Premium Essay

What Factors Discouraged an Early Unification of Italy and How Were These Overcome?

In: Historical Events

Submitted By pops1234
Words 1138
Pages 5
What factors discouraged an early unification of Italy and how were these overcome?

Before the year of 1848, the Italian faced a lot of difficulties to urge the unification movement. Until, 1848, the situation had been changed and directly contributed to the unification movement.

After 1815 Italy was once again a mere geographical expression. Austria was to control a large part of Italy directly, that is, Lombardy and Venetia, and indirectly through the restored Bourbon Kings in some minor Italian states. Italian unification was once again frustrated ever the Risorgimento was quickly in advance. The explosion of Austrian power in Italy was the main problem which discouraged an early unification of Italy. Moreover, the general political atmosphere in Europe did not allow new concessions to Italian balance when the powers were concerned with maintaining the balance of power and to prevent the setting of French hegemony in Europe again. So a united Italy in 1815 would only mean French domination of Italy, so the powers generally accepted the settlement even though the 1815 settlement ignored the moral principles which first French Revolution and the Romanticism had unleashed in Europe. Even liberal powers like Britain and the mother of Revolution, France did not dare to take the risk of a war which may be caused if Italy was united and this might invite foreign intervention in the young Italy. So foreign aid was generally unavailable in the first generation of the nineteenth century. Moreover, any war against Austria in the 1820's would mean war against Russia and Prussia too because the Holy Alliance acted as international police force resisting the tide of change. So the political, diplomatic and military condition in 1820's and 1830's did not favour the unification of Italy.

Moreover, the movement of unification tied more in Italy itself because Italy was…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Italian Unification Essays

...Questions and Answers: Italian Unification 1. What factors discouraged an early unification of Italy and how were these overcome? Before the year of 1848, the Italian faced a lot of difficulties to urge the unification movement. Until, 1848, the situation had been changed and directly contributed to the unification movement. After 1815 Italy was once again a mere geographical expression. Austria was to control a large part of Italy directly, that is, Lombardy and Venetia, and indirectly through the restored Bourbon Kings in some minor Italian states. Italian unification was once again frustrated ever the Risorgimento was quickly in advance. The explosion of Austrian power in Italy was the main problem which discouraged an early unification of Italy. Moreover, the general political atmosphere in Europe did not allow new concessions to Italian balance when the powers were concerned with maintaining the balance of power and to prevent the setting of French hegemony in Europe again. So a united Italy in 1815 would only mean French domination of Italy, so the powers generally accepted the settlement even though the 1815 settlement ignored the moral principles which first French Revolution and the Romanticism had unleashed in Europe. Even liberal powers like Britain and the mother of Revolution, France did not dare to take the risk of a war which may be caused if Italy was united and this might invite foreign intervention in the young Italy. So foreign aid was generally......

Words: 15314 - Pages: 62

Premium Essay

Modern Ww1 Notes

...Belgian forces – sabotaged Plan railway lines • Strong resistance from French • Troops were diverted from the West to the Eastern front • The “hammer swing” was shortened, so they approached Paris from the East which was expected • The Treaty of London was disregarded as a scrap of paper • Germans weren’t adequately trained for modern warfare strategies • The Faults in • French underestimated number of soldiers available to Plan XVII Germany • French were preoccupied with revenge for Alsace-Lorraine • Insufficient forces were given to the French left wing • Too much attention was on offensive tactics • Officer training was poor • Belgian and British armies were small • Napoleonic Wave Assault (continuous assault) occurred in open countryside=decimation • Problems • Rail was quick, but too few tracks were available to be used with Tactics • Guerilla attacks frequently destroyed the rail infrastructure and • Muddy conditions made trench warfare almost impossible Communicat- • Rapid pace (30km/day) took a huge toll on soldiers. ions • Nature of modern warfare made historical-style attacks likely to fail • Tradition was ranked ahead of innovation • Generals believed simple strategies and moral fortitude could prevail • Primitive communications were available to Germans as they were in enemy territory • Messages could be intercepted and telephone lines were cut by artillery 3 Course Study Notes:......

