Free Essay

Why Mgrs Need an Evolutionary Theory

In: Other Topics

Submitted By skoech2014
Words 5043
Pages 21
STRATEGIC ORGANIZATION Vol 4(2): 201–211 DOI: 10.1177/1476127006064069 Copyright ©2006 Sage Publications (London,Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi)

S O ! A P B OX

Why managers need an evolutionary theory of organizations
Peter J. Richerson University of California–Davis, USA Dwight Collins Presidio School of Management, USA Russell M. Genet Orion Institute, USA

Introduction Most observers have agreed that the theory of human behavior derived from the assumption of selfish rationality is inadequate to describe human behavior and human organizations (Rousseau et al., 1998). The issue is what other approach to theory building will provide an adequate theoretical toolkit for human behavior. We argue in this essay that evolutionary theory is the proper foundation for the human sciences, particularly a theory that includes an account of cultural evolution. This theory shows how the limited but real altruistic tendencies of humans arose by tribal-scale group selection on cultural norms followed by coevolutionary responses on the part of our genes. Our tribal social instincts in turn act as a moral hidden hand that makes human organizations possible. We introduce this theory and describe some implications of it for strategy and organization. In effect, managers want to control the cultural evolution of organizations so as to make them perform better. Understanding the tribal roots of our social instincts and the dynamic properties of cultural evolution should lead to a better understanding of the potentials of humans to create functional organizations and to a better understanding of how organizations can become dysfunctional and fail. We hope to strike up a dialog with SO!’s readers about the applications of cultural evolutionary theory.

A challenge to management and management science Recent developments in experimental economics show that the traditional economists’ assumption that humans are selfish rationalists is wrong, and wrong in ways that are important to organizational theory and management (Fehr and Fischbacher, 2003; Henrich et al., 2004). Humans are prone to fair and


S T R AT E G I C O R G A N I Z AT I O N 4 ( 2 )

altruistic behavior, although the extent to which they behave in nice ways varies both individually and culturally. A reasonable cross-disciplinary consensus exists on the important role that trust, for example, plays in the behavior of human organizations (Rousseau et al., 1998). Orlizky et al.’s (2003) meta-analysis of studies of corporate social and environmental responsibility suggests that companies that formally pursue such policies actually make more profit than ones that restrict formal accounting to financial matters. Such findings, combined with recent examples of managerial misfeasance in the business community, have sparked a spirited reaction to the dominance of economic theory in management education (Ferraro et al., 2005; Ghoshal, 2005). Perhaps the selfish rationality of economic theory seeps into boardroom behavior in unintended ways. In this essay, we consider what contribution a theory of cultural evolution might make to understanding human propensities to form organizations based on trust and cooperation rather than on egoistic competition. By culture we mean everything that people acquire from other people by teaching and imitation – language, attitudes, skills, values, preferences and social institutions. The ongoing evolution of modern organizations and the societies they serve hardly involves genes at all. Rather, it involves technical innovations and new social arrangements, much as human evolution has for the past 50,000 years or more, ever since modern humans evolved from the last of our ancient ancestors. In a word, the human adventure is an exercise in cultural evolution. Cultural change is today studied primarily by historians and anthropologists, most of whom are uninterested in formal theory and quantitative data. The most theoretically ambitious social science, economics, has mostly dealt in models without an explicit temporal dimension, a serious defect, as Nelson and Winter (1982) cogently argued long ago. This is changing fast. Cultural evolutionists, borrowing tools from biology, have built a considerable toolkit of models. Some economists have discovered evolutionary theory and have begun to consider cultural diversity in time and space. The discoveries of experimental economics confirm some of the most important predictions of cultural evolutionary theory. The outlines of a synthetic evolutionary social science now exist (Bowles, 2003; Fehr and Fischbacher, 2003; Richerson and Boyd, 2005).

The theory of cultural evolution Organic evolutionists began to use mathematical models to investigate the properties of evolution in the first quarter of the 20th century. The aim of the effort was to take the micro-scale properties of individuals and genes, scale them up to a population of individuals and deduce the long-run evolutionary consequences of the assumed micro-level processes. Empiricists have a handle on both the micro-scale processes and the long-run results, but not on what happens over many generations in between. Moreover, human intuition is not

R I C H E R S O N & C O L L I N S & G E N E T : S O ! A P B OX


very good at envisioning the behavior of populations over long spans of time. Hence mathematics proved an invaluable aid. Beginning with the pioneering work of Cavalli-Sforza and Feldman (1981) in the early 1970s, these methods were adapted to study cultural evolution. The problem is somewhat the same as organic evolution. People acquire information from others by learning and teaching. Cultural transmission is imperfect, so the transmission is not always exact. People invent new cultural variants, making culture a system for the inheritance of acquired variation. People also pick and choose the cultural variants they adopt and use, processes that are not possible in the genetic system (although in the case of sexual selection individuals may choose mates with the objective of getting good genes for their offspring). Social scientists know a fair amount about such things, enough to build reasonable mathematical representations of the micro-level processes of cultural evolution. The theory is of the form Pt 1=Pt effects of forces

