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Wireless Technology Upgrade

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By tonmad
Words 4563
Pages 19
Wireless technology upgrade
Tony Madrid
Keller Graduate School of Management of DeVry University
Decatur, Georgia
NETW562: Wireless Devices & Apps
Table of Contents
Introduction 1
Strategic business assessment 3 Competition 4
Tradeoff analysis and rationale 5 System selection 5 Customer devices 6 Design a Wireless System 7
System description 9 Efficient Support 9 Quality of Service (QoS) 10
Service description 10 Network Detection and Selection 10 Service Continuity with Seamless Connections 10 Topology Independence 10
Coverage analysis 11
Initial capabilities and limitations 11 Less Complexity, Faster Transmission 13 Enhanced Mobile Gaming 13 Presence 14 Broadband Access in Remote Locations 14
Financial outlay 16
Conclusion 17
Wireless technology upgrade
In telecommunications, 4G (also known as 4-G) is an acronym used to refer to the fourth generation of technologies for mobile telephony. It is the successor of the technologies 2G and 3G; 4G is based entirely on IP protocol, with a system of systems and a network of networks, which is achieved through the convergence of wired and wireless networks. This technology may be used by wireless modems, smart phones and other mobile devices. The 4th generation technology gives ultra broadband experience over the internet access on mobile devices, like, laptop with USB wireless modems, mobile devices and smart phones. Imaginable application, which includes, the IP telephony, mobile web access, HD (High Definition) Mobile Television, gaming services, 3D televisions and video conferencing. There are two 4th generation systems which are deployed commercially; the first one is the WiMAX (Wireless Inter-operatibility For Microwave Access) standard which was initially deployed in 2006 in South Korea, and the second on is the LTE (Long Term Evolution) standard which was deployed in 2009 in Scandinavia. However, there is a debate on, whether these first-releases were considered as 4th generation technology or not. The main difference with previous generations will be the ability to provide higher access speeds of 100 Mbps and 1 moving Gbps at rest, maintaining a quality of service from end to end high security that will provide services of any kind in anytime, anywhere, with the lowest possible cost (Dare, 2008). The existence of 4G system in today’s world of technology indicates the sense of change and advancement. The 4G network communication provides network speed, wireless capabilities, and visual technologies. With these network advancements, there is a continuous room of changes and development in the technological world (Rumney, 2013). This paper contains the features of 4G technology and its detailed network of communication in terms of its implementation. Mobile communication is one of the rapidly developing areas in present day society with frequently increasing users and their needs. The sector of wireless communication is facing various technology developments. 3G (Third Generation) technology provided an enhanced development in the field of wireless communication that gave birth to the new era of smart phones. 3G was introduced to deploy more new services with support for multimedia transmission. The basic operating function of 3G was based on both packet and circuit switching techniques with access technologies like CDMA and WCDMA etc. But with the increased needs of users, the need of a more enhanced technology emerged that eventually gave rise to the most recent development known as 4G (Fourth Generation) technology. 4G operates on speeds that surpassed 3G network speeds by far reaching 100 Mbps for a mobile user and up to 1Gbps for stationary users.. This paper will present a comparative study between 3G and 4G networks and current trends involved in the competition among 4G LTE carriers. Wireless technology has turned into an undeniably urgent part of today's reality. From human services and retail to the scholarly world over the world, remote frameworks are enhancing the rate and simplicity with which information is sent and gained. Two particular illustrations of the remote innovation utilized today personally and professionally are local area network (LAN) and personal area networks (PAN). A wireless network, or LAN is an adaptable information correspondences framework executed as an increase to, or an option for a, wired neighborhood. These networks depend on electromagnetic wireless transmissions to transmit and accept over a characterized area, typically a couple of hundred feet. As a rule, a remote transmitter will be associated specifically to a wired area network utilizing Ethernet links. When the network sustain has been joined with the transmitter, and a steady power supply is made, a consistent stream of radio, or infrared waves with be created (both are electromagnetic waves). The vast majority of wireless LAN systems tend to rely on radio waves as the carries for their signals, because infrared waves tend to have a shorter distance at which they are able to transmit, and are more easily interrupted. Radio waves, or radio carriers as they are referred to, transfer data through modulations of the carrier signal. The addition of data to a radio carrier causes the signal to occupy more than a single frequency. Once data is imprinted onto the radio signal it is a simple reversal of the transmitting process that allows the information to be decoded by a receiving station. Different wireless companies such as Verizon, AT&T, T-Mobile or Sprint always tries hard to convince consumers that their wireless network is the best, the fastest or offers the latest technology for mobile devices. With changing technology, almost everybody has a smart phone which enables them to check their emails or surf the web. Currently, there are two different wireless networks: 3G and 4G. 3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunication is pretty much an application service that includes wide-area wireless voice telephone, mobile internet access, video calls, and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment. 4G is pretty much the same concept as 3G except it’s ten times faster than 3G. This proposal is regarding upgrading of wireless infrastructure proposal for deployment of 4G technology.

