Free Essay

William Shakespeare, Timeless Psychologist

In: English and Literature

Submitted By audreyjdavis
Words 2024
Pages 9
Audrey J. Johnson
Prof. Clair Berger

William Shakespeare, Timeless Psychologist

William Shakespeare (1564-1616) is considered the premiere playwright of the English language. His works have survived the passage of time, been studied by both young students and academic scholars, and produced many phrases still used in modern times. Shakespeare’s impact on English is so prolific, in fact, that many people quote lines without being aware they are using expressions coined by England’s favorite bard. Shakespeare wrote histories based on the British monarchs, light comedies with romantic plots and happy endings, and heavy tragedies with dark plots that ended abruptly and unhappily. The true genius of William Shakespeare, however, is in wordplay and his ability to comprehend the human condition. His works discuss such universal themes as love, ambition, jealousy, anger, despair, grief, and death – emotions common to people in all generations and still relevant today. Love is the first and strongest of human emotions. It is the glue that holds human family and relationship together; it’s the ultimate emotion. Sometimes, however, those who are perfect for one another are unable to see the compatibility of their own union. Well-matched characters Beatrice and Benedick in Much Ado About Nothing need a nudge in the right direction. Beatrice is sharp-tongued and has no intention of marrying because a prior relationship with rapier-witted Benedick has left her heartbroken. When Uncle Lionato hopes “to see (her) one day fitted with a husband” (2.1.57) sharp-tongued Beatrice replies, “Not till God make men of some other mettle than earth. / Would it not grieve a woman to be overmaster’d with a piece of / valiant dust? To make an account of her life to a clod of wayward / marl? No, uncle, I’ll none” (2.1.58-64). Both Beatrice and Benedick use wit and sarcasm to hide their feelings, thus prompting others to action on their behalf. In Scene III, Hero and Ursula stage a conversation in the orchard for Beatrice to overhear. Hero says, “Some Cupid kills with arrows, some with traps” (3.1.112) meaning people who cannot recognize love themselves needs help from others. This is like today’s relationships, and the plotting of Hero to bring the couple together could foreshadow modern dating services. Ambition follows closely on the heels of love, as if people must prove themselves worthy of their intended’s notice and reciprocated affection. Ambition to provide for oneself and family is acceptable, even honorable; it is the underlying emotion that keeps society functioning. Blind ambition, however, brings out the darker side of human nature and often results in dishonesty or crime. Shakespeare was a master of human psychology, and nowhere is his understanding more evident than in Macbeth. The title character is a soldier in command of king’s troops and holds a place of trust with the Scottish king. He has a wife, servants, and land parcel commensurate with his station. Macbeth wants more but cannot advance unless the current king dies. Will Macbeth, called noble and trustworthy by the king, give in to ambition and resort to such action? Macbeth claims that he has “no spur / To prick the sides of my intent, but only / Vaulting ambition, which o’erleaps itself, / And falls on th’other” (1.7.25-28). Ambition does not justify murder. Arguing the king is a relative, a good and pious man, and a guest in Macbeth’s home, the character hopes to talk himself out of his dilemma; such introspection is performed today in counseling sessions and is a hallmark of modern therapy. The laws of hospitality ensure the wellbeing of a guest and such a crime appear unjustifiable to moral and divine eyes alike. Macbeth’s “vaulting ambition” needs to be curbed, yet his disturbed state of mind is nothing compared to the cold, calculating ambition of Lady Macbeth. Upon learning that her husband has murdered the king but brought a murder implement out of the room, Lady Macbeth chastises him not for the deed but for refusing to return the murder weapon. She tells Macbeth he is “Infirm of purpose! / Give me the daggers. The sleeping and the dead / Are but as pictures; ‘tis the eye of childhood / That fears a painted devil” (2.2.45-52). It is the unscrupulous lady of the manor who plants the murder weapons with the king’s unconscious guards and smears them with the king’s blood, not caring the guards lives will be terminated when discovered. Lady Macbeth’s ruthless ambition and ability to hurt others to achieve her own goals is seen in the modern political arena as a daily occurrence. One can see the faces of many a First Lady in Lady Macbeth.
Jealousy is a negative human emotion, and one that Shakespeare apparently experienced personally in order to account for his intimate knowledge of the subject. It is a strong, powerful feeling often triggering rage that cannot be controlled. The thought process connecting jealousy to the color green is probably older than Shakespeare, although Renaissance Englishman tended to pair colors with emotions and personal qualities. In The Merchant of Venice, Portia refers to “green-eyed jealousy” (3.2.113) and Iago warns the title character in Othello, “beware, my lord, of jealousy; / It is the green-ey’d monster, which doth mock / The meat it feeds on” (3.3.165-67). The color green retains its association with jealousy and envy even in modern times, and the use of the harsher “monster” imagery coined by Shakespeare would seem to indicate general dislike for individuals who displayed such behavior. People with red hair also have been viewed with a negative bent toward jealousy and temper tantrums, and those blessed with both green eyes and red hair suffer doubly from such prejudice.
The unhappy union of ambition and jealousy begets anger. In Hamlet the title character tells the object of his affection that he never loved her. Ophelia replies he had made her believe so, to which Hamlet says, “You should not have believ’d me / For virtue cannot so / inoculate our old stock but we shall relish of it. I lov’d you not. / … / Get thee to a nunn’ry, why woulds’t thou be a breeder of sinners?” (3.1.127-32). It is heartbreaking to see people surrender their love in order to pursue other goals, especially when sacrifice is vainly initiated by anger and desired by only one party. Nowhere in literature is anger as evident as in the invective spewed forth by Shylock the Jew in The Merchant of Venice. Jews in the Italian city were treated as piteously as in other European countries and anti-Semitism was a common practice. When a local merchant seeks to borrow funds, Shylock lashes out in long-suppressed anger and fury.
Go to then, you come to me, and you say,
"Shylock, we would have moneys" – you say so,
Shall I bend low and in a bondman's key,
With bated breath and whisp'ring humbleness,
Say this: "Fair sir, you spet on me Wednesday last, You spurn'd me such a day; another time
You call'd me ‘dog’; and for these courtesies
I'll lend you thus much moneys"?
1.3.125-6, 133-39

