Premium Essay

Who and What Is an Indian

In: Social Issues

Submitted By tashmahnash
Words 2439
Pages 10
According to INAC, the term for Aboriginal peoples is defined as: “a collective name for the original peoples of North America and their descendants. The Canadian constitution recognizes three groups of Aboriginal people: Indians (commonly referred to as First Nations), Métis and Inuit. These are three distinct peoples with unique histories, languages, cultural practices and spiritual beliefs. More than one million people in Canada identify themselves as an Aboriginal person, according to the 2006 Census.” (Indigenous Nationhood) Although many Aboriginal peoples in Canada identify as being Aboriginal, many Aboriginal peoples struggle to maintain or gain a sense of cultural identity due to the Canadian Governments assimilation policies. Throughout this paper I will discuss how the Indian Act, the Canadian Residential School System, and the Sixties Scoop assimilated Aboriginal peoples into a European way of life, by attempting to integrate them into society by abolishing their Aboriginal identities. This assimilation process impacted Aboriginal peoples in negative ways throughout the generations socially, culturally, and economically. The negative impacts within child welfare system, educational institutions, and the socio-economic status of Aboriginal peoples today, prove assimilation and the total integration of Aboriginal peoples within mainstream society is unacceptable. Decolonization techniques should be applied within those areas in order combat the long lasting effects of assimilation by colonization. Decolonization will also help enable Aboriginal peoples to regain a cultural identity.
The 1876 Indian Act was created as a way to control and assimilate Aboriginal peoples. “The Indian Act, by itself, was simply a tool used by the Government of Canada to exercise near-total control over First Nations people.” (Coates, 2008, p. 4)The Indian Act decided who was...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Who Are the Blackfeet Indians

...Kole Parsons Eng 110 11/15/2011 Who are the Blackfeet Indians? What is a Blackfeet Indian? There are two ways to answer this. One is the legal way that most white people would understand and the other way is the way that only we as Indians would understand. The formal definition of Native American is; “A member of any of the indigenous peoples of the Western Hemisphere. The ancestors of the Native Americans are generally considered by scientists to have entered the Americas from Asia by way of the Bering Strait sometime during the late glacial epoch.” Legally speaking, by white man standards, one has to take the definition from the Bureau of Indian Affairs which says; “According to the Bureau of Indian Affairs, in order to be officially defined as an American Indian, a person must meet all of the following criteria: • He must be listed as a member of a federally recognized tribe. • He must be able to definitively trace his Indian ancestry back at least three generations. • He must be formally approved by BIA officials. • His blood quantum must be at least 1/4 American Indian. There are other criteria for a whole tribe to be recognized by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. That consists of seven requirements. Those government definitions are: • Traditional • Constructed as imagined community • Blood Quantum • Residence on Tribal lands • Construction by others • United States government definitions ...

Words: 1247 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Tragedy of the American Indians

...Tragedy of the American Indians Today there are more than half a million Indians in the United States. They are still trying to adapt to the white civilization, being in all stages of development. There are a few Indians who have made money from natural resources found on their lands, but there are still thousands who live at close starvation levels. Many live in almost complete isolation from Americans who are not Indian, but there are some who are educated and living among the white society. Hundreds of Indians work in cities close to their reservations; thousands of other Indians hold onto the security of their reservations in hope of gaining education and being able to develop the resources of their lands and provide for their own needs without help from others. Today, there are about 300 federal reservations in the United States largely found west of the Mississippi. There are many environmental issues which have created many tragedies among the American Indians, which have left most of them facing poor living conditions. There is a long history of tragedies among the American Indians starting back in the 1830s. The Trail of Tears, also known as the “death march,” was the first initial tragedy that caught the attention of many historians to this day. The Trail of Tears is known as the enforced relocation and movement of American Indian tribes from southeastern territories of the United States with the Indian Removal Act of 1830 following. This removal......

Words: 2039 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Culture

...cultures create the other because it is difficult for one community to adept to a belief system of an opening community. The white Europeans came into the Indian land with the sense of being superior and wanting to control the Indians land. The white Europeans were never willing to embrace the Indian culture because the first encounter with the Indians the Indians were automatically the others even though they were on their own land. The white Europeans did not want to adept to the Indian culture. The white Europeans judges the Indians because first on their physical appearance. The male Indian dressed very different from the Europeans. the white European males dressed very conservative they wore wigs and the Indian males dressed with paint on their face and they wore their hair naturally long and the male Indian also wore extreme jewelry for that time period and the male Indians were also different in the clothing they wore very little clothing and they also had tattoos on their body. What also made the Indians the other with the Europeans whites their culture was so different they way they hunted for food even their living area . And the European whites wanted the Indian people to adept to their customs their values the Europeans males thought their way of life was superior than the Indians . On page 221 in the white man Indian the author talks about stereotyping an a community how two can be completely different culture can merge together and adept to one another if......