Strategic business assessment Smartphone users are now consuming more data than ever before on a per-user basis. With the availability of new apps, services, and cloud storage, users are now utilizing their internet connection more than before. The current architecture of the 3G network starts with a base station what is referred as a Node B. The radio network controller (RNC) will provide various types of radio-related functionality such as: resource allocation, link layer encryption, and paging and fine-grained location tracking for mobiles in idle mode. It will also provide mobility anchoring for mobiles` data flow as they move from node to node. Meaning it will receive data destined for a given mobile and redirecting the data to the mobile’s current point of attachment. The Serving GPRS support node (SGSN) is the main component of the GPRS network that provides high levels of mobility anchoring, paging, and location tracking for idle mobiles moving from one RNC to another RNC. Finally the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) would be responsible for the interworking between the GPRS network and the external packet switched networks. It will allocate IP address to mobiles and acts as a gateway router for the subnet from which the mobile’s IP address is allocated. Data designed for the given mobile is routed from the Internet to the GGSN. The GGSN applies operator policies to the data flow, which will then give a tunnel data to the mobile’s serving SGSN. The SGSN will then tunnel the data to the RNC, then it will segments the data into link layer protocol data unites which will deliver it to Node B (base station).

Competition There are several factors motivating the competition among 4G LTE carriers. One of the reasons is the increase in customer’s choices. Another factor is the accessibility of increasing speeds offered by mobile broadband providers that is unswervingly challenging the previously available fixed line access technologies. The role played by governments of undeveloped countries is also vital as they want to gain benefit from global services by implementing technologies to augment telecommunication access to remote areas where the wired telephone infrastructures are not being deployed. This competition is also proving to be beneficial for subscribers as with the existence of multiple carriers offering 4G LTE services, prices are also being diminished. All these factors have collectively begun a race to amplify coverage and driving this competition more vicious, scattering the advantages to every market being targeted.
Tradeoff analysis and rationale To understand the comparison between 3G and 4G technology, it is important to discuss various features of both technologies. Firstly, data throughput of 3G is up to 3.1 Mbps while it can provide an average speed range between 0.5 to 1.5 Mbps. It has a BW 5-20 MHz. While the data throughput of 4G ranges from 100 to 300 Mbps having a bandwidth of 100 MHz or more. Secondly, the network architecture of 3G uses Wide Area Cell Based architecture with both circuit and packet switching strategies. On the other hand, 4G implements the integration of WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network)) and WAN (wide area network). Unlike 3G network, 4G is totally based on packet-based IP protocol. While discussing the services and applications of these technologies, 3G introduced CDMA 2000, UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) and EDGE. On the other hand, LTE Advanced and Wimax2 are the services offered by 4G. The applications of 3G were mostly associated with multimedia environment including audio and video streaming, conferencing through video and video calling. The applications of 4G include modified access of web through mobile, HDMTV (High definition mobile television), various gaming services and IP telephony etc. From a user’s perception, 3G networks are readily available and relatively are cost-effective too. Users can access and avail mobile based applications with 3G in several ways. On the contrary, 4G networks have faced some issues regarding coverage areas and outages. But as the users are not being completely familiar with the prospective services and competencies of 4G, it will be too early to establish any statement (Garg, 2010).

System selection The 4G (or the fourth generation) technology of wireless networks implement the designs that are far better and advanced than the 3G technology. Its infrastructure functions at the highest position of the existing TDMA, CDMA and GSM technologies. Most pronounced aspects of this technology include the strengthening of user mobility and the development of advanced applications of mobile (Varshney, 2012). Here is the evolution of mobile standards in terms of technological networks,
Figure 1(Mobile Standards) The utilization and implementation of 4G network is significant to the increased use of websites across the globe. Most importantly, the users of cell phone access the websites on the basis of its mobility. Therefore, these users aspire for the best quality of services. 4G network facilitates these requirements of users with its advanced nature. 4G has intentions of altering the paradigm of communication network of users through the use of a single device.

