Free Essay

Why Statistics Needed in Education Especially in Research

In:

Submitted By mustafakanwal
Words 984
Pages 4
Why statistics is needed in Education, especially in Research

An Assignment for M. Phil Education (Research) Supervisor: Dr. Khalid Saleem Sb.

Muhammad Yasin Khan

Why statistics is needed in Education, especially in Research

What is statistics?

Statistics is a range of procedures for gathering, organising, analysing and presenting quantitative data. ‘Data’ is the term for facts that have been obtained and subsequently recorded, and, for statisticians, ‘data’ usually refers to quantitative data that are numbers
In very broad terms, statistics can be divided into two branches – descriptive and inferential statistics.

1. Descriptive statistics

is concerned with quantitative data and the methods for describing them. (‘Data’ (facts) is the plural of ‘datum’ (a fact), and therefore always needs a plural verb.)This branch of statistics is the one that you will already be familiar with because descriptive statistics are used in everyday life in areas such as government, healthcare, business, and sport.

2. Inferential

(analytical) statistics makes inferences about populations (entire groups of people or firms) by analysing data gathered from samples (smaller subsets of the entire group), and deals with methods that enable a conclusion to be drawn from these data. (An inference is an assumption, supposition, deduction or possibility.) Inferential statistics starts with a hypothesis (a statement of, or a conjecture about, the relationship between two or more variables that you intend to study), and investigates whether the data are consistent with that hypothesis. Because statistical processing requires mathematics, it is an area that is often approached with discomfort and anxiety, if not actual fear. Which is why this book tells you which statistics to use, why those statistics, and when to use them, and ignores the explanations (which are often expressed mathematically) of the formulae in which they tend to be articulated, though it does give advice on what you should bear in mind when planning your data collection.
One of the major problems any researcher faces is reducing complex situations or things to manageable formats in order to describe, explain or model them. This is where statistics comes in. Using appropriate statistics, you will be able to make sense of the large amount of data you have collected so that you can tell your research story coherently and with justification. Put concisely, statistics fills the crucial gap between information and knowledge.

A very brief history of statistics

The word ‘statistics’ derives from the modern Latin term statisticum collegium (council of state) and the Italian word statista (statesman or politician). ‘Statistics’ was used in 1584 for a person skilled in state affairs, having political knowledge, power or influence by Sir William
Petty, a seventeenth-century polymath and statesman, used the phrase ′political arithmetic′ for ‘statistics’.

Need of Statistics in Education

The issue of the quality of education is increasingly becoming an area of interest and concern to many nations of the developing world. There is concern because generally quality of education seems to be either stagnating or deteriorating. There can be no argument over the fact that quality assessments have frequently been made on the basis of key indicators generated through the analysis of the statistics available.

What is Quality?

The definition of quality is difficult, because it is an all encompassing concept or attribute (Murimba, 2002). There has always existed a conceptual controversy over the definition of quality. Murimba goes on to say it is a characteristic that is easily recognized when present and indeed conspicuous when it is absent. Quality is a multifaceted concept. It encompasses how learning is organized and managed, what the content of learning is, what level of learning is achieved, what it leads to in terms of outcomes, and what goes on in the learning environment. The role of statistics in the development of quality in education

Inputs Process Outcomes

Household community
Characteristics
• Parental attitudes
• Household income
• Community economic and labour market conditions
• Cultural/religious factors

Student characteristics
• Aptitude and ability
• Perseverance/commitment
• Nutrition and health
• School readiness
• Readiness ECEC gender

School
• Curriculum content
• Textbook & learning materials
• Teacher qualification, training, morale and commitment
• Adequate facilities
• Parent community support

School Climate
• High expectations
• Strong leadership
• Positive teacher attitudes
• Safe and gender sensitive environment
• Incentives for good results

Teaching and Learning
• Sufficient time
• Active teaching methods
• Integrated systems for assessment and feedback
• Appropriate class size
• Appropriate use of language

Contextual factors
• Macro economic and fiscal factors, stability, decentralization and governance
• Civil service quality
• National goals and standards for education, curricular guidelines sources of funding and allocation, teacher recruitment and deployment
• Education systems and management
• Participation, progression completion and transition
• Engagement and use of time
• Peer effects, parental support, promotion policies

Achievement

Cognitive development
• literacy, generic skills
• good citizenship
• personal development
• positive attitudes towards learning
• healthy behaviour

Attainment
• Formal completion
• Diploma/qualifications

Standards
• Official learning objectives (desired outcomes)

Why you need to use statistics in your research

‘Statists’ were specialists in those aspects of running a state which were particularly related to numbers. This encompassed the tax liabilities of the citizens as well as the state’s potential for raising armies. The word ‘statistics’ is possibly the descendant of the word ‘statist’.

