Free Essay

Why Was the 1917 Revolution Successful?

In: Historical Events

Submitted By emile338
Words 1659
Pages 7
Why was the 1917 revolution successful?
The underlying causes of the Russian Revolution are rooted deep in Russia's history. For centuries, autocratic and repressive tsarist regimes ruled the country and most of the population lived under severe economic and social conditions. During the 19th century and early 20th century various movements aimed at overthrowing the oppressive government were staged at different times by students, workers, peasants, and members of the nobility. Two of these unsuccessful movements were the 1825 revolt against Nicholas I and the revolution of 1905, both of which were attempts to establish a constitutional monarchy. Russia's badly organized and unsuccessful involvement in World War I (1914-1918) added to popular discontent with the government's corruption and inefficiency. In 1917 these events resulted in the fall of the tsarist government and the establishment of the provisional government and the Petrograd soviets who ran the country together until, the Bolsheviks in October staged a coup thus overthrowing the unpopular provisional government.
The immediate cause of the February Revolution of 1917 was the collapse of the tsarist regime under the gigantic strain of World War I. The primary cause was the backward economic condition of the country, which made it unable to sustain the war effort against powerful, industrialized Germany. Russian manpower was vast. Russian industry, however, lacked the capacity to arm, equip, and supply the some 15 million men who were sent into the war. Factories were few and insufficiently productive, and the railroad network was inadequate. Repeated mobilizations, moreover, disrupted industrial and agricultural production. The food supply decreased, and the transportation system became chaotic. In the trenches, the soldiers went hungry and frequently lacked shoes or munitions, sometimes even weapons. Russian casualties were greater than those sustained by any army in any previous war. Behind the front, goods became scarce, prices sky rocketed thus causing severe inflation, and by 1917 famine threatened the larger cities. Discontent became ubiquitous, and the morale of the army suffered, finally to be undermined by a succession of military defeat. Desertion rates began to rocket and casualties were high. These reverses were attributed by many to the alleged treachery of Empress Alexandra (who was from German descent) and her circle, in which the peasant monk known as Rasputin was the dominant influence. When the Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament, protested against the inefficient conduct of the war and the illogical policies of the imperial government and offered to set up an alternative provisional bloc to run the country while the tsar was otherwise occupied, he refused and ordered them to disband.
The Lenin announced the April thesis promising Peace, Bread and Land meaning that the power of the government would be given to the people and all their needs would be met. He also claimed that all power should be handed over to the soviets.
At first all parties except a small group within the Social Democratic Party supported the war. The government received much aid in the war effort from voluntary committees, including representatives of business and labor. The growing breakdown of supply, made worse by the almost complete isolation of Russia from its prewar markets, was felt especially in the major cities, which were flooded with refugees from the front. Despite an outward calm, many Duma leaders felt that Russia would soon be confronted with a new revolutionary crisis. By 1915 the liberal parties had formed a progressive bloc that gained a majority in the Duma.
As the tide of discontent mounted, the Duma warned Nicholas II in November 1916 that disaster would overtake the country unless rasputin was emoved from court from the court and a constitutional form of government was instituted. The emperor ignored the warning. Late in December a group of aristocrats, led by Prince Feliks Yusupov, assassinated Rasputin in the hope that the emperor would then change his course. The emperor responded by showing favor to Rasputin's followers at court. Talk of a palace revolution in order to avert a greater impending upheaval became widespread, especially among the upper ranks.
The peasant also where discontent with the tsar’s rule in Russia as the government did not pay them their fair wages for the grain that they were buying in order to support the army in response to this they began hording their harvest thus causing food shortages spanning across the whole of Russia.
The Revolution of 1917 grew out of a mounting wave of food and wage strikes in Petrograd during February. On February 23 meetings and demonstrations in which the principal slogan was a demand for bread were held, supported by the 90,000 men and women on strike in the national capital. Encounters with the police were numerous, but the workers refused to disperse and continued to occupy the streets. Tension steadily increased but no casualties resulted.
On February 26 the troops of the Petrograd garrison were called out to repress the uprising. When the workers and soldiers came face to face in the streets, the workers tried to fraternize with the soldiers. In some of these encounters the troops were hostile and fired on order, killing a number of workers. The workers fled, but did not abandon the streets. As soon as the firing ceased they returned to confront the soldiers. In subsequent encounters the troops wavered when ordered to fire, allowing the workers to pass through their lines. Nicholas dissolved the Duma; the deputies accepted the decree but reassembled privately and elected a provisional committee of the State Duma to act in its place. On February 27 the revolution triumphed. Regiment after regiment of the Petrograd garrison went over to the people. Within 24 hours the entire garrison, approximately 150,000 men, joined the revolution, and the united workers and soldiers took control of the capital. The uprising claimed about 1500 victims.
Agitation grew the following day, February 24, until it involved about half the workers of Petrograd. The slogans now were bolder: "Down with the war!" "Down with autocracy!" On February 25 the strike became general throughout the capital. During these two days violent encounters took place with the police, with casualties on both sides. The dreaded Cossack troops, however, which had been called out to support the police, showed little enthusiasm for breaking up the protesters The workers captured several police stations, seized the small arms inside, and then burned the stations to the ground; the police went into hiding. The first elections to the Petrograd Soviet were held in several factories, on the model of the Soviet of 1905, which had been formed during a revolution at the end of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905).
The imperial government was quickly dispersed. Effective political power subsequently was exercised by two new bodies, the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and a Provisional Government formed by the provisional committee of the Duma. The Soviet, a representative body of elected deputies, immediately appointed a commission to cope with the problem of ensuring a food supply for the capital, placed detachments of revolutionary soldiers in the government offices, and ordered the release of thousands of political prisoners. On February 28 the Soviet ordered the arrest of Nicholas's ministers. On March 1 it issued its famous Order No. 1. By the terms of this order, the soldiers of the army and the sailors of the fleet were to submit to the authority of the Soviet and its committees in all political matters; they were to obey only those orders that did not conflict with the directives of the Soviet; they were to elect committees that would exercise exclusive control over all weapons; on duty, they were to observe strict military discipline, but harsh and contemptuous treatment by the officers was forbidden; disputes between soldiers' committees and officers were to be referred to the Soviet for disposition; off-duty soldiers and sailors were to enjoy full civil and political rights; and saluting of officers was abolished. Subsequent efforts by the Soviet to limit and nullify its own Order No. 1 were unavailing, and it continued in force.
The Petrograd Soviet easily could have assumed complete power in the capital, but it failed to do so. The great majority of its members, believing that revolutionary Russia must wage a war of defense against German imperialism, did not want to risk disorganizing the war effort. Taken by surprise, as were all the political parties, by the outbreak of the revolution, the working-class parties were unable to give the workers and soldiers in the Soviet strong political leadership. Even the Bolsheviks, who, in a sense, had been preparing for the revolution since at least the early 1900s, had been unaware of its imminence and had no program to take advantage of the situation. It was not until April 16, with the return from Switzerland of their exiled leader, Vladimir Ilich Lenin, that the Bolsheviks put forward a demand for immediate seizure of land by the peasantry, establishment of workers' control in industry, an end to the war, and transfer of "all power to the Soviets." In the Petrograd Soviet, however, the Bolsheviks were then a small minority. The majority was composed of Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries. The Mensheviks envisioned a period of capitalist development and complete political democracy as the essential prerequisite for a socialist order; in the main, they supported continuation of the war. Most of the leading Socialist Revolutionaries, a peasant party with vague socialist aspirations, also advocated continuation of the war. Under the leadership of the moderate majority, the Petrograd Soviet recognized the newly established Provisional Government as the legal authority in Russia.
The reasons for the Russian uprising in 1917 can be attributed to many different factors the most important being its lack of modern facilities and the government who refused any idea of reform and insisted of deploying the outdated method of autocracy. This angered all the classes of Russia and convinced them of the need of revolution.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

