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Who Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care: a Summary First Global Patient Safety Challenge Clean Care Is Safer Care

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WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care: a Summary First Global Patient Safety Challenge Clean Care is Safer Care

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WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care: a Summary
© World Health Organization 2009 WHO/IER/PSP/2009.07 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: bookorders@who.int). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; e-mail: permissions@who.int). The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use.

WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care: a Summary First Global Patient Safety Challenge Clean Care is Safer Care

WHO PATIENT SAFETY

WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care: a Summary Foreword
Health care-associated infections affect hundreds of millions of patients worldwide every year. Infections lead to more serious illness, prolong hospital stays, induce long-term disabilities, add high costs to patients and their families, contribute to a massive, additional financial burden on the health-care system and, critically, often result in tragic loss of life.
By their very nature, infections are caused by many different factors related to systems and processes of care provision as well as to human behaviour that is conditioned by education, political and economic constraints on systems and countries, and often on societal norms and beliefs. Most infections, however, are preventable. Hand hygiene is the primary measure to reduce infections. A simple action, perhaps, but the lack of compliance among health-care providers is problematic worldwide. On the basis of research into the aspects influencing hand hygiene compliance and best promotional strategies, new approaches have proven effective. A range of strategies for hand hygiene promotion and improvement have been proposed, and the WHO First Global Patient Safety Challenge, “Clean Care is Safer Care”, is focusing part of its attention on improving hand hygiene standards and practices in health care along with implementing successful interventions. New global Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care, developed with assistance from more than 100 renowned international experts, have been tested and given trials in different parts of the world and were launched in 2009. Testing sites ranged from modern, high-technology hospitals in developed countries to remote dispensaries in poor-resource villages. Encouraging hospitals and health-care facilities to adopt these Guidelines, including the “My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene” approach, will contribute to a greater awareness and understanding of the importance of hand hygiene. Our vision for the next decade is to encourage this awareness and to advocate the need for improved compliance and sustainability in all countries of the world. Countries are invited to adopt the Challenge in their own health-care systems to involve and engage patients and service users as well as health-care providers in improvement strategies. Together we can work towards ensuring the sustainability of all actions for the long term benefit of everyone. While system change is a requirement in most places, sustained change in human behaviour is even more important and relies on essential peer and political support. “Clean Care is Safer Care” is not a choice but a basic right. Clean hands prevent patient suffering and save lives. Thank you for committing to the Challenge and thereby contributing to safer patient care. Professor Didier Pittet, Director, Infection Control Programme University of Geneva Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Switzerland Lead, First Global Patient Safety Challenge, WHO Patient Safety

WHO PATIENT SAFETY

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION PART I. 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 PART II. V HEALTH CARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTION AND EVIDENCE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF HAND HYGIENE 1 The problem: health care-associated infection is a major cause of death and disability worldwide Magnitude of health care-associated infection burden Health care-associated infection in developed countries Health care-associated infection in developing countries Health care-associated infection among health-care workers The role of hand hygiene to reduce the burden of health care-associated infection Transmission of health care-associated pathogens through hands Hand hygiene compliance among health-care workers Strategies to improve hand hygiene compliance Impact of hand hygiene promotion on health care-associated infection Cost-effectiveness of hand hygiene promotion CONSENSUS RECOMMENDATIONS Consensus recommendations and ranking system 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 9.1 9.2 PART III. 1. 2. 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 REFERENCES APPENDICES 1. 2. 3. Definition of terms Table of contents of the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care 2009 Hand Hygiene Implementation Toolkit Indications for hand hygiene Hand hygiene technique Recommendations for surgical hand preparation Selection and handling of hand hygiene agents Skin care Use of gloves Other aspects of hand hygiene Educational and motivational programmes for health-care workers Governmental and institutional responsibilities For health-care administrators For national governments GUIDELINE IMPLEMENTATION Implementation strategy and tools Infrastructures required for optimal hand hygiene Other issues related to hand hygiene, in particular the use of an alcohol-based handrub Methods and selection of products for performing hand hygiene Skin reactions related to hand hygiene Adverse events related to the use of alcohol-based handrubs Alcohol-based handrubs and C. difficile and other non-susceptible pathogens 12 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 2

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11

25 26 28 28

32 43 44 46 49 50

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

WHO PATIENT SAFETY

INTRODUCTION

Confronted with the important issue of patient safety, in 2002 the Fifty-fifth World Health Assembly adopted a resolution urging countries to pay the closest possible attention to the problem and to strengthen safety and monitoring systems. In May 2004, the Fifty-seventh World Health Assembly approved the creation of an international alliance as a global initiative to improve patient safety. The World Alliance for Patient Safety was launched in October 2004 and currently has its place in the WHO Patient Safety programme included in the Information, Evidence and Research Cluster.
WHO Patient Safety aims to create an environment that ensures the safety of patient care globally by bringing together experts, heads of agencies, policy-makers and patient groups and matching experiences, expertise and evidence on various aspects of patient safety. The goal of this effort is to catalyse discussion and action and to formulate recommendations and facilitate their implementation. WHO Patient Safety has developed multiple streams of work and focused actions on the various problem areas (http://www. who.int/patientsafety/en/). One specific approach has been to focus on specific themes (challenges) that deserve priority in the field of patient safety. “Clean Care is Safer Care” was launched in October 2005 as the first Global Patient Safety Challenge (1st GPSC), aimed at reducing health care-associated infection (HCAI) worldwide. These infections occur both in developed and in transitional and developing countries and are among the major causes of death and increased morbidity for hospitalized patients. A key action within “Clean Care is Safer Care” is to promote hand hygiene globally and at all levels of health care. Hand hygiene, a very simple action, is well accepted to be one of the primary modes of reducing HCAI and of enhancing patient safety. Throughout four years of activity the technical work of the 1st GPSC has been focused on the development of recommendations and implementation strategies to improve hand hygiene practices in any situation in which health care is delivered and in all settings where health care is permanently or occasionally performed, such as home care by birth attendants. This process led to the preparation of the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care. The aim of these Guidelines is to provide health-care workers (HCWs), hospital administrators and health authorities with a thorough review of evidence on hand hygiene in health care and specific recommendations for improving practices and reducing the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and HCWs. They have been developed with a global perspective, not addressing developed nor developing countries but rather all countries, while encouraging adaptation to the local situation according to the resources available. The WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care 2009 (http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241597906_ eng.pdf) are the result of the update and finalization of the Advanced Draft, issued in April 2006 according to a literature review up to June 2008 and to data and lessons learned from pilot testing. The 1st GPSC team was supported by a Core Group of experts in coordinating the process of reviewing the available scientific evidence, writing the document and fostering discussion among authors. More than 100 international experts, technical contributors, external reviewers and professionals offered their input in preparing the document. Task forces were also established to examine different aspects in depth and to provide recommendations in specific areas. In addition to systematic literature search for evidence, other international and national infection control guidelines and textbooks were consulted. Recommendations were formulated based on evidence and expert consensus and were graded using the system developed by the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. In parallel with the Advanced Draft, an implementation strategy (WHO Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy) was developed together with a wide range of tools (at that time called the “Pilot Implementation Pack”) to help health-care settings translate the guidelines into practice at the bedside. According to the WHO recommendations for guideline preparation, a testing phase was undertaken to provide local data on the resources required to carry out the recommendations; to generate information on feasibility, validity, reliability, and cost–effectiveness of the interventions; and to adapt and refine proposed implementation strategies. Analysis of data and evaluation of the lessons learned from

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WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

pilot sites were of the utmost importance in order to finalize the Guidelines, the implementation strategy and the tools currently included in the Implementation Toolkit (see Appendix 3; available at http://www.who.int/gpsc/5may/tools/en/index. html). The final Guidelines are based on updated evidence, data from field testing and experiences during the past few years of global promotion of hand hygiene. Special attention has been paid to documenting all these experiences, including various barriers to implementation faced in different settings and suggestions for overcoming them. For example, there is a subsection on lessons learnt from local production of the WHO-recommended hand rub formulations in different settings worldwide (see Part I.12 of the Guidelines). As compared to the Advanced Draft, in the final Guidelines (see Table of Contents in Appendix 2) there are no major changes in the existing consensus recommendations but nonetheless the evidence grades for some recommendations are different. A few additional recommendations were added and some others were reordered or reworded. Several new chapters on key innovative topics were added to the final Guidelines, for example the burden of HCAI worldwide; a national approach to hand hygiene improvement; patient involvement in hand hygiene promotion; and comparison of hand hygiene national and sub-national guidelines. Successful dissemination and implementation strategies are required in order to achieve the objectives of these Guidelines and this forms the basis of another new chapter related to the WHO Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy. Key messages from this chapter are also summarized in Part III of this document. For rational decision making it is necessary to have reliable information on costs and consequences. The chapter on assessing the economic impact of hand hygiene promotion has been extensively revised, with a considerable amount of new information added to facilitate better assessments of these aspects, both in low- and high-income settings. All other chapters and appendices have also undergone revision and additions based on evolving concepts. The WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care 2009 table of contents is included in Appendix 2. The present Summary focuses on the most relevant parts of the Guidelines and refers to the Guide to Implementation and some tools particularly important for their translation into practice. It provides a synthesis of the key concepts in order to facilitate the understanding of the scientific evidence on which hand hygiene promotion is founded and the implementation of the Guidelines’ core recommendations.

In contrast to the Guidelines, presently available only in English, this Summary has been translated into all WHO official languages. It is anticipated that the recommendations (Part II) will remain valid until at least 2011. WHO Patient Safety is committed to ensuring that the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care are updated every two-to-three years.

II

WHO PATIENT SAFETY

PART I. HEALTH CARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTION AND EVIDENCE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF HAND HYGIENE

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WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

1. The problem: health care-associated infection (HCAI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide
1.1 Magnitude of HCAI burden
HCAI is a major problem for patient safety and its prevention must be a first priority for settings and institutions committed to making health care safer. The impact of HCAI implies prolonged hospital stay, longterm disability, increased resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobials, massive additional financial burdens, an excess of deaths, high costs for the health systems and emotional stress for patients and their families. Risk of acquiring HCAI depends on factors related to the infectious agent (e.g. virulence, capacity to survive in the environment, antimicrobial resistance), the host (e.g. advanced age, low birth weight, underlying diseases, state of debilitation, immunosuppression, malnutrition) and the environment (e.g. ICU admission, prolonged hospitalization, invasive devices and procedures, antimicrobial therapy). Although the risk of acquiring HCAI is universal and pervades every health-care facility and system around the world, the global burden is unknown because of
Figure I.1 Prevalence of HCAI in developed countries*

the difficulty of gathering reliable diagnostic data. This is mainly due to the complexity and lack of uniformity of criteria used in diagnosing HCAI and to the fact that surveillance systems for HCAI are virtually nonexistent in most countries. Therefore, HCAI remains a hidden, cross-cutting concern that no institution or country can claim to have solved as yet.

1.2 HCAI in developed countries
In developed countries, HCAI concerns 5–15% of hospitalized patients and can affect 9–37% of those admitted to intensive care units (ICUs).1, 2 Recent studies conducted in Europe reported hospitalwide prevalence rates of patients affected by HCAI that ranged from 4.6% to 9.3% (Figure I.1).3-9 An estimated five million HCAI at least occur in acute care hospitals in Europe annually, contributing to 135 000 deaths per year and

Norway: 5.1% Scotland: 9.5% Canada: 10.5% UK & Ireland: 7.6% USA**: 4.5% France: 6.7% Italy: 4.6% Slovenia: 4.6% Switzerland: 10.1% Greece: 8.6%

* References can be found in Part I.3 of the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care 2009 **Incidence 2

PART I. HEALTH CARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTION (HCAI) AND EVIDENCE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF HAND HYGIENE

representing around 25 million extra days of hospital stay and a corresponding economic burden of €13–24 billion (http:// helics.univ-lyon1.fr/helicshome.htm). The estimated HCAI incidence rate in the United States of America (USA) was 4.5% in 2002, corresponding to 9.3 infections per 1000 patientdays and 1.7 million affected patients and an annual economic impact of US$ 6.5 billion in 2004,10.Approximately 99 000 deaths were attributed to HCAI. 11 Prevalence rates of infection acquired in ICUs vary from 9 to 37% when assessed in Europe12 and the USA, with crude mortality rates ranging from 12% to 80%.2 In ICU settings particularly, the use of various invasive devices (e.g. central venous catheter, mechanical ventilation or urinary catheter) is one of the most important risk factors for acquiring HCAI. Device-associated infection rates per 1000 device-days detected through the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) in the USA are summarized in Table I.1.13 Device-associated infections have a great economic impact; for example catheter-related bloodstream infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) may cost as much as US$ 38 000 per episode.14

1.3 HCAI in developing countries
To the usual difficulties of diagnosing HCAI, in developing countries the paucity and unreliability of laboratory data, limited access to diagnostic facilities like radiology and poor medical record keeping must be added as obstacles to reliable HCAI burden estimates. Therefore, limited data on HCAI from these settings are available from the literature. In addition, basic infection control measures are virtually non-existent in most settings as a result of a combination of numerous unfavourable factors such as understaffing, poor hygiene and sanitation, lack or shortage of basic equipment, inadequate structures and overcrowding, almost all of which can be attributed to limited financial resources. Furthermore, populations largely affected by malnutrition and a variety of diseases increase the risk of HCAI in developing countries. Under these circumstances, numerous viral and bacterial HCAI are transmitted and the burden due to such infections seems likely to be several times higher than what is observed in developed countries. For example, in one-day prevalence surveys recently carried out in single hospitals in Albania, Morocco, Tunisia and the United Republic of Tanzania, HCAI prevalence rates varied between 19.1% and 14.8% (Figure I.2).15-18

Figure I.2 Prevalence of HCAI in developing countries*

Latvia: 5.7% Lithuania: 9.2% Albania: 19.1% Morocco: 17.8% Tunisia: 17.8% Thailand: 7.3% Turkey: 13.4% Lebanon: 6.8%

Mali: 18.7% Brazil: 14.0 % Tanzania: 14.8% Malaysia: 13.9%

* References can be found in Part I.3 of the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care 2009

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WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

The risk for patients to develop surgical site infection (SSI), the most frequently surveyed type of HCAI in developing countries, is significantly higher than in developed countries (e.g. 30.9% in a paediatric hospital in Nigeria, 23% in general surgery in a hospital in the United Republic of Tanzania and 19% in a maternity unit in Kenya).15, 19, 20 Device-associated infection rates reported from multicentre studies conducted in adult and paediatric ICUs are also several times higher in developing countries as compared to the NHSN system (USA) rates (Table I.1).13, 21, 22 Neonatal infections are reported to be 3–20 times higher among hospital-born babies in developing as compared to developed countries.23

In some settings (Brazil and Indonesia), more than half the neonates admitted to neonatal units acquire a HCAI, with reported fatality rates between 12% and 52%.23 The costs of managing HCAI are likely to represent a higher percentage of the health or hospital budget in low income countries as well. These concepts are discussed more extensively in Part I.3 of the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care 2009.