where p measures something interesting about the culture of a population, for example the fraction of employees who are earnest workers. Teaching and imitation, all else equal, tend to replicate culture. The fraction of workers in a culture who are earnest tends to remain similar from generation to generation. Earnest workers model earnest behavior for others to imitate and try to teach earnestness to new employees. Likewise slackers. Typically, several processes we call forces will act simultaneously to change culture over time. For example, management may find it difficult to discover and sanction slacking. Earnest workers may experiment with slacking and find that there are seldom any adverse consequences. Hence, some earnest employees may become slackers. New employees may observe that some people slack and some work hard. They may tend to prefer the easier path. At the same time, firms with a high frequency of slackers will tend to fail while those with many earnest workers may prosper. Prosperous firms will have the opportunity to socialize many more new workers than those that fail prematurely. The overall quality of the economy’s workforce in the long run will be determined by the balance of forces favoring slacking compared with those favoring earnestness. Theorists are interested in the abstract properties of such evolutionary models. Empiricists are interested in finding the models that best describe actual evolving systems. Real world practitioners are interested in predicting the outcomes of policies that might improve or harm the quality of a firm’s or an economy’s workforce. Our own interest (Boyd and Richerson, 1985; Richerson and Boyd, 2005) has been to use such models to answer a series of substantive questions. We have been interested in the adaptive costs and benefits of culture, the rates of different kinds of cultural evolution, the evolution of symbolic systems and the role of culture in the evolution of cooperation. Each of these areas has potential applications to management and management science (Baum and McKelvey, 1999).


S T R AT E G I C O R G A N I Z AT I O N 4 ( 2 )

Selfish rationality versus the moral hidden hand Hard-nosed commentators influenced by neoclassic economic theory typically advise that business forces people to focus on the bottom line. They then advance the hidden hand argument from Adam Smith to justify the bottom-line focus as leading to virtue in the end. Market forces left to themselves will ensure through the hidden hand that everyone’s selfish actions will in fact benefit society as a whole. The Economist (2005) stoutly defended this view against the charge by prominent business scholars that advice to businessmen based too literally on theory derived from assumptions of selfish rationality is destructive of business ethics (Ferraro et al., 2005; Ghoshal, 2005). Although many business leaders know better, much management science derives from the economists’ conventional view that human beings are fundamentally selfish by nature. Managers must control employees’ behavior by creating incentives that align each individual’s behavior with the goals of the firm. The benign hidden hand that is supposed to guarantee that market incentives to businesses align businesses’ behavior with social virtue is assumed not to work at all within the firm. A top-down management system must plan strategy, monitor behavior and create incentives to make a business prosper. But why should the hidden hand work so well at one level and fail so miserably at another? The paradoxical advice business receives based on the selfish rationality view neglects fundamentally important considerations, as businesspeople know from experience. For example, we all observe cultural differences in different business organizations and see that some of these differences profoundly affect how businesses function and how successful they are. We believe that the selfish rationality view is downright dangerous because it recommends strategies that are dysfunctional. Economists tend to overestimate the extent to which the market’s hidden hand functions in the macroeconomy of the marketplace and underestimate the role of what we will call the moral hidden hand in the microeconomy of the firm.

Cultural evolution and the moral hidden hand

The discoveries of the cultural evolutionists have two important legs. First, we now have a much deeper insight into human nature than was possible in the absence of an understanding of cultural evolution. Humans have evolved a social psychology that mixes a strong element of cooperative dispositions, deriving from group selection on cultural variation, with an equally strong selfish element deriving from more ancient primate dispositions. We are imperfect and often reluctant, but often very effective, cooperators. People are contingent cooperators. Few will continue cooperating when others do not. Second, the effectiveness of our cooperation is not just a product of our social psychology; rather, our social psychology creates evolutionary forces that build cultural

R I C H E R S O N & C O L L I N S & G E N E T : S O ! A P B OX


systems of morality and convention that in turn make possible sophisticated systems of cooperation such as businesses. Individuals are not really that rational. We depend upon cultural evolution to generate social institutions over many generations that are more rational than individuals by themselves can ever hope to be. Conditional cooperation and the existence of social rules, to which we more or less readily conform, constitute the moral hidden hand. One can depend on most people, most of the time, to be spontaneously helpful and honest – even to strangers. Just as no corps of central planners needs to work out the details of how a market economy is to operate, so no central authority needs to comprehensively supervise the day-to-day interactions of a human community to ensure that we all take account of one another’s needs and behave decently and honestly.
Humans: tribespeople by nature

