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遊說能力
一、定義
我們向某特定對象表達一些訊息,他接收了這些訊息以後,除了認同我們,還依照訊息內容改變了他的行為,在傳意上,我們已成功遊說了對方。「遊說」是社會上普遍使用的能力,用文章來遊說,那就是寫作「遊說文」。 部分討論文體的寫作參考資料把「遊說文」歸入「議論文」。其實,兩者之間有很大的差異。遊說文的作者, 心目中有明顯的讀者,寫作的目的是要改變讀者的態度和行為,不一定是為了說明某種真理。反之,議論文的作者只為說明真理,不一定要求改變讀者的行為。 許多傳意學者均認為,傳意最重要是影響別人的思想和行為(Verderber, 1985)。這理念在工商界(特別是廣告界)已得到廣泛實踐,例如楊宗(1984)提到撰寫廣告著眼於如何誘發消費者對商品的感情;王志麟(1992)指出倡議書是通過闡明所倡議之事的必要性和嚴重性,爭取人們的響應和支持,從而推動活動的開展和發展。這些也都是遊說文的技巧要求。 二、遊說能力的要素
1. 進行遊說的要訣 * 確立主張或命題
「主張」或「命題」,是指作者必須知道文章要達到甚麼目的,希望讀者相信些甚麼,做些甚麼,例如,寫一篇文章提出「冰淇淋有害身體,乳酪有益」的主張,目的是遊說十八至二十五歲的女士(讀者/對象)改變吃冰琪淋的習慣,轉吃乳酪。然而,作者提出主張時必須注意幾項原則:A)改變行為需要時間,是個漸進緩慢的過程,所以「主張」距離讀者愈遠,需要的時間愈長,上述的例子需要考慮遊說對象是否能在短時間裏改變這個飲食習慣;B)作者提出的「主張」如對讀者要求很高,讀者不勝其擾的話,也會十分抗拒,上述例子便需要提出乳酪的口味和享受跟冰淇淋相近,讓遊說對象感到轉吃乳酪並非一個很難適應的過程;C)如果作者愈刺傷讀者的自尊,則讀者愈會抗拒作者的「主張」。因此作者要做到尊重讀者,保存讀者的顏面(Fotheringham, 1966),如提出轉吃乳酪的好處時,不要強調吃冰淇淋令遊說對象肥胖或影響身形等,令身形真的受影響的遊說對象產生抗拒情緒。 * 注意作者自己的信譽
研究顯示(Anderson & Clevenger, 1963),作者的信譽會影響讀者的信仰和態度。如果作者的信譽低,即使「主張」如何正確,讀者也會抗拒。事實上,現代社會資訊太多,在多數情況下人們都需要倚仗一些值得信賴的人幫助決定。要給人信心,不外三個要素:第一,在某方面是權威;第二,作者的動機良好,讓人容易接受;第三,作者性格誠懇和善,也會受到大家信任。 * 引起讀者的動機
好的遊說文,不只要讀者理性上接受作者的主張,還要引起讀者的動機,促使讀者改變自己的行為。例如醫生寫一篇論述抽煙害處的文章,許多煙民讀了後都贊同醫生的觀點,但不一定會停止抽煙,所以醫生的文章一定要令讀者下決心戒煙,這篇文章才算是一篇成功的遊說文。作者需要掌握讀者的心理,知道他們改變行為的動機是成功遊說的關鍵,我們可以從以下三方面去考慮如何捕捉讀者改變行為的動機。
i. 「代價」和「報酬」
讀者要付出的「代價」愈高,「報酬」就要愈大。「代價」通常指時間、力量和金錢等;而「報酬」包括金錢、名譽和友情等。「代價」愈少,「報酬」愈大,遊說的成功率便愈高。
ii. 認知失調感(Cognitive Dissonance)
人類有力求自己的意見、態度和信念一貫性或一致性的強烈欲望。因此,假如個人發現自己的意見或信念與事實不符合的時候,通常會採取不同的行動以減少或清除由於認知失調而生的不平衡感(Festinger, 1957)。例如,《蘇秦為趙合從說楚威王》裏,蘇秦指楚威王「今釋霸王之業,而有事人之名。」就是想令楚威王產生認知失調感,阻止楚威王親近秦王。 iii. 動機階梯論
馬思勞(Maslow, 1954)將人類的動機按前後條件關係,由下而上分為五層,第一層是「生存需要」,指維持生命存在的基本條件;第二層是「安全需要」,人人都想保護自己,都傾向免受傷害及逃避不適;第三層是「歸屬需要」,人人都希望有朋友和伴侶,得到同儕的接受;第四層是「尊敬的需要」,每一個人都希望自己是一個有價值和有能力的人,得到別人的尊重和敬仰;第五層是「自我實現需要」,個人希望完成自己的願望和理想。

圖3-05:動機階梯 遊說時,如果清楚讀者的需要,從而針對讀者的需要而設計文章,成功機會便會很大了。例如《蘇秦為趙合從說楚威王》裏,楚威王說「寡人臥不安席,食不甘味,心搖搖如懸旌,而無所終薄。」表示他很需要「安全感」,蘇秦能夠「安諸侯,存危國」,帶給楚威王安全感,於是才能遊說成功。
2. 進行遊說的論證方法 * 說之以理
人以「理性」動物自居,行事必會找一些理由來支持。遊說文要改變讀者行為,便不得不提供充足理由,不然讀者不會支持作者。要有充足的理由說服讀者,就必須對事物進行周密、細緻的分析,做到言之成理,持之有據,邏輯嚴密。要有邏輯,必須注意:
i. 作者列舉的理由一定要和命題有關; ii. 論據要確鑿和可靠,有足夠的事實和理論支持; iii. 作者必須根據不同的對象來選擇論據,例如遊說基督徒當然不可能用佛教教理; iv. 盡可能用數據或權威人物的意見,科學的數據最能說明問題,而權威人物有良好信譽,意見也較易為人接受。 * 動之以情
遊說文容許煽情,以「情」來打動讀者,有時往往收效更大。要達到激情的目的(Emotional appeal),要注意讀者的情緒、態度和動機(Applbaum & Anatol, 1974)。 v. 作者應盡量減少與讀者間的矛盾,更要營造同一陣線、同一背景、同一態度的氣氛,減少讀者的抗拒感。 vi. 作者能夠真情流露,態度誠懇,有自信心,文章自能感人。 vii. 建議句式(如「我相信我們都願意見到……」)比命令句式(如「我要你們……」、「你們應該……」)較易為讀者接受。 viii. 減少枯燥的統計數字。動人的個案或感人的例子比許多統計數字更有說服力,因為數字比文字的感染力低(謝錫金,1998)。謝錫金(1998)曾舉親身經歷為例,在一個埃塞俄比亞饑荒籌款的活動上,一個講者詳述當地饑荒情況,饑民數字、旱災數據等,另一個講者只描述了幾個個案,其中一個個案講述那些饑餓嬰兒死在母親懷中,這個個案至今都深印在謝的腦海裏,至於前一個講者的說話內容,則大部分忘記了。 * 遊說策略 ix. 讀者的態度
遊說對象對作者的態度,往往影響作者如何設計策略,以達到遊說的目的。故作者應在事前研究遊說對象(讀者)對作者的態度。遊說對象的態度可分為敵對、反對、溫和反對、中立(沒有意見及不清楚)、稍有好感、贊成、非常支持等數種。此外,遊說對象的興趣、年齡、性別、職業、社會地位、種族、文化、收入等背景,均影響他們的態度(謝錫金,1984)。
i. 遊說方法 i. 陳述理由法:當遊說對象沒有成見,或表示冷漠、或溫和反對時,作者可用陳述理由法。例如私立學校的校長想遊說家長贊同增收學費,可列舉下列理由:(i)增收學費可改善學校質素;(ii)可提高教師薪酬;(iii)增收數額很少(謝錫金,1998)。 ii. 問題解決法:針對那些沒有成見的遊說對象,或是溫和反對的對象,可用這方法。這方法最重要是列出解決方案,遊說讀者接受。例如那位私校校長想遊說家長贊同增收學費,他列舉的理由:(i)學校受「噪音干擾」,要安裝空氣調節系統;(ii)增收學費可以安裝空氣調節系統;(iii)安裝空調和增收學費是唯一解決辦法。 iii. 比較改善法:這方法強調自己的「主張」如何優越。例如那些私立學校校長為了遊說家長增加學費,他列舉理由為:(i)增收學費可以改善教學質素;(ii)增收學費可以改善教員生活質素;(iii)增收學費可以改善學校環境(Verderber, 1984; 謝錫金,1998)。 iv. 準則滿足法:當我們知道遊說對象(讀者)反對我們的意見時,就要注意改善雙方的關係,不能使關係惡化,用「滿足法」遊說持有敵對態度的讀者很有效,這種方法的特點是促使對方先認同,減少敵對態度,然後才提出我們的主張。例如那位私校校長想遊說家長贊同增收學費,他要持以下理由:(i)家長都希望兒女就讀的是好學校,好學校通常有好的課程、好的教師;(ii)要有好學校,就一定要加學費,因為學費增加了,學校才有經費改善課程,提高教師薪酬。第一個理由要令家長產生認同,後一個理由才是校長真正的主張(謝錫金,1998)。 v. 否定法:若遊說對象本就非常反對我們,甚至懷有敵意,那就可以用否定法。我們提出自己的主張和解決辦法,並且提出一些其餘的解決辨法。除了我們自己提出的,其餘全部要否定。例如,校長要增加學費,提出理由:(i)為了「節約」而減少學校的服務是不當的;(ii)政府是不會資助私校的;(iii)不提高教師薪酬會影響士氣;(iv)增加每班學生人數會影響教學質素;(v)唯一的辦法就是增加學費(謝錫金,1994)。 vi. 駁斥法:為防止第三者遊說我們的「對象」,我們可以先駁斥第三者的理由,破壞第三者的形象,令遊說對象先入為主,阻礙第三者的遊說工作(謝錫金,1998)。 雖然遊說文的目的是要改變讀者的行為,在遊說過程裏可以針對讀者對象,在某些關鍵處可以隱瞞部分資料。然而,無論如何也不能欺騙對方,例如「誇張」或「虛報數據」,否則,即使遊說成功,日後被揭發,擔任遊說的人(即遊說文的作者)便會名譽掃地,往後再不能勝任遊說工作了。