The importance of statistics

It is obvious that society can’t be run effectively on the basis of hunches or trial and error, and that in business and economics much depends on the correct analysis of numerical information. Decisions based on data will provide better results than those based on intuition or gut feelings.
What applies to this wider world applies to undertaking research into the wider world. And learning to use statistics in your studies will have a wider benefit than helping you towards a qualification. Once you have mastered the language and some of the techniques in order to make sense of your investigation, you will have supplied yourself with a knowledge and understanding that will enable you to cope with the information you will encounter in your everyday life. Statistical thinking permeates all social interaction.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Pusing Mba Degree

...Why Pursue an MBA? MGT/521 Why Pursue an MBA? Deciding to pursue an MBA degree can be a daunting decision, especially after recently completing an undergraduate degree. Many positives and negatives to consider before making such a life altering decision. This essay will examine several casual circumstances on both sides and answer the question, “Why Pursue an MBA?” Reasons for pursuing an MBA are: 1. Pursuing an MBA is a long-term goal. 2. Pursuing an MBA can assist in a needed career change. 3. An MBA can lead to more money in the job market. Reasons against pursuing an MBA are: 1. The time, cost, and commitment requirements involved. 2. No guarantees that earning an MBA will lead to advancement on the job. 3. A perception exists that there are to many MBAs in the job market. Reasons for Pursuing an MBA Deciding to pursue an MBA has been a long-term goal for some time. Most long-term goals are often never realized. As a result of the 9/11 tragedy the government decided to assist veterans who wanted to continue his or her education. This assistance and the downturn of the economy placed this long-term goal squarely in the forefront. This scenario fell into place, as career change thoughts were starting to surface. Pursuing an MBA can assist in a needed career change. In 2008 the United States economy and the housing market begin to severely decline. This was just four years after embarking on a rewarding and lucrative...

Words: 971 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Effects of Poverty

...shown to correlate with economic circumstances. Studies during economic recessions indicate that job loss and subsequent poverty are associated with violence in families, including child and elder abuse. Poor families experience much more stress than middle-class families. Besides financial uncertainty, these families are more likely to be exposed to series of negative events and “bad luck,” including illness, depression, eviction, job loss, criminal victimization, and family death. Parents who experience hard economic times may become excessively punitive and erratic, issuing demands backed by insults, threats, and corporal punishment. Homelessness, or extreme poverty, carries with it a particularly strong set of risks for families, especially children. Compared to children living in poverty but having homes, homeless children are less likely to receive proper nutrition and immunization. Hence, they experience more health problems. Homeless women experience higher rates of low-birth-weight babies,...

Words: 6260 - Pages: 26

Free Essay

Analyze the Results of Linker Scale

...EDITORIAL Analyzing and Interpreting Data From Likert-Type Scales L ikert-type scales are frequently used in medical education and medical education research. Common uses include end-of-rotation trainee feedback, faculty evaluations of trainees, and assessment of performance after an educational intervention. A sizable percentage of the educational research manuscripts submitted to the Journal of Graduate Medical Education employ a Likert scale for part or all of the outcome assessments. Thus, understanding the interpretation and analysis of data derived from Likert scales is imperative for those working in medical education and education research. The goal of this article is to provide readers who do not have extensive statistics background with the basics needed to understand these concepts. Developed in 1932 by Rensis Likert1 to measure attitudes, the typical Likert scale is a 5- or 7-point ordinal scale used by respondents to rate the degree to which they agree or disagree with a statement (T A B L E). In an ordinal scale, responses can be rated or ranked, but the distance between responses is not measurable. Thus, the differences between ‘‘always,’’ ‘‘often,’’ and ‘‘sometimes’’ on a frequency response Likert scale are not necessarily equal. In other words, one cannot assume that the difference between responses is equidistant even though the numbers assigned to those responses are. This is in contrast to interval data, in which the difference...