How Far Do You Agree That Lenin’s Leadership Was the Main Reason for Why the Bolsheviks Were Able to Seize Power in 1917.

...How far do you agree that Lenin’s leadership was the main reason for why the Bolsheviks were able to seize power in 1917. Lenin was a very significant figure during the Russian revolution, under his strong leadership and the advice of some of his advisors, Lenin helped the Bolsheviks come to power. However I would not agree that his leadership was the main reason to why the Bolsheviks were able to seize power as factors such as the weakness of the provisional government, the home front and most importantly Trotsky role all played a significant role to why the Bolsheviks were successful. Lenin’s leadership played a significant role to why the Bolsheviks were able to seize power in 1917 due to his clear and persuading aims. Lenin was an influential figure in the eyes of the proletariat. Due to the April thesis clear aims resulted in that he was able to gain greater support and he succeeded in having 200,000 members. The vast amount of members meant that the Bolsheviks had greater support when it came to seizing power. The main aims of the April theses were, Peace, Land and Bread and power to the soviets. Many supported the idea of Peace, Land and bread as they were fed up with the affect the war was having on them and wanted to bring it to an end, people were also starving due to the war and therefore welcomed the idea of Peace, Land and bread. Lenin also promised the confiscation of landed estates from landowners and the aristocracy. The slogan all power to the soviets......