Words: 632 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Indianization of English

...DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIAN ENGLISH Indian English is a distinct variety of the English language. Many Indians claim that it is very similar to British English, but this opinion is based on a surface level examination of lexical similarities. Of course, one must keep in mind that not every linguistic item is used by every Indian English speaker and that a great deal of regional and educational differentiation exists. Even so, items can be identified which are indicative of Indian English speech and which are widely used. These operate on various phonological, morphological, lexical, and syntactic levels, which I will characterized with items brought up in the recorded discussions, in my previous experience with Indian English, and in scholarly writings about Indian English. References to the transcription excerpts (pages 17-26 of this report) are written, for example, as 1.3.4, which indicates Discussion 1, Excerpt 3, Item 4. 4. PHONOLOGY I was able to do very little on the phonological level. I set up a test to see if the English alveolar /t/ would be articulated as the Indian retroflex /t/ or as the dental /t/ in different phonological environments. The result was that the retroflex completely replaced the alveolar; in fact, it has been found that the entire series of English alveolar consonants tends to be replaced by retroflex consonants (Trudgill & Hannah 1994, p.128). One item that did come out of the experiment was that some Indian English speakers......

Words: 6057 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Tribal Authority Research Paper

...that American Indians face in adapting to American society while maintaining their identity is complex. The colonial settlements during the early 18th century forced many American Indian groups who had exceedingly appreciative and welcoming attitudes of other cultures, race, and ethnic groups led them to question their policy in order to save their identity from moving from becoming another marginalized ethnicity (Steinman 225). The strained relationship between the U.S and American Indians has made the U.S legislative and legal systems reluctant to address issues pertaining to the survivability of their identity. As a result, the American Indians...

Words: 1455 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Chapter 16

...Jenny Ulery 01/12/15 5th Ch. 16 Study Questions - America’s Gilded Age: 1870-1890 1. The American economy thrived because of federal involvement, not the lack of it. How did the federal government actively promote industrial and agricultural development in this period? BE SPECIFIC. The federal government actively promoted industrial and agricultural development. It enacted high tariffs that protected American industry from foreign competition, granted land to railroad companies to encourage construction, and used the army to remove Indians form western land desired by farmers and mining companies. 2. Why were railroads so important to America’s second industrial revolution? What events demonstrate their influence on society, politics, and the economy? Spurred by private investment and massive grants of land and money by federal, state, and local governments, the number of miles of railroad track in the US tripped between 1860 and 1880 and tripled again by 1920, opening vast new areas to commercial farming and creating truly national market for manufactured goods. The growing population formed an ever-expanding market for the mass production, mass distribution, and mass marketing of goods, essential elements of a modern industrial economy. The railroads created 5 transcontinental lines and 4 times zones throughout the nation. 3. Why did organized efforts of farmers, workers, and local reformers largely fail to achieve substantive change in the Gilded......

Words: 2336 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Educa

...Comparing and Contrasting: Writers often make their points by comparing and contrasting subjects. (Noting their similarities and differences) Background Information: Not everyone agrees on what we should teach or on how it should be taught. Often what is considered important to learn depends on where and when we’re living. For example, the speech and letter that follow were written before Native American cultures received much respect from European Americans. Native American leaders have had to argue that their culture, language, history, and way of life are useful knowledge. In the 1700s, the British and the French were competing for land and resources in North America. English colonists thought that by offering Iroquois boys the chance to attend the university in Virginia, they would convince the Iroquois to support their side. Chief Canasatego of the Onondaga Tribe was an influential leader in the Iroquois Confederacy, a group of tribes in the upper New York State area. In 1927, Mayor William Hale Thompson of Chicago raised a protest against school textbooks he believed presented history in a way that was prejudiced in favor of Great Britain. The mayor wanted to revise textbooks to be what he called
“100 percent American.” The members
of the Grand Council Fire of American Indians—led by its president Scott H....