Furious with the un-Christian behavior shown by Christian Venice, Shylock waits for the day when a Christian needs a loan. Shylock has been spit on, called a cur, and kicked around the town like most Jews. With his dignity in tatters and his daily existence miserable, it is natural to vent the frustration held inside so long. Shakespeare’s insight to “anger management” situations is remarkable, astounding, and very forward thinking. Despair is anger that has not yet run its course; it feels all is lost or broken, and cannot be repaired. Shakespeare understood humanity’s need to empty oneself of negative feelings before the grieving process could begin. Hamlet’s King Claudius has murdered his brother to have the crown and queen for himself; sorry for his deed but having no way to rectify it, Claudius laments a brother’s death, saying “my offense is rank, it smells to heaven, / It has the primal eldest curse upon’t – / A brother’s murther. Pray can I not, / Though inclination be as sharp as will (3.3.36-39). Claudius cannot truly repent of his crime because he is unwilling to abdicate the throne and give up his brother’s wife. Despair drives some people to desperate actions, while others it leads to grief. King Lear was thrown outside by his own daughters for attempting to hold onto kingly authority after portioning out his kingdom. The old king, anguished and suffering the ill behaved treatment of his own flesh and blood, cries to the stormy heavens saying, “Close pent-up guilts, / Rive your concealing continents, and cry / These dreadful summoners grace. I am a man / More sinn’d against than sinning” (3.2.57-60) and petitions heaven to execute justice he is powerless to now invoke. This is a truly sad and pathetic moment when an old man realizes he is a possessive parent with ungrateful children who care nothing for his welfare. The number of modern parents who languish in assisted living facilities, sent by children hoping to forget them, parallels Lear’s cries of despair and of being weak and unable to strike back. Death comes in many forms, from the quiet passing of an innocent to the violence of one contemplating suicide. In Hamlet, the concept of death was seen in both these contexts. Ophelia is found drowned, floating in a pool of flowers to signify innocence and virginity. Local thought was that she killed herself over Hamlet’s rejection. The possibility of suicide does not allow her to be buried on church grounds with full honors; as a matter of fact, Ophelia is only buried in the sacred ground by order of the monarchy. The doctor of divinity questions burial rites at all, and Laertes, the loyal brother, tells the attendant, “I’ll tell thee, churlish priest, / A minist’ring angel shall my sister be / When, thou liest howling” (5.1.235-242). Hamlet too is pondering death, but seems to be engaged in a battle over whether to take his own life or bear with the suffering living brings. Hamlet’s famous “To be or not to be” soliloquy contains the verse “To sleep, perchance to dream – ay, there’s the rub” (3.1.72-73). Hamlet, like many adolescents and young adults, is troubled and unable to find peace. He ponders whether “to die, to sleep” but is tortured (3.1.68) by the fear that death will not bring peace, but only more difficulties. Hamlet’s mental anguish in this soliloquy is the emotional centerpiece of the play, and reminds modern readers that many questions from Shakespeare’s time are still seeking answers in present day times. While death is always an option, it is not usually, if ever, the best option. Human existence is filled with frailty and strife, as well as sickness and disease. The balance to death is life with its associated joy and love. The Christian audience to whom Shakespeare writing was intended understood such topics as a lesson in faith and morals. Death for this audience was not the end.
Death also is not the end of Shakespeare. While death is usually the final chapter of any story, those reading William Shakespeare, however, will simply find death another aspect in the human psyche to explore and ponder while beginning their own journey.
# # # Works Cited
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. Folger Shakespeare Library. New York: Simon & Shuster Paperbacks, 2012. Print.
---. King Lear. Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. Folger Shakespeare Library. New York: Simon & Shuster Paperbacks, 1993. Print.
---. Macbeth. Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. Folger Shakespeare Library. New York: Simon & Shuster Paperbacks, 1992. Print.
---. The Merchant of Venice. Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. Folger Shakespeare Library. New York: Simon & Shuster Paperbacks, 2010. Print.
---. Much Ado About Nothing. Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. Folger Shakespeare Library. New York: Simon & Shuster Paperbacks, 1995. Print.
---. Othello. Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. Folger Shakespeare Library. New York: Simon & Shuster Paperbacks, 1993. Print.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Harold Bloom