The evolution of humans from primate ancestors involved the evolution of sympathy, loyalty and pride in one’s contribution to the group. These qualities originally supported simple tribes in which food was shared, territory defended and rules enforced without any top-down leadership. Just as companies today with too many employees who look out for themselves tend to lose in competition with ones where more look out for the welfare of the firm, tribes with good rules and enough people willing to follow them triumphed over more chimpanzeelike tribes as human nature gradually diverged from that of our ape ancestors. Evolutionists call this mechanism group selection. Modern cultural evolutionary theory and much evidence are consistent with the same basic idea (Richerson et al., 2003). Group selection happens to operate much more effectively on cultural variation than genetic variation, explaining why human patterns of cooperation are so unusual.
Co-evolution of genes and culture to create our unique human nature

The cultural and genetic elements of our social psychology interacted over the long run of human evolution from our ape ancestors. In the end, we became the unique creatures we are, capable of enormous collective enterprises because of our ability to cooperate and trust conditionally, yet beset by conflicts on scales from the interpersonal to the international. On the practical side, cultural evolutionary science sketches the nature of the human raw material and the kinds of evolutionary tradeoffs that beset the design of organizations. It points to the levers that the managers have over the social institutions of firms so as to engender as much cooperation and as little conflict as is possible given our complex social proclivities. The advice that flows from the science of cultural evolution is as hard as any you will get from economists. It paints a rather softer picture of people’s willingness to cooperate but emphasizes that our raw propensities are useless without well-functioning institutions. Our main claim both


S T R AT E G I C O R G A N I Z AT I O N 4 ( 2 )

for cultural evolutionary theory and its advice to managers is greater realism compared with other approaches to management based on social sciences.
Empathy and the moral hidden hand

Our theory has a back-to-the-future aspect. Adam Smith and Charles Darwin both made empathy the cornerstone of their theories of virtue. They observed that without the other-regarding virtue of sympathy, the social life that humans enjoy today would not be possible, much less reforms aimed at improving our social life. Darwin gave sympathy and related everyday virtues an important evolutionary role in favoring good social rules and providing the basis for rejecting flawed ones. Market forces certainly do exert important hidden hand effects, but the effects of everyday virtues are equally pervasive and nearly as hidden, in the sense that formal legal institutions and formal policies and procedures represent only a small part of their effect. Informal rules and everyday virtues affect our behavior in a multitude of unforced, unplanned ways. Formal law is costly and cumbersome, and is most often invoked when custom and everyday virtue fail in some way. Smith’s and Darwin’s old insights are buttressed by modern theoretical and empirical studies that show how far human behavior deviates from the neoclassic economist’s selfish rational assumption. For example, an important component of the moral hidden hand is the fact that many people will altruistically punish cheaters in social games (Fehr and Gachter, 2002). Given such results, we should not be surprised that businesses attending to their social and environmental responsibilities, conservatively speaking, make no less money than the average business and in many cases seem to make more money than ones that focus ruthlessly on the bottom line (Orlitzky et al., 2003). Businesses are complex cooperative systems that function best when the moral hidden hand is operating most freely. A business full of high-morale cooperators will tend to earn the firm respectable profits and still have plenty of spare energy to help people and the environment. The firm that focuses excessively on the bottom line may find that it has inadvertently handicapped the moral hidden hand by encouraging employees to focus selfishly on their personal bottom lines, which might include diverting the firm’s resources for their own gain by focusing on personal agendas, padding expense accounts, pilfering the supply cabinet, running up sales commissions by making expensive promises to customers, and by the many other ways that selfish employees can exploit the organization. Most economists are surprised by findings, such as Orlitzky et al.’s (2003) (as they are by many of the cultural-evolutionary findings that underpin our analysis). Economists have been trained to expect a tradeoff to exist between a firm’s profitability and any special attention it pays to social or environmental concerns rather than the synergy between these goals predicted by cultural evolution (and supported by laboratory experiments). Economics students, incidentally, are more resistant to the moral hidden hand in

R I C H E R S O N & C O L L I N S & G E N E T : S O ! A P B OX


the laboratory than other students and have trouble making cooperation work. Having imbibed the selfish rational assumption, they are handicapped in running the model businesses we set up in the laboratory. Economics, we should add, is changing very rapidly because some of the most elegant support for the moral hidden hand has come from the studies of pioneering experimental economists brought up in the neoclassical tradition (Guth et al., 1982). It is not in the most profitable nursing homes that the staff beats up the residents. It is not the most profitable factories that turn out unreliable products, waste energy, or have disaffected employees. Rather, firms in which most people take pride in their craft, treat each other, their customers and other important outsiders fairly, are loyal to the firm and discourage co-workers from taking advantage of the firm are those that prosper. Our argument turns on the source of these virtuous actions. If the virtues that lead people to cooperate to earn profits are rather closely related to the virtues that cause people to value virtuous actions in other spheres, then businesses that encourage these general virtues will both prosper financially and succeed by other measures as well.
Tribal human nature, work-arounds and organizational management

The understanding that human nature is fundamentally tribal is what we believe evolutionary social science brings to the applied field of management. Business is made possible, but not easy, through a tribal human nature that is conditionally cooperative. Given the right culturally transmitted rules and enough of our peers willing to honor them, most of us are also willing to honor them. Businesses succeed when they are organized to recruit the group favoring the tribal impulses that most of us have, but they also have to work against the fact that businesses face a more constrained job than tribes. Tribes worked only for their members’ benefit, whereas businesses have a broad array of stakeholders to satisfy – customers, suppliers, owners, lenders, neighbors and regulators. Complex societies use grants of power and other devices such as work-arounds to control inter-tribal anarchy in the interests of domestic tranquility and an efficient division of labor. But work-arounds often lead to management problems, like the abuses of power for selfish ends (Richerson and Boyd, 1999). Successful management is thus substantially the art of using work-arounds to tap the moral hidden hand while at the same time minimizing their inherent vices.