Table I.1. Device-associated infection rates in ICUs in developing countries compared with NHSN rates Surveillance network, study period, country INICC, 2002–2007, 18 developing countries†21 NHSN, 2006–2007, USA13 Setting No. of patients CLA-BSI* VAP* CR-UTI*

PICU

1,808

6.9

7.8

4.0

PICU



2.9

2.1

5.0

INICC, 2002–2007, 18 developing countries†21 NHSN, 2006–2007, USA13

Adult ICU# Adult ICU#

26,155

8.9

20.0

6.6



1.5

2.3

3.1

* Overall (pooled mean) infection rates/1000 device-days INICC = International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium; NHSN = National Healthcare Safety Network; PICU = paediatric intensive care unit; CLA-BSI = central line-associated bloodstream infection; VAP = ventilator-associated pneumonia; CR-UTI = catheter-related urinary tract infection. † Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, India, Kosovo, Lebanon, Macedonia, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Peru, Philippines, Turkey, Uruguay #Medical/surgical ICUs

1.4 HCAI among HCWs
HCWs can also become infected during patient care. During the Marburg viral hemorrhagic fever event in Angola, transmission within health care settings played a major role on the amplification of the outbreak (WHO unpublished data). Nosocomial clustering, with transmission to HCWs, was a prominent feature of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).24, 25 Similarly, HCWs were infected during the influenza pandemics.26 Transmission occurs mostly via large droplets, direct contact with infectious material or through contact with inanimate objects contaminated by infectious material. Performance of high-risk patient care procedures and inadequate infection control practices contribute to the risk. Transmission of other viral (e.g. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B) and bacterial illnesses including tuberculosis to HCWs is also well known.27

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PART I. HEALTH CARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTION (HCAI) AND EVIDENCE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF HAND HYGIENE

2. The role of hand hygiene to reduce the burden of health care-associated infection
2.1 Transmission of health care-associated pathogens through hands
Transmission of health care-associated pathogens takes place through direct and indirect contact, droplets, air and a common vehicle. Transmission through contaminated HCWs’ hands is the most common pattern in most settings and require five sequential steps: (i) organisms are present on the patient’s skin, or have been shed onto inanimate objects immediately surrounding the patient; (ii) organisms must be transferred to the hands of HCWs; (iii) organisms must be capable of surviving for at least several minutes on HCWs’ hands; (iv) handwashing or hand antisepsis by the HCWs must be inadequate or omitted entirely, or the agent used for hand hygiene inappropriate; and (v) the contaminated hand or hands of the caregiver must come into direct contact with another patient or with an inanimate object that will come into direct contact with the patient.28 Health care-associated pathogens can be recovered not only from infected or draining wounds but also from frequently colonized areas of normal, intact patient skin.29-43 Because nearly 106 skin squames containing viable microorganisms are shed daily from normal skin,44 it is not surprising that patient gowns, bed linen, bedside furniture and other objects in the immediate environment of the patient become contaminated with patient flora.40-43, 45-51 Many studies have documented that HCWs can contaminate their hands or gloves with pathogens such as Gram-negative bacilli, S. aureus, enterococci or C. difficile by performing “clean procedures” or touching intact areas of skin of hospitalized patients.35, 36, 42, 47, 48, 52-55 Following contact with patients and/or a contaminated environment, microorganisms can survive on hands for differing lengths of time (2–60 minutes). HCWs’ hands become progressively colonized with commensal flora as well as with potential pathogens during patient care.52, 53 In the absence of hand hygiene action, the longer the duration of care, the higher the degree of hand contamination. Defective hand cleansing (e.g. use of an insufficient amount of product and/or an insufficient duration of hand hygiene action) leads to poor hand decontamination. Obviously, when HCWs fail to clean their hands during the sequence of care of a single patient and/or between patients’ contact, microbial transfer is likely to occur. Contaminated HCWs’ hands have been associated with endemic HCAIs56, 57 and also with several HCAI outbreaks.58-60 These concepts are discussed more extensively in Parts I.5-7 of the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care 2009.
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2.2 Hand hygiene compliance among HCWs
Hand hygiene is the primary measure proven to be effective in preventing HCAI and the spread of antimicrobial resistance. However, it has been shown that HCWs encounter difficulties in complying with hand hygiene indications at different levels. Insufficient or very low compliance rates have been reported from both developed and developing countries. Adherence of HCWs to recommended hand hygiene procedures has been reported as variable, with mean baseline rates ranging from 5% to 89% and an overall average of 38.7%. Hand hygiene performance varies according to work intensity and several other factors; in observational studies conducted in hospitals, HCWs cleaned their hands on average from 5 to as many as 42 times per shift and 1.7–15.2 times per hour. In addition, the duration of hand cleansing episodes ranged on average from as short as 6.6 seconds to 30 seconds. The main factors that may determine poor hand hygiene include risk factors for non-adherence observed in epidemiological studies as well as reasons given by HCWs themselves for lack of adherence to hand hygiene recommendations (Table I.2.1). These concepts are discussed more extensively in Part I.16 of the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care 2009.

WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

Table I.2.1 Factors influencing adherence to recommended hand hygiene practices A. Observed risk factors for poor adherence to recommended hand hygiene practices Doctor status (rather than a nurse) Nursing assistant status (rather than a nurse) Physiotherapist Technician Male gender Working in intensive care Working in surgical care unit Working in emergency care Working in anaesthesiology Working during the week (vs. week-end) Wearing gowns/gloves Before contact with patient environment After contact with patient environment e.g. equipment Caring for patients aged less than 65 years old Caring for patients recovering from clean/clean-contaminated surgery in post-anaesthesia care unit Patient care in non-isolation room Duration of contact with patient (< or equal to 2 minutes) Interruption in patient-care activities Automated sink Activities with high risk of cross-transmission Understaffing/overcrowding High number of opportunities for hand hygiene per hour of patient care B. Self-reported factors for poor adherence with hand hygiene Handwashing agents cause irritations and dryness Sinks are inconveniently located/shortage of sinks Lack of soap, paper, towel Often too busy/insufficient time Patient needs take priority Hand hygiene interferes with HCW-patient relation Low risk of acquiring infection from patients Wearing of gloves/beliefs that glove use obviates the need for hand hygiene Lack of knowledge of guidelines/protocols Lack of knowledge, experience and education Lack of rewards/encouragement Lack of role model from colleagues or superiors Not thinking about it/forgetfulness Scepticism about the value of hand hygiene Disagreement with the recommendations Lack of scientific information of definitive impact of improved hand hygiene on HCAI C. Additional perceived barriers to appropriate hand hygiene Lack of active participation in hand hygiene promotion at individual or institutional level Lack of institutional priority for hand hygiene Lack of administrative sanction of non-compliers/rewarding of compliers Lack of institutional safety climate/culture of personal accountability of HCWs to perform hand hygiene

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PART I. HEALTH CARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTION (HCAI) AND EVIDENCE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF HAND HYGIENE

2.3 Strategies to improve hand hygiene compliance
Over the last 20 years, many studies have demonstrated that effective interventions exist to improve hand hygiene compliance among HCWs (Table I.2.2) although measurement of hand hygiene compliance has varied in terms of the definition of a hand hygiene opportunity and the assessment of hand hygiene by means of direct observation or consumption of hand hygiene products, making comparisons difficult. Despite different methodologies, most studies used multimodal strategies, which included: HCWs’ education, audits of hand hygiene practices and performance feedback, reminders, improvement of water and soap availability, use of automated sinks, and/or introduction of an alcohol-based handrub as well as improvement of the institutional safety climate with participation at the institutional, HCW and patient levels. These concepts are discussed more extensively in Part I.20 of the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care 2009.

Table I.2.2 Hand hygiene adherence by HCWs before and after hand hygiene improvement interventions Reference Setting Adherence baseline (%) 16 63 31 14/28 * 32 81 49 28 22 62 5 12/11 41 54 56 Adherence after intervention (%) 30 92 30 73/81 45 92 49 63 38 60 63 13/65 58 64 83 Intervention

Preston, Larson & Stamm78 Mayer et al.79 Donowitz
80

ICU ICU PICU MICU ICU ICU Pedi OPDs

More convenient sink locations Performance feedback Wearing overgown Feedback, policy reviews, memo, posters Alcohol-based handrub introduced In-service first, then group feedback Signs, feedback, verbal reminders to doctors Feedback, dissemination of literature, results of environmental cultures Automated handwashing machines available No gowning required Lectures, feedback, demonstrations Overt observation, followed by feedback Routine wearing of gowns and gloves Signs/distributed review paper Lectures based on previous questionnaire on HCWs’ beliefs, feedback, administrative support, automated handwashing machines Feedback, films, posters, brochures

Conly et al.81 Graham82 Dubbert et al.83 Lohr et al.84 Raju & Kobler
85

Nursery & NICU SICU NICU ICU PICU MICU Emerg Dept ICU

Wurtz, Moye & Jovanovic86 Pelke et al.87 Berg, Hershow & Ramirez88 Tibballs
89

Slaughter et al.90 Dorsey, Cydulka Emerman91 Larson et al.92

Avila-Aguero et al.93

Paediatric wards

52/49

74/69

ICU = intensive care unit; SICU = surgical ICU; MICU = medical ICU; MSICU = medical/surgical ICU; PICU = paediatric ICU; NICU = neonatal ICU; Emerg = emergency; Oncol = oncology; CTICU = cardiothoracic ICU; PACU = post-anaesthesia care unit: OPD = outpatient department; NS = not stated. * Percentage compliance before/after patient contact

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WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

Table I.2.2 Hand hygiene adherence by health-care workers before and after hand hygiene improvement interventions (Cont.) Reference Setting Adherence baseline (%) 48 42 10/22 4/13 60 62 38 33 17 44 40 47.1 62.2 29 31.8/50 29 18.3 19.1 23/30/35/ 32 Adherence after intervention (%) 67 61 23/48 7/14 52 67 55 37 58 48 53 55.2 61.2 43 39 / 50.3 45 20.8 25.6 46/50/43/31 Intervention

Pittet et al.75 Maury et al.94 Bischoff et al.95 Muto, Sistrom & Farr 96 Girard, Amazian & Fabry 97 Hugonnet, Perneger & Pittet98 Harbarth et al.99 Rosenthal et al.100 Brown et al.62 Ng et al.101 Maury et al.102 das Neves et al.103 Hayden et al.
104

All wards MICU MICU CTICU Medical wards All wards MICU/ SICU NICU PICU / NICU All wards 3 hospitals NICU NICU MICU NICU MICU MICU, SICU ICU MSICU IMCU 3 study hospitals, one control, hospital-wide NICU MICU NICU ICU All wards Emerg department Hematology unit Hospital-wide

Posters, feedback, administrative support, alcohol handrub made available Alcohol handrub made available Education, feedback, alcohol gel made available Education, reminders, alcohol gel made available Education, alcohol gel made available Posters, feedback, administrative support, alcohol rub made available Posters, feedback, alcohol rub made available Education, reminders, more sinks made available Education, feedback, alcohol gel made available Education, reminders Announcement of observations (compared to covert observation at baseline) Posters, musical parodies on radio, slogans Wall dispensers, education, brochures, buttons, posters Performance feedback Announcement of observations (compared to covert observation at baseline) Introduction of alcohol-based handrub dispensers, posters, stickers, education Voice prompts if failure to handrub Increase in handrub availability, education, poster

Berhe, Edmond & Bearman105 Eckmanns et al.106 Santana et al.107 Swoboda et al.108 Trick et al.64

Raskind et al.109 Traore et al.110 Pessoa-Silva et al.111 Rupp et al.112 Ebnother et al.113 Haas & Larson114 Venkatesh et al.115 Duggan et al.116

89 32.1 42 38/37 59 43 36.3 84.5

100 41.2 55 69/68 79 62 70.1 89.4

Education Gel versus liquid handrub formulation Posters, focus groups, education, questionnaires, review of care protocols Introduction of alcohol-based handrub gel Multimodal intervention Introduction of wearable personal handrub dispensers Voice prompts if failure to handrub Announced visit by auditor

ICU = intensive care unit; SICU = surgical ICU; MICU = medical ICU; MSICU = medical/surgical ICU; PICU = paediatric ICU; NICU = neonatal ICU; Emerg = emergency; Oncol = oncology; CTICU = cardiothoracic ICU; PACU = post-anaesthesia care unit: OPD = outpatient department; NS = not stated. * Percentage compliance before/after patient contact

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PART I. HEALTH CARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTION (HCAI) AND EVIDENCE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF HAND HYGIENE

2.4 Impact of hand hygiene promotion on HCAI
Failure to perform appropriate hand hygiene is considered to be the leading cause of HCAI and the spread of multiresistant organisms, and has been recognized as a significant contributor to outbreaks. There is convincing evidence that improved hand hygiene through multimodal implementation strategies can reduce HCAI rates.61 In addition, although not reporting infection rates several studies showed a sustained decrease of the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacterial isolates and patient colonization following the implementation of hand hygiene improvement strategies.62-65

At least 20 hospital-based studies of the impact of hand hygiene on the risk of HCAI have been published between 1977 and June 2008 (Table I.2.3). Despite study limitations, most reports showed a temporal relation between improved hand hygiene practices and reduced infection and crosstransmission rates.