Words: 1568 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Bartolome de Las Casas

...“In Defense of the Indians” (1550) Contrary to the stereotype of their monolithic wickedness in the subjugation of the Americas' indigenous peoples, some Spaniards protested the brutality of conquest and colonial rule. None was more influential than Bartolome de las Casas, the long-lived Dominican bishop of Chiapas in Mexico. Although later to be blamed for supposedly exaggerating his countrymen's cruelty and advocating the enslavement of Africans instead of Indians as a "lesser evil," the aristocratically born Andalusian was a tireless champion of Indian rights. His writings were widely read in colonial Peru. This excerpt from “In Defense of the Indians," a passionate response to court theologian Juan Gines de Sepulvedas's assertion of Indian inferiority, give a flavor of his forthright criticism of Spain’s role in the New World. And so what man of sound mind will approve a war against men who are harmless, ignorant, gentle, temperate, unarmed, and destitute of every human defense? For the results of such a war are very surely the loss of the souls of that people who perish without knowing God and without the support of the sacraments, and, for the survivors, hatred and loathing of the Christian religion. Hence the purpose God intends, ... for the attainment of which he suffered so much, may be frustrated by the evil and cruelty that our men wreak on them with inhuman barbarity. What will these......

Words: 992 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Analysis of 'Indian Camp' by Ernest Hemingway

...Analysis of ”Indian Camp” by Ernest Hemingway, Oktober 24, 2011 Analysis of “Indian Camp” by Ernest Hemingway ”Indian camp” is a short story by Ernest Hemingway written in 1921. It’s about the young boy Nick who accompanies his father, who is a doctor, to an Indian camp where an Indian woman has been in labour for a few days. His uncle George is also going with them to the camp but in another boat. They arrive at the camp where Nick’s father is going help the woman have her baby. The woman is lying on a bunk inside one of the shanties. Her husband, who has hurt his foot, is lying in the upper bunk. Nick’s father has to do a caesarean and Nick watches while his father is preforming the operation. When the baby is born Nick’s father turns to the Indian woman’s husband to see how he’s doing but it turns out that the husband has committed suicide by cutting his throat whit a razor. Then Nick and his father sails back, while Nick is asking a lot of questions. Setting The story takes place in an Indian camp - and on a lake, a meadow and in a wood on the way to and from the camp in northern Michigan (I assume it’s in Michigan, because a nurse will come from St. Ignace (page 15, line 17), witch is a city in northern Michigan). It probably takes place around 1910 based on the fact that Hemingway himself was a child at that time and his own father also was a doctor, who also paid doctor’s calls among Indians in Michigan. Also what is going on in the short story......

Words: 1833 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Indian History Through Film

...Pandey are stories that tell of the Indian people banding together to defeat the British in rejection of their rule over the sub-continent. Movies set in the colonial periods of India are well like by the Indian people as it portrays a significant role in their history and helped form India to what it is today. For example, the British built cities and infrastructure like railways that the Indian people still use today. But the British also inadvertently banded the many different peoples of India together against them, which is what these two movies are all about. Lagaan and The Rising express the unity of Hindus and Muslims, and the breaking of the caste system to form friendship. These two films also depict the British in almost identical ways; all but one of the Britsh characters is scornful about and neglects the Indian people and their customs. It may be coincidence that the same actor, Aamir Khan, plays the main character in both movies that unites the different groups together and share a bond with the “good” British character. However, the extent of the historical accuracy of the portrayal of colonial Britain is up to debate. Of the two films, The Rising presents a more accurate presentation of colonial Britain than Lagaan in its portrayal of the British, Indian society, and the reason why the peoples of India converging to combat British rule. The hit film, Lagaan, is not only extremely entertaining, but it reminds the Indian people what hardships they have gone......

Words: 1529 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Systemic Racism

...to work for someone who would punish you for every mistake you make. These scenarios sound cruel, don’t they? Believe it or not, these were a part of everyday life for some groups of people. This kind of behavior occurred in America’s history because of systemic racism. Throughout the years with racism climbing the ladder to become one of the biggest problems. There have been many different factors that contribute to the ever-present issue of racism. When it comes to presidency, Abraham Lincoln was an incredible man who got the respect from millions of Americans. He had the rights of others in the back of his mind throughout his term and cared for everyone he knew. Not many realize though, that he also had slaves doing the same work for him that many other people had their slaves doing. The only difference was that Lincoln felt wrong for having slaves but never got rid of them because those were the ways of the time. So, Lincoln, known as one of the greatest and most inspirational men, felt that he would be judged or criticized if he didn’t have slaves. This reaction wasn’t the work of one individual but it was work of a group of people who agreed with racial profiling. With this being said, this is an example of systemic racism over individual racism because Lincoln conformed to the ideals of society and not based off of his own beliefs. When Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence to guarantee everyone equal rights, not many realized what he was really......

