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WOMEN DEVELOPMENT AND NATIONAL POLICY ON WOMEN IN NIGERIA
Olubunmi Aderemi Sokefun

Abstract
This paper discusses the document on women in Nigeria (National Policy on
Women). Several past administrations in this country have treated women issues and affairs with calculated levity: Carefully side - tracking or blatantly refusing to accord it the necessary attention. It is now a thing to gladden the hearts of all women of Nigeria that, "after four attempts by four former heads of Nigeria's Government," Chief Obasanjo's administration finally granted government recognition to women's issues in this country.
The official document .on Human Rights' issues as it relates to Nigerian women; this document is known as the NATIONAL POLICY ON
WOMEN. This paper therefore focuses on the document which promises to bring delight to the heart of every woman in this country.

Introduction
When late Mrs. Olufunmilayo Ransome Kuti joined the vanguard team as the only nationalist and activist during the early struggle for Nigerian independence, hardly did .anybody realize then that she had a dream, a clear vision of a future Nigerian woman, that vision was crystal clear in her heart, and like a pivot, it stood firmly on three stand posts-known today as women's rights, women emancipation and women empowerment.. .
Mrs. Olufunmilayo Ransome-Kuti later joined by some educated women of like minds, fought daringly and relentlessly for these three .pivotal goals of women emergency and relevance in the socio-political reckoning arena of this nation.
Unfortunately, their efforts did not seem to pay off, judging by the relative “denials" and rebuffs their efforts often met with the male dominated government of the day.
Thus up to about two decades ago, Nigerian woman became relatively marginalized and subjected to more than a fair share of male chauvinism in almost all spheres of human endeavour. Nigerian women have been denied their rightful position as equal through opposite gender to man; this in flagrant disregard of their provisions of our constitution and several international instruments, articles and charters on women rights, which Nigeria has signed and ratified. Such documents include the
International Conference on Population and Development's platform of Actions, the UN charter on
Women, the UN Commission on the status of Women and the UN Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, to name a few.
All these instruments are advocating for the major goals, namely women's rights, women emancipation and women empowerment. Let all the laudable fundamental human rights issues
(otherwise known as women's issues) as enshrined in these articles and charters are yet to be fully enjoyed by Nigerian woman even today.
Consequently, because of the role played by women in the country, President Olusegun
Obasanjo appended his signature on the policy on women, thus officially approving the long-awaited official document on Human Rights' issues as it relates to Nigerian Women known as NATIONAL
POLICY ON WOMEN.
Multidisciplinary Journal of Research Development Volume 15 No 1 September, 2010

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Olubunmi Aderemi Sokefun

Historical Status of Women in Nigeria
Historically and culturally, the Nigerian women are supposed to be home-keepers; taking care of their husbands first and foremost, the children and other members of the family. Other responsibilities include; farming to feed the family, and also engaging in petty sale of produce, household ingredients and cooked foods. This state of affairs and position of women though demeaning makes Ayu (1992), see them as an important group of .people, when he argued that
Women have a crucial role to play in the social, political and economic, transformation of any nation and this is no longer a matter of contention.
Recent Western development through industrialization and the magnetization of the world economy have not been able to erode the productive capacity of women their unrecognizable status. It is in keeping with powerful role in the development process that Tadesse (1981) observed that various leaders of government have singled out as a goal, to make fuller use of the women for their development programmes.
The potentials 'and industry of women have been 'with them since time immemorial. Abama,
Anzaku, Kanchok and Mangvwat (1993), argued that the .resourceful and fruitful .efforts 'of women to sustain and support their families had been prominent even in the pre-colonial Nigeria. Women in those days were involved in economic enterprises like vegetable farming for family consumption and public sale, sale of produce from the farm yields, cooked foods and other petty business activities that kept the various communities in which they lived busy. All these activities took place within the local environment of the women, which in turn encouraged them to evolve some local technology based on the needs. The term 'technology' conceived and considered by many as a new development is refuted by Abama (1998) as not being necessary a new phenomenon to the rural women of Nigeria who for a long time have .been involved in pottery making (Ceramic) grinding on the stone (flour milling) weaving of clothes (Textiles) and other house-hold materials, as well as other forms of food technology in storage and preservation. The introduction of western science and technology ironically has excluded the rural women from active participation and control of the development process. This is largely due to the fact that modern production .process is separated from the home. In circumstances where women are seen participating in the production process, they are subjected to providing cheap labour and worse still, robbed of their produce through cheap purchase by the big time traders who now act as major agents / suppliers to the manufacturing companies.
Women in Development
Attempting to make women matter to be seen as important has made the state to adopt bold steps aimed at integrating women in national development spheres. Policies and programmes and projects that will improve women's quota and involvement in the development process. They work to ensure among other things.
1. The participation of women in national development
2.
The establishment of national and local programmes to maximize and diversify the potentials of women in rural and urban sectors
3. They work with government and non-government agencies to ensure the effective integration of women in various sectors of economic, political and social development.
4. They play a coordinating role in the national and international agencies and between government and national women organizations.
5. They are involved in developing women pilot projects in the rural and urban slums as well as monitor and assess women programmes and project all over the Federation.
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Women Development and National Policy on Women in Nigeria