Table I.2.3 Association between improved adherence with hand hygiene practice and health care-associated infection rates (1975– June 2008) Year 1977 1989 Authors Casewell & Phillips66 Conly et al.81 Hospital setting Adult ICU Adult ICU Major results Significant reduction in the percentage of patients colonized or infected by Klebsiella spp. Significant reduction in HCAI rates immediately after hand hygiene promotion (from 33% to 12% and from 33% to 10%, after two intervention periods 4 years apart, respectively) No impact on HCAI rates (no statistically significant improvement of hand hygiene adherence) Significant difference between rates of HCAI using two different hand hygiene agents Elimination of MRSA when combined with multiple other infection control measures. Reduction of vancomycin use. Significant reduction of nosocomial bacteremia (from 2.6% to 1.1%) using triclosan compared to chlorhexidine for handwashing Control of a MRSA outbreak using a triclosan preparation for handwashing, in addition to other infection control measures Significant (85%) relative reduction of the vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) rate in the intervention hospital; statistically insignificant (44%) relative reduction in control hospital; no significant change in MRSA Significant reduction in the annual overall prevalence of HCAI (42%) and MRSA cross-transmission rates (87%). Active surveillance cultures and contact precautions were implemented during same time period. A follow-up study showed continuous increase in handrub use, stable HCAI rates and cost savings derived from the strategy. 36% decrease of urinary tract infection and SSI rates (from 8.2% to 5.3%) Significant reduction in hospital-acquired MRSA cases (from 1.9% to 0.9%) Reduction in HCAI rates (not statistically significant) Duration of follow-up 2 years 6 years

1990 1992 1994

Simmons et al.117 Doebbeling et al.118 Webster et al.74

Adult ICU Adult ICUs NICU

11 months 8 months 9 months

1995 2000

Zafar et al.67 Larson et al.119

Newborn nursery MICU/NICU

3.5 years 8 months

2000

Pittet et al.75,120

Hospital-wide

8 years

2003 2004 2004

Hilburn et al.121 MacDonald et al.77 Swoboda et al.122

Orthopaedic surgical unit Hospital-wide Adult intermediate care unit NICU NICU

10 months 1 year 2.5 months

2004 2004

Lam et al.123 Won et al.124

Reduction (not statistically significant) in HCAI rates (from 11.3/1000 patient-days to 6.2/1000 patient-days) Significant reduction in HCAI rates (from 15.1/1000 patient-days to 10.7/1000 patient-days), in particular of respiratory infections

6 months 2 years

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WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

Table I.2.3 Association between improved adherence with hand hygiene practice and health care-associated infection rates (1975– June 2008) (Cont.) Year 2005 2005 2005 2007 Authors Zerr et al.125 Rosenthal et al.126 Johnson et al.127 Thi Anh Thu et al.128 Pessoa-Silva et al.111 Rupp et al.112 Grayson et al.129 Hospital setting Hospital-wide Adult ICUs Hospital-wide Neurosurgery Major results Significant reduction in hospital-associated rotavirus infections Significant reduction in HCAI rates (from 47.5/1000 patient-days to 27.9/1000 patient-days) Significant reduction (57%) in MRSA bacteraemia Reduction (54%, NS) of overall incidence of SSI. Significant reduction (100%) of superficial SSI; significantly lower SSI incidence in intervention ward compared with control ward Reduction of overall HCAI rates (from 11 to 8.2 infections per 1000 patient-days) and 60% decrease of risk of HCAI in very low birth weight neonates (from 15.5 to 8.8 episodes/1000 patient-days) No impact on device-associated infection and infections due to multidrug-resistant pathogens 1) Significant reduction of MRSA bacteraemia (from 0.05/100 patientdischarges to 0.02/100 patient-discharges per month) and of clinical MRSA isolates 2) Significant reduction of MRSA bacteraemia (from 0.03/100 patientdischarges to 0.01/100 patient-discharges per month) and of clinical MRSA isolates Duration of follow-up 4 years 21 months 36 months 2 years

2007

Neonatal unit

27 months

2008 2008

ICU 1) 6 pilot hospitals 2) all public hospitals in Victoria (Australia)

2 years 1) 2 years

2) 1 year

In addition, reinforcement of hand hygiene practices helps control epidemics in health-care facilities.66, 67 Outbreak investigations have suggested an association between infection and understaffing or overcrowding that was consistently linked with poor adherence to hand hygiene.68-70 The beneficial effects of hand hygiene promotion on the risk of cross-transmission have been shown also in schools, day care centres and in the community setting.71-73 Hand hygiene promotion improves child health and reduces upper respiratory pulmonary infection, diarrhoea and impetigo among children in the developing world. These concepts are discussed more extensively in Part I.22 of the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care 2009.

In a study conducted in a Russian neonatal ICU, the authors estimated that the added cost of one health care-associated BSI (US$ 1100) would cover 3265 patient-days of hand antiseptic use (US$ 0.34 per patient-day).62 In another study it was estimated that cost savings achieved by reducing the incidence of C. difficile-associated disease and MRSA infections far exceeded the additional cost of using an alcoholbased handrub.76 Similarly, MacDonald and colleagues reported that the use of an alcohol-based hand gel combined with education sessions and HCWs performance feedback reduced the incidence of MRSA infections and expenditures for teicoplanin (used to treat such infections).77 For every UK£1 spent on alcohol-based gel, UK£9–20 were saved on teicoplanin expenditure. Pittet and colleagues75 estimated direct and indirect costs associated with a hand hygiene programme to be less than US$ 57 000 per year for a 2600-bed hospital, an average of US$ 1.42 per patient admitted. The authors concluded that the hand hygiene programme was cost-saving if less than 1% of the reduction in HCAIs observed was attributable to improved hand hygiene practices. An economic analysis of the “cleanyourhands” hand hygiene promotional campaign conducted in England and Wales concluded that the programme would be cost beneficial if HCAI rates were decreased by as little as 0.1%. These concepts are discussed more extensively in Part III.3 of the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care 2009.

2.5 Cost-effectiveness of hand hygiene promotion
The costs of hand hygiene promotion programmes include the costs of hand hygiene installations and products plus the costs associated with HCW time and the educational and promotional materials required by the programme. To assess the cost savings of hand hygiene promotion programmes it is necessary to consider the potential savings that can be achieved by reducing the incidence of HCAIs. Several studies provided some quantitative estimates of the cost savings from hand hygiene promotion programmes.74,75

10

WHO PATIENT SAFETY

PART II. CONSENSUS RECOMMENDATIONS

11

WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

Consensus recommendations and ranking system
Recommendations were formulated based on evidence described in the various sections of the Guidelines and expert consensus. Evidence and recommendations were graded using a system adapted from the one developed by the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia, USA (Table II.1).
Table II.1 Ranking system used to grade the Guidelines’ recommendations Category IA IB IC II Criteria Strongly recommended for implementation and strongly supported by well-designed experimental, clinical or epidemiological studies Strongly recommended for implementation and supported by some experimental, clinical or epidemiological studies and a strong theoretical rationale Required for implementation as mandated by federal and/or state regulation or standard Suggested for implementation and supported by suggestive clinical or epidemiological studies or a theoretical rationale or the consensus of a panel of experts

1. Indications for hand hygiene
A. Wash hands with soap and water when visibly dirty or visibly soiled with blood or other body fluids (IB) or after using the toilet (II).130-140 B. If exposure to potential spore-forming pathogens is strongly suspected or proven, including outbreaks of C. difficile, hand washing with soap and water is the preferred means (IB).141-144 C. Use an alcohol-based handrub as the preferred means for routine hand antisepsis in all other clinical situations described in items D(a) to D(f) listed below if hands are not visibly soiled (IA).75, 82, 94, 95, 145-149 If alcohol-based handrub is not obtainable, wash hands with soap and water (IB).75, 150, 151 D. Perform hand hygiene: a) before and after touching the patient (IB);35, 47, 51, 53-55, 66,
152-154

d) if moving from a contaminated body site to another body site during care of the same patient (IB);35, 53-55, 156 e) after contact with inanimate surfaces and objects (including medical equipment) in the immediate vicinity of the patient (IB);48, 49, 51, 53-55, 156-158 f) after removing sterile (II) or non-sterile gloves (IB).53, 159-162 E. Before handling medication or preparing food perform hand hygiene using an alcohol-based handrub or wash hands with either plain or antimicrobial soap and water (IB).133-136 F. Soap and alcohol-based handrub should not be used concomitantly (II).163, 164

b) before handling an invasive device for patient care, regardless of whether or not gloves are used (IB); 155 c) after contact with body fluids or excretions, mucous membranes, non-intact skin, or wound dressings (IA); 54,
130, 153, 156

12

PART II. CONSENSUS RECOMMENDATIONS

Figure II.1 How to handrub

Hand Hygiene Technique with Alcohol-Based Formulation
Duration of the entire procedure: 20-30 seconds

1a

1b

2

Apply a palmful of the product in a cupped hand, covering all surfaces;

Rub hands palm to palm;

3

4

5

Right palm over left dorsum with interlaced fingers and vice versa;

Palm to palm with fingers interlaced;

Backs of fingers to opposing palms with fingers interlocked;

6

7

8

Rotational rubbing of left thumb clasped in right palm and vice versa;

Rotational rubbing, backwards and forwards with clasped fingers of right hand in left palm and vice versa;

Once dry, your hands are safe.

13

WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

Figure II.2 How to handwash

Hand Hygiene Technique with Soap and Water
Duration of the entire procedure: 40-60 seconds

0

1

2

Wet hands with water;

Apply enough soap to cover all hand surfaces;

Rub hands palm to palm;

3

4

5

Right palm over left dorsum with interlaced fingers and vice versa;

Palm to palm with fingers interlaced;

Backs of fingers to opposing palms with fingers interlocked;

6

7

8

Rotational rubbing of left thumb clasped in right palm and vice versa;

Rotational rubbing, backwards and forwards with clasped fingers of right hand in left palm and vice versa;

Rinse hands with water;

9

10

11

Dry hands thoroughly with a single use towel;

Use towel to turn off faucet;

Your hands are now safe.

14

PART II. CONSENSUS RECOMMENDATIONS

2. Hand hygiene technique
A. Apply a palmful of alcohol-based handrub and cover all surfaces of the hands. Rub hands until dry (IB).165, 166 The technique for handrubbing is illustrated in Figure II.1. B. When washing hands with soap and water, wet hands with water and apply the amount of product necessary to cover all surfaces. Rinse hands with water and dry thoroughly with a single-use towel. Use clean, running water whenever possible. Avoid using hot water, as repeated exposure to hot water may increase the risk of dermatitis (IB).167-169 Use a towel to turn off tap/faucet (IB).170-174 Dry hands thoroughly using a method that does not recontaminate hands. Make sure towels are not used multiple times or by multiple people (IB).175-178 The technique for handwashing is illustrated in Figure II.2. C. Liquid, bar, leaf or powdered forms of soap are acceptable. When bar soap is used, small bars of soap in racks that facilitate drainage should be used to allow the bars to dry (II).179-185

3. Recommendations for surgical hand preparation
A. Remove rings, wrist-watch, and bracelets before beginning surgical hand preparation (II).186-190 Artificial nails are prohibited (IB).191-195 B. Sinks should be designed to reduce the risk of splashes (II).196, 197 C. If hands are visibly soiled, wash hands with plain soap before surgical hand preparation (II). Remove debris from underneath fingernails using a nail cleaner, preferably under running water (II).198 D. Brushes are not recommended for surgical hand preparation (IB).199-205 E. Surgical hand antisepsis should be performed using either a suitable antimicrobial soap or suitable alcohol-based handrub, preferably with a product ensuring sustained activity, before donning sterile gloves (IB).58, 204, 206-211 F. If quality of water is not assured in the operating theatre, surgical hand antisepsis using an alcohol-based handrub is recommended before donning sterile gloves when performing surgical procedures (II).204, 206, 208, 212 G. When performing surgical hand antisepsis using an antimicrobial soap, scrub hands and forearms for the length of time recommended by the manufacturer, typically 2–5 minutes. Long scrub times (e.g. 10 minutes) are not necessary (IB).200, 211, 213-219 H. When using an alcohol-based surgical handrub product with sustained activity, follow the manufacturer’s instructions for application times. Apply the product to dry hands only (IB).220, 221 Do not combine surgical hand scrub and surgical handrub with alcohol-based products sequentially (II).163 I. When using an alcohol-based handrub, use sufficient product to keep hands and forearms wet with the handrub throughout the surgical hand preparation procedure (IB).222224 The technique for surgical hand preparation using alcohol-based handrubs is illustrated in Figure II.3. J. After application of the alcohol-based handrub as recommended, allow hands and forearms to dry thoroughly before donning sterile gloves (IB).204, 208