Words: 20870 - Pages: 84

Premium Essay

Exorbitant Priviledge

... EXORBITANT PRIVILEGE EXORBITANT PRIVILEGE The Rise and Fall of the Dollar and the Future of the International Monetary System Barry Eichengreen Oxford University Press, Inc., publishes works that further Oxford University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education. Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Copyright © 2011 by Barry Eichengreen Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 www.oup.com Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Eichengreen, Barry J. Exorbitant privilege : The Rise and Fall of the Dollar and the Future of the International Monetary System / Barry Eichengreen. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-19-975378-9 1. Money—United States—History—20th century. 2. Devaluation of currency—United States—History—21st century. 3. United......

Words: 81879 - Pages: 328

Premium Essay

국제 마케팅 케이스

...Water Purifiers to India 4.4 A Tale of Two Tipples 4.5 Kellogg’s Indian Experience 4.6 Strategic Alliances in the Global Airline Industry: from Bilateral Agreements to Integrated Networks 4.7 GN Netcom in China 4.8 IKEA: Entering Russia 4.9 The ‘David Beckham’ Brand 563 571 574 583 586 590 594 599 604 case 4.1 Wal-Mart’s German Misadventure I don’t think that Wal-Mart did their homework as well as they should have. Germany is Europe’s most pricesensitive market. Wal-Mart underestimated the competition, the culture, the legislative environment. — Steve Gotham, retail analyst, Verdict Retail Consulting, October 20021 We screwed up in Germany. Our biggest mistake was putting our name up before we had the service and low prices. People were disappointed. — John Menzer, head of Wal-Mart International December 20012 ‘Don’t look now:’ low prices all year round! With thanks to Walmart 563 IntMk-CStud-4.qxd 26/05/2005 14:06 Page 564 section 6 case studies section 4 German blues For the world’s largest retailing company, Wal-Mart, Inc., the German market was proving difficult to crack. By 2003, even after five years of having entered Germany, Wal-Mart was making losses. Though Wal-Mart did not reveal these figures, analysts estimated losses of around $200–300 million per annum in Germany over the five-year period. According to analysts, the main reason for Wal-Mart’s losses was its failure to understand German culture and the shopping habits of......

Words: 33872 - Pages: 136

Premium Essay

Managing Cultura Differences

...Oxford OX2 8DP, UK Copyright © 2004, Philip R. Harris, Robert T. Moran, Sarah V. Moran. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Permissions may be sought directly from Elsevier’s Science & Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone: (+44) 1865 843830, fax: (+44) 1865 853333, e-mail: permissions@elsevier.com.uk. You may also complete your request online via the Elsevier Science homepage (http://elsevier.com), by selecting “Customer Support” and then “Obtaining Permissions.” Recognizing the importance of preserving what has been written, Elsevier prints its books on acid-free paper whenever possible. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Harris, Philip R. (Philip Robert), 1926– Managing cultural differences. Global leadership strategies for the 21ST Century.—6th ed. / Philip R. Harris, Robert T. Moran, Sarah V. Moran. p. cm.—(Managing cultural differences series) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-7506-7736-8 (alk. paper) 1. International business enterprises—Management. 2. Acculturation. 3. Cross-cultural studies. I. Title: Global leadership strategies for a new world of business. II. Title: Leadership strategies for a new world of business. III. Moran, Robert T., 1938- IV. Moran, Sarah V. (Sarah......

Words: 229816 - Pages: 920

Free Essay

One Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.