Words: 1325 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Causes of the 1905 Revolution in Russia

...The cause of the 1905 revolution was mainly due to the Tsar Government’s failures of solving the problems faced by the population. The populace of Russia mainly faced the problems of poverty, starvation and disease. This is mainly due to the fact that 80% of the population were peasants, and had to work long hours for low pay. This leads to them living in poor housing and shelter, eating terrible food and having terrible hygiene. The population that worked in the industries in St Petersburg and Moscow faced no better conditions, for there was overcrowding and they suffered from the very same poor living conditions as the peasants. Yet, with all these problems faced by the peasants and the workers, many of these were not addressed. Although Sergei Witte, a Russian politician, made many policies on expanding the industry, the worker’s life grew no better, and the agriculture sector was mostly ignored. The overall unhappiness and dissatisfaction of the general populace was exacerbated by the failures of the Tsar in the Russo-Japanese war from 1904-1905. Because of the gradual accumulation of dissatisfaction toward the government from the populace, strikes eventually started to take place throughout the country. The tensions all came together on 22 January 1905, Sunday when Father Gapon led a group of protestors to hand over a petition to the Tsar. The protestors were all brutally murdered by the soldiers as ordered by the Tsar. This only managed to worsen the general feelings of...

Words: 1067 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Russia

...A2 Russia and its Rulers 1855–1964 Past Questions workbook How to use this booklet Your Russia and Cold War teachers will discuss what they want you to do in each Cold War lesson (now that your coursework is finished). This booklet has a page for each examination question that has been asked about our course since the change of course in 2010. For each question there is a section from the guidance given to examiners for marking it, and a section from the examiner’s report on each question. Each page also contains a section where you can record what you have learned about answering each question. Tackling past questions is an excellent way of revising. You could be doing several things in any order: * Reading the examiner’s remarks; * Planning an answer to the question; * Using your notes to find the evidence you’ll need to answer each question; * Sending a plan to a friend for constructive criticism. Before you get going – please note the advice that the Chief Examiner has given to his exam markers for the last year: ------------------------------------------------- “Candidates are expected to demonstrate understanding of the issues in each of their selected questions over a period of at least a hundred years (unless an individual question specifies a slightly shorter period.) Candidates are reminded of the synoptic nature of the Unit. Answers are required to demonstrate understanding of the processes of historical continuity,......

Words: 10577 - Pages: 43

Free Essay

Sdvsfve

...AS Level History Russia 1855 – 1917 Alternative F Revision Guide Contents 1. Alexander II 2. Alexander III 3. Nicholas II 4. Stability of the Tsarist Regime 1905 - 14 5. Political Opposition 6. February / March Revolution 1917 7. October Revolution 1917 Tsar Alexander II To what extent does Tsar Alexander II deserve to be viewed as the Tsar Liberator? Think BALANCE!! Alexander II 1855-81 ▪ Came to the throne during the Crimean War (1855) ▪ Initiated a wide range of reforms (social, economic, administrative and legal) ▪ Earned the title ‘Liberator’ for giving freedom to the peasants BUT did not wish to share political power ▪ Assassinated by the People’s Will in 1881 Answering the key question |Introduction |Use this chart to answer any question on Alex II | | |All questions (whether relating to ‘Liberator’ or not) will require BALANCE | | |Precision of knowledge – “Detail is King!” | | |Yes |No | |Emancipation |Emancipation Committees set up |Redemption......

