Premium Essay

What Is Basel Ii

In: Business and Management

Submitted By xehra87
Words 1645
Pages 7
WHAT IS BASEL II?

Basel ii is a framework, and the standards it contains have been endorsed by the Central Bank Governors and Heads of Banking Supervision of the Group of Ten countries. It presents the outcome of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision’s work over recent years to secure international convergence on revisions to supervisory regulations governing the capital adequacy of internationally active banks.
Following the publication of the Committee’s first round of proposals for revising the capital adequacy framework in June 1999, an extensive consultative process was set in train in all member countries and the proposals were also circulated to supervisory authorities worldwide. The Committee subsequently released additional proposals for consultation in January 2001 and April 2003 and furthermore conducted three quantitative impact studies related to its proposals. As a result of these efforts, many valuable improvements have been made to the original proposals. The present paper is now a statement of the Committee agreed by all its members. It sets out the details of the agreed Framework for measuring capital adequacy and the minimum standard to be achieved which the national supervisory authorities represented on the Committee will propose for adoption in their respective countries. The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision is a committee of banking supervisory authorities that was established by the central bank governors of the Group of Ten countries in 1975. It consists of senior representatives of bank supervisory authorities and central banks from Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It usually meets at the Bank for International Settlements in Basel, where its permanent Secretariat is located. The Committee expects its members to...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Risk Management in Banking

...chance of injury or loss”. Thus, something that has potential to cause harm or loss to one or more planned objectives is called Risk. The word risk is derived from an Italian word “Risicare” which means “To Dare”. It is an expression of danger of an adverse deviation in the actual result from any expected result. Banks for International Settlement (BIS) has defined it as- “Risk is the threat that an event or action will adversely affect an organization’s ability to achieve its objectives and successfully execute its strategies.” Risk Management: Risk Management is a planned method of dealing with the potential loss or damage. It is an ongoing process of risk appraisal through various methods and tools which continuously • Assess what could go wrong • Determine which risks are important to deal with • Implement strategies to deal with...

Words: 9309 - Pages: 38

Premium Essay

Risk Management in Banking Sector

...chance of injury or loss”. Thus, something that has potential to cause harm or loss to one or more planned objectives is called Risk. The word risk is derived from an Italian word “Risicare” which means “To Dare”. It is an expression of danger of an adverse deviation in the actual result from any expected result. Banks for International Settlement (BIS) has defined it as- “Risk is the threat that an event or action will adversely affect an organization’s ability to achieve its objectives and successfully execute its strategies.” Risk Management: Risk Management is a planned method of dealing with the potential loss or damage. It is an ongoing process of risk appraisal through various methods and tools which continuously • Assess what could go wrong • Determine which risks are important to deal with • Implement strategies to deal with...

Words: 9309 - Pages: 38

Free Essay

Basel Ii

...Members |   | Argentina | Central Bank of Argentina | Australia | Reserve Bank of Australia Australian Prudential Regulation Authority | Belgium | National Bank of Belgium | Brazil | Central Bank of Brazil | Canada | Bank of Canada Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions | China | People's Bank of China China Banking Regulatory Commission | European Union | European Central Bank European Central Bank Single Supervisory Mechanism | France | Bank of France Prudential Supervision and Resolution Authority | Germany | Deutsche Bundesbank Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin) | Hong Kong SAR | Hong Kong Monetary Authority | India | Reserve Bank of India | Indonesia | Bank Indonesia Indonesia Financial Services Authority | Italy | Bank of Italy | Japan | Bank of Japan Financial Services Agency | Korea | Bank of Korea Financial Supervisory Service | Luxembourg | Surveillance Commission for the Financial Sector | Mexico | Bank of Mexico Comisión Nacional Bancaria y de Valores | Netherlands | Netherlands Bank | Russia | Central Bank of the Russian Federation | Saudi Arabia | Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency | Singapore | Monetary Authority of Singapore | South Africa | South African Reserve Bank | Spain | Bank of Spain | Sweden | Sveriges Riksbank Finansinspektionen | Switzerland | Swiss National Bank Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority FINMA | Turkey | Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey ...