15

WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

4. Selection and handling of hand hygiene agents
A. Provide HCWs with efficacious hand hygiene products that have low irritancy potential (IB).146, 171, 225-231 B. To maximize acceptance of hand hygiene products by HCWs, solicit their input regarding the skin tolerance, feel, and fragrance of any products under consideration (IB).79, 145, 146, 228, 232-236 Comparative evaluations may greatly help in this process.227, 232, 233, 237 C. When selecting hand hygiene products: a. determine any known interaction between products used to clean hands, skin care products and the types of glove used in the institution (II);238, 239 b. solicit information from manufacturers about the risk of product contamination (IB); 57, 240, 241 c. ensure that dispensers are accessible at the point of care (IB); 95, 242 d. ensure that dispensers function adequately and reliably and deliver an appropriate volume of the product (II);75, 243 e. ensure that the dispenser system for alcohol-based handrubs is approved for flammable materials (IC); f. solicit and evaluate information from manufacturers regarding any effect that hand lotions, creams or alcoholbased handrubs may have on the effects of antimicrobial soaps being used in the institution (IB);238, 244, 245 g. cost comparisons should only be made for products that meet requirements for efficacy, skin tolerance, and acceptability (II).236, 246 D. Do not add soap (IA) or alcohol-based formulations (II) to a partially empty soap dispenser. If soap dispensers are reused, follow recommended procedures for cleansing.247, 248

5. Skin care
A. Include information regarding hand-care practices designed to reduce the risk of irritant contact dermatitis and other skin damage in education programmes for HCWs (IB).249, 250 B. Provide alternative hand hygiene products for HCWs with confirmed allergies or adverse reactions to standard products used in the health-care setting (II). C. Provide HCWs with hand lotions or creams to minimize the occurrence of irritant contact dermatitis associated with hand antisepsis or handwashing (IA).228, 229, 250-253 D. When alcohol-based handrub is available in the health-care facility for hygienic hand antisepsis, the use of antimicrobial soap is not recommended (II). E. Soap and alcohol-based handrub should not be used concomitantly (II).163

16

PART II. CONSENSUS RECOMMENDATIONS

6. Use of gloves
A. The use of gloves does not replace the need for hand hygiene by either handrubbing or handwashing (IB).53, 159-161,
254-256

B. Wear gloves when it can be reasonably anticipated that contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials, mucous membranes or non-intact skin will occur (IC).257-259 C. Remove gloves after caring for a patient. Do not wear the same pair of gloves for the care of more than one patient (IB).51, 53, 159-161, 260, 261

D. When wearing gloves, change or remove gloves during patient care if moving from a contaminated body site to either another body site (including non-intact skin, mucous membrane or medical device) within the same patient or the environment (II).52, 159, 160 E. The reuse of gloves is not recommended (IB).262 In the case of glove reuse, implement the safest reprocessing method (II).263 The techniques for donning and removing non-sterile and sterile gloves are illustrated in Figures II.4 and II.5

7. Other aspects of hand hygiene
A. Do not wear artificial fingernails or extenders when having direct contact with patients (IA).56, 191, 195, 264-266 B. Keep natural nails short (tips less than 0.5 cm long or approximately ¼ inch) (II).264

8. Educational and motivational programmes for HCWs
A. In hand hygiene promotion programmes for HCWs, focus specifically on factors currently found to have a significant influence on behaviour and not solely on the type of hand hygiene products. The strategy should be multifaceted and multimodal and include education and senior executive support for implementation (IA).64, 75, 89, 100, 111, 113, 119, 166, 267-277 B. Educate HCWs about the type of patient-care activities that can result in hand contamination and about the advantages and disadvantages of various methods used to clean their hands (II).75, 81, 83, 85, 111, 125, 126, 166, 276-278 C. Monitor HCWs’ adherence to recommended hand hygiene practices and provide them with performance feedback (IA).62, 75, 79, 81, 83, 85, 89, 99, 100, 111, 125, 276 D. Encourage partnerships between patients, their families and HCWs to promote hand hygiene in health-care settings (II).279-281

17

WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

9. Governmental and institutional responsibilities
9.1 For health-care administrators
A. It is essential that administrators ensure that conditions are conducive to the promotion of a multifaceted, multimodal hand hygiene strategy and an approach that promotes a patient safety culture by implementation of points B–I below. B. Provide HCWs with access to a safe, continuous water supply at all outlets and access to the necessary facilities to perform handwashing (IB).276, 282, 283 C. Provide HCWs with a readily accessible alcohol-based handrub at the point of patient care (IA).75, 82, 94, 95, 284-288 D. Make improved hand hygiene adherence (compliance) an institutional priority and provide appropriate leadership, administrative support, financial resources and support for hand hygiene and other infection prevention and control activities (IB).75, 111, 113, 119, 289 E. Ensure that HCWs have dedicated time for infection control training, including sessions on hand hygiene (II).270, 290 F. Implement a multidisciplinary, multifaceted and multimodal programme designed to improve adherence of HCWs to recommended hand hygiene practices (IB).75, 119, 129 G. With regard to hand hygiene, ensure that the water supply is physically separated from drainage and sewerage within the health-care setting and provide routine system monitoring and management (IB).291 H. Provide strong leadership and support for hand hygiene and other infection prevention and control activities (II).119 I. Alcohol-based handrub production and storage must adhere to the national safety guidelines and local legal requirements (II).

9.2 For national governments
A. Make improved hand hygiene adherence a national priority and consider provision of a funded, coordinated implementation programme while ensuring monitoring and long-term sustainability (II).292-295 B. Support strengthening of infection control capacities within health-care settings (II).290, 296, 297 C. Promote hand hygiene at the community level to strengthen both self-protection and the protection of others (II).71, 138-140,
298-300

D. Encourage health-care settings to use hand hygiene as a quality indicator (Australia, Belgium, France, Scotland, USA) (II).278, 301

18

PART II. CONSENSUS RECOMMENDATIONS

Figure II.3 Surgical hand preparation technique with an alcohol-based hand rub formulation

19

WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

Figure II.3 Surgical hand preparation technique with an alcohol-based hand rub formulation (Cont.)

20

PART II. CONSENSUS RECOMMENDATIONS

Figure II.4 How to don and remove non-sterile gloves

21

WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

Figure II.5 How to don and remove sterile gloves

22

PART II. CONSENSUS RECOMMENDATIONS

Figure II.5 How to don and remove sterile gloves (Cont.)

23

WHO PATIENT SAFETY

PART III. GUIDELINE IMPLEMENTATION

25

WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

1. WHO Implementation strategy and tools
The WHO Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy and a wide range of tools were developed in parallel to the Guidelines to translate recommendations into practice at the bedside (see Part I.21.1 of the Guidelines). The implementation strategy was informed by the literature on implementation science, behavioural change, spread methodology, diffusion of innovation and impact evaluation. Together with the Guidelines, the strategy and tools were tested in eight pilot sites in the six WHO regions in and many other settings worldwide (see Part I.21.5 of the Guidelines). The multimodal strategy consists of five components to be implemented in parallel; the implementation strategy itself is designed to be adaptable without jeopardizing its fidelity and is intended therefore for use not only in sites where hand hygiene promotion has to be initiated but also within facilities where there is existing action on hand hygiene. The five essential elements are (see Part II of the Guide to Implementation (http://www.who.int/gpsc/5may/Guide_to_ Implementation.pdf): 1. System Change: ensuring that the necessary infrastructure is in place to allow HCWs to practice hand hygiene. This includes two essential elements: § access to a safe, continuous water supply as well as to soap and towels; § readily-accessible alcohol-based handrub at the point of care. Training / Education: providing regular training on the importance of hand hygiene, based on the “My five moments for hand hygiene” approach and on the correct procedures for handrubbing and handwashing to all HCWs. Evaluation and feedback: monitoring hand hygiene practices and infrastructure, along with related perceptions and knowledge among HCWs, while providing performance and results feedback to the staff. Reminders in the workplace: prompting and reminding HCWs about the importance of hand hygiene and about the appropriate indications and procedures for performing it. Institutional safety climate: creating an environment and the perceptions that facilitate awareness-raising about patient safety issues while guaranteeing consideration of hand hygiene improvement as a high priority at all levels, including: § active participation at both the institutional and individual levels; § awareness of individual and institutional capacity to change and improve (self-efficacy); and § partnership with patients and patient organizations (depending on cultural issues and the resources available; see Part V of the Guidelines). Central to the recommendations’ implementation at the point of care is the innovative approach of the “My five moments for hand hygiene” (see Part 21.4 of the Guidelines and Part II.1 of the Hand Hygiene Technical Reference Manual http://www. who.int/gpsc/5may/tools/training_education/en/index.html) 302 (Figure III.1). Considering the scientific evidence, this concept merges the hand hygiene indications recommended by the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care (see Part II of the Guidelines) into five moments when hand hygiene is required. This approach proposes a unified vision for HCWs, trainers and observers to minimize inter-individual variation and enable a global increase in adherence to effective hand hygiene practices. According to this concept, HCWs are requested to clean their hands (1) before touching a patient, (2) before clean/aseptic procedures, (3) after body fluid exposure/risk, (4) after touching a patient and (5) after touching patient surroundings. This concept has been integrated into the various WHO tools to educate, monitor, summarize, feedback, and promote hand hygiene in health-care settings. Data and lessons learned from testing have been of paramount importance in revising the content of the Guidelines Advanced Draft. A significant increase in hand hygiene compliance was observed across all pilot sites. In addition, an improvement was observed in HCWs’ perception of the importance of HCAI and its prevention, as well as their knowledge about hand transmission and hand hygiene practices. Furthermore, a substantial system change was achieved with an improvement in the facilities and equipment available for hand hygiene, including the local production of the WHO-recommended alcohol-based formulations in settings where these products were not available commercially (see Part I.12.5 and I.21.5 of the Guidelines). According to the main results of testing, the strategy and its core components were confirmed as a

2.

3.

4.

5.

26

PART III. GUIDELINE IMPLEMENTATION

very successful model, key to hand hygiene improvement in different settings and suitable to be used also for other infection control interventions. The validity of the Guidelines recommendations was also fully confirmed. Furthermore, when appropriate, comments from users and lessons learned enabled modification and improvement of the suite of implementation tools. The final version of the WHO Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy and the Implementation Toolkit are now available at http://www.who.int/gpsc/5may/tools/en/index. html. The Toolkit includes a range of tools corresponding to each strategy component, to facilitate its practical implementation (see Appendix 3). A Guide to Implementation (http://www.who. int/gpsc/5may/Guide_to_Implementation.pdf) was developed to assist health-care facilities to implement improvements in hand hygiene in accordance with the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care. In its Part II the Guide illustrates the strategy components into details and describes the objectives and utility of each tool; in Part III it indicates the

resources necessary to implementation, provides a template action plan, and proposes a step-wise approach for practical implementation at the health-care setting level. Especially in a facility where a hand hygiene improvement programme has to be initiated from scratch, the following are essential steps (see Part III of the Guide to Implementation): Step 1: Facility preparedness – readiness for action Step 2: Baseline evaluation – establishing the current situation Step 3: Implementation – introducing the improvement activities Step 4: Follow-up evaluation – evaluating the implementation impact Step 5: Action planning and review cycle – developing a plan for the next 5 years (minimum) The WHO Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy, the “My five moments for hand hygiene” and the five-step approaches are depicted in Figure III.1. These concepts are discussed more extensively in Part I.21 of the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care 2009.

Figure III.1 The five components of the WHO Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy
1a. System change – alcohol-based handrub at point of care
B

The five moments for hand hygiene in health care

1b. System change – access to safe, continuous water supply, soap and towels 2. Training and education 3. Evaluation and feedback 4. Reminders in the workplace 5. Institutional safety climate

2
1 4
3
D AF T E R BO U FLU OS RIS I D E X P K
R
Y E

P

E OR ASEP T IC EF EAN/ L OCEDURE C R

BEFORE TOUCHING A PATIENT

AFTER TOUCHING A PATIENT

5

AFTER TOUCHING PATIENT SURROUNDINGS

The step-wise approach
Facility preparedness Baseline evaluation Follow-up evaluation Review and planning

Implementation

27

WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

2. Infrastructures required for optimal hand hygiene
An important cause of poor compliance may be the lack of user-friendly hand hygiene equipment as well as poor logistics leading to limited procurement and replenishment of consumables. While not all settings have a continuous water supply, tap water (ideally drinkable), is preferable for handwashing (see Part I.11.1 of the Guidelines). In settings where this is not possible, water “flowing” from a pre-filled container with a tap is preferable to still-standing water in a basin. Where running water is available, the possibility of accessing it without the need to touch the tap with soiled hands is preferable. Sensor-activated manual or elbow- or foot-activated taps could be considered the optimal standard within health-care settings. Their availability is not considered among the highest priorities, however, particularly in settings with limited resources. It should be noted that recommendations for their use are not based on evidence. Sinks should be located the closest possible to the point of care and, according to the WHO minimum requirements, the overall sink-to-patient bed ratio should be of 1:10.303 Placement of hand hygiene products (soap and handrubs) should be aligned with promoting hand hygiene in accordance with the concept of the “My five moments for hand hygiene”. In many settings the different forms of dispensers, such as wall-mounted and those for use at the point of care, should be used in combination to achieve maximum compliance. Wall-mounted soap dispensing systems are recommended to be located at every sink in patient and examination rooms when affordable. Wall-mounted handrub dispensers should be positioned in locations that facilitate hand hygiene at the point of care. Dispersion of the handrub should be possible in a “non-touch” fashion to avoid any touching of the dispenser with contaminated hands, e.g. “elbow-dispensers” or pumps that can be used with the wrist.304 In general, the design and function of the dispensers that will ultimately be installed in a health-care setting should be evaluated, because some systems were shown to malfunction continuously despite efforts to rectify the problem.243 A variation of wall-mounted dispensers are holders and frames that allow placement of a container that is equipped with a pump. The pump is screwed onto the container in place of the lid. It is likely that this dispensing system is associated with the lowest cost. Containers with a pump can also be placed easily on any horizontal surface, e.g. cart/trolley or night stand/bedside table. Individual, portable dispensers (e.g. pocket bottles) are ideal, if combined with wall-mounted dispensing systems, to increase point-of-care access and enable use in units where wallmounted dispensers should be avoided or cannot be installed. Because many of these systems are used as disposables, environmental considerations should also be taken into account. These concepts are discussed more extensively in Part I.23.5 of the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care 2009.