Customer devices There are several technologies available in the opening of 4G network phases; the users have been given numerous choices such as 4G LTE, 4G WiMax and 4G WiBro technologies. 4G LTE is basically the 4G Long Term Evaluation. 4G LTE supports a data rate of 100 Mbps for download speed and 50 Mbps for upload speed. LTE Advanced is backward compatible with LTE. From users’ perception, 4G LTE services are being satisfactory for them however there are some connectivity issues in areas with less 4G cell sites (Garg, 2010). 4G WiMax network is another advancement that is basically designed for the interoperability for Microwave access worldwide. The basic purpose is to maintain open internet architecture for broadband wireless access. 4G WiMax supports speeds up to 75 Mbps for fixed WiMax and up to 30 Mbps for mobile WiMax. It is also backward compatible with 3G technologies. Users are quite happy with voice and data services presented by 4G WiMax network eradicating the need of cable or the restrictions of distant DSL. There is a limitation in service availability of WiMax as it permits limited users. The 4G WiBro network technology is basically Wireless Broadband offered as a substitute of 4G WiMax. The upload and download speeds ranges from 30 to 50 Mbps. However, transmission speeds for both 4G WiBro and 4G WiMax are same. Additionally, WiBro can trace out a recipient that is moving with a speed up to 74 Miles per hour and changing locations. This is not available in 4G WiMax as the antenna must be stationary for receiving the signal (Dahlman, 2013).

Design a Wireless System Wireless design consists of a cellular device which is connected to a single network in most of the cases. Based on its upgraded nature as compared to 3G, it provides its users to access and connect all types of portable devices on its network (Correia, 2010). ABC (Always Best Connected) Character of 4G uses the best network for providing the services over its network to the individuals. It intends to embed its broadband services in all the devices of users.
The above figure shows the Advanced vision of IMT (IMT-A) of various access networks that are interconnected for providing services in a collaborative manner. ITU has defined a set of layers for achieving the pre-set visions. These layers are defined on the basis of the geographical extent of coverage in terms of mobility (Correia, 2010). It includes these four layers: 1. Fixed layer: It is the cable, DSL or the fiber that ensured fixed networks of wire line. 2. Personal layer: This layer incorporates the use of Bluetooth or UWB for making connections. It is used in cell phones, cars and smart phones. 3. Hot-spot layer: This layer is the use of Wi-Fi/802.11 that is used in coffee shops, planes, restaurants. 4. Cellular layer: Cellular layer implies as the use of WiMAX and UMTS by mobile users. With this layered network, interactions are not restricted in a direction that is horizontal or vertical. It provides directional interaction in the form of intra-network (horizontal) and internetwork (vertical). This directional interaction maintains the service continuity with encompassing the complex systems of security, billing, Quality of Service (QoS), privacy, fault location, and network resilience (Correia, 2010).

System description For the purpose of facilitating the users with seamless interaction, the network of 4G carries the following characteristics,

Efficient Support The entire topology is liable to support the services of unicast, multicast and even broadcast efficiently. In addition to this, the applications relying on these broadband services also require the network communication of 4G to provide the efficient support. SLA (Service Level Agreements) also needs to be enforced with its concerns of security and privacy all across the network. The entire system needs to be sensitive, regarding the delays and losses with implementing best efforts (Rumney, 2013).

Quality of Service (QoS) The entire network of 4G provides consistent management of scheduling the algorithms and admission control irrespective of the existing infrastructure and the diversities in operators (Lin, 2010).

Service description
Network Detection and Selection It allows the network participation of multiple natures by means of a mobile terminal. This mobile terminal has features of multiple technologies of radio with radios that are software-defined. With all these features, the entire system provides the best form of connection incorporating the parameters of capacity, QoS and cost (Lin, 2010).

Service Continuity with Seamless Connections Inter-connectivity and intra-connectivity are present in the entire topology with ensured handovers and no (or less) interruptions. This ensures the best quality of services as no loss in QoS is notable. It incorporates the use of Wi-Fi, OFDM and many other technologies for this purpose (Lin, 2010).

Topology Independence The entire system of services is free from the restrictions and limitations of the nature of technology. The system focuses on the availability of ABC characteristics (Always Best Connected) irrespective of the nature of technology (Lin, 2010).