Words: 1869 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Is Basel Iii a Better Support to Islamic Banks Than Basel Ii?

...Is Basel III a better support to Islamic banks than Basel II? International Interdisciplinary Conference On Changes, Challenges and Consequences In Commerce, Engineering, Technology and Social Science. Institute of Business Management and Research, Chakan & Choice Institute of Management Studies and Research, pune, 15th March, 2014. Dr. Atmaram palnitkar Research Guide& Principal of Dayanand College OF Commerce, Latur. palnitkarav@rediffmail.com&9423347478 Abdul-Jabbar Qasem Ali Al-badaani Research Scholar of Com and Magt Sci, SRTM University, Nanded. Amaf3600@gmail.com&7709670130 ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- ABSTRACT Banking activities involve many risks calculated and otherwise. Banks have to take appropriate measures and require management of their capital and credit and implementation procedures in keeping with the best international practices, to mitigate potential losses and avoid projected pitfalls. In view of the recent financial crisis, due to wrong management or improper implementation as well as the collapse of large economies has had a cascading effect all round the world in the form of collapses of famous institutions and banks, and thus arose a decision to have a better financial control in the form of Basel I to be later followed by Basel II and Basel III. Thus a new culture in financial controls and risk management has arisen to safeguard the banking...

Words: 3374 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Case

...Basel I DEFINITION OF 'BASEL I' A set of international banking regulations put forth by the Basel Committee on Bank Supervision, which set out the minimum capital requirements of financial institutions with the goal of minimizing credit risk. Banks that operate internationally are required to maintain a minimum amount (8%) of capital based on a percent of risk-weighted assets. Basel II is the second of the Basel Accords, (now extended and partially superseded[clarification needed] by Basel III), which are recommendations on banking laws and regulations issued by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. BREAKING DOWN 'Basel I' The first accord was the Basel I. It was issued in 1988 and focused mainly on credit risk by creating a bank asset classification system. This classification system grouped a bank's assets into five risk categories: 0% - cash, central bank and government debt and any OECD government debt 0%, 10%, 20% or 50% - public sector debt 20% - development bank debt, OECD bank debt, OECD securities firm debt, non-OECD bank debt (under one year maturity) and non-OECD public sector debt, cash in collection 50% - residential mortgages 100% - private sector debt, non-OECD bank debt (maturity over a year), real estate, plant and equipment, capital instruments issued at other banks The bank must maintain capital (Tier 1 and Tier 2) equal to at least 8% of its risk-weighted assets. For example, if a bank has risk-weighted assets of $100 million, it is required to......

Words: 3940 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Basel I and Ii

...Minimum Capital Provisioning for Credit Risk – a Comparative  Study of Basel I and Basel II  Contact: Pradnya Desai Manager– Rating Analyst +62 21 576 1516 desai.pradnya@icraindonesia.com   Drafted in  1988 and 2004 respectively, Basel I and II have, through quantitative   and technical benchmarks, helped develop a level playing field in the banking The “Basel Committee on Banking Supervision” (BCBS) is comprised of the central banks and regulatory authorities of mainly the G20 countries (including Indonesia) and other leading nations. The committee issues broad guidelines and standards to ensure best practices in the banking supervision and risk   management. (Source: www.bis.org)                        supervision, regulation and capital adequacy standards across the signatory nations. As of today, more than 100 countries have implemented Basel I and around 112 countries are implementing Basel II (Source: Wikipedia, Basel committee on banking supervision survey, 2010). Basel II generated more interest on account of the multitude of financial crises that the world economy faced during the 1990s and early 2000s. Further, its implementation gained momentum among the emerging economies after the 2008 crisis. While many countries have already commenced Basel III (drafted in 2010) implementation, Indonesia is yet to finalise the norms on the subject. Basel III while relevant at a future date will not be implemented in the near future and hence this article has......