...demarcate historical epochs, the twentieth century does not appear to be a very coherent unit. The beginnings and ends of what we choose to call centuries are almost invariably years of little significance. But there is little agreement over when the twentieth century c.e. arrived, and there were several points both before the year 2000 (the collapse of the Soviet Union, the reunification of Germany, the surge of globalization from the mid-1990s) and afterward (9/11, or the global recession of 2008) when one could quite plausibly argue that a new era had begun. A compelling case can be made for viewing the decades of the global scramble for colonies after 1870 as a predictable culmination of the long nineteenth century, which was ushered in by the industrial and political revolutions of the late 1700s. But at the same time, without serious attention to the processes and misguided policies that led to decades of agrarian and industrial depression from the late 1860s to the 1890s, as well as the social tensions and political rivalries that generated and were in turn fed by imperialist expansionism, one cannot begin to comprehend the causes and consequences of the Great War that began in 1914. That conflict determined the contours of the twentieth century in myriad ways. On the one hand, the war set in motion transformative processes that were clearly major departures from those that defined the nineteenth-century world order. On the other, it perversely......

Words: 163893 - Pages: 656

Premium Essay

Myypaper

...climate change put at risk continued growth in the United States and other advanced countries, as well as sustainable development in emerging markets. These events significantly affect the well-being of the United States and the rest of the world but are, to a large extent, beyond U.S. control. New to the Eleventh Edition Chapter 1 has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect the dramatic economic and financial changes that have taken place in the world economy since the last edition of this text. Section 1.6 has been thoroughly revised to identify the major international economic (trade and financial) problems facing the United States and the world today, and so has the discussion in Chapter 21 (Section 21.6), which examines how they can be resolved. The rapid globalization of the world economy is providing major benefits to most countries, but it is also presenting many challenges to poor countries that are unable to take advantage of globalization, as well as to the United States and other advanced countries that face increasing competition from some emerging markets, especially China. These topics are discussed in several new sections and case studies in the trade and finance part of the text. The dollar–euro exchange rate is as much in the news these days as the huge and unsustainable trade deficits of the United States and sovereign debts in the Eurozone. The relationship between U.S trade deficits, trade protectionism and misaligned exchange rates, as......

Words: 236413 - Pages: 946

Premium Essay

Gk Power

...Development New Delhi                   A Study Prepared as a Part of a Research Programme  STRUCTURAL CHANGES, INDUSTRY AND EMPLOYMENT   IN THE INDIAN ECONOMY  Macro‐economic Implications of Emerging Pattern    Sponsored by  Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)  New Delhi  Contents 1.   2.  3.   4.   5.   6.   7.   8.   9.   10.   11.   12.  13.   14.   15.   16.   17.   18.   Historical Backdrop   Foreign Trade in 2nd and 3rd Plan  Development of Complex Regime  Episode of trade Liberalization  Economic Growth and Policy Framework of Foreign Trade  Foreign Trade Policy Reforms after 1991‐92   Service Sector and Reform  Export‐Import Growth Scenario  Commodity Composition of Export and Import Basket  Factor Intensity Analysis of Exports  Factor Intensity Analysis of Imports  Structural Weakness of India’s Foreign Trade  Stability of India’s Comparative Advantage  Rise of Service Sector Exports  Relationship Between Economic Growth and Export Growth  Relationship Between Trade and Employment  Can India Skip Industrialization Phase?  Conclusions                                      List of Tables  1   2  3  4  5  Indicators of Long‐Term Indian Economic Performance, 1950‐2010 (Average annual  growth)  India’s Exports, Export Growth and Share in GDP  Trade and Capital Account Balances (Million $)  Evolution of India’s Trade Balances (Rs. Crores)  SEZ Exports and India’s total Exports: A Comparison  ~ ii ~  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17 ......