...the metaphysical poets John milton Jonathan Swift mark Twain mary Shelley Nathaniel hawthorne Oscar Wilde percy Shelley ralph Waldo emerson robert Browning Samuel Taylor Coleridge Stephen Crane Walt Whitman William Blake William Shakespeare William Wordsworth Bloom’s Classic Critical Views W i l l ia m Sha k e Sp e a r e Edited and with an Introduction by Sterling professor of the humanities Yale University harold Bloom Bloom’s Classic Critical Views: William Shakespeare Copyright © 2010 Infobase Publishing Introduction © 2010 by Harold Bloom All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For more information contact: Bloom’s Literary Criticism An imprint of Infobase Publishing 132 West 31st Street New York NY 10001 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data William Shakespeare / edited and with an introduction by Harold Bloom : Neil Heims, volume editor. p. cm. — (Bloom’s classic critical views) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-60413-723-1 (hardcover) ISBN 978-1-4381-3425-3 (e-book) 1. Shakespeare, William, 1564–1616—Criticism and interpretation. I. Bloom, Harold. II. Heims, Neil. PR2976.W5352 2010 822.3'3—dc22 2010010067 Bloom’s Literary Criticism books are available at special discounts when purchased......

Words: 239932 - Pages: 960

Free Essay

Philosophers Stone

...The Philosopher’s Stone by Colin Wilson PANTHER, GRANADA PUBLISHING London Toronto Sydney New York Published by Granada Publishing Limited in Panther Books 1974 Reprinted 1978 ISBN 0 586 03943 0 First published in Great Britain by Arthur Barker Limited 1969 Copyright © Colin Wilson 1969 Granada Publishing Limited Frogmore, St Albans, Herts, AL2 2NF and 3 Upper James Street, London, WIR 4BP 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020, USA 117 York Street, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia 100 Skyway Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Mgw 3A6 Trio City, Coventry Street, Johannesburg 2001, South Africa CML Centre, Queen & Wyndham, Auckland, New Zealand Made and printed in Great Britain by Hazell Watson & Viney Ltd Aylesbury, Bucks Set in Linotype Pilgrim This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the publisher’s prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. Scanned : Mr Blue Sky Proofed : It’s Not Raining Date : 09 February 2002 PREFATORY NOTE Bernard Shaw concluded his preface to Back to Methuselah with the hope that ‘a hundred apter and more elegant parables by younger hands will soon leave mine... far behind’. Perhaps the thought of trying to leave Shaw far behind has scared off would-be competitors. Or perhaps - what is......