6.

They are involved in researching into woman and social problems at all levels of development
(FRN, 1989) one discernible characteristic of these institutions is that they are elitists thereby making the business entirely a class affair instead of truly embracing the entire womenfolk.

Women and Development Status
Superficial analysis of government policies and programmes on women may suggest that
Nigerian women here substantially pushed ahead in tenors of improvement of their socio-economic and political status. With female Ministers, Vice-Chancellors,
Permanent Secretaries, State Commissioners, Senators, Members of Federal and State House of
Assemblies, Local Government Chairmen and Councillors, top Executives in Federal, State and private services, one is left with or no doubt about government sincerity on women issues. Compared to the Pre-Colonial periods in terms of long term results, the condition of woman in Nigeria today truly requires some improvement.
The National Policy on Women in relation to women's issues comes along so that women can design and base their debates and policies on women affairs.
National Policy on Women
Since after the landmark programme of action adopted at the International Conference on
Population and Development held in Cairo in 1994 and the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995, a large, broad-based constituency now exists worldwide which seek to advance women's well being through promoting their reproductive rights.
However, the impact of this community's effort have not been effective because of the persisting failure of many activist scholars, and policy-makers to situate women's reproductive needs within a holistic rights framework and indeed within the community management roles and potentials are marginalized and left out of the system of national accounting.
Consequently, development planning since the colonial period, has been gender insensitive and although the United Nations Development Decade for women aroused awareness about the strategic and practical needs of women; there was little commitment to incorporate these into national and sectoral policies until the mid 1980s, when they developed the yearning for a national women in
Development Policy to facilitate the full integration of women into the social, economic and political life of the nation. This present National Policy on Women fulfills the yearning as well as efforts of
Federal, State and Local Governments, Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs), individuals to integrate women fully into national development. This is in order to remove those gender inequalities that have evolved in our society overtime through structures and processes created by patriarchy, colonialism and capitalism. This policy is expected to consolidate the largely silent revolution changes already stimulated by past and current women in development programmes. The policy is therefore another expression of the government's commitment to the development of all sectors of the population and to the institutionalization of process which will pilot the Nigerian society towards social equity, justice and a much improved quality life.
The National Policy on Women is indeed one of the most direct activities of Chapter II
Section 17 Subsection 2 of 1999 Constitution which states that:
‘’Every citizen shall have equality of rights, obligations and opportunities before the law and subsection 3,
"All citizens, without discrimination on any group whatever have the opportunity for securing adequate means of livelihood as well as adequate opportunity to secure suitable employment."
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Olubunmi Aderemi Sokefun