Coverage analysis Technologically, 4G is no doubt the advancement of 3G technology. This technology intends to meet the demands of consumers in terms of providing them with high-speed data networks. It enables the end-user customization. 4G networks facilitate the technology users with virtual access using wireless devices of PDAs, laptops and cell phones. In addition to this, the potential associated with 4G Networks are never-ending as high-speed data communication and allied capabilities are more practicable than ever. The users of smart phones have been consuming more data by the use of applications as compared to use on computer systems. The use of internet connection is easiest as compared to the days before the technological awareness (Correia, 2010). 4G Network is not meant to resolve the problems of call dropping or other associated problems, but it enables the data throughput of 3-5 Mbps, which is far better than that of 3G. The frequency band of 4G network is 2-8GHz that is more than 3G Networks (Bandwidth is 1.8-2.5GHz). People have been experiencing 4G as the most feasible and appropriated network on communication as compared to the former 3G networks. 4G is being used in three different forms of communication, including 4G LTE, 4G WiMax, and 4G WiBro. Among these types, 4G LTE and 4G WiMax are the most adopted networks. Based on these additional and advanced features, 4G has overcome the technology of 3G, providing the end users with better customization (Lin, 2010). US have conducted an evaluation of the data speeds of the entire network of 4G for improving the performance in future.

Initial capabilities and limitations The world of technology is changing at a rapid pace. New media has transformed the advertising and consumer expectations have adjust with the times and technology. In this new technology era, no other communications platform has risen fast than the mobile device. The concept of 4G brings higher speeds to 300 Mbps with a radius of 8,000 kHz rating, making fun of him, including advanced techniques for radio performance as MIMO and OFDM. Two of the terms that define the evolution of 3G, following the standardization of 3GPP will be LTE (Long Term Evolution) for radio access and SAE (Service Architecture Evolution) for the network core. The requirements and standards ITU 4G indicate the following: • To leave the radio access type access CDMA feature of UMTS. • The entire network is all IP provided. • Using SDR (Software Defined Radio) to improve access radio. [pic]


Less Complexity, Faster Transmission Unlike the 3g networks which are a mixture of circuit exchanged and bundle exchanged networks, 4g will be focused around parcel exchanging just. This will permit low-dormancy information transmission. 3G leading U.S. Bearer 3g EVDO network as of now midpoints 400 to 700 Kbps with top rates up to 2 Mbps. 4g International Carriers is trying 4g correspondences at 100 Mbps while moving, and 1 Gbps while stationary (Sauter, 2009).

Enhanced Mobile Gaming Experience improved wireless abilities that convey portable gaming connection with dormancy short of what five milliseconds. Play online multiplayer diversions while going at high speeds or sitting outside. Personal Media Repository Create a personal media archive that might be gotten to from home and headed straight toward perspective photographs, watch motion pictures and listen to your personal music accumulation.

Presence Use 3d image creating virtual actuality programs that give simulated vicinity pretty much anyplace. Case in point; choose in the event that you need to personally react when somebody rings your front entryway while you are far from home.

Broadband Access in Remote Locations 4g networks will give a wireless option to broadband access to private and business clients. Moreover, 4g will give the first chance to broadband get to in remote areas without a base to help link or DSL access.
4G networks will not fix dropped calls or other service problems but it is a lot faster than the 3G network. It lets the consumers browse the web, download songs and stream movies a lot quicker than the 3G networks (Lee, 2011). When comparing 3G and 4G, the data throughput for 3g is up to 3.1 mbps and the 4G data throughput is 3-5 mbps. 4G networks have a higher frequency band at 2-8GHz compared to 1.8-2.5GHz. In addition, the peak download rate for 4G is much more than 3G (3G v. 4G, 2011). As for user perception, most people think that 4G is faster than 3G, which is true. However, wireless carriers do no advertise how fast 4G is with numbers, instead, they advertise the “feel” and the “experience” of the technology (Rumney, 2009). There are three different wireless networks for mobile carriers: 4G LTE, 4G WiMax, and 4G WiBro. The two main networks would be the 4G LTE and 4G WiMax. The 4G LTE is a lot more popular than the other two networks it has been adopted by more commercial operators around the world and it’s faster than the 4G WiMax. 4G WiMax never caught on in the U.S. market because only one carrier decided to adopt it which was Sprint (Reed, 2011). The 4G LTE Advanced has a peak download speed of 1 Gbits/sec and a peak upload speed of 500Mbit/sec, whereas the 3GPP Long Term Evolution often known as 4G-LTE has a theoretical bit net rate of capacity up to 100Mbit/sec in the downlink and uplink speed of 50Mbit/sec is a 20 MHz channel has been used and this also means that a MIMO (Multiple input multiple output) antenna arrays are used. The 4G WiMAX i.e. the 4th generation Wireless interoperatibility for microwave access colloquially known as MWBA and has protocol of IEEE 802.16e uses a 4G band now and offers a peak data rate of about 128 Mbit/sec which is downlink speed and the uplink of around 56 Mbit/sec over the channel of 10MHz. WiMAX uses private, licensed spectrum and provides Wi-Fi-like service with guaranteed performance to larger public areas, similar in coverage to cellular networks today (Ahmadi, 2011). The 4G WiBro has a full name of Wireless Broadband, developed by South Korean telecom industry for broadband internet technology. It has same data rates of WiMAX and uses the same technology.