Words: 112088 - Pages: 449

Free Essay

Life Sketch

...W.B. Yeats's "The Second Coming" W.B. Yeats' poem "The Second Coming" was written in 1919, just one year after WWI ended. The beginning of this poem reflects on how evil has taken over the minds of good Christians, and the world has turned into chaos. It is apparent that Yeats believes that a Second Coming is at hand, and he spends the last half of the poem discussing what that Second Coming could look like. Turning and turning in the widening gyre (line 1) Yeats imagines the world in a cyclical sphere known a gyre (shape of a cone). In Yeats' note on the text, he states that "the end of an age, which always receives the revelation of the character of the next age, is represented by the coming of one gyre to its place of greatest expansion and of the other to that of its greatest contraction" (2036). Yeats believes that the two thousand years of Christianity will be coming to an end, and after a violent reversal a new age will take its place. The widening part of the gyre is supposed to connote anarchy, evil, and the loss of innocence. The falcon cannot hear the falconer; (2) The falconer in this analogy is most likely God (or Jesus), and the falcon is the follower (or devotee). Humanity can no longer hear the word of God, because it is drowned out by all of chaos of the widening gyre. A wild falcon can symbolize an unconverted Gentile; someone who has sinful thoughts, and does sinful things. A tame falcon (one who listens to the word of God) is a Christian convert. In......

Words: 23171 - Pages: 93

Free Essay

The Origins and Development of the English Language (Textbook)

...THE ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE This page intentionally left blank THE ORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SIXTH EDITION ± ± John Algeo ± ± ± ± ± Based on the original work of ± ± ± ± ± Thomas Pyles Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States The Origins and Development of the English Language: Sixth Edition John Algeo Publisher: Michael Rosenberg Development Editor: Joan Flaherty Assistant Editor: Megan Garvey Editorial Assistant: Rebekah Matthews Senior Media Editor: Cara Douglass-Graff Marketing Manager: Christina Shea Marketing Communications Manager: Beth Rodio Content Project Manager: Corinna Dibble Senior Art Director: Cate Rickard Barr Production Technology Analyst: Jamie MacLachlan Senior Print Buyer: Betsy Donaghey Rights Acquisitions Manager Text: Tim Sisler Production Service: Pre-Press PMG Rights Acquisitions Manager Image: Mandy Groszko Cover Designer: Susan Shapiro Cover Image: Kobal Collection Art Archive collection Dagli Orti Prayer with illuminated border, from c. 1480 Flemish manuscript Book of Hours of Philippe de Conrault, The Art Archive/ Bodleian Library Oxford © 2010, 2005 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including...

Words: 164520 - Pages: 659

Premium Essay

The Secret of Language Leadership

...SECRET LANGUAGE of • HOW LEADERS INSPIRE ACTION THROUGH NARRATIVE The LEADERSHIP STEPHEN DENNING John Wiley & Sons, Inc. More Praise for The Secret Language of Leadership “Out of the morass of strategies leaders are given to transform organizations, Denning plucks a powerful one—storytelling— and shows how and why it works.” —Dorothy Leonard, William J. Abernathy Professor of Business, Emerita, Harvard Business School, and author, Deep Smarts: How to Cultivate and Transfer Enduring Business Wisdom “The Secret Language of Leadership shows why narrative intelligence is central to transformational leadership and how to harness its power.” —Carol Pearson, director, James MacGregor Burns Academy of Leadership, University of Maryland, and coauthor, The Hero and the Outlaw “The Secret Language of Leadership is not only the best analysis I have seen of how and why leaders succeed or fail, it’s highly readable, as well as downright practical. It should be mandatory reading for anyone interested in engaging a company with big ideas who understands that leaders live and die by the quality of what they say.” —Richard Stone, story analytics master, i.d.e.a.s “A primary role of leaders is to create and maintain meaning for their organizations. Denning clearly demonstrates that meaningmaking comes from stories well told.” —Thomas Davenport, President’s Distinguished Professor of I.T. and Management, Babson College, and author, The Attention Economy “Steve...

