Free Essay

What Effects Did the 2006/2007 Smoking Ban Have on the Uk Public House Industry If Any?

In: Business and Management

Submitted By sickboy1
Words 1720
Pages 7
What effects did the 2006/2007 smoking ban have on the UK public house industry if any?

The following is a report that aims to answer the question ‘What effects did the 2006/2007 smoking ban have on the UK public house industry if any?’ Reaching a thorough well rounded answer that will be developed in the conclusion is the key aim of this investigation. The intention of this report is to include relevant secondary research from a wide spectrum of sources in order to support the aims and objectives of the report, this research be featured in the findings section of the report. Information gathered has been contrived from three sources the internet where I have read through journals and news sources in order to gain high quality reliable data, along with relevant books and also primary research in my own personal observations of being a customer to the pub industry itself over the past 3 years. These 3 separate methods provide a diverse research base these will be credited for in the bibliography section.

Now, an introduction into the smoking ban itself. In chronological he ban was put in effect in Scotland on 26 March 2006, Wales 2 April 2007, Northern Ireland on 30 April 2007 and in England on 1 July 2007. It would be wise to highlight the recession also which hit at the start of 2007.

The report will be structured appropriately with findings, conclusion, and finally a bibliography with any recommendations that may arise upon completion.

As each of the 4 countries within the UK has different times in which implementation of smoking ban legislation was in effect it would be prudent to contrive information from all 4 countries and compare these statistics in order aid answering the report's question in the conclusion.

Figure 1 demonstrates a 30 year backlog of data relating to the overall number of pubs in the UK, increase/decrease in percentage of these pubs, the cumulative total lost, and the number lost per week. The important data that should be highlighted here are the 2007-2010 years as this is after the smoking ban was introduced and it is clear to see a high drop in percentage of up to 3%. In 2008 the fall was at its highest peak for 30 years at -3.47% with 38 pubs closing a week. The figures seem to be fairly consistent with just over a 1% range between all 4 dates after the ban which shows a steady decline after the smoking ban.

Figure 2 illustrates a more broken down pub closure rate scale for each individual country in comparison to figure 1, it is remarkable how similar the rate of closures are in such correlation, after the first 12 months across all 4 countries the range is a mere percent. With Ireland being more erratic suffering heavy (-7.30%) falls in pubs in the first 12 months but then decreasing slightly but finishing on almost the exact same rate of percentage drop as Scotland.

Figure 3 portrays when and how hard the recession hit the UK, it is synonymous to the smoking ban introduction and the decline in pub closure percentages. Showing a huge dip from a once prosperous growth.

"The expected boom in sales of pub meals as a result of the smoking ban has failed to materialise, according to a report.
More than half of pub landlords questioned reported no change in their food sales.
A third of respondents to The Publican's questionnaire said their food sales had gone up following the ban - but more than one in five complained that their overall sales of food and drink had gone down.
The trade magazine's survey of 303 UK pubs found the average customer spend on food and drink at dinner was £14.86 - a penny less than last year.”, 2011

“The British Beer and Pub Association (BBPA) say total beer sales for 2007 are down 22% - some seven million pints a day fewer than their peak in 1979.”, 2011

This data is contrived from the book Drink and Drug Driving Law which although isn't hard quantative data it aids the report as it provides logic towards another reason to why maybe there may be other variables towards the decline of pubs outside of the smoking ban with the mention of the increased drink-drive limit that exists over the UK which has led to more and more of the UK population resorting to drinking at home rather than the past culture of drinking at a pub.


Weighing up the research above it is clear that there have been many changes to the pub industry over the past 5 years; however some are more influential than others. It is evidently clear that the smoking ban is a major player in the increase of pub closures across the UK. But firstly the global recession first showed a dip in UK economic growth in the second quarter (figure 3) this timing was in tune with the smoking ban introduction and the two can be linked together as with the recession comes a decrease in disposable income and during this period luxuries such as going to the pub were not as popular with UK citizens. This gives reason to think the recession played a considerable part in the decline of the pub industry. However many believe the recession only came into effect in October 2008 2 years after the ban in Scotland and Ireland who experienced an instant downfall in pub closure in first 12 months (figure 1) which provides solid evidence that the recession played a part but not as much as may be at first glance even with the ever so similar pattern in dates with Wales and England.