Words: 7115 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

C Grade Exam Answer

...Russian government, the first world war was the most significant’ How far do you agree with this statement? I feel the First World War is a very strong factor in Russian history and is a very good point to argue with it was the final disappoint that drove the people of Russia to not only take down the tsar but to later kill him. However in the development of Russian government I don’t think it had much importance, out of all the wars in Russian history I feel it was the revolutions in 1917 that played the most important role in the development of the Russian government. Russia involvement in world war one is a very big turning point in Russian history, it removed the tsar from power and left Russian on its knee’s as industries could not keep up with the demands of the war, many soldiers were without weapons and ammunition. But really didn't have a effect on the development of the Russian government it wasn't until the February revolution in 1917 that the development really started, it allowed the few remaining members of the duma including Kerensky to develop the provisional government, it was successful in installing a democratic government as it quickly allowed free elections and allowed legal political parties to be formed. However their freedom of speech and publishing of political materials from opposition was their downfall as it allowed the Bolsheviks to attack them, as there popularity increased the provisional government was starting to grow weak and soon ran......

Words: 870 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Overthrow of Tsarist Regime in Imperial Russia

...A workers’ revolt; a mutiny of peasant soldiers; a political revolution? Which of these best describes the February revolution, and why did the Tsarist system fall in February 1917? The Russian revolution of February 1917 was a momentous event in the course of Russian history. Its causes, nature and effect are complex and critical in the analysis of twentieth century international history. The revolution began in Petrograd as a workers’ revolt in response to bread shortages, and was aimed at the Tsarist system because it was believed that the government was hoarding the bread in order to drive up prices. However a workers’ revolt, by itself, is very unlikely to result in the abdication of the Tsar, and a critical phase of the revolution was the mutiny of the Petrograd garrison, and the loss of control over Petrograd that the Tsar experienced. Marxist historians have grossly exaggerated the extent of political involvement in the revolution, and it would be fair to say that only at a very late stage of the revolution did socialist political parties become involved. The Tsarist system fell for many reasons: the war against Germany meant that troops could not be deployed in force against the revolutionaries; the Tsar underestimated the extent of the revolts in Petrograd until it was too late; and the Tsar was convinced by his generals that only the Duma could deal with the situation. All of these events were necessary to bring down an autocratic system centuries old, and......

Words: 1715 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Stolypin

...Stolypin’s reforms failed and the Tsar’s Imperial government did not learn the lessons of the 1905 Revolution by Professor Peter Waldron. University of Sunderland new perspective. Volume 6. Number 3. March 2001 Summary: The Tsarist government received a severe jolt from the 1905 Revolution and, in order to relieve discontent, soon instituted reforms, including the creation of an elected Duma. From 1906 Stolypin proposed fundamental reforms, especially of the agricultural system, which would ensure that the population had no reason to rebel. But his programme was not implemented, partly because the Duma was an inefficient instrument for the passage of government legislation, and partly because the regime, now that law and order had been restablished, had not the will to overcome opposition from the nobility and the Church. Reform, not revolution, seemed the problem. As a result, the regime failed to learn the lessons of 1905 and collapsed in 1917. Questions to consider How far-reaching were the reforms prompted by the disturbances of 1905? How did Stolypin intend to stabilise the Tsarist regime? Why did Stolypin’s reform strategy fail? Why may he have been assassinated by enemies on the Right? In what ways did the failure of reforms after 1905 pave the way for the revolution of 1917? During 1905, Imperial Russia was beset by revolution. Across the empire, peasants rose in rebellion so that troops had to be called to put down more than 3,000 separate instances of......

Words: 2862 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Comparison of Revolutions

...Why and What Do We Compare? The Story of Revolution and Democratization Mehrzad Boroujerdi, Syracuse University Introduction The field of comparative politics starts with the assumption that knowledge in the social sciences must proceed by way of the search for comparisons, or what has been called "suggestive contrasts." Scholars of comparative politics compare in order to discover similarities and explain differences. As infrequent and highly complex events, revolutions have attracted a great deal of attention from comparativists. In this article, we will address the following topics: • The Concept of Revolution • Why Revolutions Happen? • Can Revolutions be Predicted? • What Do Revolutions Accomplish? • What Are some of the Failures of Revolutions? • Comparing Characteristics and Outcomes of Some Revolutions • Questions The Concept of Revolution: According to the American philosopher Richard Rorty "revolution," like such other words as "reason," "democracy," and "socialism" is a "thick word" which can be contrasted with such "thin words" as truth, dialogue, and justice. How do we define a "revolution?" How are revolutions distinct from other forms of political change such as Coup d'état, rebellion, mutiny, insurrection, or uprising? All of the above nouns may denote acts of violence aimed at changing or overthrowing an existing order or authority. However, there are important legal and political differences among them as well. ...