Words: 100587 - Pages: 403

Premium Essay


...Comments on FUTURE SHOCK C. P. Snow: "Remarkable ... No one ought to have the nerve to pontificate on our present worries without reading it." R. Buckminster Fuller: "Cogent ... brilliant ... I hope vast numbers will read Toffler's book." Betty Friedan: "Brilliant and true ... Should be read by anyone with the responsibility of leading or participating in movements for change in America today." Marshall McLuhan: "FUTURE SHOCK ... is 'where it's at.'" Robert Rimmer, author of The Harrad Experiment: "A magnificent job ... Must reading." John Diebold: "For those who want to understand the social and psychological implications of the technological revolution, this is an incomparable book." WALL STREET JOURNAL: "Explosive ... Brilliantly formulated." LONDON DAILY EXPRESS: "Alvin Toffler has sent something of a shock-wave through Western society." LE FIGARO: "The best study of our times that I know ... Of all the books that I have read in the last 20 years, it is by far the one that has taught me the most." THE TIMES OF INDIA: "To the elite ... who often get committed to age-old institutions or material goals alone, let Toffler's FUTURE SHOCK be a lesson and a warning." MANCHESTER GUARDIAN: "An American book that will ... reshape our thinking even more radically than Galbraith's did in the 1950s ... The book is more than a book, and it will do more than send reviewers raving ... It is a spectacular outcrop of a formidable, organized intellectual effort ... For the first time in......

Words: 159732 - Pages: 639

Premium Essay

Cyrus the Great

...critical theory today critical theory today A Us e r - F r i e n d l y G u i d e S E C O N D E D I T I O N L O I S T Y S O N New York London Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business Routledge Taylor & Francis Group 270 Madison Avenue New York, NY 10016 Routledge Taylor & Francis Group 2 Park Square Milton Park, Abingdon Oxon OX14 4RN © 2006 by Lois Tyson Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business Printed in the United States of America on acid‑free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number‑10: 0‑415‑97410‑0 (Softcover) 0‑415‑97409‑7 (Hardcover) International Standard Book Number‑13: 978‑0‑415‑97410‑3 (Softcover) 978‑0‑415‑97409‑7 (Hardcover) No part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmitted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Library of Congress Cataloging‑in‑Publication Data Tyson, Lois, 1950‑ Critical theory today : a user‑friendly guide / Lois Tyson.‑‑ 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0‑415‑97409‑7 (hb) ‑‑ ISBN 0‑415‑97410‑0 (pb) 1.......

Words: 221284 - Pages: 886

Premium Essay

Will Do Next Time

...Instructor’s Manual and Test Bank to accompany A First Look at Communication Theory Sixth Edition Em Griffin Wheaton College prepared by Glen McClish San Diego State University and Emily J. Langan Wheaton College Published by McGraw­Hill, an imprint of The McGraw­Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright Ó 2006,  2003, 2000, 1997, 1994, 1991 by The McGraw­Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The contents, or parts thereof, may be reproduced in print form  solely for classroom use with A First Look At Communication Theory provided such reproductions bear copyright notice, but may not be reproduced in  any other form or for any other purpose without the prior written consent of The McGraw­Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any  network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. PREFACE Rationale We agreed to produce the instructor’s manual for the sixth edition of A First Look at Communication Theory because it’s a first-rate book and because we enjoy talking and writing about pedagogy. Yet when we recall the discussions we’ve had with colleagues about instructor’s manuals over the years, two unnerving comments stick with us: “I don’t find them much help”; and (even worse) “I never look at them.” And, if the truth be told, we were often the people making such points! With these statements in mind, we have done some serious soul-searching about the texts that so many......