3. Other issues related to hand hygiene, in particular the use of an alcohol-based handrub
3.1 Methods and selection of products to perform hand hygiene
According to recommendation IB, when an alcohol-based handrub is available it should be used as the preferred means for routine hand hygiene in health care. Alcohol-based handrubs have the following immediate advantages (see Part I.11.3 of the Guidelines): – – – – elimination of the majority of germs (including viruses); the short time required for action (20 to 30 seconds); availability of the product at the point of care; better skin tolerability (see Part I.14 of the Guidelines); – no need for any particular infrastructure (clean water supply network, washbasin, soap, hand towel). Hands need to be washed with soap and water when they are visibly dirty or soiled with blood or other body fluids, when exposure to potential spore-forming organisms is strongly suspected or proven or after using the lavatory. (recommendations 1A and 1B) To comply with routine hand hygiene recommendations, HCWs should ideally perform hand hygiene where and when care is provided, which means at the point of care and at the moments indicated (see Part III.1 of this Summary and Figure III.1), and following the recommended technique and time.

28

PART III. GUIDELINE IMPLEMENTATION

Table III.1 Antimicrobial activity and summary of properties of antiseptics used in hand hygiene Antiseptics Grampositive bacteria +++ +++ +++ a Gramnegative bacteria +++ + ++ + +++ ++ +

Viruses enveloped +++ + ++ ? ++ ? +

Viruses nonenveloped ++ ± + ? ++ ? ?

Mycobacteria +++ + + + ++ ± ±

Fungi

Spores

Alcohols Chloroxylenol Chlorhexidine Hexachlorophene Iodophors Triclosand Quaternary ammonium compoundsc Antiseptics Alcohols Chloroxylenol Chlorhexidine Hexachlorophene Iodophors Triclosand Quaternary ammonium compoundsc a +++ + + + ++ ±e ±

±b -

+++ +++ +++ ++

Typical conc. in % 60-80 % 0.5-4 % 0.5-4% 3% 0.5-10 %) (0.1-2%)

Speed of action Fast Slow Intermediate Slow Intermediate Intermediate Slow

Residual activity No Contradictory Yes Yes Contradictory Yes No

Use HR HW HR,HW HW, but not recommended HW HW; seldom HR,HW; Seldom; +alcohols

Good = +++, moderate = ++, poor = +, variable = ±, none = – HR: handrubbing; HW: handwashing *Activity varies with concentration. a Bacteriostatic. b In concentrations used in antiseptics, iodophors are not sporicidal. c Bacteriostatic, fungistatic, microbicidal at high concentrations. d Mostly bacteriostatic. e Activity against Candida spp., but little activity against filementous fungi. Source: adapted with permission from Pittet, Allegranzi & Sax, 2007. 362

This often calls for the use of an alcohol-based product. Hand hygiene can be performed by using either plain soap or products including antiseptic agents. The latter have the property of inactivating microorganisms or inhibiting their growth with different action spectra; examples include alcohols, chlorhexidine gluconate, chlorine derivatives, iodine, chloroxylenol, quaternary ammonium compounds, and triclosan (Table III.1). Although comparing the results of laboratory studies dealing with the in vivo efficacy of plain soap, antimicrobial soaps, and alcohol-based handrubs may be problematic for various reasons, it has been shown that alcohol-based rubs are more efficacious than antiseptic detergents and that the latter are usually more efficacious than plain soap. However, various studies conducted in the community setting indicate that medicated and plain soaps are roughly equal in preventing

the spread of microorganisms and reducing childhood gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tract infections or impetigo.72, 139, 305 In health-care settings where alcohol-based handrubs are available, plain soap should be provided to perform hand washing when indicated. Alcohol solutions containing 60–80% alcohol are usually considered to have efficacious microbicidal activity, with concentrations higher than 90% being less potent.305,306 Alcohol-based handrubs with optimal antimicrobial efficacy usually contain 75 to 85% ethanol, isopropanol, or n-propanol, or a combination of these products. The WHO-recommended formulations contain either 75% v/v isopropanol, or 80% v/v ethanol. These were identified, tested and validated for local production at facility level. According to the available data, local production

29

WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

is feasible and the products are effective for hand antisepsis, have good skin tolerability along with HCW acceptance, and are low in cost (see Part I.12 of the Guidelines and the Guide to Local Production: WHO-recommended Handrub Formulations http://www.who.int/gpsc/5may/tools/system_change/en/ index.html). The selection of hand hygiene products available from the market should be based on the following criteria (see Part I.15.2 of the Guidelines and the Alcohol-based Handrub: Planning and Costing Tool http://www.who.int/gpsc/5may/ tools/system_change/en/index.html): • relative efficacy of antiseptic agents (see Part I.10 of the Guidelines) according to ASTM and EN standards and consideration for selection of products for hygienic hand antisepsis and surgical hand preparation; • dermal tolerance and skin reactions; • time for drying (consider that different products are associated with different drying times; products that require longer drying times may affect hand hygiene best practice); • cost issues; • aesthetic preferences of HCWs and patients such as fragrance, colour, texture, “stickiness”, and ease of use; • practical considerations such as availability, convenience and functioning of dispenser, and ability to prevent contamination; • freedom of choice by HCWs at an institutional level after consideration of the above-mentioned factors. Hand hygiene actions are more effective when hand skin is free of cuts, nails are natural, short and unvarnished, and hands and forearms are free of jewellery and left uncovered (see Parts I.23.3-4 of the Guidelines and Part IV of the Hand Hygiene Technical Reference Manual http://www.who.int/gpsc/5may/ tools/training_education/en/index.html).

However, numerous reports confirm that alcohol-based formulations are well-tolerated and associated with better acceptability and tolerance than other hand hygiene products.149, 230, 237, 308-313 Allergic reactions to antiseptic agents including quaternary ammonium compounds, iodine or iodophors, chlorhexidine, triclosan, chloroxylenol and alcohols132, 314-323 have been reported, as well as possible toxicity in relation to dermal absorption of products.233, 324 Allergic contact dermatitis attributable to alcohol-based handrubs is very uncommon. Damaged, irritated skin is undesirable, not only because it causes discomfort and even lost workdays for the professional but also because hands with damaged skin may in fact increase the risk of transmission of infections to patients. The selection products that are both efficacious and as safe as possible for the skin is of the utmost importance. For example, concern about the drying effects of alcohol was a major cause of poor acceptance of alcohol-based handrubs in hospitals.325, 326 Although many hospitals have provided HCWs with plain soaps in the hope of minimizing dermatitis, frequent use of such products has been associated with even greater skin damage, dryness and irritation than some antiseptic preparations.171, 226, 231 One strategy for reducing exposure of HCWs to irritating soaps and detergents is to promote the use of alcohol-based handrubs containing humectants. Several studies have demonstrated that such products are tolerated better by HCWs and are associated with a better skin condition when compared with either plain or antimicrobial soap.75, 95, 97, 146, 226, 231, 327-329 With rubs, the shorter time required for hand antisepsis may increase acceptability and compliance.285 Ways to minimize the possible adverse effects of hand hygiene include selecting less irritating products, using skin moisturizers, and modifying certain hand hygiene behaviours such as unnecessary washing (see recommendations 5A-E and Part IV of the Hand Hygiene Technical Reference Manual http://www.who.int/gpsc/5may/tools/training_education/en/ index.html). Certain practices can increase the risk of skin irritation and should be avoided. For example, washing hands regularly with soap and water immediately before or after using an alcohol-based product is not only unnecessary but may lead to dermatitis.163 The use of very hot water for handwashing should be avoided as it increases the likelihood of skin damage. When clean or disposable towels are used, it is important to pat the skin rather than rub it to avoid cracking. Additionally, donning gloves while hands are still wet from either washing or applying alcohol increases the risk of skin irritation.

3.2 Skin reactions related to hand hygiene
Skin reactions may appear on HCWs’ hands because of the necessity for frequent hand hygiene during patient care (see Part I.14 of the Guidelines). There are two major types of skin reactions associated with hand hygiene. The first and most common type is irritant contact dermatitis and includes symptoms such as dryness, irritation, itching and in some cases even cracking and bleeding. The second type of skin reaction, allergic contact dermatitis, is rare and represents an allergy to some ingredient in a hand hygiene product. Symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis can also range from mild and localized to severe and generalized. In its most serious form, allergic contact dermatitis may be associated with respiratory distress and other symptoms of anaphylaxis. HCWs with skin reactions or complaints related to hand hygiene should have access to an appropriate referral service. In general, irritant contact dermatitis is more commonly reported with iodophors.171 Other antiseptic agents that may cause irritant contact dermatitis, in order of decreasing frequency, include chlorhexidine, chloroxylenol, triclosan and alcohol-based products (see Part I.11 of the Guidelines).
30

3.3 Safety issues related to the use of alcoholbased handrubs
Alcohols are flammable; therefore, alcohol-based handrubs should be stored away from high temperatures or flames in accordance with national and local regulations (see Part B of

PART III. GUIDELINE IMPLEMENTATION

the Guide to Local Production: WHO-recommended Handrub Formulations http://www.who.int/gpsc/5may/tools/system_ change/en/index.html). Although alcohol-based handrubs are flammable, the risk of fires associated with such products is very low. For example, none of 798 health-care facilities surveyed in the USA reported a fire related to an alcohol-based handrub dispenser. A total of 766 facilities had accrued an estimated 1430 hospital-years of alcohol-based handrub use without a fire attributed to a handrub dispenser.330 In Europe, where alcohol-based handrubs have been used extensively for many years, the incidence of fires related to such products has been extremely low.147 A recent study331 conducted in German hospitals found that handrub usage represented an estimated total of 25 038 hospital-years, with an overall usage of 35 million litres for all hospitals. A total of seven non-severe fire incidents was reported (0.9% of hospitals). This is equal to an annual incidence per hospital of 0.0000475%. No reports of fire caused by static electricity or other factors were received, nor were any related to storage areas. Indeed, most reported incidents were associated with deliberate exposure to a naked flame, e.g. lighting a cigarette. In the summary of incidents related to the use of alcohol handrubs from the start of the “cleanyourhands” campaign until July 2008 (http://www.npsa.nhs.uk/patientsafety/patientsafetyincident-data/quarterly-data-reports/), only two fire events out of 692 incidents were reported in England and Wales. Accidental and intentional ingestion of alcohol-based preparations used for hand hygiene have been reported and may lead to acute, and in some cases severe, alcohol intoxication.332-335 In the “cleanyourhands” campaign incidents summary, 189 cases of ingestion were recorded in healthcare settings. However, the vast majority was graded as no or low harm, 12 as moderate, two as severe, and one death was reported (but the patient had been admitted already the previous day for severe alcohol intoxication). It is clear that, especially in pediatric and psychiatric wards, security measures are needed. These may involve: placing the preparation in secure wall dispensers; labelling dispensers to make the alcohol content less clear at a casual glance and adding a warning against consumption; and the inclusion of an additive in the product formula to reduce its palatability. In the meantime, medical and nursing staff should be aware of this potential risk. Alcohols can be absorbed by inhalation and through intact skin, although the latter route (dermal uptake) is very low. Many studies evaluated alcohol dermal absorption and inhalation following its application or spraying on skin.324, 336-339 In all cases either no or very low (much less than the levels achieved with mild intoxication, i.e. 50 mg/dl) blood concentrations of alcohols were detected and no symptoms were noticed. Indeed, while there are no data showing that the use of alcohol-based handrub may be harmful because of alcohol absorption, it is well-established that reduced compliance with hand hygiene will lead to preventable HCAIs.