三、 課業舉隅 目標: | 引導學生了解寫作時一定要有寫作目標,並注意心目中的讀者。 | 寫作技能: | 遊說能力 | 教學理論: | 透過教師講解,學生能注意寫作對象,並能針對讀者設計適當的遊說策略。 | 材料: | 教師搜集一些刊登在報章上的投訴信及覆信。 | 組織: | 個人或小組 | 教學過程: | 1. 教師引導學生討論學校內的不合理措施。 2. 教師建議學生寫投訴信,寄給校務處。 3. 教師派發投訴信示例,引導全班學生討論那些示例,特別著重目標和寫作的策略。 4. 教師再和全班同學討論怎樣答覆那些投訴,並派發覆信示例,引導學生討論寫作目標,並針對不同讀者,設計不同的寫作策略。 5. 教師指導學生開始寫投訴信,並說明信件的具體要求。 6. 學生寫完投訴信後,互相交換,假設自己是校務處,答覆那封信。覆信內容一定要有具體的決定,例如:接受投訴、拒絕投訴、解決方案等。 7. 將覆信及投訴信交回原作者,由作者再寫出他自己對覆信的意見或感受。 8. 教師引導學生討論部分投訴信和覆信的效果。 |

(節錄自謝錫金「中文教育網」)
http://www.chineseedu.hku.hk/ChineseTeachingMethod/writing/ability/#7

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...reverses the conventional understanding of war as a necessary, but not definitive, element of the development of states, and instead asserts that successful war is the very foundation upon which all states are built. Much of The Prince is devoted to describing exactly what it means to conduct a good war: how to effectively fortify a city, how to treat subjects in newly acquired territories, and how to prevent domestic insurrection that would distract from a successful war. But Machiavelli’s description of war encompasses more than just the direct use of military force—it comprises international diplomacy, domestic politics, tactical strategy, geographic mastery, and historical analysis. Within the context of Machiavelli’s Italy—when cities were constantly threatened by neighboring principalities and the area had suffered through power struggles for many years—his method of viewing almost all affairs of state through a military lens was a timely innovation in political thinking. Goodwill & Hatred To remain in power, a prince must avoid the hatred of his people. It is not necessary for him to be loved; in fact, it is often better for him to be feared. Being hated, however, can cause a prince’s downfall. This assertion might seem incompatible with Machiavelli’s statements on the utility of cruelty, but Machiavelli advocates the use of cruelty only insofar as it does not compromise the long-term goodwill of the people. The people’s goodwill is always the best defense......

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