Words: 1356 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Critical Thinking Paper

...Forsythe was not at all concerned about the company’s interest but her concerns were more of a personal agenda to discredit him personally and push the theories of the Aspen Institute. In this paper I will analyze and evaluate the business proposal by applying the 10 step model of critical thinking that was discussed in the, Asking the Right Questions (Browne & Keeley, 2012). The steps that was discussed was 1) Finding out what are the issues and the conclusions; 2) Identifying What are the reasons; 3) Identifying which words or phrases are ambiguous; 4) What are the values and descriptive assumptions; 5) Checking to see if there are any fallacies in the reasoning; 6) How good is the evidence; 7) Are there any rival causes; 8) Are the statistics Deceptive; 9) What significant information is omitted; and finally 10) what reasonable conclusions are possible. Issues and Conclusions The issue that was discussed in the Memo sent by the vise president of Human Resource[s] Mr. Anil Ravaswami dated October 10, 2012 to the CEO Ms. Cynthia Castle was to decide if Cliffside Holdings Company of Massapequa should or shouldn’t develop a leadership development program for its Junior Financial Executives in order for future advancement. The leadership development program was recommended by the company’s Director of Operations Ms. Florence Forsythe at a senior executive staff meeting the company held on August 1, of 2012 in...

Words: 1998 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Marketing

...|Croydon Council | |The issue of youth unemployment in the UK: | |Marketing research study, aiming to identify the main contributing points | | | | | | | |November, 2011 | Table of Contents List of illustrations 3 Executive summary 4 Key findings 4 Introduction 5 Background 5 Research Objectives 7 Method 8 Definition of population 8 Sample Size 8 Sampling technique 8 Data collection method 8 Questionnaire design 8 Findings………………………………………………………………………………..9 Trends 9 Education and Age 9 Age and Work experience 9 Thoughts on Apprenticeships 10 Factors 10 Lack of youth support 10 Lack of job opportunities 11 Young people lacking required job skills 12 Stereotype of young people 12 Youth interest in job prospects 13 Youths from one-parent families 13 Lack of role models 14 Ability...

Words: 3236 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Study Habit

...Studies: Knowledge is the essence of smart thinking. No matter how much raw intelligence you have, you are not going to succeed at solving complex problems without knowing a lot. That's why we spend the first 20 (or more) years of our lives in school. Robert Bjork and fellow PT blogger Nate Kornell have explored some of the study habits of college students in a 2007 paper in Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. Research on memory provides a number of important suggestions about the most effective ways to study. One of the most important tips is that students should study by testing themselves rather than just reading over the material. It is also important to study over a period of days rather waiting until the last minute to study. Kornell and Bjork's studies suggest that only about 2/3 of college students routinely quiz themselves, and a majority of students study only one time for upcoming exams. Of course, guidelines from memory research come from studies in idealized circumstances. Researchers bring participants (many of whom are college students) into a lab and ask them to learn material. Perhaps the recommendations drawn from these studies are not that helpful for real students dealing with real courses. To address this question, Marissa Hartwig and John Dunlosky related the study habits of college students to their grade point average (GPA) in a 2012 paper in Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. They asked students about a number of study...

Words: 1145 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Exercise 11 and 16

...Workbook Exercises11 & 16 Grand Canyon University 1. Complete Exercises 11 and 16 in Statistics for Health Care Research: A Practical Workbook, and submit as directed by the instructor (e.g., as a Microsoft Word document in the LoudCloud classroom). In order to receive full credit on calculated answers, please show your work. (Use Word's equation editors, etc., and/or provide a short written description as to how you obtained the final result.) Exercise 11 (4 points per question) 1. What demographic variables were measured at least at the interval level of measurement? Age, Income, Length of labor, Return to work, and Number of hours working per week. 2. What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Were these appropriate? Sample size, Median and Standard Deviation were used to describe the length of labor in the experimental group and Population, Median, and Standard Deviation were used to describe length of labor in the control group. Because length of labor is considered an interval level of measurement, using these statistics were appropriate. 3. What other statistic could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer. I believe mean could have been used to describe length of labor. By calculating the mean, you can figure out the average length of labor of the population. 4. Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor...