Words: 3593 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Change and Continuity in Russian History

...Introduction In the past hundred years Russian history has been littered with Revolutions, from the 1905 Revolution to the fall of Communism in 1991. Throughout this time Tsars, Communists and Democrats have exercised different systems of government in order to stay in power or gain power by offering huge economic reforms in order to appease the masses or to keep most important sectors of society prosperous and content. Although historians would argue that in many of these cases change occurred for political reasons, it is equally as easy to argue, if not more so, that at the heart of every issue that caused or had the potential to cause revolution were underlying economic motives, either for the common man or the ruling elite. This on-going theme of economic concessions can be seen at various points throughout the past hundred years and proved a key factor to the longevity of the regimes in charge. The first such example of this post-1900 occurred after the 1905 Revolution. Despite The October Manifesto in 1905 which granted political freedoms, little of which benefitted the peasantry, It was Stolypin’s reforms as Prime Minister for Nicholas II that achieved most after the 1905 revolution, quelling the peasant threat that had emerged prior to the revolution and afterwards, much more so than the introduction of the Dumas - representative assemblies granted in the October Manifesto. Similarly Lenin’s New Economic Plan dealt with the ever increasing militant peasantry...

Words: 3234 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Why Was the Provisional Government, Set Up in Russia, 1917,so Short-Lived?

...Why was the Provisional Government so short-lived? After the Tsar’s sudden abdication, Russia ceased to be an empire and became a republic. The Provisional Government replaced the Tsar as the new governing body and was comprised of members of the State Duma.As its title suggests, the Provisional Government was never meant to last. It was intended to provide a caretaker administration until it morphed into an All-Russian constituent assembly. However, it collapsed. This was due to a number of reasons such as it nature, various blunders and the return of exiled revolutionaries. Yet the underlying cause of its collapse seems to be the lack of resources-both military and economic-to deal with the problems it inherited and was faced with. The nature of the Provisional Government certainly had some impact on shortening its life.It had not been appointed and therefore lacked legitimacy in the eyes of the Russian people. This reduced its political authority so the Provisional Government was very ineffective at dealing with civil unrest i.e. the chaos in the countryside. The lack of legitimacy also reduced its support, making it easier for the Bolsheviks to seize power. The government was also not representative of wider Russian interests. Dominated by minority groups like the Octobrists and Trudoviks,the much bigger factions like the Bolsheviks and Social Democrats who represented a far wider cross-section of the Russian populace had negligible input into Provisional Government......

Words: 1583 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Peter the Great to Lenin

...2321, p. 627 and No. 2330, p. 643. Peter the Great Reforms Russia: DECREES ON CONPULSORY EDUCATION OF THE RUSSIAN NOBILITY, JANUARY 12, AND FEBRUARY 28, 1714, ed., Peter Stearns, et al., Documents in World History, Volume II. The Modern Centuries: from 1500 to the Present (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), 33-34. Compulsory Education from Polnoe Sobranie, Vol. 5, No. 2762, p. 78 and No. 2778, p. 86. Lenin and the Russian Revolution: OUR PROGRAMME (1899), ed., Peter Stearns, et al., Documents in World History, Volume II. The Modern Centuries: from 1500 to the Present (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), 123. V.I. Lenin, Selected Works (New York: International Publishers, 1971), p.33. Lenin and the Russian Revolution: PROCLAIMING THE NEW SOVIET GOVERNMENT (NOVEMBER 1917), ed., Peter Stearns, et al., Documents in World History, Volume II. The Modern Centuries: from 1500 to the Present (New York: Harper and Row, 1988) 123-124. Robert C. Tucker, ed., The Lenin Anthology (New York: W.W. Norton, 1975), pp. 76-77, 492-95, 743. Lenin and the Russian Revolution: MODERNIZING RUSSIA (1920), ed., Peter Stearns, et al., Documents in World History, Volume II. The Modern Centuries: from 1500 to the Present (New York:...

Words: 1486 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Russia

...period 1801-1917, to what extent was the fall of Tsarism a consequence of significant social development in Russian society? Tsar Nicholas II’s abdication on 2nd March 1917 marked the end of Tsarism’s iron grip on Russia and the subsequent revolution was the clearest possible sign of political and social upheaval. Finally, its people had tired of their nation’s own backwardness and were looking for improvements to an archaic system which they had endured for hundreds of years. Seldom does a revolution succeed without violence being an integral part of its development, and the Russian revolution was no exception. However, there are economic and political factors that helped contribute to the outbreak of this civil disobedience, which must be considered. Underpinning these issues is the stark difference in the social dynamics of Russia between the early 19th century and the early 20th century. The social dichotomy that had presented itself was one that no other European power had experienced. Russia was the only European super-power to still employ serfdom by the time of its termination, for its roots had been deeply embedded in Russian culture. Historian Jonathon Bromley believes the longevity of serfdom was because it “served the economic interests of the nobility and the political interests of the Tsarist state.” This implies that the economic policy and political foundations of the country were predicated on its social structure; therefore social stability was pivotal in......