3.4 Alcohol-based handrubs and C. difficile and other non-susceptible pathogens
Alcohols have excellent in vitro germicidal activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative vegetative bacteria (including multidrug-resistant pathogens such as MRSA and VRE), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and a variety of fungi.131, 306, 307, 340-345 On the contrary, they have virtually no activity against bacterial spores or protozoan oocysts, and reduced activity against some non-enveloped (non-lipophilic) viruses. However alcohols, when used in concentrations present in some alcohol-based handrubs (70–80% v/v), also have in vivo activity against a number of non-enveloped viruses (e.g. rotavirus, adenovirus, rhinovirus, hepatitis A and enteroviruses). 177, 346, 347 Various 70% alcohol solutions (ethanol, n-propanol, isopropanol) were tested against a surrogate of norovirus and ethanol with 30-second exposure and demonstrated virucidal activity superior to the others.348 In a recent experimental study, ethyl alcohol-based products showed significant reductions of the tested surrogate for a non-enveloped human virus; however, activity was not superior to nonantimicrobial or tap/faucet water controls.349 In general, ethanol has shown greater activity against viruses than isopropanol.350 Following the widespread use of alcohol-based handrubs as the gold standard for hand hygiene in health care, concern has been raised about their lack of efficacy against sporeforming pathogens, in particular C. difficile. The widespread use of alcohol-based handrubs in healthcare settings has been blamed by some.351, 352 Although alcohol-based handrubs may not be effective against C. difficile, it has not been shown that they trigger a rise in C. difficile-associated disease.63, 76, 353, 354 C. difficile-associated disease rates began to rise in the USA long before the widespread use of alcohol-based handrubs.355, 356 One outbreak of the epidemic strain REA-group B1 (@ ribotype 027) was successfully managed while introducing alcohol-based handrub for all patients other than those with C. difficile-associated disease.354 In addition, several studies recently demonstrated a lack of association between the consumption of alcohol-based handrubs and the incidence of clinical isolates of C. difficile.353, 357, 358 Contact precautions are highly recommended during C. difficileassociated outbreaks, in particular glove use (as part of contact precautions) and handwashing with a plain or antimicrobial soap and water following glove removal after caring for patients with diarrhoea.359, 360 Alcohol-based handrubs can then be used exceptionally after handwashing in these instances, after making sure that hands are perfectly dry. Moreover, alcoholbased handrubs, now considered the gold standard to protect patients from the multitude of harmful resistant and non-resistant organisms transmitted by HCWs’ hands, should be continued to be used in all other instances at the same facility. Abandoning alcohol-based handrub for patients other than those with C. difficile-associated disease would do more harm than good, considering the dramatic impact on overall infection rates observed through the recourse to handrubs at the point of care.361
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Caniza MA et al. Effective hand hygiene education with the use of flipcharts in a hospital in El Salvador. Journal of Hospital Infection, 2007, 65:58-64. Lawton RM et al. Prepackaged hand hygiene educational tools facilitate implementation. American Journal of Infection Control, 2006, 34:152-154. Duerink DO et al. Preventing nosocomial infections: improving compliance with standard precautions in an Indonesian teaching hospital. Journal of Hospital Infection, 2006, 64:36-43. Huang TT, Wu SC. Evaluation of a training programme on knowledge and compliance of nurse assistants’ hand hygiene in nursing homes. Journal of Hospital Infection, 2008, 68:164-170. Eldridge NE et al. Using the six sigma process to implement the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guideline for Hand Hygiene in 4 intensive care units. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 2006, 21 (suppl. 2):S35-42. McGuckin M et al. Patient education model for increasing handwashing compliance. American Journal of Infection Control, 1999, 27:309-314. McGuckin M, et al. Evaluation of a patient-empowering hand hygiene programme in the UK. Journal of Hospital Infection, 2001, 48:222-227. McGuckin M et al. Evaluation of a patient education model for increasing hand hygiene compliance in an inpatient rehabilitation unit. American Journal of Infection Control, 2004, 32:235-238. Suresh G, Cahill J. How “user friendly” is the hospital for practicing hand hygiene? An ergonomic evaluation. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 2007, 33:171-179. Ogunsola FT, Adesiji YO. Comparison of four methods of hand washing in situations of inadequate water supply. West African Journal of Medicine, 2008, 27:24-28. Larson E et al. Assessment of alternative hand hygiene regimens to improve skin health among neonatal intensive care unit nurses. Heart & Lung, 2000, 29:136-142.

285. Voss A, Widmer AF. No time for handwashing!? Handwashing versus alcoholic rub: can we afford 100% compliance? Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 1997, 18:205-208. 286. Pittet D. Compliance with hand disinfection and its impact on hospitalacquired infections. Journal of Hospital Infection, 2001, 48 (suppl. A):S40-46. 287. Girou E, Oppein F. Handwashing compliance in a French university hospital: new perspective with the introduction of hand-rubbing with a waterless alcohol-based solution. Journal of Hospital Infection, 2001, 48 (suppl. A):S55-S57. 288. Ritchie K et al. The provision of alcohol based products to improve compliance with hand hygiene. Health technology assessment - report. Edinburgh, NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, 2005. 289. Larson EL, Quiros D, Lin SX. Dissemination of the CDC’s Hand Hygiene Guideline and impact on infection rates. American Journal of Infection Control, 2007, 35:666-675. 290. Haley RW et al. The efficacy of infection surveillance and control programs in preventing nosocomial infections in U.S. hospitals. American Journal of Epidemiology, 1985, 121:182-205. 291. WHO Guidelines on drinking-water quality, 3rd ed. First addendum, 2006, Geneva, World Health Organization, 2006. 292. Achieving our aims: evaluating the results of the pilot cleanyourhands campaign. London, National Patient Safety Agency, 2004. 293. Wachter RM, Pronovost PJ. The 100,000 Lives Campaign: A scientific and policy review. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 2006, 32:621627. 294. Stone S et al. Early communication: does a national campaign to improve hand hygiene in the NHS work? Initial English and Welsh experience from the NOSEC study (National Observational Study to Evaluate the CleanYourHandsCampaign). Journal of Hospital Infection, 2007, 66:293-296. 295. Cleanyourhands campaign. National Patient Safety Agency, 2007.

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REFERENCE LIST

296. Richet HM et al. Are there regional variations in the diagnosis, surveillance, and control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus? Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 2003, 24(5):334-341. 297. Patient safety alert 04: clean hands help to save lives. London, National Patient Safety Agency, 2004 (http://www.npsa. nhs.uk/cleanyourhands/; accessed 16 October 2009). 298. Sandora TJ, Shih MC, Goldmann DA. Reducing absenteeism from gastrointestinal and respiratory illness in elementary school students: a randomized, controlled trial of an infection-control intervention. Pediatrics, 2008, 121:e1555-62. 299. Morton JL, Schultz AA. Healthy hands: Use of alcohol gel as an adjunct to handwashing in elementary school children. Journal of School Nursing, 2004, 20:161-167. 300. White C et al. The effect of hand hygiene on illness rate among students in university residence halls. American Journal of Infection Control, 2003, 31:364-370. 301. Camins BC, Fraser VJ. Reducing the risk of health care-associated infections by complying with CDC hand hygiene guidelines. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 2005, 31:173179. 302. Sax H et al. ‘My five moments for hand hygiene’: a user-centred design approach to understand, train, monitor and report hand hygiene. Journal of Hospital Infection, 2007, 67:9-21. 303. Essential environmental health standards in health care. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2008. 304. Boyce JM, Pittet D. Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings. Recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/ IDSA Hand Hygiene Task Force. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America/ Association for Professionals in Infection Control/Infectious Diseases Society of America. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2002, 51(RR-16):1-45.

305. Larson EL et al. Effect of antibacterial home cleaning and handwashing products on infectious disease symptoms: a randomized, double-blind trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2004, 140:321-329. 306. Price PB. Ethyl alcohol as a germicide. Archives of Surgery, 1939, 38:528-542. 307. Harrington C, Walker H. The germicidal action of alcohol. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 1903, 148:548-552. 308. Girard R et al. Tolerance and acceptability of 14 surgical and hygienic alcohol-based hand rubs. Journal of Hospital Infection, 2006, 63:281-288. 309. Houben E, De Paepe K, Rogiers V. Skin condition associated with intensive use of alcoholic gels for hand disinfection: a combination of biophysical and sensorial data. Contact Dermatitis, 2006, 54:261267. 310. Pedersen LK et al. Less skin irritation from alcohol-based disinfectant than from detergent used for hand disinfection. British Journal of Dermatology, 2005, 153:1142-1146. 311. Kampf G, Wigger-Alberti W, Wilhelm KP. Do atopics tolerate alcohol-based hand rubs? A prospective randomized doubleblind clinical trial. Acta Dermatologica Venereologica, 2006, 157:140-143. 312. Loffler H et al. How irritant is alcohol? British Journal of Dermatology, 2007, 157:74-81. 313. Slotosch CM, Kampf G, Loffler H. Effects of disinfectants and detergents on skin irritation. Contact Dermatitis, 2007, 57:235-241. 314. Rosenberg A, Alatary SD, Peterson AF. Safety and efficacy of the antiseptic chlorhexidine gluconate. Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics, 1976, 143:789-792. 315. Ophaswongse S, Maibach HI. Alcohol dermatitis: allergic contact dermatitis and contact urticaria syndrome. A review. Contact Dermatitis, 1994, 30:1-6. 316. De Groot AC. Contact allergy to cosmetics: causative ingredients. Contact Dermatitis, 1987, 17:26-34. 317. Perrenoud D et al. Frequency of sensitization to 13 common preservatives in Switzerland. Swiss contact dermatitis research group. Contact Dermatitis, 1994, 30:276-279.

318. Kiec-Swierczynska M, Krecisz B. Occupational skin diseases among the nurses in the region of Lodz. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2000, 13:179-184. 319. Garvey LH, Roed-Petersen J, Husum B. Anaphylactic reactions in anaesthetised patients - four cases of chlorhexidine allergy. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 2001, 45:1290-1294. 320. Pham NH et al. Anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine. Case report. Implication of immunoglobulin e antibodies and identification of an allergenic determinant. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 2000, 30:1001-1007. 321. Nishioka K et al. The results of ingredient patch testing in contact dermatitis elicited by povidone-iodine preparations. Contact Dermatitis, 2000, 42:90-94. 322. Wong CSM, Beck MH. Allergic contact dermatitis from triclosan in antibacterial handwashes. Contact Dermatitis, 2001, 45:307. 323. Cimiotti J et al. Adverse reactions associated with an alcohol-based hand antiseptic among nurses in a neonatal intensive care unit. American Journal of Infection Control, 2003, 31:43-48. 324. Turner P, Saeed B, Kelsey MC. Dermal absorption of isopropyl alcohol from a commercial hand rub: implications for its use in hand decontamination. Journal of Hospital Infection, 2004, 56:287-290. 325. Steere AC, Mallison GF. Handwashing practices for the prevention of nosocomial infections. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1975, 83:683-690. 326. Dineen P, Hildick-Smith G. Antiseptic care of the hands. In: Maibach HI, HildickSmith G, eds. Skin bacteria and their role in infection. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1965:291-309. 327. Newman JL, Seitz JC. Intermittent use of an antimicrobial hand gel for reducing soap-induced irritation of health care personnel. American Journal of Infection Control, 1990, 18:194-200. 328. Kownatzki E. Hand hygiene and skin health. Journal of Hospital Infection, 2003, 55:239-245. 329. Jungbauer FH et al. Skin protection in nursing work: promoting the use of gloves and hand alcohol. Contact Dermatitis, 2004, 51:135-140.

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330. Boyce JM, Pearson M, L. Low frequency of fires from alcohol-based hand rub dispensers in healthcare facilities. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 2003, 24:618-619. 331. Kramer A, Kampf G. Hand rub-associated fire incidents during 25,038 hospitalyears in Germany. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 2007, 28:745-746. 332. Roberts HS, Self RJ, Coxon M. An unusual complication of hand hygiene. Anaesthesia, 2005, 60:100-101. 333. Fahlen M, Duarte AG. Gait disturbance, confusion, and coma in a 93-year-old blind woman. Chest, 2001, 120:295-297. 334. Leeper SC et al. Topical absorption of isopropyl alcohol induced cardiac and neurologic deficits in an adult female with intact skin. Veterinary and Human Toxicology, 2000, 42:15-17. 335. Archer JR et al. Alcohol hand rubs: hygiene and hazard. British Medical Journal, 2007, 335:1154-1155. 336. Pendlington RU et al. Fate of ethanol topically applied to skin. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2001, 39:169-174. 337. Miller MA, Rosin A, Crystal CS. Alcoholbased hand sanitizer: can frequent use cause an elevated blood alcohol level? American Journal of Infection Control, 2006, 34:150-151. 338. Miller MA et al. Does the clinical use of ethanol-based hand sanitizer elevate blood alcohol levels? A prospective study. American Journal of Emerging Medicine, 2006, 24:815-817. 339. Brown TL et al. Can alcohol-based hand-rub solutions cause you to lose your driver’s license? Comparative cutaneous absorption of various alcohols. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2007, 51:1107-1108. 340. Coulthard CE, Sykes G. The germicidal effect of alcohol with special reference to its action on bacterial spores. Pharmaceutical Journal, 1936, 137:79-81. 341. Pohle WD, Stuart LS. The germicidal action of cleaning agents - a study of a modification of price’s procedure. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1940, 67:275-281. 342. Gardner AD. Rapid disinfection of clean unwashed skin. Lancet, 1948, 2:760-763.