Words: 1545 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Gfgfg

...the Development of Statistics September 2007 This paper has been prepared by the Development Data Group of the World Bank and the PARIS21 Secretariat at the request of the PARIS21 Steering Committee. It is part of the follow-up to the Third International Roundtable on Managing for Development Results in Hanoi in February 2007 and the meeting on scaling up support for statistics held during the World Bank and IMF Spring Meetings in Washington in April 2007. Scaling-up Support to Statistics Executive summary This paper briefly discusses why scaling up investment in National Statistical Systems is needed and then focuses on how this could be achieved by applying a system-wide approach, drawing lessons from the Sector-Wide Approaches (SWAps) used successfully in areas such as health, education and agriculture. It argues that an effective and efficient National Statistical System is essential for managing for development results. Investments in statistics are needed, just as much as in areas such as financial management and procurement. National Statistical Systems provide the data needed to develop appropriate policies, to target scarce resources, to measure progress, to make effective use of aid and to monitor and evaluate outcomes. At the Third International Roundtable on Managing for Development Results, which was held in Hanoi in February 2007, participating country teams emphasized that to be successful any scaling up of support to statistics must be grounded in...

Words: 7652 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Learn More, Earn More

...Morgan Register Professor Faithful English 112 28 November 2015 Learn More, Earn More Think back to your first job...what was your pay starting out?  Entry levels jobs in the past certainly did not earn higher wages like those being fought for today.  Fast food workers are raging for an increase in minimum wage-to perform jobs that don’t require a high school diploma, or college education...little to no academic requirements are needed to work at a fast food restaurant.  Minimum wage in North Carolina is currently $7.25, whereas fast food workers would like to raise minimum wage to $15.00.  A person with minimum skills should not receive higher than current minimum wage. Fight for $15 is a Workers Organizing Committee, a union of fast food workers raging ands striking for higher pay.  This organization was founded in November of 2012.  These workers believe that they are forced to live in poverty, because they earn a wage of $7.25. “We work for corporations that are making tremendous profits, but do not pay employees enough to support our families and cover basic needs.” (Fight for $15) These jobs are not meant to be careers for adults with families.  These jobs are meant for teenagers that live at home and are in high school or college.  Clearly, no one can raise a family off of $15,080 annual income, before taxes, if they worked 40 hours a week.  But, a high school or college student can.  One of the strikers says, “Low wage jobs are the fastest growing jobs in...

Words: 1301 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Inclusive Education

...Henry Ford once said, “Coming together is a beginning; keeping together is a progress; working together is success”. From here, the concept of inclusive education, including students with and without learning disabilities as peers in the same classroom, originated. The aim of this type of education is to get students with learning disabilities involved in the society. Teachers and fellow students will also provide help for students with disabilities; in this way, students with learning disabilities will be motivated to study as they feel that they are a part of a group instead of being isolated in special places. Thus, they will achieve higher grades. Moreover, they will be greatly engaged in the society as they are building bridges with their...

Words: 998 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Are Too Many People Going to College

...An Analysis on “Are Too Many People Going to College” Charles Murray’s essay proposes that American colleges are being flooded with individuals who are either unprepared for higher education or who are simply forced into attending college and can’t succeed because of the lack of certain innate abilities. Murray’s essay goes on to take issue with the idea that the pursuit of a traditional college education is somehow strategically creating a separation of the American class system. While Murray makes many salient points with regards to America’s obsession with college education as a standard into a class of the intellectual elite, the essay fails to take into consideration the various motivators that can lead to student success, despite where that student might be on Murray’s ability ladder (Murray Paragraph 13). This essay seeks to analyze Murray’s claims about why the pursuit of a traditional, four-year college education can do more harm than good when it comes to defining success for the individual learner. Rhetorical Analysis The main thesis of Murray’s essay is that the unrealistic pursuit of a college degree, propagates to children at an early age and does more harm than good. Murray claims that many students do not have the ability needed to enjoy and complete a four-year college education (PARAGRAPH 13). Murray further supports his thesis with his reasoning that more people are going to college because they are indoctrinated, regardless of their skilled ability, to pursue...