While the constitution guarantees equal rights for all citizens regardless of gender circumstance of birth, etc, the National Policy on Women articulates into a coherent whole, all Gender and Development (GAD) policies and programmes and formulates new policies that will actualize the provisions of the Constitution.
Arrangement of Sections
T
he Policy document is divided into 8 parts
1. The Introduction-which we have discussed above
2. Rational
The Policy notes that women make up 49.6% of the nation's total population (1991 Census).
They are responsible for the reproduction of the labour force and for producing over 70% of the nation's food supply:
- Women constitute 18% of the labour market in professional and 4 marginal occupations.
Although labour laws are gender neutral and in fact protect women, there is poor implementation and tax laws are discriminatory.
- Women in formal sector especially in business have little or no access to credit facilities.
- The policy is based on national constitutional stipulations i.e. all the need to restructure the economy, our political and social institutions to ensure social equity and economic growth.
3

Goals
The goals of the policy draw heavily from national and international initiatives related to
Women in development and aims at the following:
- Raising national awareness of the citizens constitutional rights
- Mobilizing and educating the public on human rights in order to remove legal, cultural, religious and other constraint against the,attainment of social justice and equity in the society. 4.

Objectives
The policy notes that government is committed to the full integration of women into-the development of process to enhance their capacities for improved economic, social and political status and as a means of developing fully the nation's human resources for national, economic growth.
Thus, the objectives of this National Policy on Women are to - Ensure that the principles and provision as contained in the Nigerian Constitution are effectively enforced.
- Mainstream gender perspective in all policies and programmes based on a systematic gender analysis at all levels of government.

5.

Policy Trust
Equity; Social Order and Social Well being
Nigeria-has adopted the United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). By so doing, Nigeria affirms its support for the alleviation of the numerous constraints to women's full integration into its development process.
Mechanisms for planned interventions aimed at re-awakening women's selfconsciousness and re-evaluation of their self-concept shall be instituted to empower
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Women Development and National Policy on Women in Nigeria

and encourage them to speak for their rights to equitable distribution of resources and social justice. In fact, society will-be reoriented to accept equity complementarily of roles and respect for family values.
6.

Resources Allocation
The Policy notes that full participation of women in the economic activities of the country can become more meaningful when they have the resources to back up their aspirations and newacquired self-consciousness/image
Economic Growth and efficiency will be achieved when the development of women in given priority of Government through empowerment of women with appropriate educational skill development and encouragement and support through various entrepreneurship programmes so that women invest in large, medium and small scale enterprises. Patriarchy, ideology and legal framework in Nigeria gives men ascendancy in inheritance, authority and decision-making in and outside the home. Therefore effects will be geared through education, enlightenment and national awareness programmes aimed at discouraging gradually the methods used in the society to prop up patriarchy
e.g. that only males can inherit their fathers (though in Islam this is not so) male (son) reference; strict adherence, egalitarian principles shall form the basis of early socialization of children by all relevant agencies.
Culture being a way of life of a people embodies their attitudes, values, beliefs and life styles. It is dynamic and should therefore reflect the current needs of the people for a meaningful and sustainable development. The National Policy on women shall eliminate all those aspects of our culture that inhibit the development of positive self- identity of women and their participation in society. This can be done through mass media, formal and informal education.

7.

Education
It has been identified as a key to the improvement of women's living conditions as better education leads to better health.
The policy notes that women's educational status in any nation correlates with its level of development. Thus, the higher the level of women's educational status, the more developed a nation. Government shall in this regard increase, girls and women's participation in education irrespective of their location and circumstances. The objectives of the policy in this regard include provision of compulsory free primary and secondary education for all children and as a right for all citizens most important to expand facilities for "second chance" education for all, and to discourage or forbid withdrawal of girls under 18 years of age form schools for marriage through local sanctions.
To do all this, the implementation strategies of the policy include: Making local school accessible to children in their respective communities at a maximum of three kilometers radius, ensure the training and retraining of teachers, as well as provision of encouragement and incentives for education of girls in the science and technology fields and encouragement of community participation to matters of education.

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Olubunmi Aderemi Sokefun

8.