Words: 3956 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Basel

...Basel II to Basel III: Changes and Requirements Hesham Hamdy Chief Risk Officer, Arab International Bank Nairobi, 7-8 March 2012 Basel; what is it? • A New Standard for the Measurement of Risks in Banks, and for the Allocation of Capital to cover those risks, published by the Basel Committee of G10 Central Banks. • What Does Basel Committee Do? - Acts as Think-Tank for banking regulators - Issues guidance on best practice for banks - Standards accepted worldwide - Generally incorporated in national banking regulations Basel I • Basel I was the round of deliberations by central banks from around the world, and in 1988, the Basel Committee (BCBS) in Basel, Switzerland, published a set of minimum capital requirements for banks. This was known as the 1988 Basel Accord, and was enforced by law in the Group of Ten (G-10) countries in 1992 . • Basel I primarily focused on credit risk. Assets of banks were classified and grouped in five categories according to credit risk, carrying risk weights of zero (for example home country sovereign debt), ten, twenty, fifty, and up to one hundred percent (this category has, as an example, most corporate debt). Basel I (continued) • Banks with international presence were required to hold capital equal to 8 % of the risk-weighted assets. • Basel I was then widely viewed as outmoded because the world has changed as financial corporations, financial innovation and risk management have developed. Therefore, a more comprehensive set......

Words: 3834 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Internship Report of Corporate Credit in Bank

...CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Basel Capital accord is a capital adequacy framework developed by the Basel committee. In 1988, the Basel Committee decided to introduce a capital measurement system commonly referred to as the Basel Capital Accord. This system provided for the implementation of a credit risk measurement framework with a minimum capital requirement of 8% on banks Risk Weighted Assets (RWA). The 1988 framework is also known as "Basel – I". Since 1988, this framework has been progressively introduced not only in member countries but also virtually in all other countries. The "international convergence on capital measurement and capital standard -2004" is popularly known as Basel-II. It is a capital adequacy related standard framed by Basel committee. After the successful implementation of 1988 accord in more than 100 countries, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision reached an agreement on a number of important issues for promoting best and uniform banking practices as well as setting standards and guidelines for supervisory function. Following extensive interaction with banks, industry groups and supervisory authorities that are not members of the Committee, the revised framework was issued on 26 June 2004, which is being regularly revised and updated. The Basel-II aims to replace Basel I and to make the capital framework more risk sensitive. Basel II has recommended major revision......

Words: 2395 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Basel Ii Implemenatation

...Research Title Basel II Capital Accord and implementation implications in Albania Prepared: Elda Lila Mentor : Professor William Handorf, Ph.D., July 2007 Abstract: Basel II Capital Accord and implementation implications in Albania 2 Abstract: Basel II Capital Accord and implementation implications in Albania 2 I. What is New Basel Capital Accord and its Evolution 4 II. Adoption of Basel II 5 BCBS Countries 5 In Other Countries 6 Banking Supervision Improvement Priorities 6 III. History of Banking Supervision in Albania (Banking System in Albania and Supervisory Process. 7 IV. Three Pillars of Basel II and the implications related to the implementation in Albania: 10 1.Pillar 1 – Capital Defined 11 1.1 Pillar 1 – Credit Risk 11 1.2 Pillar 1 – Market Risk 15 1.3 Pillar 1 – Operational Risk 16 2. Pillar 2 – The Supervisory Review Process 16 3. Pillar 3 – Market Disclosure 18 V. Reference List 21 Abstract: Basel II Capital Accord and implementation implications in Albania I. The first part is concentrated in what is new Basel Capital Accord and its Evolution. Supervisors have long sought to ensure that banks maintain adequate capital to cover all risks. In 1988, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision agreed the 'International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards', more commonly known as the Basel Capital Accord which in most countries is fully......