Words: 159106 - Pages: 637

Free Essay


...U N D E R S TA N D I N G U N D E R S TA N D I N G S U N Y s e r i e s i n P h i lo s o ph y George R. Lucas Jr., editor R I C H A R D M A S O N understanding understanding S TAT E U N I V E R S I T Y O F N E W Y O R K P R E S S Published by State University of New York Press, Albany © 2003 State University of New York All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission. No part of this book may be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means including electronic, electrostatic, magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior permission in writing of the publisher. For information, address State University of New York Press, 90 State Street, Suite 700, Albany, NY 12207 Production, Laurie Searl Marketing, Fran Keneston Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Mason, Richard, 1948– Understanding understanding / Richard Mason. p. cm. — (SUNY series in philosophy) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-7914-5871-7 (alk. paper) — ISBN 0-7914-5872-5 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Comprehension (Theory of knowledge) I. Title. II. Series. BD181.5.M27 2003 121—dc21 2003042557 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 for Margie Contents INTRODUCTION, 1 CHAPTER ONE WHAT WE UNDERSTAND, 7 CHAPTER TWO HOW WE UNDERSTAND, 21 CHAPTER THREE UNDERSTANDING AND......

Words: 57755 - Pages: 232

Premium Essay


...Blackwell Philosophy and Pop Culture series, visit and WILLIAM IRWIN is a professor of philosophy at King’s College in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. He originated the philosophy and popular culture genre of books as coeditor of the bestselling The Simpsons and Philosophy and has overseen recent titles, including Batman and Philosophy, House and Philosophy, and Watchmen and Philosophy. curiouser RICHARD BRIAN DAVIS is an associate professor of philosophy at Tyndale University College and the coeditor of 24 and Philosophy. R I C H A R D B R I A N D AV I S AND PHILOSOPHY Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland has fascinated children and adults alike for generations. Why does Lewis Carroll introduce us to such oddities as a blue caterpillar who smokes a hookah, a cat whose grin remains after its head has faded away, and a White Queen who lives backward and remembers forward? Is it all just nonsense? Was Carroll under the influence? This book probes the deeper underlying meaning in the Alice books and reveals a world rich with philosophical life lessons. Tapping into some of the greatest philosophical minds that ever lived— Aristotle, Hume, Hobbes, and Nietzsche—Alice in Wonderland and Philosophy explores life’s ultimate questions through the eyes of perhaps the most endearing heroine in all of literature. B Y WONDERLA ND R E D I T E D WILLIAM IRWIN IN Can Humpty Dumpty make words mean whatever he says they......

Words: 70265 - Pages: 282

Free Essay

Essential Thinkers

...© 2003 Enchanted Lion Books All Rights Reserved. The Library of Congress has cataloged an earlier hardcover edtion of this title for which a CIP record is on file. ISBN-13: 978-1-59270-046-2 ISBN-10: 1-59270-046-2 Printed in China Edited by Paul Whittle Cover and book design by Alex Ingr A618C90F-C2C6-4FD6-BDDB-9D35FE504CB3 Philip Stokes A618C90F-C2C6-4FD6-BDDB-9D35FE504CB3 ENCHANTED LION BOOKS New York Contents The Presocratics Thales of Miletus . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Pythagoras of Samos . . . . . 10 Xenophanes of Colophon 12 Heraclitus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 The Scholastics St Anselm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 St Thomas Aquinas . . . . . . . 50 John Duns Scotus . . . . . . . . . 52 William of Occam . . . . . . . . . 54 The Liberals Adam Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Mary Wollstonecraft . . . . 108 Thomas Paine . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Jeremy Bentham . . . . . . . . . 112 John Stuart Mill . . . . . . . . . . 114 Auguste Comte . . . . . . . . . . . 116 The Eleatics Parmenides of Elea . . . . . . . 16 Zeno of Elea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 The Age of Science Nicolaus Copernicus . . . . . . 56 Niccolò Machiavelli . . . . . . . 58 Desiderus Erasmus . . . . . . . . 60 Thomas More . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Francis Bacon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Galileo Galilei . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Thomas Hobbes . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Sir Isaac Newton . . . . . . . . . . 70 The......

Words: 73655 - Pages: 295

Free Essay

Listen to This

...Listen to This 2 听力文本 Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson Lesson 目 录 1 .............................................................................2 2 .............................................................................9 3 ...........................................................................14 4 ...........................................................................20 5 ...........................................................................26 6 ...........................................................................30 7 ...........................................................................35 8 ...........................................................................41 9 ...........................................................................46 10 .........................................................................52 11 .........................................................................55 12 .........................................................................59 13 .........................................................................65 15 .........................................................................73 16 .........................................................................77 17 ................................................