Science and Technology
The Policy notes that Nigeria has abundance of natural resources but lacks the technological know-how to maximize their extraction and refinement for national development.
The Policy objective in this regard is to involve women in the choice, procurement, innovation, adaptation and application of science and technology.
As an implementation strategy, science and technology education shall be enhanced at all levels of the education system especially in women education and programmes and sensitization of the community workshops, seminars and mass media in promoting the importance of science and technology for children and women.

9.

Health
The Policy notes that women are acknowledged as primary providers of healthcare for their families, the communities and societies. However, because of cultural practices, social inhibition, illiteracy, low social status and Iow social-visibility, their health concerns and needs are often overlooked by policy makers and implementers. In addition, the policy notes that women's major health problems are high maternal mortality rates, associated with pregnancy and child birth and unsafe tract abortions, reproductive tract infections (RTIS) including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, cervical and breast cancer, teenage pregnancy, vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF), poor distribution of trained medical personnel and low level of socio-economic development all contribute to poor health status.
The Federal Government has already in place a National Health Policy with the goal of establishing a comprehensive health care system based on Primary Health Care, that is promotive, protective, preventive, restorative, and rehabilitative to every citizen of the country within available resources so that individuals and communities are assured of productive, social well being and enjoyment of living.
The objective of the Policy include the enhancement of the implementation of the Primary
Health Care Delivery system to meet the health needs of women and other vulnerable groups, to encourage the participatory approach of health development and the involvement of women in health decision making organs by recruiting more women in such positions. To eliminate harmful Traditional Practices (HTPs) that affect health of girls and women.
Implementation strategies in this area include the coordinating of the roles played .by all tiers of government to ensure the pooling of all available resources for effective administration of health care service delivery.
The community especially women groups shall be integrated into the overall health delivery system by their full participation in the planning, management, monitoring and evaluation of existing health care system. Family planning shall be promoted, expansion of the current training programmes to Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) to include traditional women healers to enable them function in more hygienic conditions and recognize cases beyond their competency for referral.

10.

Employment
The Policy notes that the prosperity of a nation depends on the efficient utilization of all factors of production, land, capital and labour. Before now the labour .of women has been used on a small scale in the formal sector of the economy, a result of social discrimination in education and training as well as the gender based division of labour which is reflected in the formal sector of employment.
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Women Development and National Policy on Women in Nigeria

Thus, the objectives of the Policy is to eliminate all discriminatory practices against employment of women in the public and private sectors of the economy and to create conditions of employment conducive to women's special roles in reproduction and community management. As implementation strategies in this area, government sponsored and private training institutions shall be encouraged to organize gender sensitizalion programmes on the role of women in the development process to raise awareness of this target group and the Ministry of
Labour and Productivity is charged with the responsibility of ensuring that all labour laws relevant to women in development are adhered to.
11.

.

Agriculture
The Policy notes that women provide an estimated 60 - 80% of labour input in agriculture especially in food production, processing and marketing and although several efforts have been made by several agencies unfortunately women's contributions in this regard is not adequately acknowledged in the development of Agricultural Policy and Programmes. This situation must be corrected.
The objective of the Policy as part of the need to enhance the visibility and productivity of women's work in the agricultural sector, is to also remove the obstacles to women's access to land, water, necessary credit and other-productive inputs, extension services training in
Agriculture, appropriate technologies and tools.
Implementation strategies here include all levels of government giving adequate financial support to direct agricultural extension services, create special revolving loan fund for women etc. 12.

Industry
The Policy notes that because women are visible in petty trading it gives the false impression that their enterprises are successful and acknowledged.
But recent assessment of women's enterprise show that the constraints to their ability to capitalize and to sustain themselves and their families are enormous. Such constraint will have to be removed to ensure the efficient utilization of their labour in those enterprises for socio-economic development.
The objectives include to facilitate access to institutionalized credit, to provide access to information, to educate women on different investment .opportunities .and expose their products to domestic and international .channels and to train women for business development and management. Implementation strategies include setting up of technical support services in all tiers of government to assist women plan and manage their enterprise and sponsoring of women to specialized trade missions (trade fairs) in order to expose them to opportunity etc.