Leading a business as opposed to training chimpanzees To see why the prosocial elements of our social psychology and cultural rules are so important, imagine the management costs in a firm that had to treat every employee as a rational selfish maximizer of personal satisfactions. Such employees would have to be very carefully monitored in order to reward and punish them so that they act in the firm’s best interest as well as their own. Even if


S T R AT E G I C O R G A N I Z AT I O N 4 ( 2 )

these costs were not exorbitant, why would selfish, rational managers ever take the trouble to exert such effort? A sole proprietor is motivated to be an ultimate policeman for such a system of hierarchical controls, but most corporations have dispersed ownership and fairly autonomous management because the number of people a single person can comprehensively monitor is very small. One reason that market economies work so well compared with command economies is that central planners have an impossible computational task, one that price signals in a market solve very efficiently without much central direction. The moral hidden hand similarly reduces the need to monitor and sanction so as to make large, efficient organizations possible. Most people, most of the time, come to work, do their job, and are civil and supportive of the organization, all with very little management. The moral hidden hand favors informal customs and formal rules that routinize good behavior. Managers have important roles as leaders, motivators and, yes, punishers, but their tasks would be impossible if people were not highly unusual animals subject to the moral hidden hand. The organization leader’s task is possible because most people will work earnestly and follow rules even when they are lightly monitored and could easily shirk, so long as they believe that the organization is doing the right things. When an organization’s culture falters and fails to support the moral hidden hand, it risks bankruptcy. Businesses and other organizations fail at substantial rates, to be replaced by startups and spin-offs. Group selection on organizations remains an active force. Biologists know societies composed of selfish individualists well, since they are common in nature. Our chimpanzee relatives are excellent examples. They are a much closer approximation to the economist’s ideal rational selfish agent than humans. We must have been such creatures before the evolution of the moral hidden hand. Even though dominant chimpanzees are willing to punish, they can barely coerce any cooperation from their troopmates. Chimpanzees raised as children by human surrogate parents remain impossibly selfish and willful, and cannot become functioning members of a human family. The chimpanzees that perform on television and in the movies have their canine teeth removed but even so, handlers risk severe bites. Their trainers must use comprehensive training schedules often said to include considerable severe physical punishment. The ‘smiles’ you often see filmed are fear grimaces caused by the trainers’ off-camera threats. Chimpanzee troops in the wild, unsurprisingly, produce practically nothing that a businessperson would recognize as business. Chimpanzees have no division of labor; males produce no surpluses to contribute to the raising of their offspring, much less to larger-scale collective enterprises; the ill receive no help; they do not trade with neighboring troops. Cooperative ventures are largely restricted to groups of close kin. The most famous examples of kin cooperation in chimpanzees are the bands of three or four close male relatives that form stealthy raiding parties bent on catching and murdering isolated males of competing groups.

R I C H E R S O N & C O L L I N S & G E N E T : S O ! A P B OX


Without the moral hidden hand, a business leader would be like a chimpanzee trainer, only able to coerce a tiny amount of useful behavior out of smart, stubbornly selfish individualists at a high cost. In such a world, where would business leaders interested in that kind of task come from? Without the moral hidden hand, human society would mirror our ancestral ape society in which no large-scale cooperative enterprise were possible. Indeed, the way human behavior has coevolved through fast changing culture and the much slower changing genes to accord with the moral hidden hand is quite impressive when one considers that 98 percent or more of our genetic makeup is identical to that of the chimps.

Implications for researchers in strategic organization Cultural evolutionary theory offers a fruitful foundation for new research in strategic organization. It suggests new theory-driven, testable hypotheses on how to manage organizations for improved returns on financial, human and natural capital. Here are some examples of hypotheses that flow from the cultural evolutionary framework. • Understand your organization’s culture. Most of what an organization is and does is a function of the skills that individuals have and the norms and rules individuals use to deal with each other. Much of importance is transmitted informally. Leaders can only hope to have a limited impact upon an organization’s culture, and they generally have to function within and through the existing cultural norms. Manage a business as a tribe. Create tribal identities. Manage the tribe for the benefit of its members to the extent consistent with its larger missions and responsibilities to society as a whole. Manage with prestige rather than power. Leading from prestige is usually less costly and more effective than leading with power. When power is used it will be effective when used for legitimate reasons; otherwise it will lead to costly resistance. Respect cultural diversity in your organization. Employees from diverse groups will be loyal members of respectful organizations. Cultural diversity tends to bring a useful diversity of skills and experience. Monitoring and punishment are necessary to deter and control the damaging deviance of a few serious, often very clever, malefactors. Excessive monitoring and punishment easily lead to poor morale and low-grade professionalism on the part of the majority of good members of an organization. Monitoring and punishment are an organization leader’s most delicate balancing act.