Words: 4572 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Evaluating Basel

...END TERM PROJECT COMMERCIAL BANK MANAGEMENT TOPIC 5 BANK CAPITAL MANAGEMENT- CAPITAL ADEQUACY FRAMEWORK Submitted to: Submitted by: Group 5 Prof. D.N. Panigrahi Abhishek Singh (2014013) Anisha jain (2014042) Bakul Malik (2014072) Gurusha Godwani (2014100) Ketki Chaturvedi (2014133) CHAPTER 1 BANK CAPITAL MANAGEMENT- CAPITAL ADEQUACY FRAMEWORK INTRODUCTION Bank capital is often defined in tiers or categories that include shareholders' equity, retained earnings, reserves, hybrid capital instruments, and subordinated term debt. Capital ratios are commonly measured as a percent of bank assets or risk-weighted bank assets. Bank capital serves as an important cushion against unexpected losses. It creates a strong incentive to manage a bank in a prudent manner, because the bank owners’ equity is at risk in the event of a failure. Thus, bank capital plays a critical role in the safety and soundness of individual banks and the banking system. Role of bank capital: • Source of funds – Start-up costs – Growth or expansion (mergers and acquisitions) – Modernization costs • Cushion to absorb unexpected operating losses – Insufficient capital to absorb losses will cause insolvency – Long-term debt can only absorb losses in the event of institution failure • Adequate capital – Regulatory requirements to promote bank safety and soundness – Mitigate moral hazard problems of deposit insurance by increasing shareholders’ exposure to......

Words: 10400 - Pages: 42

Free Essay

Basel Norms

...Basel I The Basel Accords are some of the most influential—and misunderstood—agreements in modern international finance. Drafted in 1988 and 2004, Basel I and II have ushered in a new era of international banking cooperation. Through quantitative and technical benchmarks, both accords have helped harmonize banking supervision, regulation, and capital adequacy standards across the eleven countries of the Basel Group and many other emerging market economies. On the other hand, the very strength of both accords—their quantitative and technical focus—limits the understanding of these agreements within policy circles, causing them to be misinterpreted and misused in many of the world’s political economies. Moreover, even when the Basel accords have been applied accurately and fully, neither agreement has secured long-term stability within a country’s banking sector. Therefore, a full understanding of the rules, intentions, and shortcomings of Basel I and II is essential to assessing their impact on the international financial system. This paper aims to do just that—give a detailed, non-technical assessment of both Basel I and Basel II, and for both developed and emerging markets, show the status, intentions, criticisms, and implications of each accord. Basel I Soon after the creation of the Basel Committee, its eleven member states (known as the G-10) began to discuss a formal standard to ensure the proper......

Words: 4711 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

Basel (I Ii Iii)

...THE BASEL CAPITAL ACCORDS BY JOE LARSON APRIL 2011 I. Introduction Banks are a vital part of a nation’s economy. In their traditional role as financial intermediaries, banks serve to meet the demand of those who need funding. As such, banks make it possible for people to buy homes and for businesses to expand. Banks therefore facilitate spending and investment, which fuel growth in the economy. However, despite their important role in the economy, banks are nevertheless susceptible to failure. Banks, like any other business, can go bankrupt. However, unlike most other businesses, the failure of banks, especially very large ones, can have far-reaching implications. As we saw during the Great Depression and, most recently, during the global financial crisis and the ensuing recession, the health of the bank system (or lack thereof) can trigger economic calamities affecting millions of people. Consequently, it is imperative that banks operate in a safe and sound manner to avoid failure. One way to ensure this is for governments to provide diligent regulation of banks. Yet, with the advent of globalization, banking activities are no longer confined to the borders of any individual country. With cross-border banking activities rapidly increasing, the need for international cooperation in bank regulation has likewise increased. Ready to meet this need is the Basel Committee on Bank Supervision (BCBS). In its role as the international advisory authority on bank regulation, the......