13

Environment
The Policy notes that women have close interaction with the environment since their roles in the society make them primary environment managers either as users or as those that contribute to its degradation. Therefore they must participate in its protection and management. The Policy objectives among others are to increase awareness of environmental issues and women's role and capacity for environmental improvements. Implementation strategies
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Olubunmi Aderemi Sokefun

include the encouragement of women's participation in decision-making, designing, management and execution of environmental policies and the carrying out of awareness campaigns on the needs for environmental protection.
14

Legal Reform / Legislative Protection
The Policy notes that the legal framework of a nation is perhaps the most direct measure of its commitment to new policy initiatives. Writing a National Policy on Women will be an incomplete exercise without ensuring consistency between existing legal provisions and their implementation. Proposals for legal reforms or legislative protection in this context are means of enforcing existing laws and initiating the enactment of new ones to protect new policy guidelines-in line with the call in the Convention on Elimination of All forms of
Discrimination against Women.
Although the Nigerian Constitution is explicit on Government's aspirations that all citizens be treated as equal under the law, these aspirations are limited in fulfillment because of the complexity of the Nigerian legal system arising from a-tripartite system of laws (Statutory,
Customary and Sharia) which are sometimes contradictory. There is need for harmonization and legislative protection for vulnerable women.
The objects here is to enforce existing law that protect women, amend existing laws where necessary if there are deficient or enact new laws where necessary and abolish those laws which discriminate against women through a carefully worked out programme of social mobilization and awareness generation. Implementation strategies include ensuring access to free or low-cost legal services especially for women, and Government shall fix minimum of
18 years at first marriage to ensure that the girl-child enjoys her fundamental rights to education and proper mental development.

15.

Social Services
The objective is to improve living standards of Nigerian Families. To implement this, there is need for good rural road network and transportation system, adequate provision of water, housing and other utilities.

16.

Political and Decision-Making
The Policy notes that although women make up roughly half the population in the country that is not reflected in the political and decision-making process and structures of the nation.
In the 3 tiers of government women are grossly inadequately represented.
The objective here is to redress the imbalance and ensure that women are given equal opportunity to participate fully in politics and decision-making. There is also the need to ensure the elimination of all gender-based discrimination in employment etc.
Implementation strategies include that Government should implement affirmative action of the ration of 30% representation of women in all the tiers of government to ensure women's advancement for a trial period up to the year 2010 and the sensitization of our traditional and religious leaders on the need to encourage women participation in politics.

17.
.

Media Relation and Publicity
The Policy notes that the role of the media as an agent of change is pivotal to the development of a nation. The media is therefore critical to efforts at women development. However, the
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Women Development and National Policy on Women in Nigeria

Nigerian media being male dominated is not sensitive to issues related to women and as such requires re-education and re-orientation
18.

The Need for Gender Dis-Aggregated Data
The Policy notes that the absence of reliable data for planning is one of the major constraints to the development of GAD Policy. Thus Government shall ensure that mechanisms are put in place for government institutions responsible in national planning for data collection to desecrate all data on gender basis.

19.

Gender Proposals for Action
The Policy proposes two major categories of action: domestic and
International.
Domestic action involves all tiers of government, NGOs, community leaders in fact everybody in the country. The Ministry of Women Affairs and Youth Development must gear up to perform its defined roles by coordinating the activities of the various ministries etc