These ideas can certainly be found in the existing management literature, and they resonate with much practical wisdom. What cultural evolution offers


S T R AT E G I C O R G A N I Z AT I O N 4 ( 2 )

is a theory-based justification for a much less individualistic picture of human behavior than has heretofore been common either in economics or most evolutionary social science. It also offers a progressive program of empirical research to test hypotheses such as those above. We hope that SO!’s readers will become active participants in this project.

Baum, J. A. C. and McKelvey, B., eds (1999) Variations in Organization Science: In Honor of Donald T. Campbell. Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications. Bowles, S. (2003) Microeconomics: Behavior, Institutions and Evolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Boyd, R. and Richerson, P. J. (1985) Culture and the Evolutionary Process. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. and Feldman, M. W. (1981) Cultural Transmission and Evolution: A Quantitative Approach. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. The Economist (2005) ‘School for Scandal: Is the MBA Responsible for Moral Turpitude at the Top?’ (17 February). Fehr, E., and Fischbacher, U. (2003) ‘The Nature of Human Altruism’, Nature 425: 785–91. Fehr, E. and Gachter, S. (2002) ‘Altruistic Punishment in Humans’, Nature 415: 137–40. Ferraro, F., Pfeffer, J. and Sutton, R. I. (2005) ‘Economics Language and Assumptions: How Theories Can Become Self-Fulfilling’, Academy of Management Review 30: 8–24. Ghoshal, S. (2005) ‘Bad Management Theories Are Destroying Good Management Practices’, Academy of Management Learning and Education 4: 75–91. Guth, W., Schmittberger, R. and Schwarze, B. (1982) ‘An Experimental Study of Ultimatum Bargaining’, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 3: 417–49. Henrich, J., Boyd, R., Bowles, S., Camerer, C., Fehr, E. and Gintis, H. (2004) Foundations of Human Sociality: Economic Experiments and Ethnographic Evidence from Fifteen Small-Scale Societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Nelson, R. R. and Winter, S. G. (1982) An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Orlitzky, M., James G., Schmidt, F. L. and Rynes, S. L. (2003) ‘Corporate Social and Financial Performance: A Meta-analysis’, Organization Studies 24: 403–41. Richerson, P. J. and Boyd, R. (1999). ‘Complex societies – The Evolutionary Origins of a Crude Superorganism’, Human Nature – an Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective 10: 253–89. Richerson, P. J. and Boyd, R. (2005) Not By Genes Alone: How Cultural Transformed Human Evolution. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Richerson, P. J., Boyd, R. and Henrich, J. (2003) ‘Cultural Evolution of Human Cooperation’, in P. Hammerstein (ed.) Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation, pp. 357–88). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Rousseau, D. M., Sitkin, S. B., Burt, R. S. and Camerer, C. (1998) ‘Introduction to Special Topic Forum: Not So Different After All: A Cross-Discipline View of Trust’, Academy of Management Review 23: 393–404.

Peter J. Richerson is Professor of Environmental Science and Policy at the University of California at Davis. He has worked with Robert Boyd, Professor of Anthropology, University of California at Los Angeles, on theoretical models of cultural evolution for over 30 years.

R I C H E R S O N & C O L L I N S & G E N E T : S O ! A P B OX


Their recent book Not By Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution is an account of cultural evolution for general audiences.With NSF support, he and his colleagues at Davis are studying cultural evolution in laboratory microsocieties. In collaboration with the other authors of this essay, he is exploring the application of the theory to practical problems. Address: Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of California–Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. [email:] Dwight Collins is Lecturer in Sustainable Operations Management at the Presidio School of Management in San Francisco, president of Colbridge and Company, which provides training and consulting services in sustainable business, and leader of the Collins Family Foundation (CFF). Many of the topics referenced in this essay are being explored as part of a CFF Project entitled ‘Cultural Evolution in Business’ ( Address: Colbridge and Company, 20 Ellis Drive, Basking Ridge, NJ 07920, USA. [email:] Russell M. Genet is Director of the Orion Observatory, located in Santa Margarita, CA. He teaches astronomy at the nearby Cuesta College. His research interests include cosmic evolution, the synthesis of physical, biological, and cultural evolution as described in his latest book, Humanity:The Chimpanzees Who Would Be Ants. Address: Orion Observatory, 4995 Santa Margarita Lake Road, Santa Margarita, CA 93453, USA. [email:]

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...MASARYKOVA UNIVERZITA Ekonomicko-správní fakulta Studijní obor: Podnikové hospodářství Kombinované studium [pic] PROPOSAL OF A MARKETING STRATEGY Návrh marketingové strategie Diploma thesis /Diplomová práce Vedoucí diplomové práce/Supervisor: Autor/Author: Ing. Klára KAŠPAROVÁ Mgr. Jana LUDÍKOVÁ Brno, červen 2008 Brno, June 2008 |Jméno a příjmení autora: |Jana Ludíková | |Author´s name: | | |Název diplomové práce: |Návrh marketingové strategie | |Title of the diploma thesis: | | |Název práce v angličtině: |Proposal of a Marketing Strategy | |English title of the diploma thesis: | | |Katedra: |podnikového hospodářství | |Departement |of corporate economy | |Vedoucí......