343. Sakuragi T, Yanagisawa K, Dan K. Bactericidal activity of skin disinfectants on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 1995, 81:555-558. 344. Kampf G, Jarosch R, Ruden H. Limited effectiveness of chlorhexidine-based hand disinfectants against methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Journal of Hospital Infection, 1998, 38:297-303. 345. Kampf G, Hofer M, Wendt C. Efficacy of hand disinfectants against vancomycinresistant Enterococci in vitro. Journal of Hospital Infection, 1999, 42:143-150. 346. Ansari SA et al. In vivo protocol for testing efficacy of hand-washing agents against viruses and bacteria: experiments with Rotavirus and Escherichia coli. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 1989, 55:3113-3118. 347. Mbithi JN, Springthorpe VS, Sattar SA. Comparative in vivo efficiencies of handwashing agents against hepatitis A virus (HM-175) and poliovirus type 1 (Sabin). Applied Environmental Microbiology, 2000, 59:3463-3469. 348. Steinmann J. Surrogate viruses for testing virucidal efficacy of chemical disinfectants. Journal of Hospital Infection 2004;56 Suppl 2:S49-54. 349. Sickbert-Bennett EE et al. Comparative efficacy of hand hygiene agents in the reduction of bacteria and viruses. American Journal of Infection Control, 2005, 33:67-77. 350. Kampf G, Kramer A. Epidemiologic background of hand hygiene and evaluation of the most important agents for scrubs and rubs. Clinical Microbiology Review, 2004, 17:863-893. 351. Clabots CR, Gerding SJ, Olson MM, Peterson LR, Gerding DN. Detection of asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriage by an alcohol shock procedure. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 1989, 27:2386-2387. 352. Wullt M, Odenholt I, Walder M. Activity of three disinfectants and acidified nitrite against Clostridium difficile spores. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 2003, 24:765-768.

353. Boyce JM et al. Lack of association between the increased incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease and the increasing use of alcohol-based hand rubs. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 2006, 27, 479-483. 354. Muto CA et al. A large outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated disease with an unexpected proportion of deaths and colectomies at a teaching hospital following increased fluoroquinolone use. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 2005, 26:273-280. 355. McDonald LC, Owings M, Jernigan DB. Clostridium difficile infection in patients discharged from US short-stay hospitals, 1996-2003. Emerg Infectious Diseases, 2006, 12:409-415. 356. Archibald LK, Banerjee SN, Jarvis WR. Secular trends in hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile disease in the United States, 1987-2001. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2004, 189:1585-1589. 357. Vernaz N et al. Temporal effects of antibiotic use and hand rub consumption on the incidence of MRSA and Clostridium difficile. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2008, 62:601-607. 358. Kaier K et al. Two time-series analyses of the impact of antibiotic consumption and alcohol-based hand disinfection on the incidences of nosocomial methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus infection and Clostridium difficile infection. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 2009, 30:346-353. 359. Johnson S et al. Prospective, controlled study of vinyl glove use to interrupt Clostridium difficile nosocomial transmission. American Journal of Medicine, 1990, 88:137-140. 360. Guideline for isolation precautions: preventing transmission of infectious agents in healthcare settings. Atlanta, GA, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007:219. 361. Cardoso CL et al. Effectiveness of hand-cleansing agents for removing Acinetobacter baumannii strain from contaminated hands. American Journal of Infection Control, 1999, 27:327-331. 362. Pittet D, Allegranzi B, Sax H. Hand hygiene. In: Jarvis W, ed. Bennet & Brachman’s Hospital Infection, 5th ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007: 31-44.

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WHO PATIENT SAFETY

APPENDICES

43

WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

1. Definition of terms
Hand hygiene. A general term referring to any action of hand cleansing (see below, “Hand hygiene practices”).

Hand hygiene practices
Antiseptic handwashing. Washing hands with soap and water or with other detergents containing an antiseptic agent. Antiseptic handrubbing (or handrubbing). Applying an antiseptic handrub to reduce or inhibit the growth of microorganisms without the need for an exogenous source of water and requiring no rinsing or drying with towels or other devices. Hand antisepsis/decontamination/degerming. Reducing or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms by the application of an antiseptic handrub or by performing an antiseptic handwash. Hand care. Actions to reduce the risk of skin damage or irritation. Handwashing. Washing hands with plain or antimicrobial soap and water. Hand cleansing. Action of performing hand hygiene for the purpose of physically or mechanically removing dirt, organic material and/or microorganisms. Hand disinfection is extensively used as a term in some parts of the world and can refer to antiseptic handwash, antiseptic handrubbing, hand antisepsis/decontamination/degerming, handwashing with an antimicrobial soap and water, hygienic hand antisepsis, or hygienic handrub. Since disinfection refers normally to the decontamination of inanimate surfaces and objects, this term is not used in these Guidelines. Hygienic hand antisepsis. Treatment of hands with either an antiseptic handrub or antiseptic handwash to reduce the transient microbial flora without necessarily affecting the resident skin flora. Hygienic handrub. Treatment of hands with an antiseptic handrub to reduce the transient flora without necessarily affecting the resident skin flora. These preparations are broad spectrum and fast-acting, and persistent activity is not necessary.

Hand hygiene products
Alcohol-based (hand) rub. An alcohol-containing preparation (liquid, gel or foam) designed for application to the hands to inactivate microorganisms and/or temporarily suppress their growth. Such preparations may contain one or more types of alcohol, other active ingredients with excipients and humectants. Antimicrobial (medicated) soap. Soap (detergent) containing an antiseptic agent at a concentration sufficient to inactivate microorganisms and/or temporarily suppress their growth. The detergent activity of such soaps may also dislodge transient microorganisms or other contaminants from the skin to facilitate their subsequent removal by water. Antiseptic agent. An antimicrobial substance that inactivates microorganisms or inhibits their growth on living tissues. Examples include alcohols, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), chlorine derivatives, iodine, chloroxylenol (PCMX), quaternary ammonium compounds and triclosan. Detergent (surfactant). Compounds that possess a cleaning action. They are composed of a hydrophilic and a lipophilic part and can be divided into four groups: anionic, cationic, amphoteric and non-ionic. Although products used for handwashing or antiseptic handwash in health care represent various types of detergents, the term “soap” will be used to refer to such detergents in these guidelines. Plain soap. Detergents that contain no added antimicrobial agents or may contain these solely as preservatives.

44

APPENDICES

Hygienic handwash. Treatment of hands with an antiseptic handwash and water to reduce the transient flora without necessarily affecting the resident skin flora. It is broad spectrum, but is usually less efficacious and acts more slowly than the hygienic handrub. Surgical hand antisepsis/surgical hand preparation/ presurgical hand preparation. Antiseptic handwash or antiseptic handrub performed preoperatively by the surgical team to eliminate transient flora and reduce resident skin flora. Such antiseptics often have persistent antimicrobial activity. Surgical handscrub(bing)/presurgical scrub refer to surgical hand preparation with antimicrobial soap and water. Surgical handrub(bing) refers to surgical hand preparation with a waterless, alcohol-based handrub.

Point of care. The place where three elements come together: the patient, the HCW, and care or treatment involving contact with the patient or his/her surroundings (within the patient zone).302 The concept embraces the need to perform hand hygiene at recommended moments exactly where care delivery takes place. This requires that a hand hygiene product (e.g. alcohol-based handrub, if available) be easily accessible and as close as possible – within arm’s reach of where patient care or treatment is taking place. Point-of-care products should be accessible without HCWs having to leave the patient zone. Resident flora (resident microbiota). Microorganisms residing under the superficial cells of the stratum corneum and also found on the surface of the skin. Surrogate microorganism. A microorganism used to represent a given type or category of nosocomial pathogen when testing the antimicrobial activity of antiseptics. Surrogates are selected for their safety, ease of handling and relative resistance to antimicrobials. Transient flora (transient microbiota). Microorganisms that colonize the superficial layers of the skin and are more amenable to removal by routine handwashing. Visibly soiled hands. Hands on which dirt or body fluids are readily visible.

Associated terms
Efficacy/efficacious. The (possible) effect of the application of a hand hygiene formulation when tested in laboratory or in vivo situations. Effectiveness/effective. The clinical conditions under which a hand hygiene product has been tested for its potential to reduce the spread of pathogens, e.g. field trials. Health-care area. Concept related to the “geographical” visualization of key moments for hand hygiene. It contains all surfaces in the health-care setting outside the patient zone of patient X, i.e. other patients and their patient zones and the health-care facility environment. Humectant. Ingredient(s) added to hand hygiene products to moisturize the skin. Patient zone. Concept related to the “geographical” visualization of key moments for hand hygiene. It contains the patient X and his/her immediate surroundings. This typically includes the intact skin of the patient and all inanimate surfaces that are touched by or in direct physical contact with the patient such as the bed rails, bedside table, bed linen, infusion tubing and other medical equipment. It further contains surfaces frequently touched by HCWs while caring for the patient such as monitors, knobs and buttons as well as other “high frequency” touch surfaces. Persistent activity. The prolonged or extended antimicrobial activity that prevents the growth or survival of microorganisms after application of a given antiseptic; also called “residual”, “sustained” or “remnant” activity. Both substantive and nonsubstantive active ingredients can show a persistent effect significantly inhibiting the growth of microorganisms after application.

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WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

2. Table of contents of the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care 2009
INTRODUCTION PART I. REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC DATA RELATED TO HAND HYGIENE 1. 2. Definition of terms Guideline preparation process 2.1 Preparation of the Advanced Draft 2.2 Pilot testing the Advanced Draft 2.3 Finalization of the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care The burden of health care-associated infection 3.1 Health care-associated infection in developed countries 3.2 Burden of health care-associated infection in developing countries Historical perspective on hand hygiene in health care Normal bacterial flora on hands Physiology of normal skin Transmission of pathogens by hands 7.1 Organisms present on patient skin or in the inanimate environment 7.2 Organism transfer to health-care workers’ hands 7.3 Organism survival on hands 7.4 Defective hand cleansing, resulting in hands remaining contaminated 7.5 Cross-transmission of organisms by contaminated hands Models of hand transmission 8.1 Experimental models 8.2 Mathematical models Relationship between hand hygiene and the acquisition of health care-associated pathogens 14. 12. 11. 10. Methods to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of handrub and handwash agents and formulations for surgical hand preparation 10.1 Current methods 10.2 Shortcomings of traditional test methods 10.3 The need for better methods Review of preparations used for hand hygiene 11.1 Water 11.2 Plain (non-antimicrobial) soap 11.3 Alcohols 11.4 Chlorhexidine 11.5 Chloroxylenol 11.6 Hexachlorophene 11.7 Iodine and iodophors 11.8 Quaternary ammonium compounds 11.9 Triclosan 11.10 Other agents 11.11 Activity of antiseptic agents against spore-forming bacteria 11.12 Reduced susceptibility of microorganisms to antiseptics 11.13 Relative efficacy of plain soap, antiseptic soaps and detergents, and alcohols WHO-recommended handrub formulation 12.1 General remarks 12.2 Lessons learnt from local production of the WHOrecommended handrub formulations in different settings worldwide Surgical hand preparation: state-of-the-art 13.1 Evidence for surgical hand preparation 13.2 Objective of surgical hand preparation 13.3 Selection of products for surgical hand preparation 13.4 Surgical hand antisepsis using medicated soap 13.5 Surgical hand preparation with alcohol-based handrubs 13.6 Surgical hand scrub with medicated soap or surgical hand preparation with alcohol-based formulations Skin reactions related to hand hygiene 14.1 Frequency and pathophysiology of irritant contact dermatitis 14.2 Allergic contact dermatitis related to hand hygiene products 14.3 Methods to reduce adverse effects of agents

3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

13.

8.

9.

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APPENDICES

15.

Factors to consider when selecting hand hygiene products 15.1 Pilot testing 15.2 Selection factors Hand hygiene practices among health-care workers and adherence to recommendations 16.1 Hand hygiene practices among health-care workers 16.2 Observed adherence to hand cleansing 16.3 Factors affecting adherence

23.

16.

Practical issues and potential barriers to optimal hand hygiene practices 23.1 Glove policies 23.2 Importance of hand hygiene for safe blood and blood products 23.3 Jewellery 23.4 Fingernails and artificial nails 23.5 Infrastructure required for optimal hand hygiene 23.6 Safety issues related to alcohol-based preparations Hand hygiene research agenda

24. 17. Religious and cultural aspects of hand hygiene 17.1 Importance of hand hygiene in different religions 17.2 Hand gestures in different religions and cultures 17.3 The concept of “visibly dirty”hands 17.4 Use of alcohol-based handrubs and alcohol prohibition by some religions 17.5 Possible solutions Behavioural considerations 18.1 Social sciences and health behaviour 18.2 Behavioural aspects of hand hygiene Organizing an educational programme to promote hand hygiene 19.1 Process for developing an educational programme when implementing guidelines 19.2 Organization of a training programme 19.3 The infection control link health-care worker Formulating strategies for hand hygiene promotion 20.1 Elements of promotion strategies 20.2 Developing a strategy for guideline implementation 20.3 Marketing technology for hand hygiene promotion The WHO Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy 21.1 Key elements for a successful strategy 21.2 Essential steps for implementation at heath-care setting level 21.3 WHO tools for implementation 21.4 “My five moments for hand hygiene” 21.5 Lessons learnt from the testing of the WHO Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy in pilot and complementary sites Impact of improved hand hygiene

PART II. CONSENSUS RECOMMENDATIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Ranking system for evidence Indications for hand hygiene Hand hygiene technique Recommendations for surgical hand preparation Selection and handling of hand hygiene agents Skin care Use of gloves Other aspects of hand hygiene Educational and motivational programmes for healthcare workers Governmental and institutional responsibilities For health-care administrators For national governments

18.

19.

20.

PART III. PROCESS AND OUTCOME MEASUREMENT 1. Hand hygiene as a performance indicator 1.1 Monitoring hand hygiene by direct methods 1.2 The WHO-recommended method for direct observation 1.3 Indirect monitoring of hand hygiene performance 1.4 Automated monitoring of hand hygiene Hand hygiene as a quality indicator for patient safety Assessing the economic impact of hand hygiene promotion 3.1 Need for economic evaluation 3.2 Cost–benefit and cost–effectiveness analyses 3.3 Review of the economic literature 3.4 Capturing the costs of hand hygiene at the institutional level 3.5 Typical cost-savings from hand hygiene promotion programmes 3.6 Financial strategies to support national programmes

21.