Words: 33180 - Pages: 133

Premium Essay

International Economies Theory

...World Trade: An Overview Labor Productivity and Comparative Advantage: The Ricardian Model Specific Factors and Income Distribution Resources and Trade: The Heckscher-Ohlin Model The Standard Trade Model External Economies of Scale and the International Location of Production Firms in the Global Economy: Export Decisions, Outsourcing, and Multinational Enterprises International Trade Policy 10 24 50 80 111 137 155 192 9 10 11 12 Part 3 The Instruments of Trade Policy The Political Economy of Trade Policy Trade Policy in Developing Countries Controversies in Trade Policy Exchange Rates and Open-Economy Macroeconomics 192 219 256 271 293 13 14 15 16 17 18 Part 4 National Income Accounting and the Balance of Payments Exchange Rates and the Foreign Exchange Market: An Asset Approach Money, Interest Rates, and Exchange Rates Price Levels and the Exchange Rate in the Long Run Output and the Exchange Rate in the Short Run Fixed Exchange Rates and Foreign Exchange Intervention International Macroeconomic Policy 293 320 354 384 421 463 504 19 20 21 22 International Monetary Systems: An Historical Overview Optimum Currency Areas and the European Experience Financial Globalization: Opportunity and Crisis Developing Countries: Growth, Crisis, and Reform 504 557 586 619 vii viii Brief Contents Mathematical Postscripts Postscript to Chapter 5: The Factor Proportions Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .661......

Words: 378443 - Pages: 1514

Premium Essay

International Marketing

...World Trade: An Overview Labor Productivity and Comparative Advantage: The Ricardian Model Specific Factors and Income Distribution Resources and Trade: The Heckscher-Ohlin Model The Standard Trade Model External Economies of Scale and the International Location of Production Firms in the Global Economy: Export Decisions, Outsourcing, and Multinational Enterprises International Trade Policy 10 24 50 80 111 137 155 192 9 10 11 12 Part 3 The Instruments of Trade Policy The Political Economy of Trade Policy Trade Policy in Developing Countries Controversies in Trade Policy Exchange Rates and Open-Economy Macroeconomics 192 219 256 271 293 13 14 15 16 17 18 Part 4 National Income Accounting and the Balance of Payments Exchange Rates and the Foreign Exchange Market: An Asset Approach Money, Interest Rates, and Exchange Rates Price Levels and the Exchange Rate in the Long Run Output and the Exchange Rate in the Short Run Fixed Exchange Rates and Foreign Exchange Intervention International Macroeconomic Policy 293 320 354 384 421 463 504 19 20 21 22 International Monetary Systems: An Historical Overview Optimum Currency Areas and the European Experience Financial Globalization: Opportunity and Crisis Developing Countries: Growth, Crisis, and Reform 504 557 586 619 vii viii Brief Contents Mathematical Postscripts Postscript to Chapter 5: The Factor Proportions Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .661......

Words: 378443 - Pages: 1514

Free Essay

Business Ethics

...biblical scholars and social scientists find that a social scientific study of early Christian phenomena yields fascinating results. However, biblical scholars are sometimes unaware of the breadth of the useful social scientific concepts and techniques, and social scientists sometimes lack the most basic background in literary research methods. The Handbooh of Early Christianity provides a much needed overview for biblical scholars and social scientists alike. Drawing on perspectives from anthropology, archaeology, economics, history, literary analysis, political science, psychology, and sociology, the Handbool~ shows the myriad and complementary approaches that shed light on Christianity's formation and early development. Twenty-seven chapters from leading scholars along with a comprehensive bibliography make this an essential reference for anyone wishing to understand the social dynamics of Christianity's origins. HE T is professor of sociology at Tennessee State University in Nashville. His books include A Phenomenological Transformation of the Social Scientific Study of Religion (1985), Mom/ Conflict and Christian Religion (1988), Early Christianity as a Social Movement (I 989), Mal~ing Charisma: The Social Construction of Paul's Public Image (1991), A Sociology of ]olwnnine Christianity (1996), NTHONY BLASI A J. (continued on /Jach flap) HANDBOOK OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY HANDBOOK OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY Social Science Approaches Edited by ANTHONY J. BLASI JEAN......

Words: 366723 - Pages: 1467

Free Essay

Lalala

...orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies. Now Congress, in apparent agreement, has required by law that businesses awarded federal contracts of more than $500,000 do their best to find minority subcontractors and record their efforts to do so on forms filed with the government. Indeed, some federal and local agencies have gone so far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to minority enterprises. Corporate response appears to have been substantial. According to figures collected in 1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority businesses rose from $77 million in 1972 to $1.1 billion in 1977. The projected total of corporate contracts with minority businesses for the early 1980’s is estimated to be over 53 billion per year with no letup anticipated in the next decade. Promising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses dangers for them, too. First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses, they often need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them. If, thereafter, their subcontracts are for some reason reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses. The world of corporate purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneurs who get requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids.......