Words: 32039 - Pages: 129

Premium Essay

Health Information System

...Austin and Boxerman’s Information Systems for Healthcare Management Seventh Edition Gerald L. Glandon Detlev H. Smaltz Donna J. Slovensky 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 [First Page] [-1], (1) Lines: 0 to 27 * 516.0pt PgVar ——— ——— Normal Page * PgEnds: PageBreak [-1], (1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 AUPHA/HAP Editorial Board Sandra Potthoff, Ph.D., Chair University of Minnesota Simone Cummings, Ph.D. Washington University Sherril B. Gelmon, Dr.P.H., FACHE Portland State University Thomas E. Getzen, Ph.D. Temple University Barry Greene, Ph.D. University of Iowa Richard S. Kurz, Ph.D. Saint Louis University Sarah B. Laditka, Ph.D. University of South Carolina Tim McBride, Ph.D. St. Louis University Stephen S. Mick, Ph.D. Virginia Commonwealth University Michael A. Morrisey, Ph.D. University of Alabama—Birmingham Dawn Oetjen, Ph.D. University of Central Florida Peter C. Olden, Ph.D. University of Scranton Lydia M. Reed AUPHA Sharon B. Schweikhart, Ph.D. The Ohio State University Nancy H. Shanks, Ph.D. Metropolitan State College of Denver * [-2], (2 Lines: 2 59.41 ——— ——— Normal * PgEnds [-2], (2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 [-3],......

Words: 123678 - Pages: 495

Premium Essay

Project Mgt

...SEVENTH EDITION PROJECT MANAGEMENT A Managerial Approach SEVENTH EDITION PROJECT MANAGEMENT A Managerial Approach Jack R. Meredith Broyhill Distinguished Scholar and Chair in Operations Wake Forest University Samuel J. Mantel, Jr. Joseph S. Stern Professor Emeritus of Operations Management University of Cincinnati John Wiley & Sons, Inc. DeDication To Avery and Mitchell, from “papajack.” J. R. M. To Maggie and Patty for their help, support, and affection. S. J. M. VICE PRESIDENT & EXECUTIVE PUBLISHER Don Fowley EXECUTIVE EDITOR Beth Golub ASSOCIATE EDITOR Jen Devine MARKETING MANAGER Carly DeCandia DESIGN DIRECTOR Harry Nolan SENIOR DESIGNER Kevin Murphy SENIOR PRODUCTION EDITOR Patricia McFadden SENIOR MEDIA EDITOR Lauren Sapira PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT SERVICES Ingrao Associates This book was set in by GGS Book Services PMG and printed and bound by RRD/Willard. The cover was printed by RRD/Willard. This book is printed on acid free paper.  Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center,......

Words: 178405 - Pages: 714

Premium Essay


...ftoc.indd 16 10/10/08 5:17:22 PM SEVENTH EDITION PROJECT MANAGEMENT A Managerial Approach ffirs.indd 1 10/10/08 5:16:30 PM SEVENTH EDITION PROJECT MANAGEMENT A Managerial Approach Jack R. Meredith Broyhill Distinguished Scholar and Chair in Operations Wake Forest University Samuel J. Mantel, Jr. Joseph S. Stern Professor Emeritus of Operations Management University of Cincinnati John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ffirs.indd 3 10/10/08 5:16:35 PM ftoc.indd 16 10/10/08 5:17:22 PM Dedication To Avery and Mitchell, from “papajack.” J. R. M. To Maggie and Patty for their help, support, and affection. S. J. M. VICE PRESIDENT & EXECUTIVE PUBLISHER  Don Fowley EXECUTIVE EDITOR  Beth Golub ASSOCIATE EDITOR  Jen Devine MARKETING MANAGER  Carly DeCandia Design Director  Harry Nolan SENIOR DESIGNER  Kevin Murphy SENIOR PRODUCTION EDITOR  Patricia McFadden SENIOR Media editor  Lauren Sapira PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT SERVICES  Ingrao Associates This book was set in by GGS Book Services PMG and printed and bound by RRD/Willard. The cover was printed by RRD/Willard. This book is printed on acid free paper.  Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the......