Words: 9857 - Pages: 40

Free Essay

Basel Norms

...What are Basel Norms? Basel is a city in Switzerland. It is the headquarters of Bureau of International Settlement (BIS), which fosters co-operation among central banks with a common goal of financial stability and common standards of banking regulations. Every two months BIS hosts a meeting of the governor and senior officials of central banks of member countries. Currently there are 27 member nations in the committee. Basel guidelines refer to broad supervisory standards formulated by this group of central banks - called the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS). The set of agreement by the BCBS, which mainly focuses on risks to banks and the financial system are called Basel accord. The purpose of the accord is to ensure that financial institutions have enough capital on account to meet obligations and absorb unexpected losses. India has accepted Basel accords for the banking system. In fact, on a few parameters the RBI has prescribed stringent norms as compared to the norms prescribed by BCBS. Basel I In 1988, BCBS introduced capital measurement system called Basel capital accord, also called as Basel 1. It focused almost entirely on credit risk. It defined capital and structure of risk weights for banks. The minimum capital requirement was fixed at 8% of risk weighted assets (RWA). RWA means assets with different risk profiles. For example, an asset backed by collateral would carry lesser risks as compared to personal loans, which have no collateral.......

Words: 486 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Basel Norms

...Evolution of Basel Norms and their contribution to the Subprime Crisis The article highlights the emergence of the Basel Accord in 1998 and how it has evolved over the course of the last 23 years. Contrary to the popular belief capital regulations have been considered the biggest underlying factor of the subprime crisis owing to securitization, the shadow banking system and the flexibility given to banks in risk assessment. The recent Basel III norms though aim to mitigate the already caused damage, the results are still left to be witnessed. Evolution of Basel Norms and their contribution to the Subprime Crisis The article highlights the emergence of the Basel Accord in 1998 and how it has evolved over the course of the last 23 years. Contrary to the popular belief capital regulations have been considered the biggest underlying factor of the subprime crisis owing to securitization, the shadow banking system and the flexibility given to banks in risk assessment. The recent Basel III norms though aim to mitigate the already caused damage, the results are still left to be witnessed. The Financial Crisis of 2008 shook the financial world and is still in tatters even after 3 years of its outbreak. From the New York investment bank Bear Stearns collapse in June 2007, Northern Rock liquidity support (Sep’ 07), Bank of America purchases of Countrywide Financial (Jan’ 08), Nationalization of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac by the federal government (July 08), Lehman Brothers...

Words: 2909 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

An Indian Journey to Basel 2

...CMYK CMYK Wo r k i n g P a p e r The Indian Journey to Basel II: Implementing Risk Management in Banks Dr. SS Satchidananda Sanjeev Shukla CBIT Centre of Banking and Information Technology Indian Institute of Information Technology 26/C, Electronic City, Bangalore And Oracle India Pvt. Ltd., DLF Corporate Park Block I DLF City Phase III Gurgaon 122002 CMYK CMYK CMYK CMYK CBIT Centre of Banking and Information Technology Indian Institute of Information Technology 26/C, Electronic City, Bangalore And Oracle India Pvt. Ltd., DLF Corporate Park Block I DLF City Phase III Gurgaon 122002 CMYK CMYK CMYK CMYK The Indian Journey to Basel II Implementing Risk Management in Banks ABSTRACT In this paper, we provide a perspective on the international regulatory framework for capital standards and its focus on implementation of risk management systems in banks with particular reference to the Indian scenario. We also discuss the Indian regulatory approach to this important challenge and the major issues involved in the Basel II implementation in the Indian context. We conclude with guidance for developing an implementation plan for ushering in effective and efficient risk management in banks. {SS Satchidananda1 Sanjeev Shukla2 } “Banking in modern economies is all about risk management. The successful negotiation and implementation of Basel II Accord is likely to lead to an even sharper focus on the risk measurement and......

Words: 9834 - Pages: 40