Words: 413042 - Pages: 1653

Premium Essay

Marketing Cross Cultures

...Naciremas 2 Cultural dynamics 1: Time and space 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 A model of action based on cultural assumptions Time: Cross-cultural variability Space Cultural borrowing and change in societies Cultural hostility Questions Notes References Appendix 2: Teaching materials A2.1 Cross-cultural scenario: Inshallah A2.2 Cross-cultural interaction: Engineering a decision A2.3 Cross-cultural interaction: Opening a medical office in Saudi Arabia viii Contents A2.4 A2.5 Reading: Language and time patterns: The Bantu case Exercise: World picture test 47 48 3 Cultural dynamics 2: Interactions, mindsets and behaviours 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Concept of the self and others Interaction models Culture-based attitudes towards action How to relate thinking to action Dealing with desires and feelings Coping with rules Cultural assumptions and actual behaviour 50 50 56 64 68 70 72 75 77 78 78 81 81 81 Questions Notes References Appendix 3: Teaching materials A3.1 Critical incident: An American in Vietnam A3.2 Rationales for A2.1 (cross-cultural scenario) and sections A2.2 and A2.3 (cross-cultural interactions) Part 2 The integration of local consumption in a global marketing environment Introduction to Part 2 83 84 86 88 93 96 100 102 105 105 105 106 111 111 112 112 115 116 4 Cross-cultural consumer behaviour 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Culture and consumer behaviour The influence of culture on selected aspects of consumer behaviour Investigating the......

Words: 361577 - Pages: 1447

Free Essay

Business

...world’s largest investor. 3. Globalism Strategy a. Global companies are becoming less tied to specific locations and their operations and allies are spreading around the world as they source and coordinate resources and activities wherever needed. Companies that desire to remain competitive will have to develop a cadre of experienced international managers. 4. Small companies are also affected by and, in turn, affect globalism. They play a vital role in contributing to their national economies through new job creation and employment, development of new products and services, and international operations such as exporting. Discussion Question: Evaluate the statement by Thomas Friedman that the world is flat. What does he mean by this statement? |Teaching Resource: For the latest statistics, have your students visit one of the following | |websites: | |World Trade Organization – www.WTO.org | |Financial Times – www.ft.com | |CEO Express – www.ceoexpress.com | Management in Focus: A Small Company, A Global......

Words: 96329 - Pages: 386

Premium Essay

Mahek

...psychoanalysts was conducted at Salzberg, and by 1909 Freud and Jung were invited to give a number of lectures in the United States. Freud’s writings were also translated in many languages. Freud’s ideas, which were mostly based on suppressed desires, were not very easy to accept, which led to differences within his supporters. His prominent supporters like Adler, Jung and Freud’s own daughter Anna broke away from him and started working on their own ideas in the field of psychology. Soon after the World War I, Freud suffered from the onset of cancer of jaw, which pursued him till the end of his life. In 1938, because of the invasion by Hitler, Freud was forced to leave Vienna for London and it was there, a year later in September 1939 at the age of 83 that he died. Freud devoted his whole life developing the theories and its implication in the field of psychoanalysis. Even today Freud’s works in the field are a major source of reference to the students as well as the practitioners. THE THEORY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS Basic constructs and postulates Levels of Consciousness: - Conscious, Preconscious and Unconscious Freud heard about the work of the great neurologist Char cot in Paris with hypnosis. After receiving a grant from the University of Vienna, Freud spent several months observing the French doctors using hypnosis with neurotic patients. Observing such demonstrations, he was highly impressed with what he saw and his interest in the study of......

Words: 155674 - Pages: 623