Words: 181757 - Pages: 728

Premium Essay

Information Processing

...DATABASE MODELING AND DESIGN The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Data Management Systems (Selected Titles) Joe Celko’s Data, Measurements and Standards in SQL Joe Celko Information Modeling and Relational Databases, 2nd Edition Terry Halpin, Tony Morgan Joe Celko’s Thinking in Sets Joe Celko Business Metadata Bill Inmon, Bonnie O’Neil, Lowell Fryman Unleashing Web 2.0 Gottfried Vossen, Stephan Hagemann Enterprise Knowledge Management David Loshin Business Process Change, 2nd Edition Paul Harmon IT Manager’s Handbook, 2nd Edition Bill Holtsnider & Brian Jaffe Joe Celko’s Puzzles and Answers, 2 Joe Celko nd Location-Based Services ` Jochen Schiller and Agnes Voisard Managing Time in Relational Databases: How to Design, Update and Query Temporal Data Tom Johnston and Randall Weis Database Modeling with MicrosoftW Visio for Enterprise Architects Terry Halpin, Ken Evans, Patrick Hallock, Bill Maclean Designing Data-Intensive Web Applications Stephano Ceri, Piero Fraternali, Aldo Bongio, Marco Brambilla, Sara Comai, Maristella Matera Mining the Web: Discovering Knowledge from Hypertext Data Soumen Chakrabarti Advanced SQL: 1999—Understanding Object-Relational and Other Advanced Features Jim Melton Database Tuning: Principles, Experiments, and Troubleshooting Techniques Dennis Shasha, Philippe Bonnet SQL: 1999—Understanding Relational Language Components Jim Melton, Alan R. Simon Information Visualization in Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Edited by Usama Fayyad, Georges G.......

Words: 89336 - Pages: 358

Premium Essay

Databasse Management

...Fundamentals of Database Systems Preface....................................................................................................................................................12 Contents of This Edition.....................................................................................................................13 Guidelines for Using This Book.........................................................................................................14 Acknowledgments ..............................................................................................................................15 Contents of This Edition.........................................................................................................................17 Guidelines for Using This Book.............................................................................................................19 Acknowledgments ..................................................................................................................................21 About the Authors ..................................................................................................................................22 Part 1: Basic Concepts............................................................................................................................23 Chapter 1: Databases and Database......

Words: 229471 - Pages: 918

Free Essay

The Satanic Verses

...Angel Gibreel II Mahound III Ellowen Deeowen IV Ayesha V A City Visible but Unseen VI Return to Jahilia VII The Angel Azraeel VIII The Parting of the Arabian Seas IX A Wonderful Lamp Satan, being thus confined to a vagabond, wandering, unsettled condition, is without any certain abode; for though he has, in consequence of his angelic nature, a kind of empire in the liquid waste or air, yet this is certainly part of his punishment, that he is . . . without any fixed place, or space, allowed him to rest the sole of his foot upon. Daniel Defoe, _The History of the Devil_ I The Angel Gibreel "To be born again," sang Gibreel Farishta tumbling from the heavens, "first you have to die. Hoji! Hoji! To land upon the bosomy earth, first one needs to fly. Tat-taa! Taka-thun! How to ever smile again, if first you won't cry? How to win the darling's love, mister, without a sigh? Baba, if you want to get born again . . ." Just before dawn one winter's morning, New Year's Day or thereabouts, two real, full-grown, living men fell from a great height, twenty-nine thousand and two feet, towards the English Channel, without benefit of parachutes or wings, out of a clear sky. "I tell you, you must die, I tell you, I tell you," and thusly and so beneath a moon of alabaster until a loud cry crossed the night,...

Words: 195828 - Pages: 784

Premium Essay

Database Management System

...DATABASE S YSTEMS DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION, AND MANAGEMENT CARLOS CORONEL • STEVEN MORRIS • PETER ROB Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Database Systems: Design, Implementation, and Management, Ninth Edition Carlos Coronel, Steven Morris, and Peter Rob Vice President of Editorial, Business: Jack W. Calhoun Publisher: Joe Sabatino Senior Acquisitions Editor: Charles McCormick, Jr. Senior Product Manager: Kate Mason Development Editor: Deb Kaufmann Editorial Assistant: Nora Heink Senior Marketing Communications Manager: Libby Shipp Marketing Coordinator: Suellen Ruttkay Content Product Manager: Matthew Hutchinson Senior Art Director: Stacy Jenkins Shirley Cover Designer: Itzhack Shelomi Cover Image: iStock Images Media Editor: Chris Valentine Manufacturing Coordinator: Julio Esperas Copyeditor: Andrea Schein Proofreader: Foxxe Editorial Indexer: Elizabeth Cunningham Composition: GEX Publishing Services © 2011 Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as......