It was predicted that due to the absence of smoke in pubs that there would be an increase not a decrease for the industry however the results in figures 1 and 2 disprove this fact. It was thought that no smoke would lead to more food being sold and people spending more money on drinks.

To finally conclude it is evident the smoking ban has had a dramatic on the pub industry with undeniable statistics being the main reason for this conclusion and the disregarding of many other variables that many thought were the perpetrators for the fall of business within this sector. Statistics like the 11% fall in the number of pubs in Scotland and Northern Ireland after 2 years of the ban being legislated with steady increases looking likely to proceed just goes to show the nature of what this piece of legislation has done to the industry as a whole. The impact has seen thousands of jobs lost within the industry (figure 5). The overriding hazardous effect of the smoking ban is the wide scale consistent closure of pubs across the UK, at one point during 2008 8 pubs were being closed a week doubling the previous decade in just one year.


Figure 1.

Year Total number of pubs in the UK % change on year Cumulative total lost Cumulative total lost under each party Number lost per week
1980 69,000
1981 68,500 -0.72 500 500 10
1982 67,800 -1.02 1,200 1,200 13
1983 67,400 -0.59 1,600 1,600 8
1984 66,700 -1.04 2,300 2,300 13
1985 66,500 -0.3 2,500 2,500 4
1986 66,200 -0.45 2,800 2,800 6
1987 65,700 -0.76 3,300 3,300 10
1988 65,200 -0.76 3,800 3,800 10
1989 64,100 -1.69 4,900 4,900 21
1990 63,500 -0.94 5,500 5,500 12
1991 62,200 -2.05 6,800 6,800 25
1992 61,600 -0.96 7,400 7,400 12
1993 61,000 -0.97 8,000 8,000 12
1994 60,700 -0.49 8,300 8,300 6
1995 61,000 0.49 8,000 8,000 -6
1996 60,800 -0.33 8,200 8,200 4
1997 60,600 -0.33 8,400 8,400 4
1998 61,000 0.66 8,000 -400 -8
1999 61,500 0.82 7,500 -900 -10
2000 60,800 -1.14 8,200 -200 13
2001 60,700 -0.16 8,300 -100 2
2002 60,100 -0.99 8,900 500 12
2003 59,400 -1.16 9,600 1,200 13
2004 59,000 -0.67 10,000 1,600 8
2005 58,600 -0.68 10,400 2,000 8
2006 58,200 -0.68 10,800 2,400 8
2007 56,791 -2.42 12,209 3,809 27
2008 54,818 -3.47 14,182 5,782 38
2009 53,466 -2.47 15,534 7,134 26
2010 52,000 -2.74 17,000 8,600 28

Figure 2. Figure 3.

Figure 4.

Figure 5.
"Over 40,000 jobs were lost in the pubs and clubs sector in the five years to 2008" Recommendations

Upon reflection from completing this report the smoking ban has had a colossal impact on the drop in the number of pubs across the whole of the United Kingdom. The health impacts have not been considered for the main part of the report as it was solely on the effect on the pub industry however if these were considered from research contrived throughout this investigation and personal thoughts taken into account. A recommendation would steer towards the ban be kept in place for the greater good of the health of the population and long term stability of the economy.




• Dransfield, R. & Needham, D. (2004) Business for foundation degrees and higher awards. Oxford: Heinemann

• House of Commons: Transport Committee, (2010) Drink and Drug Driving Law, HC 460

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Global Warming and Its Effects on Business

...Global Warming and its Effects on Business: “The beginning of the Industrial Revolution brought many new, exciting inventions into our lives to simplify our lives and made them more efficient.” (Garrett, 1994, pp 234-235). Such inventions included cars, household appliances and plants that burn solid waste, fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, and coal, and wood and wood products for fuel. Before the Industrial Revolution, human activities caused very few gases to be released into the atmosphere, but now scientists say, through the burning of fossil fuels, a large population growth and deforestation, humans are affecting the mixture of gases in the atmosphere. This mixture of gases in the atmosphere is causing the worldwide problem known as Global Warming. (Garrett, 1994). There are many links between global warming and the future of business, investments and the economy. Global Warming is very detrimental to our future, both scientifically and in the business world. The effects of global warming will have a profound impact on the way we live and therefore the way we carry out our business and investments. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, “the earth has a natural “greenhouse effect” which is caused by energy from the sun controlling the earth’s weather and climate, and heats the earth’s surface. In response to the sun, the earth radiates energy back into space.” (Clean Air Act. 2006. Retrieved January 3, 2007, from......