Conclusion
The National Policy in Women being a detailed government document designed to show-case the full extent of the Government's determined commitment to Nigerian women's rights, issues and their full integration into the mainstream of government activities and policy making.
The National Policy on Women is a detailed document which if given the necessary impetus by Government will go a long way to indeed put women on the road to meaningful integration fully into national development, in order to remove those gender inequalities that have evolved in our society overtime.
References
Abama, E. A. (1998), Nigerian women and the development process. A paper delivered at the inaugural meeting of Women Entrepreneurs, Jos Chapter,
Abama, E:A & Mangvwat, B (2005), Making women matter in Nigeria: An exclusive agenda in journal of women in academics (JOWACS) Jos.
Ayu, I. D. (1992) A Foreword in the changing socio-economic role of the women in Nigeria, Jos.
University of Jos.
Federal Government of Nigeria (1999), National policy on women in 1999 Constitution of the
Federal Republic of Nigeria.
Mangvwat, J. A (1993), Non-governmental organization and mass media education. A paper presented at sensitization workshop, Jos.
Nasir, J. A (2002), An X-ray of the national policy on women: Highlight on the national policy on women. Women reproductive health in focus in Journal of Women in Academics (JOWAS).
Sokefun, O. A. (2002), Women: Roles in Education and Development. Lagos, Remsok.

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Olubunmi Aderemi Sokefun

Solanke, K. (2002), National policy on women in choices (Women Monthly Magazine) -Lagos.
Federal Ministry of Information and National Orientation.
Tadesse, M. (1981), Women entrepreneurs: Access and credit in credit and women development.
Washington. Word Council Credit Union.
Women in Nigeria (WIN) (1995), The WIN document: Conditions of women in Nigeria and policy recommendations to the year 2000, Zaria.

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IMPROVING THE TEACHING OF GEOMETRY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS FOR
ENHANCED SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT IN NIGERIA.

Daniel Adikpe Ekirigwe

Abstract
This paper discussed how geometry can be taught to enhance students’ performance in secondary school mathematics with the ultimate goal of fostering scientific and technological advancement in Nigeria. The paper examined the development of geometry, which culminated as a course in school mathematics and the genetic problems with the secondary school geometry teaching. The paper recommended that geometry teaching be done to appeal to the intuition of the students. The paper concluded that geometry teaching should emphasize exploration and discovering in new ways where geometry could be useful in scientific and technological advancement in
Nigeria.

Introduction
The school mathematics resulted from the confluence of two traditions. The first rooted in
Babylonia astronomy, Egyptian earth measurement and ancient commerce, is mathematics as a reckoning, as a tool required for everyday life. The second tradition is rooted in Greek geometry and medieval algebra, is mathematics as reasoning, as one of liberal art whose mastery marks an educated person. In this tradition, mathematics offers aesthetics satisfaction as well as a means of developing the mind capacity for abstract thought. Every society attempts to pass to its children the language and skills it has acquired or developed for dealing with numerical and spatial problems. When schools are organized to give children grounding in their culture or to achieve their desires, this practical sort of mathematics is what appears in the curriculum.
According to Marut (1999; P.35), mathematics arose from the need for a system for counting and calculating areas of surfaces and volumes of objects, but it has over the centuries become less concerned with practical matters and has turned instead to logic and pure intellectual speculation. He further noted that mathematics, the mother and language of all sciences has been defined by many as the science of number and space. He furthermore noted that the great achievement of technology in all its forms, which deeply influenced the life of every human being, has led to a widespread recognition of the importance of mathematics and thus interest in mathematics has therefore grown steadily.
Davies (2001) noted that without mathematics, there will be no development for the scientists as mathematics is the guarantee for precision and objectivity. Modern science and technology derive their inspiration and initiation from the philosophy that affirmed the mathematical design of nature.
Pilant (2009) noted that mathematics allows scientists to communicate ideas using universally accepted terminology and that it is truly the language of science. He further noted that many technologies that we take for granted today developed from the results of mathematical research.
These include fiber-optic cables that carry our telephone messages, Doppler radar images used in weather forecasting, fuel-efficient jets airplanes and streamline automobile and medical imaging processes. Among the branches of mathematics is geometry. According to Funk and Wagnalls
(MCMLXXI;P.90), geometry is the branch of mathematics that deals with the properties of spaces. In its most elementary form geometry is concerned with metrical problems of determining the areas and
Multidisciplinary Journal of Research Development Volume 15 No 1 September, 2010