Words: 1149 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Early Pregnancy

...Fullment Of The Requirements In English IV F.Bangoy National Highschool Sasa, Davao City ________________________________________________________________ A Research Paper Presented To: Arvin Maturan Genovate English IV Teacher ________________________________________________________________ By: Rhea Lyca Suarez, Angelo Jadloc, May Ann Ganas Jon Boni Podador, Analyn Naquila, Alvin Cabusora John Mark Desierto, Michelle Cabagong, Jovelyn Roxas ________________________________________________________________ December 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS I . CHAPTER 1 Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….2 Objectives of the Study……………………………………………………………....3 Significance of the Study…………………………………………………………….4 Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………………5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Early Pregnancy…………………………...6 Definition of Terms………………………………………………………………… 7-8 II . CHAPTER 2 Review of Related Literature…………………………………………………….9-10 III. CHAPTER 3 Research Methodology………………………………………………………….11-13 * Research Instruments * Research Procedure * Research Design IV . CHAPTER 4 Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation Data…………………………….14-23 * July 11 World Population Day * Their health and their future * The changing social context * Education Information * Latest Survey Result (Teenage Report) * Knowledge of Contraceptive V . CHAPTER 5 Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation & Bibliography………………24-26 ...

Words: 4925 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Nt1310 Unit 2 Assignment 1

...would consider critical to making a recommendation for upgrading to higher speed data communication in the classroom is to determine what type of upgrade is needed. I would need to consider what upgrading the ISDN would involve and the cost associated with it for each classroom (i.e. modems, internal cards, routers and bridges, and software routers and gateways). I would also need to understand the layout for the plan, how many years it would take to implement the plan, and who would take part in the technology initiatives. “A thoughtful and well-planned-out implementation is critical for digital learning to lead to improved student outcomes” (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2012, p. 13). Educational decision-makers must have a clear workable plan for ensuring that the intended goals are likely to be achieved. Furthermore, the district would also need to provide adequate provision for training and the continuing support necessary for the teachers to implement the plan successfully. Consequently, providing adequate support for teachers, both in terms of professional development and on-site technical support, is critical for the effective encouragement of teachers...

Words: 1142 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Misrepresentation of African American Students

...The Misrepresentation of African American Students in Special Education Programs SOCI 2301 Research Proposal Introduction In the American education system, there is a steady increase in the number of Black students that are placed in special education programs. Black children are primarily labeled with either being Educable Mentally Retarded (EMR), or having a Behavioral Disorder (BD) (Kunjufu, 1995). This is a concern because statistics show that even though African American children only constitute 17 percent of all students, they compromise 41 percent of all special education placements, and out of the 41 percent of black children that are placed in special education programs, 85 percent are boys (National Research Council, 1999). These statistics are not only alarming, but it has also been recognized that African American students, particularly black males, are either misdiagnosed or misplaced into special education programs. This is a noted and ongoing problem within the public school system, and it is a problem that is raising many questions. For instance, why are black children disproportionately labeled? Why are black boys labeled EMR and BD more than girls? Do these labels adversely affect their self-esteem? Is there a difference between these statistics and the lack of black male teachers in the school system? Are there differences between black and white female teachers as they relate to black male children...

Words: 2449 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Term

...have a balance between the three. In order for a healthcare system to work there has to be a balance between all three factors. Each factor in the triangle can affect the other factors. Meaning it is hard to make all three factors equal without losing a factor. “If one factor is emphasized, such as cost reduction, it may create an inequality of quality and access because costs are being cut. Because lack of access is a problem in the United States, healthcare systems may focus on increasing access, which could increase costs. In order to assess the success of a healthcare delivery, it is vital that consumers assess their health care by analyzing the balance between cost, access, and quality” (Niles, 2011). For example, if I hospital needed some new medical equipment they would probably want the best quality they could get. The equipment would be of great quality but they would end up spending a lot of money to receive that quality. They could also try to save money by getting the equipment that is cheaper but the quality would not be as good as the more expensive option. There is not a way to have one factor without diminishing another one. Triple Aim is a framework used in healthcare that is similar to the “Iron Triangle”. “The IHI Triple Aim is a framework developed by the...

Words: 1978 - Pages: 8