Words: 2441 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Diffierentation Competitve

...Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 17 Iss: 3 pp. 371 - 386 Permanent link to this document: Downloaded on: 19-04-2012 References: This document contains references to 30 other documents To copy this document: This document has been downloaded 1910 times. Access to this document was granted through an Emerald subscription provided by UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA For Authors: If you would like to write for this, or any other Emerald publication, then please use our Emerald for Authors service. Information about how to choose which publication to write for and submission guidelines are available for all. Additional help for authors is available for Emerald subscribers. Please visit for more information. About Emerald With over forty years' experience, Emerald Group Publishing is a leading independent publisher of global research with impact in business, society, public policy and education. In total, Emerald publishes over 275 journals and more than 130 book series, as well as an extensive range of online products and services. Emerald is both COUNTER 3 and TRANSFER compliant. The organization is a partner of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and also works with Portico and the LOCKSS initiative for digital archive preservation. *Related content and download information correct at time of download. The current issue and full text......

Words: 8874 - Pages: 36

Premium Essay

Global Social Policy

...can be found at: Published by: Additional services and information for Global Social Policy can be found at: Email Alerts: Subscriptions: Reprints: Permissions: Citations: >> Version of Record - Aug 16, 2012 What is This? Downloaded from at Taylor's University on November 5, 2012 Article gsp Global Social Policy 12(2) 149–172 © The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permission: DOI: 10.1177/1468018112443686 ‘Trade policy, not morals or health policy’:The US Trade Representative, tobacco companies and market liberalization in Thailand Ross MacKenzie Jeff Collin Macquarie University, Australia University of Edinburgh, UK Abstract The enforced opening of Thailand’s cigarette market to imports in 1990 has become a cause celebre in debates about the social and health impacts of trade agreements. At the instigation of leading US-based cigarette manufacturers, the US Trade Representative (USTR) threatened trade sanctions against Thailand to compel the government to liberalize its domestic cigarette market. Thailand’s challenge to the USTR led to referral to General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)......

Words: 12166 - Pages: 49

Premium Essay

Smokecheck: a Study on the Effects of Ncr Male High School Students’ Exposure to and Recall of Anti-Smoking Advertisements to Their Perceptions of and Attitudes Toward Smoking

...PHILIPPINES Bachelor of Arts in Communication Research Joyce M. Aguillon Precious B. Romano SmokeCheck: A Study on the Effects of NCR Male High School Students’ Exposure to and Recall of Anti-Smoking Advertisements to Their Perceptions of and Attitudes toward Smoking Thesis Adviser: Professor Randy Jay C. Solis College of Mass Communication University of the Philippines Diliman Date of Submission April 2012 Permission is given for the following people to have access to this thesis: Available to the general public Available only after consultation with author/thesis adviser Available only to those bound by confidentiality agreement Student’s signature: Student’s signature: Signature of thesis adviser: Yes No No UNIVERSITY PERMISSION I hereby grant the University of the Philippines non-exclusive worldwide, royalty-free license to reproduce, publish and publicly distribute copies of this thesis or dissertation in whatever form subject to the provisions of applicable laws, the provisions of the UP IPR policy and any contractual obligations, as well as more specific permission marking on the Title Page. Specifically I grant the following rights to the University: a) to upload a copy of the work in these database of the college/school/institute/department and in any other databases available on the public internet; b) to publish the work in the college/school/institute/department journal, both in print and electronic or......