2. 3.

22. III

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WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

PART IV. TOWARDS A GENERAL MODEL OF CAMPAIGNING FOR BETTER HAND HYGIENE – A NATIONAL APPROACH TO HAND HYGIENE IMPROVEMENT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Introduction Objectives

PART VI. COMPARISON OF NATIONAL AND SUB-NATIONAL GUIDELINES FOR HAND HYGIENE REFERENCES APPENDICES

Historical perspective 1. Public campaigning, WHO and the mass media 4.1 National campaigns within health care Benefits and barriers in national programmes Limitations of national programmes IV The relevance of social marketing and social movement theories 7.1 Hand hygiene improvement campaigns outside of health care Nationally driven hand hygiene improvement in health care Towards a blueprint for developing, implementing and evaluating a national hand hygiene improvement programme within health care Conclusion 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Definitions of health-care settings and other related terms Guide to appropriate hand hygiene in connection with Clostridium difficile spread Hand and skin self-assessment tool Monitoring hand hygiene by direct methods Example of a spreadsheet to estimate costs WHO global survey of patient experiences in hand hygiene improvement

8. 9.

10.

PART V. PATIENT INVOLVEMENT IN HAND HYGIENE PROMOTION 1. 2. 3. Overview and terminology Patient empowerment and health care Components of the empowerment process 3.1 Patient participation 3.2 Patient knowledge 3.3 Patient skills 3.4 Creation of a facilitating environment and positive deviance Hand hygiene compliance and empowerment 4.1 Patient and health-care workers empowerment Programmes and models of hand hygiene promotion, including patient and health-care workers empowerment 5.1 Evidence 5.2 Programmes WHO global survey of patient experiences Strategy and resources for developing, implementing and evaluating a patient/health-care workers empowerment programme in a health-care facility or community
48

4. 5.

6. 7.

APPENDICES

3. Hand Hygiene Implementation Toolkit
Guide to Implementation of the WHO Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy Template Action Plan Tools for System Change Tools for Training / Education Slides for the Hand Hygiene Co-ordinator Slides for Education Sessions for Trainers, Observers and Health-Care Workers Hand Hygiene Training Films Tools for Evaluation and Feedback Hand Hygiene Technical Reference Manual Observation Tools: Observation Form and Compliance Calculation Form Ward Infrastructure Survey Tools for Reminders in the Workplace Your 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene Poster How to Handrub Poster Tools for Institutional Safety Climate Template Letter to Advocate Hand Hygiene to Managers Template Letter to Communicate Hand Hygiene Initiatives to Managers Guidance on Engaging Patients and Patient Organizations in Hand Hygiene Initiatives Sustaining Improvement – Additional Activities for Consideration by HealthCare Facilities SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands Promotional DVD

Ward Infrastructure Survey Alcohol-based Handrub Planning and Costing Tool Guide to Local Production: WHO-recommended Handrub Formulations Soap / Handrub Consumption Survey Protocol for Evaluation of Tolerability and Acceptability of Alcohol-based Handrub in Use or Planned to be Introduced: Method 1 Protocol for Evaluation and Comparison of Tolerability and Acceptability of Different Alcohol-based Handrubs: Method 2

How to Handwash Poster

Slides Accompanying the Training Films

Soap / Handrub Consumption Survey

Hand Hygiene: When and How Leaflet

Hand Hygiene Technical Reference Manual

Perception Survey for Health-Care Workers

SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands Screensaver

Observation Form

Perception Survey for Senior Managers Hand Hygiene Knowledge Questionnaire for HealthCare Workers Protocol for Evaluation of Tolerability and Acceptability of Alcoholbased Handrub in Use or Planned to be Introduced: Method 1 Protocol for Evaluation and Comparison of Tolerability and Acceptability of Different Alcohol-based Handrubs: Method 2 Data Entry Analysis Tool Instruction for Data Entry Analysis Data Summary Report Framework

Hand Hygiene Why, How and When Brochure

Glove use Information Leaflet

Your 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene Poster Frequently Asked Questions Key Scientific Publications Sustaining Improvement – Additional Activities for Consideration by HealthCare Facilities

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WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

Acknowledgements
Developed by the Clean Care is Safer Care Team (WHO Patient Safety, Information, Evidence and Research Cluster): Benedetta Allegranzi, Sepideh Bagheri Nejad, Marie-Noelle Chraiti, Cyrus Engineer, Gabriela Garcia Castillejos, Wilco Graafmans, Claire Kilpatrick, Elizabeth Mathai, Didier Pittet, Lucile Resal, Hervé Richet, Rosemary Sudan.
Critical contribution to content from: John Boyce Saint Raphael Hospital, New Haven, CT; United States of America Yves Chartier World Health Organization, Geneva; Switzerland Marie-Noelle Chraïti University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva: Switzerland Barry Cookson Health Protection Agency, London; United Kingdom Nizam Damani Craigavon Area Hospital, Portadown, Northern Ireland; United Kingdom Sasi Dharan University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva; Switzerland Neelam Dhingra-Kumar Essential Health Technologies, World Health Organization, Geneva; Switzerland Raphaelle Girard Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Lyon; France Don Goldmann Institute for Healthcare Improvement, Cambridge, MA: United States of America Lindsay Grayson Austin & Repatriation Medical Centre, Heidelberg; Australia Elaine Larson Columbia University School of Nursing and Joseph Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY; United States of America Yves Longtin University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva; Switzerland Marianne McGuckin McGuckin Methods International Inc., and Department of Health Policy, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA; United States of America Mary-Louise McLaws Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sidney; Australia Geeta Mehta Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi; India Ziad Memish King Fahad National Guard Hospital, Riyadh; Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Peter Nthumba Kijabe Hospital, Kijabe; Kenya Michele Pearson Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA; United States of America Carmem Lúcia Pessoa-Silva Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response, World Health Organization, Geneva; Switzerland Didier Pittet University of Geneva Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva; Switzerland Manfred Rotter Klinishche Institut für Hygiene und Medizinische Mikrobiologie der Medizinischen Universität, Vienna; Austria Denis Salomon University of Geneva Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva; Switzerland Syed Sattar Centre for Research on Environmental Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottowa, Ottawa; Canada Hugo Sax University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva; Switzerland Wing Hong Seto Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China Andreas Voss Canisius-Wilhelmina Hospital, Nijmegen;The Netherlands Michael Whitby Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane; Australia Andreas F Widmer Innere Medizin und Infektiologie, Kantonsspital Basel und Universitätskliniken Basel, Basel; Switzerland Walter Zingg University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva; Switzerland

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Technical contributions from: Vivienne Allan National Patient Safety Agency, London; United Kingdom Charanjit Ajit Singh International Interfaith Centre, Oxford; United Kingdom Jacques Arpin Geneva; Switzerland Pascal Bonnabry University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva; Switzerland Izhak Dayan Communauté Israélite de Genève, Geneva; Switzerland Cesare Falletti Monastero Dominus Tecum, Pra’d Mill; Italy Tesfamicael Ghebrehiwet International Council of Nurses; Switzerland William Griffiths University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva; Switzerland Martin J. Hatlie Partnership for Patient Safety; United States of America Pascale Herrault University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva; Switzerland Annette Jeanes Lewisham Hospital, Lewisham; United Kingdom Axel Kramer Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universität Greifswald, Greifswald; Germany Michael Kundi University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria Anna-Leena Lohiniva US Naval Medical Research Unit, Cairo; Egypt

Jann Lubbe University of Geneva Hospitals; Geneva; Switzerland Peter Mansell National Patient Safety Agency, London; United Kingdom Anant Murthy Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD; United States of America Nana Kobina Nketsia Traditional Area Amangyina, Sekondi; Ghana Florian Pittet Geneva; Switzerland Anantanand Rambachan Saint Olaf College, Northfield, MN; United States of America Ravin Ramdass South African Medical Association; South Africa Beth Scott London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London; United Kingdom Susan Sheridan Consumers Advancing Patient Safety; United States of America Parichart Suwanbubbha Mahidol University, Bangkok; Thailand Gail Thomson North Manchester General Hospital, Manchester; United Kingdom Hans Ucko World Council of Churches, Geneva; Switzerland Editorial contribution from: Rosemary Sudan University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva; Switzerland

Special technical contribution from: Benedetta Allegranzi Clean Care is Safer Care Team, WHO Patient Safety Peer review from: Nordiah Awang Jalil Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur; Malaysia Victoria J. Fraser Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO; United States of America William R Jarvis Jason & Jarvis Associates, Port Orford, OR; United States of America Carol O’Boyle University of Minnesota School of Nursing, Minneapolis, MN; United States of America M Sigfrido Rangel-Frausto Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico, DF; Mexico Victor D Rosenthal Medical College of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires; Argentina Barbara Soule Joint Commission Resources, Inc., Oak Brook, IL; United States of America Robert C Spencer Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol; United Kingdom Paul Ananth Tambyah National University Hospital, Singapore; Singapore Peterhans J van den Broek Leiden Medical University, Leiden; The Netherlands Editorial supervision from: Didier Pittet University of Geneva Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva; Switzerland

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WHO GUIDELINES ON HAND HYGIENE IN HEALTH CARE SUMMARY

Patient Safety Programme, WHO (All teams and members listed in alphabetical order) African Partnerships for Patient Safety: Sepideh Bagheri Nejad, Rachel Heath, Joyce Hightower, Edward Kelley, Yvette Piebo, Didier Pittet, Paul Rutter, Julie Storr, Shams Syed Blood Stream Infections: Katthyana Aparicio, Sebastiana Gianci, Chris Goeschel, Maite Diez Navarlaz, Edward Kelley, Itziar Larizgoitia, Peter Pronovost Central Support & Administration: Armorel Duncan, Sooyeon Hwang, John Shumbusho H1N1 Checklist: Carmen Audera-Lopez, Gerald Dziekan, Atul Gawande, Angela Lashoher, Pat Martin, Paul Rutter Patient Checklist: Benjamin Ellis, Pat Martin, Susan Sheridan Safe Childbirth Checklist: Priya Agraval, Gerald Dziekan, Atul Gawande, Angela Lashoher, Claire Lemer, Jonathan Spector Trauma Checklist: Gerald Dziekan, Angela Lashoher, Charles Mock, James Turner Communications: Vivienne Allan, Margaret Kahuthia, Laura Pearson, Kristine Stave Education: Esther Adeyemi, Bruce Barraclough, Benjamin Ellis, Itziar Larizgoitia, Agnés Leotsakos, Rona Patey, Samantha Van Staalduinen, Merrilyn Walton International Classification for Patient Safety: Martin Fletcher, Edward Kelley, Itziar Larizgoitia, Pierre Lewalle

Patient safety award: Benjamin Ellis, Edward Kelley, Agnès Leotsakos Patients for Patient Safety: Joanna Groves , Martin Hatlie, Edward Kelley, Anna Lee, Pat Martin, Margaret Murphy, Susan Sheridan, Garance Upham Pulse oximetry: William Berry, Gerald Dziekan, Angela Enright, Peter Evans, Luke Funk, Atul Gawande, Alan Merry, Isabeau Walker, Iain Wilson Reporting & Learning: Gabriela Garcia Castillejos, Martin Fletcher, Sebastiana Gianci, Christine Goeschel, Edward Kelley Research and Knowledge Management: Katthyana Aparicio, Carmen AuderaLopez, Sorin Banica, David Bates, Mobasher Butt, Mai Fujii, Wilco Graafmans, Itziar Larizgoitia, Nittita Prasopa-Plaizier Safe Surgery Saves Lives: William Berry, Priya Desai, Gerald Dziekan, Lizabeth Edmondson, Atul Gawande, Alex Haynes, Sooyeon Hwang, Agnès Leotsakos, Pat Martin, Elizabeth Morse, Paul Rutter, Laura Schoenherr, Tom Weiser, Iain Yardley Solutions & High 5s: Laura Caisley, Edward Kelley, Agnès Leotsakos, Karen Timmons Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance: Armorel Duncan, Gerald Dziekan, Felix Greaves, David Heymann, Sooyeon Hwang, Ian Kennedy, Didier Pittet, Vivian Tang Technology: Rajesh Aggarwal, Ara Darzi, Rachel Davies, Edward Kelley, Oliver Mytton, Charles Vincent, Guang-Zhong Yang

WHO Collaborating Departments: WHO Lyon Office for National Epidemic Preparedness and Response, Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response, Health Security and Environment Cluster Blood Transfusion Safety, Essential Health Technologies, Health Systems and Services Cluster Clinical Procedures, Essential Health Technologies, Health Systems and Services Cluster Making Pregnancy Safer, Reproductive Health and Research, Family and Community Health Cluster Policy, Access and Rational Use, Medicines Policy and Standards, Health Systems and Services Cluster Vaccine Assessment and Monitoring, Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals, Family and Community Health Cluster Water, Sanitation and Health, Protection of the Human Environment, Health Security and Environment Cluster WHO acknowledges the Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève (HUG), in particular the members of the Infection Control Programme, for their active participation in developing this material.

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World Health Organization 20 Avenue Appia CH – 1211 Geneva 27 Switzerland Tel: +41 (0) 22 791 50 60

Email patientsafety@who.int Please visit us at: www.who.int/patientsafety/en/ www.who.int/gpsc/en…...

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