health is impacted on by poverty and environmental factors. Presently government policy to improve public health is delivered in a strategy that recognises the need for health improvement at times when the greatest impact on health is poverty and exclusion. The evidence reviewed demonstrates clearly that poor health without appropriate resources or intervention is cumulative and that the ‘right’ form of intervention can bring about long term health gains. Intervention from a national agenda needs to include individual’s health and the health of the community brought about through joint partnerships and multi-sectorial working. The environment Historically, the environment was seen to be causative of ill health and disease, precipitated by inadequacy of the air. Humid, marshy areas or toxic, rotting debris were thought to......

Words: 12259 - Pages: 50

Premium Essay

Butt

...acquire the empirical and conceptual foundations needed to understand a world political system which cannot be accurately described as either pure anarchy or a coherent form of ‘global governance’. The starting point is the notion of ‘international society’, which refers to the set of institutions and common procedures generated by states over the last three and a half centuries in their attempts to achieve some minimal form of co-existence, but which has gradually evolved to include many non-state actors and different levels of activity – diplomatic, economic and cultural, as well as that of military competition. By the end of the course you should be able to have an informed discussion about: the historical origins of the present system; what is distinctive about international politics as opposed to politics inside the state; and the main challenges which confront humanity in the twenty-first century. You will also acquire a basic familiarity with the main theories needed to think analytically - and critically - about the idea of international society and the behaviour of the actors which constitute it. Brief Description of the Paper The subject of International Relations (usually given capital letters, as opposed to international relations as events) has a huge range. Some see it as covering everything that has happened on the globe during recorded history,...

Words: 12326 - Pages: 50

Premium Essay

Doc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt

...Coping with Continuous Change in the Business Environment CHANDOS KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SERIES Series Editor: Melinda Taylor (email: melindataylor@chandospublishing.com) Chandos’ new series of books are aimed at all those individuals interested in knowledge management. They have been specially commissioned to provide the reader with an authoritative view of current thinking. If you would like a full listing of current and forthcoming titles, please visit our web site www.chandospublishing.com or contact Hannah Grace-Williams on email info@chandospublishing.com or telephone number +44 (0) 1993 848726. New authors: we are always pleased to receive ideas for new titles; if you would like to write a book for Chandos, please contact Dr Glyn Jones on email gjones@chandospublishing.com or telephone number +44 (0) 1993 848726. Bulk orders: some organisations buy a number of copies of our books. If you are interested in doing this, we would be pleased to discuss a discount. Please contact Hannah Grace-Williams on email info@chandospublishing.com or telephone number +44 (0) 1993 848726. Coping with Continuous Change in the Business Environment Knowledge management and knowledge management technology ANTONIE BOTHA DERRICK KOURIE AND RETHA SNYMAN Chandos Publishing Oxford · England Chandos Publishing (Oxford) Limited TBAC Business Centre Avenue 4 Station Lane Witney Oxford OX28 4BN UK Tel: +44 (0) 1993 848726 Fax: +44 (0) 1865......

Words: 69553 - Pages: 279

Free Essay

Economic Geography

...A M E S T. M U R P H Y SUSAN HANSON KEY CONCEPTS IN key concepts in economic geography The Key Concepts in Human Geography series is intended to provide a set of companion texts for the core fields of the discipline. To date, students and academics have been relatively poorly served with regards to detailed discussions of the key concepts that geographers use to think about and understand the world. Dictionary entries are usually terse and restricted in their depth of explanation. Student textbooks tend to provide broad overviews of particular topics or the philosophy of Human Geography, but rarely provide a detailed overview of particular concepts, their premises, development over time and empirical use. Research monographs most often focus on particular issues and a limited number of concepts at a very advanced level, so do not offer an expansive and accessible overview of the variety of concepts in use within a subdiscipline. The Key Concepts in Human Geography series seeks to fill this gap, providing detailed description and discussion of the concepts that are at the heart of theoretical and empirical research in contemporary Human Geography. Each book consists of an introductory chapter that outlines the major conceptual developments over time along with approximately twenty-five entries on the core concepts that constitute the theoretical toolkit of geographers working within a specific subdiscipline. Each entry provides a detailed explanation of the......

Words: 94626 - Pages: 379

Premium Essay

Paper

...1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 Objectives Introduction Opening Case What is Human Resource Management? Nature of HRM Scope of HRM Objectives of HRM Functions of HRM Role of HRM HRM in the New Millennium Summary Self Assessment Questions Reference Books 1.0 Objectives After studying this unit, you will be able to:      1.1 Understand the basic concepts of human resource management (HRM). Explain what human resource management is and how it relates to the management process. Provide an overview of functions of HRM. Describe how the major roles of HR management are being transformed. Explain the role of HRM in the present millennium. Introduction Human beings are social beings and hardly ever live and work in isolation. We always plan, develop and manage our relations both consciously and unconsciously. The relations are the outcome of our actions and depend to a great extent upon our ability to manage our actions. From childhood each and every individual acquire knowledge and experience on understanding others and how to behave in each and every situations in life. Later we carry forward this learning and understanding in carrying and managing relations at our workplace. The whole context of Human Resource Management revolves around this core matter of managing relations at work place. Since mid 1980’s Human Resource Management (HRM) has gained acceptance in both academic......

Words: 92068 - Pages: 369

Premium Essay

Social Capital

...crisis in Northern Portugal, to discuss the roles of social capital and cultural capital in the configuration of diverse experiences of unemployment. It focuses on changes over time and on contemporary everyday relations to identify such experiences. By means of a multiple correspondence analysis, patterns of sociability are discerned. Ethnographic material enables these patterns to be qualified and three main types of unemployment experience are identified, all centred on the idea of unemployment as a space of sociability. The case study elaborates on and qualifies research inspired by Bourdieu on methodological and theoretical grounds. It demonstrates the need to qualify statistical patterns emerging from MCA with refined qualitative material and indicates specific ways in which social and cultural capitals interact with the economic sphere in a particularly severe economic crisis. # 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction This paper puts forward an analysis of the experience of economic and social crisis in an industrialised context in Northwest Portugal, the Ave Valley region. Based on theoretical and methodological references provided by the sociological work of Bourdieu, the main practical and symbolic properties of the transformation of the region’s economic activity are explored. In an industrial context that is historically defined around working-class labour, these...

Words: 10739 - Pages: 43

Premium Essay

12 Domains

...T H E K N O W L E D G E E C O N O M Y A N D E D U C A T I O N Karen Jensen University of Oslo, Norway Leif Chr. Lahn University of Oslo, Norway and Monika Nerland (Eds.) University of Oslo, Norway This book presents an entirely new approach to professional learning based on perspectives of the knowledge society and, in particular, an interpretation of Knorr Cetina’s work on scientific ‘epistemic cultures’. Starting with a conceptual chapter and followed by a suite of empirical studies from accountancy, education, nursing and software engineering, the book elaborates how: a) knowledge production and circulation take distinct forms in those fields; b) how the knowledge objects of practice in those fields engross and engage professionals and, in the process, people and knowledge are transformed by this engagement. By foregrounding an explicit concern for the role of knowledge in professional learning, the book goes much farther than the current fashion for describing ‘practice-based learning’. It will therefore be of considerable interest to the research, policy, practitioner and student communities involved with professional education/learning or interested in innovation and knowledge development in the professions. SensePublishers KNOW 6 Karen Jensen, Leif Chr. Lahn and Monika Nerland (Eds.) ISBN 978-94-6091-992-3 Professional Learning in the Knowledge Society Professional Learning in the Knowledge Society T H......

Words: 24710 - Pages: 99