Words: 189848 - Pages: 760

Free Essay

The Origins and Development of the English Language (Textbook)

...THE ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE This page intentionally left blank THE ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SIXTH EDITION ± ± John Algeo ± ± ± ± ± Based on the original work of ± ± ± ± ± Thomas Pyles Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States The Origins and Development of the English Language: Sixth Edition John Algeo Publisher: Michael Rosenberg Development Editor: Joan Flaherty Assistant Editor: Megan Garvey Editorial Assistant: Rebekah Matthews Senior Media Editor: Cara Douglass-Graff Marketing Manager: Christina Shea Marketing Communications Manager: Beth Rodio Content Project Manager: Corinna Dibble Senior Art Director: Cate Rickard Barr Production Technology Analyst: Jamie MacLachlan Senior Print Buyer: Betsy Donaghey Rights Acquisitions Manager Text: Tim Sisler Production Service: Pre-Press PMG Rights Acquisitions Manager Image: Mandy Groszko Cover Designer: Susan Shapiro Cover Image: Kobal Collection Art Archive collection Dagli Orti Prayer with illuminated border, from c. 1480 Flemish manuscript Book of Hours of Philippe de Conrault, The Art Archive/ Bodleian Library Oxford © 2010, 2005 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including...

Words: 164520 - Pages: 659

Premium Essay

Mass Media

...Media History Contents 1 Introduction 1.1 Mass media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.1.6 1.1.7 1.1.8 1.1.9 Issues with definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forms of mass media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Professions involving mass media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Influence and sociology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ethical issues and criticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 2 6 6 7 8 10 10 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 12 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 19 20 21 21 21 1.1.10 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.12 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.13 External links . . . . . . . . ....

Words: 146891 - Pages: 588

Premium Essay

Work, Culture and Identity in Mozambique and Southafrica 1860-1910

...Acknowledgments ix Acknowledgments This book owes a great deal to the mental energy of several generations of scholars. As an undergraduate at the University of Cape Town, Francis Wilson made me aware of the importance of migrant labour and Robin Hallett inspired me, and a generation of students, to study the African past. At the School of Oriental and African Studies in London I was fortunate enough to have David Birmingham as a thesis supervisor. I hope that some of his knowledge and understanding of Lusophone Africa has found its way into this book. I owe an equal debt to Shula Marks who, over the years, has provided me with criticism and inspiration. In the United States I learnt a great deal from ]eanne Penvenne, Marcia Wright and, especially, Leroy Vail. In Switzerland I benefitted from the friendship and assistance of Laurent Monier of the IUED in Geneva, Francois Iecquier of the University of Lausanne and Mariette Ouwerhand of the dépurtement évangélrlyue (the former Swiss Mission). In South Africa, Patricia Davison of the South African Museum introduced me to material culture and made me aware of the richness of difference; the late Monica Wilson taught me the fundamentals of anthropology and Andrew Spiegel and Robert Thornton struggled to keep me abreast of changes in the discipline; Sue Newton-King and Nigel Penn brought shafts of light from the eighteenthcentury to bear on early industrialism. Charles van Onselen laid a major part of the intellectual foundations......

Words: 178350 - Pages: 714

Free Essay


...62118 0/nm 1/n1 2/nm 3/nm 4/nm 5/nm 6/nm 7/nm 8/nm 9/nm 1990s 0th/pt 1st/p 1th/tc 2nd/p 2th/tc 3rd/p 3th/tc 4th/pt 5th/pt 6th/pt 7th/pt 8th/pt 9th/pt 0s/pt a A AA AAA Aachen/M aardvark/SM Aaren/M Aarhus/M Aarika/M Aaron/M AB aback abacus/SM abaft Abagael/M Abagail/M abalone/SM abandoner/M abandon/LGDRS abandonment/SM abase/LGDSR abasement/S abaser/M abashed/UY abashment/MS abash/SDLG abate/DSRLG abated/U abatement/MS abater/M abattoir/SM Abba/M Abbe/M abbé/S abbess/SM Abbey/M abbey/MS Abbie/M Abbi/M Abbot/M abbot/MS Abbott/M abbr abbrev abbreviated/UA abbreviates/A abbreviate/XDSNG abbreviating/A abbreviation/M Abbye/M Abby/M ABC/M Abdel/M abdicate/NGDSX abdication/M abdomen/SM abdominal/YS abduct/DGS abduction/SM abductor/SM Abdul/M ab/DY abeam Abelard/M Abel/M Abelson/M Abe/M Aberdeen/M Abernathy/M aberrant/YS aberrational aberration/SM abet/S abetted abetting abettor/SM Abeu/M abeyance/MS abeyant Abey/M abhorred abhorrence/MS abhorrent/Y abhorrer/M abhorring abhor/S abidance/MS abide/JGSR abider/M abiding/Y Abidjan/M Abie/M Abigael/M Abigail/M Abigale/M Abilene/M ability/IMES abjection/MS abjectness/SM abject/SGPDY abjuration/SM abjuratory abjurer/M abjure/ZGSRD ablate/VGNSDX ablation/M ablative/SY ablaze abler/E ables/E ablest able/U abloom ablution/MS Ab/M ABM/S abnegate/NGSDX abnegation/M Abner/M abnormality/SM abnormal/SY ab......

Words: 113589 - Pages: 455