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Why Are Some Employees More “Stressed” Than Others?

In: Business and Management

Submitted By Chawalita
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Why Are Some Employees More “Stressed” Than Others?

A. Perception and Appraisal of Stress 1. The transactional theory of stress describes how stressors are appraised. When people first encounter stressors, primary appraisal, or the evaluation of the significance and meaning of those stressors, is triggered
a. Job demands that are not considered stressful are called benign job demands

B. Types of Stressors 1. Work Hindrance Stressors – work-related stressors that people perceive as hindering their progress toward goals
a. Role conflict – conflicting expectations that other people have of us
b. Role ambiguity – lack of information regarding what needs to be done in a role
c. Role overload – when the number of roles a person holds is so high that some of the roles are performed less effectively, or not at all
d. Daily hassles – relatively minor day-to-day demands that get in the way of accomplishing what we want to do

2. Work Challenge Stressors – work-related stressors that can lead toward development and growth
a. Time pressure – the sense that you don’t have enough time to do what needs to be done
b. Work complexity – the degree to which the requirements of the work tax or exceed the capabilities of the person doing the work
c. Work responsibility – the nature of the obligations a person has to others

3. Non-Work Hindrance Stressors – non-work-related stressors that hinder progress toward goals
a. Work-family conflict – when the demands of the family role hinder the demands of the work role and vice-versa
b. Negative life events – specific life events, such as the death of a spouse, that are perceived as stressful
c. Financial uncertainty – a general uncertainty about loss of livelihood, savings, or the ability to pay expenses 4. Non-Work Challenge Stressors – non-work-related stressors that are opportunities for growth and development
a. Family time demands – the time a person commits to participate in an array of family activities and responsibilities
b. Personal development – participation in activities associated with personal development, such as music lessons or sports activities
c. Positive life events – specific life events such as pregnancy or the birth of a child, which, although positive, can still be perceived as stressful

C. How Do People Cope With Stressors? 1. Coping refers to behaviors and thoughts that help people manage stressful situations
a. Behavioral coping – the set of physical activities that are used to deal with a stressful situation
b. Cognitive coping – the thoughts that are involved in trying to deal with a stressful situation
c. Problem-focused coping – refers to behaviors and cognitions intended to manage the stressful situation itself
d. Emotion-focused coping – refers to the various ways in which people manage their own emotional reactions to stressful demands

D. The Experience of Strain 1. Negative Consequences of Stress
a. Physiological strains – stress can have an impact on immune system, cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, and gastrointestinal systems Psychological strains – stress can cause psychological symptoms such as depression and anxiety, which can lead to burnout
b. Behavioral strains – alcohol and drug use, teeth grinding, compulsive behaviors, overeating) E. Accounting for Individuals in the Stress Process 1. Reaction to stress depends on whether or not a person exhibits the “Type A Behavior Pattern”
a. Type A people tend to encounter more stressors than other people, due to the fact that they are hard-driving and competitive
b. Type A people are more likely to see demands as being stressful rather than benign
c. Type A people are more likely to have coronary artery disease and exhibit other physical and psychological symptoms of strain 2. Social support can help to mitigate reactions to stress, by providing a buffer between stresses and strains
a. Instrumental support – help people receive that can be used to address the stressful demand directly
b. Emotional support – the help people receive in addressing the emotional distress that accompanies stressful demands

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