Words: 35659 - Pages: 143

Free Essay

Gov and Pol

...which questions to do, the following principles are recommended: It is almost certain that you will be better off choosing your strongest question to do first. You should choose questions on the basis of how well you can answer the section (c) part. The (c) part carries 25 of the 40 marks available for the whole answer. Do not choose a question simply because you can do part (a) especially well. The (a) question is only worth 5 marks. It would be illogical to choose your strongest (a) part if you cannot do well on section (c). If you cannot decide between several (c) parts, i.e. you can do more than one equally well, make your choice on the basis of part (b) which carries 10 marks. But remember, it is the (c) parts that will determine most what your overall mark will be. So, when you first look at the exam paper, look at the (c) sections first. Assessment Objectives Each question is divided into three sections, as follows: carries 5 marks carries 10 marks carries 25 marks The way you answer questions should be determined by the way assessment objectives are distributed. Assessment objectives provide the basis upon which examiners award marks. You need to be familiar with them to maximise your marks. They will help direct your revision and with the answers to the questions. A full explanation of...

Words: 51996 - Pages: 208

Free Essay

The Level of Involvement in Smoking and Drinking Among High School Students in Cotabato

...Introduction It seems to be a "coming of age thing" when a student goes to teenage life and encounters vices such as drinking and smoking is very rampant nowadays. Such vices cannot be ignored anymore as to the more students seem to be detaching from their spare time or even they intend to cut classes just for this so called vices, they seem to be enjoying freedom too much. A student may be influenced to be involved in any of the stated variables. High School is far different from being a college student. A person will have a new life when one goes to college. New environment which one has to adapt, new set of friends which one have to treat nice, and new subjects or topics that one has to study based on what course you will get. Although drinking, smoking, and drug-use for some usually result in adverse health consequences, there are some perceived benefits or advantages of these behaviors particularly from the point of view of the adolescents and youths. Adolescents may view drinking and smoking as privileges of adults and may want to engage in them to feel grown up and to present themselves as adults to others. Some of the reasons given are: the availability of cigarettes at home, parents being model of smoking and drinking behavior and consequently parents lack the credibility as advocates for non-smoking or non-drinking.(Aroyo 2001) Smoking and drinking are two of the most important risk factors explaining early mortality, accounting for an estimated 14......

Words: 8737 - Pages: 35

Free Essay


...The global impact of e-waste Addressing the challenge SECTOR Sectoral Activities Department SafeWork Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment The global impact of e-waste: Addressing the challenge The global impact of e-waste: Addressing the challenge Karin Lundgren SafeWork and SECTOR International Labour Organization Geneva 2012 Copyright © International Labour Organization 2012 First published 2012 Publications of the International Labour Office enjoy copyright under Protocol 2 of the Universal Copyright Convention. Nevertheless, short excerpts from them may be reproduced without authorization, on condition that the source is indicated. For rights of reproduction or translation, application should be made to ILO Publications (Rights and Permissions), International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland, or by email: The International Labour Office welcomes such applications. Libraries, institutions and other users registered with reproduction rights organizations may make copies in accordance with the licences issued to them for this purpose. Visit to find the reproduction rights organization in your country. Lundgren, Karin The global impact of e-waste: addressing the challenge / Karin Lundgren; International Labour Office, Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment (SafeWork), Sectoral Activities Department (SECTOR). – Geneva: ILO, 2012 ISBN 978-92-2-126897-0 (print)......

Words: 37067 - Pages: 149

Free Essay

Just Like That

...Narcotic Drugs | Governments of opium-producing Parties are required to "purchase and take physical possession of such crops as soon as possible" after harvest to prevent diversion into the illicit market. | Signed | 30 March 1961 | Location | New York City | Effective | 8 August 1975 [1] | Condition | 40 ratifications | Parties | 185[1] | Depositary | Secretary-General of the United Nations | Languages | Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish | Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs at Wikisource | The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research. As noted below, its major effects included updating the Paris Convention of 13 July 1931 to include the vast number of synthetic opioids invented in the intervening thirty years and a mechanism for more easily including new ones. From 1931 to 1961, most of the families of synthetic opioids had been developed, including drugs in whatever way related to methadone, pethidine, morphinans and dextromoramide and related drugs; research on fentanyls and piritramide was also nearing fruition at that point. Earlier treaties had only controlled opium, coca, and derivatives such as morphine, heroin and cocaine. The Single Convention, adopted in 1961, consolidated those treaties and...