Words: 1280 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Sherman Alexie's Superman And Me

...In Sherman Alexie’s essay, “Superman and Me”, Alexie explains how his life is as an American Indian. He explains all of the consequences of being an American Indian and how most people considered them to be lower class and not as smart as others. During this time, American Indians were not taught how to read and write or really learn anything at all considering that they were identified as being “dumber” than the other kids by society. Sherman Alexie did not agree with being treated like this, he wanted to be smart, and he also wanted to learn. He taught himself how to read and write and when he got older he taught other kids how to read and write as well. In the essay titled “Superman and Me” it states, “I throw my weight against their locked...

Words: 655 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Indian Act

...Agreements: The Indian Act and Canadian Treaties In modern society the question of why the aboriginal population receives benefits often arises. Much of today’s youth does not understand that the Native American people were often stripped of their rights in the past in order to gain these advantages. Two main incidents were established in the Aboriginal history, the first was the treaties that spread across Canada and the second incident was the Indian Act of 1876. The main difference between the Indian Act and treaties were the aboriginal’s role in the decision-making. Treaties allowed for a compromise between the Natives and the government that allowed for benefits on both ends whereas the Indian act was imposed on the Native culture by the Canadian government without any arrangement with the aboriginals. This paper will first describe the history of treaties and what they entail for both parties and also look at the formation of the Indian Act. Then, this paper will look at how each had affected the Aboriginal people in similar and different ways. Finally this paper will look at the relation in today’s society that the treaties have in Canada and what life would be like if the Indian Act was still a large part of how First Nations people would have been treated if the Act was not changed following World War II. After these points, a reader should have a better understanding of a topic that they may know little about. By looking at both the Indian Act and Canadian...

Words: 2505 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Conclusion of Conventional Accounting Systems

...first and largest online traveller community. We are all about garnering reviews from Indian travellers and the value it offers to the traveller community at large. This is what keeps us going – enabling and inspiring travellers to discover, plan holidays and share holiday experiences. HolidayIQ.com was born in 2004 with the sole aim of helping Indian travellers plan holidays and share their travel experiences. Over the years, we have grown into a large community with more than 50 lakh travellers planning their holidays on HolidayIQ.com every month! HolidayIQ.com provides information on over 30,000 Indian hotels and 1500 Indian destinations. We make no qualms in saying that we are the Voice of the Indian Traveller. HolidayIQ.com is funded by Tiger Global Management & Accel Partners.We have three revenue streams: click revenue with online travel agencies, lead generation with offline travel agencies and hotel advertising. Headquartered in Bangalore, HolidayIQ.com is a vibrant space brimming with enthusiastic holidaymakers. Yup, that’s what we call ourselves! A large bunch of travel junkies hailing from regions across India, who are extremely passionate about their work. We live and breathe to ensure that Indian travellers experience memorable holidays. Specialties Travel Media (Web & Mobile), India - Destinations, India - Hotels & Stays (Homestays, Tents, Camps, Farmhouse etc), Indian Traveller Community, India - 25,000 Things to Do & Sightseeing options......

Words: 3524 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Karma

...train’s first-class compartment, in India. The main Character is Sir Mohan Lal, an Indian man, who looks and thinks of himself as an Englishman – he is one of the higher-class Indians and rarely speaks Hindustani, which is the common language in India. The text is about the class division, in India and as well as in England, seen from the eyes of an Indian man who desperately attempts to escape his roots in India and two Soldiers who are able to see through his disguise.
The main character, Sir Mohan Lal, is a very complacent man; he is more than satisfied with his education, English skills and dazzling good looks. In the text he looks in the mirror and thinks to himself: “Distinguished, efficient – even handsome. That neatly trimmed moustache, the suit from Savile Row, the carnation in the buttonhole – the aroma of eau de cologne, talcum powder, and scented soap all about you! Yes, old fellow, you are a bit of all right.”1 It all indicates how fond of himself he really is, but what it also indicates is how aware he is of his own appearance towards the public and he certainly is aware of which image he want to send to other people and who he want to attract. In his job as a vizier and a barrister he meets many Englishmen in the trains and that requires certain manners, which he has from studying at the oxford university. Nonetheless his wife does not manage those manners because she is a native Indian woman - the only reason he is married to her is to have children – and......

Words: 1103 - Pages: 5