Financial outlay For implementing and developing effective financial strategies company will use tools like the balanced score card approach. The balanced scorecard enhances a company’s financial measures by taking into account the performance measures of three other perspectives along with the financial ones. These include the perspectives of internal business processes, customers and learning and growth. Organizations which uses a balanced scorecard approach does not have to rely just on short term financial measures as the indication of the organization’s performances. The balanced score card uses four processes with different perspectives to act as indicators to a company’s performance, along with a combination and linkage between short term actions and long term objectives. Different firms are paying out money in the region to install the infrastructure for 4G technology; the Internet offers a rate three to five times greater than its 3G predecessor. Confirmed investments in the region in this area currently amounts to US $ 5.434 million. However, adding the $ 250 million expected for the award of this technology in the country, the amount would increase to $ 5.684 million. It is analyzed that business will generate revenue through different sources such as by selling compatible devices to customers on contract basis such as mobile phones and internet dongles. In addition to this 4G tariff will be the major contributor in overall revenue and profitability of deploying 4G network. It is analyzed that habit of using mobile as internet will also increase. Thus we can say that company could generate good profit from deploying the 4G services.

Conclusion It can be concluded that, LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the next generation mobile service that uses an infrastructure based on IP (Internet Protocol). LTE will enable Verizon Wireless to continue to meet growing customer demands for greater bandwidth, low latency service that works across the United States and around the world. In addition, most providers worldwide have chosen LTE as its long-term direction. The 4th generation technology gives ultra broadband experience over the internet access on mobile devices. In historical terms, it is important to note that at the end of the 90's, and more intensely since the recovery from the crisis of 2000/2003, starts spreading new trends in network technology in broadband access, both through networks fixed (such as local fiber - FTTH) and through mobile networks (3G, Wi-Fi, WiMax or networks “4G”). 4G networks will not fix dropped calls or other service problems but it is a lot faster than the 3G network. It lets the consumers browse the web, download songs and stream movies a lot quicker than the 3G networks. When comparing 3G and 4G, the data throughput for 3G is up to 3.1 mbps and the 4G data throughput is 3-5 mbps. 4G networks have a higher frequency band at 2-8GHz compared to 1.8-2.5GHz. In addition, the peak download rate for 4G is much more than 3G. As for user perception, most people think that 4G is faster than 3G, which is true. However, wireless carriers do no advertise how fast 4G is with numbers, instead, they advertise the “experience” and the “feel” of the technology. It is a fact that the advancement in technology is rapid and unpredictable. The technology of 4G wireless networks does not only facilitate with scalable, efficient and reliable services but also enable the users with advanced approach to multiple services. It is the outcome of rethinking the concerns of billing, security and privacy of end users. It is necessary to provide the 4G services with its advancements to all the individuals of the society for improving the connectively on the whole.

Ahmadi, S. (2011). Mobile WiMAX: a systems approach to understanding IEEE 802.16m radio access technology. Oxford: Academic, pp.201-204
Correia, L. M. (2010). Mobile broadband multimedia networks: techniques, models and tools for 4G. Academic Press.
D’Alessandro, S., Johnson, L., Gray, D., & Carter, L. (2014). Consumer satisfaction versus churn in the case of upgrades of 3G to 4G cell networks. Marketing Letters, 1-12.
Dahlman, E., Parkvall, S., & Skold, J. (2013). 4G: LTE/LTE-advanced for mobile broadband. Academic Press.
Dare, L. (2008). The great 3gl vs. 4gl debate - part 2. Retrieved from
Fujisawa, I. (2002), "The dawn of 3.5G, 4Gand new-generation mobile-communications systems", Japan.
Garg, V. (2010). Wireless Communications & Networking. Morgan Kaufmann.
Lin, M., Choi, H., Dawson, T., & La Porta, T. (2010, August). Network integration in 3G and 4G wireless networks. In Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN), 2010 Proceedings of 19th International Conference on (pp. 1-8). IEEE.
Rumney, M. (2009). LTE and the evolution to 4G wireless: design and measurement challenges. Santa Clara, Calif.: Agilent Technologies, pp.105-108.
Rumney, M. (Ed.). (2013). LTE and the evolution to 4G wireless: Design and measurement challenges. John Wiley & Sons.
Sauter, M. (2009). Beyond 3G: bringing networks, terminals, and the Web together: LTE, WiMAX, IMS, 4G devices and the mobile Web 2.0. Chic ester, pp.45-60.

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