Words: 28067 - Pages: 113

Premium Essay


...INTRODUCTION Advertising What is Advertising? Advertising is a non-personal form of promotion that is delivered through selected media outlets that, under most circumstances, require the marketer to pay for message placement.  Advertising is, in fact, the most prominent and powerful medium in the present commercial world. It creates an entire world view, shaping our attitude and beliefs. Advertisements permeate every aspect of life and most of us are hardly aware of it. it largely depend on how an individual bring works and so utmost care is taken to exploit the emotions that play an important role in establishing a firm memory of an advertisement and predisposing the consumers to buy the brand that is being advertised. Over a period of time, advertising has been undergoing morphing changes slowly and steadily with multi-facet approach. Advertising has long been viewed as a method of mass promotion in that a single message can reach a large number of people.  But, this mass promotion approach presents problems since many exposed to an advertising message may not be within the marketer’s target market, and thus, may be an inefficient use of promotional funds.  However, this is changing as new advertising technologies and the emergence of new media outlets offer more options for targeted advertising. Advertising also has a history of being considered a one-way form of marketing communication where the message......

Words: 28897 - Pages: 116

Free Essay


...LEVEL UNIT TWO GOVERNING THE UK “Never, never, never give up” Winston S Churchill 1874-1965 1 GOVERNING THE UK 50% of AS [25% of A2] UNIT TWO SAMPLE QUESTION Answer one question from Section A and one question from Section B in 80 minutes. Spend 40 minutes on Section A and 40 minutes on Section B SECTION A QUESTION ONE PRIME MINISTERIAL POWER “For too long the big political decisions in this country have been made in the wrong place. They are not made around the Cabinet table where they should be, but they are taken on the sofa in Tony Blair’s office. No notes are kept and no one takes the blame when things go wrong. That arrogant style of government must come to an end. I will restore the proper process of government. I want to be Prime Minister of this country not a President (Source: David Cameron, The Times, 5th October 2006) “The Cabinet is the committee at the centre of the British political system. Every Thursday during Parliament, Secretaries of State from all departments as well as other ministers meet in the Cabinet Room in Downing Street to discuss the big issues of the day. The Prime Minister chairs the meeting, selects its members and also recommends their appointment as ministers to the monarch. The present Cabinet has 23 members (21 MPs and two peers). The secretary of the Cabinet is responsible for preparing records of its discussions and decisions”. (Source: From a modern textbook) (a) What criticism is David Cameron......

Words: 68254 - Pages: 274

Free Essay

Anth106 Notes

...Drugs . The effect of a drug is caused solely by its pharmacological properties and effects. . Some drugs are instantly addictive . The gateway/ stepping stone theory - the use of 1 drug leads to the use of other more dangerous drugs What are drugs ? Krivanek's definition : Drugs are substances that are introduced into the body knowingly but not as food. Therefore illicit drugs, legal recreational drugs and legal but regulated pharmaceutical drugs that aren't recreational at all. - Whether if a drug is considered bad and is prohibited depends on the culture of the society in a particular period. What is culture ? The definition of culture = Through Roger keesing and Andrew Strathern's definition it is a system of shared ideas, rules and meanings that underlie and are expressed in the ways that human live. - This includes : law, beliefs, political economy, media and popular culture - this perceives ideas about what is normal and abnormal to society. " Culture is always changing and contested, not unified" Enthography as a method for studying drug use It is a process of observing, recoding and describing other peoples way of life through intimate participation the community being studied". - Participation observation, involving yourself in the life of the community , taking up the life of the other person, observing their actions, asking questions and learning what questions to ask. Zinberg's theory of drug use Effect of drug use is...