Words: 92404 - Pages: 370

Premium Essay

You Can Win

...YOU CAN WIN Winners don't do different things. They do things Differently. A STEP BY STEP TOOL FOR TOP ACHIEVERS SHIV KHERA To my mother to whom I shall remain indebted for setting the foundation on which this book is based Page 1 of 175 PREFACE Success doesn't mean the absence of failures; it means the attainment of ultimate objectives. It means winning the war, not every battle. Edwin C. Bliss You have met people who literally wander through life. They simply accept whatever fate brings them. A few may succeed by accident, but most suffer through a lifetime of frustration and unhappiness. This book is not for them. They have neither the determination to succeed nor the willingness to devote the time and effort necessary to achieve success. This book is for you. The simple fact that you are reading this book indicates you want to live a richer, more fulfilling life than you have now. This book can enable you to do that. WHAT KIND OF BOOK IS THIS? In one sense, this book is a construction manual. It describes the tools you will need for success, and offers blueprints to help you build a successful and rewarding life. In a second, sense, it is a cookbook. It lists the ingredients the principles you will need to follow to become successful and gives you the recipe for mixing them in the correct proportions. But, above all, this is a guidebook a step by step, how to book that will take you from dreaming about success to unlocking your potential for success. HOW......

Words: 63318 - Pages: 254

Premium Essay


...BELHAVEN UNIVERSITY Jackson, Mississippi A CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIBERAL ARTS AND SCIENCES FOUNDED IN 1883 CATALOGUE 2014-2015 EFFECTIVE JUNE 1, 2014 Directory of Communication Mailing Address: Belhaven University 1500 Peachtree St. Jackson, MS 39202 Belhaven University 535 Chestnut St. Suite 100 Chattanooga, TN 37402 Belhaven University 7111 South Crest Parkway Southaven, MS 38671 Belhaven University – LeFleur 4780 I-55 North Suite 125 Jackson, MS 39211 Belhaven University 15115 Park Row Suite 175 Houston, TX 77084 Belhaven University Online 1500 Peachtree St. Box 279 Jackson, MS 39202 Belhaven University 1790 Kirby Parkway Suite 100 Memphis, TN 38138 Belhaven University 4151 Ashford Dunwoody Rd. Suite 130 Atlanta, GA 30319 Belhaven University 5200 Vineland Rd. Suite 100 Orlando, FL 32811 Traditional Admission Adult and Graduate Studies Admission – Jackson Atlanta Chattanooga Desoto Houston Memphis Orlando Alumni Relations/Development Belhaven Fax Business Office Campus Operations Integrated Marketing Registrar Student Life Security Student Financial Planning Student Development Online Admission Online Student Services (601) 968-5940 or (800) 960-5940 (601) 968-5988 or Fax (601) 352-7640 (404) 425-5590 or Fax (404) 425-5869 (423) 265-7784 or Fax (423) 265-2703 (622) 469-5387 (281) 579-9977 or Fax (281) 579-0275 (901) 896-0184 or Fax (901) 888-0771 (407) 804-1424 or Fax (407) 367-3333 (601) 968-5980 (601) 968-9998 (601) 968-5901 (601) 968-5904 (601) 968-5930 (601)......

Words: 151104 - Pages: 605

Premium Essay

Pr Cases

...Public Relations Cases This collection of contemporary international public relations case studies is an invaluable resource for teachers, researchers and students working in public relations, corporate communications and public affairs, as well as offering practitioners an indepth understanding of the effective use of public relations in a range of organizational contexts. Including cases from the UK, Norway, Sweden, Spain, South Africa, Canada and the USA, with a focus on such global corporations as Shell, BBC America, Worldcom, PriceWaterhouseCoopers and Marks & Spencer, it offers important insights into the development of public relations and communications strategies. These include: • • • • • • • • Corporate identity change and management Global reputation management Crisis management in the oil, shipping and tourism industries Developing strategic alliances between voluntary and private sector organizations Public relations support for international branding and market entry The importance of internal communications during international mergers The integration of public relations and marketing communications Business-to-business communication The cases examined in this book demonstrate the breadth of contemporary public relations practice and the increasing importance of the public relations function in both public and private sector organizations worldwide. Danny Moss is Co-Director of the Centre for Corporate and Public Affairs at the Manchester Metropolitan......

Words: 107599 - Pages: 431