Words: 5215 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

'the Truth Is That Trotsky Refrained from Attacking Stalin Because He Felt

...as the individual leader of the state. To the majority of the Communist Party this was an improbable development as it was thought Trotsky would succeed Lenin. Trotsky had originally affirmed allegiance to the Mensheviks after the spilt of the social democrats in 1903, nevertheless the outbreak of revolution in 1917 witnessed Trotsky joining the Bolshevik party and playing a crucial part in the communist takeover that followed. He began his time in government as the foreign commissar and was principle negotiator in the peace terms with Germany; he then became war commissar and played a vital role in the preservation of the Bolshevik regime by leading the red army to victory against the whites in the civil war. It was down to these factors that Trotsky was seen as the evident heir of Lenin. As well as this Stalin had never posed any threat, Kamenev had described Stalin as ‘a small town politician… a man with no ideas or ambitions’ . However, Trotsky and other leading politicians such as Kamenev and Zinoviev underestimated Stalin’s abilities. Trotsky especially, felt secure as the next successor to Lenin and so when opportunities arose to eradicate Stalin from the party he made the mistake of not taking hold of them. For example, Lenin’s last testament called for the removal of Stalin however Trotsky failed to publish it as he felt it would damage party unity . It could therefore be said that it was the failures and mistakes of Stalin’s opponents notably Trotsky that led to his......

Words: 2646 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Trotsky

...The Russian Revolution as important a revolution of the 20th century as were the American and French Revolutions. Like most revolutions, the Russian Revolution was against economic oppression. Russia came into the 20th century as an extremely oppressed country that was ruled by the Czars. Through acts of “terrorism” and rebellion a small group of revolutionaries overthrew the Czars, which resulted in a state of anarchy and turmoil. The Bolshevik Party of Lenin masterminded the Bolshevik take-over of power in Russia in 1917, and was the architect and first head of the USSR. History, nonetheless, as history often does has opened up a series of questions, It is generally accepted that Leon Trotsky played a greater role in organising and executing the Bolshevik revolution. Even Joseph Stalin acknowledges his major rival’s role in the events in Pravda on the 10th November, 1918, “All practical work in connection with the organisation of the uprising was done under the immediate direction of Comrade Trotsky, the President of the Petrograd Soviet...the Party is indebted primarily and principally to Comrade Trotsky...” This statement by Stalin confirms the role of Trotsky in the revolution, however Terry Brotherstone, a Senior Lecturer at the University of Aberdeen, argues that “The Bolshevik victory in the October Revolution would have been just as unthinkable and unrealisable without Trotsky as it would have been unthinkable and unrealisable without Lenin”. It has been......

Words: 3069 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

How Effective Were Mussolinis Economic Policies

...why was Russia so difficult to govern? * Poor old fashioned agricultural methods * Bad economy not enough produce being made in good yield and quickly * Poor industrial levels * High levels of poverty poor living and working conditions and salary which led to unhappy public. * Russia was very big but there were no effective ways to transport resources around the countries * Poor communication methods * Russification why was there opposition to tsarist rule? * He was a weak tsar as he was primarily reluctant to taking over * Bloody Sunday * 1905 revolution * Failures of the Dumas * Social democratic party, octobrists, social revolutionaries- revolution through peasants * Ignorant and arrogant What was the impact of ww1 on tsarist Russia? * Lack of available infrastructure- basic facilities banks factories ect. * Poor leadership of generals and officers * Poor communication * Incompetent and overconfident officials * Inflation * Middle class discontented as their sons were dying at war * Large life cost why was there a Feb. rev in feb1917 * First WW put pressure on tsarist system * The weather was so bad so trains wouldn’t function and no import/export * Prices rose and rationing led to further discontent * Series of strikes * Famines and poverty getting worse * ARMY DESERTED THE TSAR WHERAS PRIOR TO THIS HE WAS SUPPORTED BY THEM I.E......

Words: 1198 - Pages: 5