Words: 21869 - Pages: 88

Premium Essay

Case Study

...PART II INSTRUCTOR’S NOTES ON TEXT CASES CASE GUIDE CHAPTER CASE | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 1–1 Starbucks – Going Global Fast | X | X | | X | X | | | | | | X | X | | | | | | | | 1–2 Nestlé – The Infant Formula Incident | | X | X | X | X | | | X | | | X | X | | | | | | | | 1–3 Coke and Pepsi Learn to Compete in India | | | | X | X | X | | | | | X | X | | | | | | | | 1-4 Marketing Microwave Ovens to a New Market Segment | | | | X | X | | | | | | X | X | | | | | | X | | 2–1 The Not-So-Wonderful World of EuroDisney | | | | X | | X | X | X | | | X | | | | | | | X | | 2-2 Cultural Norms, Fair and Lovely, and Advertising | | | | X | X | | | X | | | X | X | | | | | | | | 2–3 Starnes-Brenner Machine Tool Company – To Bribe or Not to Bribe | | | | | X | | X | | | | | | | | | | X | | | 2-4 Ethics and Airbus* | | | | X | X | X | X | | | | | | X | | | | | | | 2–5 Coping with Corruption in Trading with China | | | | | X | X | X | | | | | | | | | | | | | 2–6 When International Buyers and Sellers Disagree | | | | | | | X | | | | | | | | X | | | | | 2-7 McDonald’s and Obesity | ...

Words: 50890 - Pages: 204

Premium Essay

Gmos: Truth vs. Myth

...policy, position, or views of other organizations, universities, companies, or corporations that the authors may be affiliated with. GMO Myths and Truths 2 About the authors Michael Antoniou, PhD is reader in molecular genetics and head, Gene Expression and Therapy Group, King’s Cols: lege London School of Medicine, London, UK. He has 28 years’ experience in the use of genetic engineering technology investigating gene organisation and control, with over 40 peer reviewed publications of original work, and holds inventor status on a number of gene expression biotechnology patents. Dr Antoniou has a large network of collaborators in industry and academia who are making use of his discoveries in gene control mechanisms for the production of research, diagnostic and therapeutic products and safe and efficacious human somatic gene therapy for inherited and acquired genetic disorders. Claire Robinson, MPhil, is research director at Earth Open Source. She has a background in investigative reporting and the communication of topics relating to public health, science and policy, and the environment. She is an editor at GMWatch (, a public information service...

Words: 78055 - Pages: 313

Premium Essay

Mba- Iibm

...which corporations set and pursue their objectives, while reflecting the context of the social, regulatory and market environment. Governance is a mechanism for monitoring the actions, policies and decisions of corporations. Governance involves the alignment of interests among the stakeholders. There has been renewed interest in the corporate governance practices of modern corporations, particularly in relation to accountability, since the high-profile collapses of a number of large corporations during 2001–2002, most of which involved accounting fraud. Corporate scandals of various forms have maintained public and political interest in the regulation of corporate governance. In the U.S., these include Enron Corporation and MCI Inc. (formerly WorldCom). Their demise is associated with the U.S. federal government passing the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002, intending to restore public confidence in corporate governance. Comparable failures in Australia are associated with the eventual passage of the CLERP 9 reforms. Similar corporate failures in other countries stimulated increased regulatory interest (e.g., Parmalat in Italy). Other definitions Corporate governance has also been defined as "a system of law and sound approaches by which corporations are directed and controlled focusing...

Words: 33828 - Pages: 136

Premium Essay

Case Studys BY GRAHAM DIETZ AND NICOLE GILLESPIE Published by the Institute of Business Ethics Occasional Paper 5 Authors Dr Graham Dietz is a Senior Lecturer in Human Resource Management and Organisational Behaviour at Durham University, UK. His research focuses on trust repair after organisational failures, as well as trust-building across cultures. Together with his co-author on this report, his most recent co-edited book is Organizational Trust: A cultural perspective (Cambridge University Press). Dr Nicole Gillespie is a Senior Lecturer in Management at the University of Queensland, Australia. Her research focuses on building, repairing and measuring trust in organisations and across cultural and professional boundaries. In addition, Nicole researches in the areas of leadership, teams and employee engagement. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the contact persons in the featured organisations for their comments on an earlier draft of this Paper. The IBE is particularly grateful to Severn Trent and BAE Systems for their support of this project. All rights reserved. To reproduce or transmit this book in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, please obtain prior permission in writing from the publisher. The Recovery of Trust: Case studies of organisational failures and trust repair Price £10 ISBN 978-1-908534-00-2 © IBE......

Words: 16669 - Pages: 67