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Daniel Adikpe Ekirigwe

diameters of two dimensional figures and surface areas and volumes of solids. They further added that other fields of geometry include descriptive geometry, analysis situs or topology, the geometry of spaces having four or more dimensions and non-Euclidean geometry. Furthermore, geometry is the mathematical study of shapes and sizes of figures termed plane geometry, when plane figures are involved and analytical geometry when algebra and coordinates (numbers) are applied to geometric problems. Additionally, geometry is designated Euclidean when axioms of Euclid form the basis of the system-particularly parallel postulates, namely that two parallel lines do not intersect and nonEuclidean geometry when different sets of postulates are used to develop a consistent system. Pilant
(2009) noted that geometry is the branch of mathematics that deals with the properties of space. That student in high school studies plane geometry-the geometry of flat surfaces-and may move onto solid geometry, the geometry of three-dimensional surfaces. He further noted that geometry has many more fields, including the study of spaces with four or more dimensions.
According to Kline (1979), the derivation of the term, geometry, is an accurate description of the works of the early geometers who were concerned with such problems of measuring the size of fields and laying out accurate right angles for corners of buildings. That this empirical geometry that flourished in ancient Egypt, was refined and systematized by the Greeks. He further noted that
Pythagoras laid the corner stone of scientific geometry showing that the various arbitrary and unconnected laws of empirical geometry could be proved to follow as logical conclusion from a limited number of axioms or postulates. He further noted that these postulates were taken by
Pythagoras and his successors to be self-evident truth but in modern mathematical thinking they are considered merely as a group of convenient but arbitrary assumptions.
According to Hushkowtiz, Bruckhenier and Vinner (1987), a basic knowledge of geometric concepts, their attributes and simple relations is fundamental for children to interact effectively with their environment as well as for them to enter into a formal study of geometry, itself, and other areas like science and engineering. Also Fey (1991) noted that all geometry instruction is to foster intellectual formation, that is, students should come to know what geometrical thinking is, what geometry is, what it studies and how it devises its method to do this study. He noted that geometrical thinking should not be identified as logical thinking for the latter is the domain of all mathematics. He further noted that the goal of geometry is to transmit important information about space that has been provided in the past and appear to be necessary in the years to come. That this necessity applies not only to preparing for further study of mathematics but for applying geometric knowledge to specific everyday affairs. He furthermore noted that knowledge of geometry is to develop skills in geometric problem-solving that is techniques by which one may find answers to unknown situations through building of geometrical models of physical and behavioral theories or by using geometry as a means of explanation.
However, Fey (1991;P.839) observed that despite the obvious importance of geometry to wide range of important real world problems and the strong traditional belief that geometry is ideal vehicle for teaching logical reasoning, the place of geometry in contemporary school is neither satisfactory nor settled Lassa (1998;p.4) observed that mathematics in our schools, colleges and universities is in a sorry state. That there have been so much concern and outcry from many quarters about the poor performance of students in mathematics at Senior School Certificate
Examination (SSCE) and universities. He furthermore observed that hardly is there any day when issues relating to education are not reported in our daily papers and that in most cases, the issue discussed relate to bad performance of students in mathematics and its attendant consequences in our quest for technological development. He noted that we need to face this squarely and increase demand for mathematics as we enter the twenty-first century. He furthermore noted that the rise of modern
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Improving the Teaching of Geometry in Secondary Schools for Enhanced Scientific and Technological
Advancement in Nigeria.

science, the desire of most countries (Nigeria included) for development of egalitarian and technological societies and other desirable aspirations compel us to accord increasing weight to the teaching/learning of mathematics in secondary schools. Ukeje (1999) compared the performances of candidates in May/June West African Examination Council (WAEC) Senior School Certificate
Examination (SSCE) for 1998 in eleven subject areas (Mathematics inclusive) among West African
Countries. He found out that Nigeria took second to the last position in mathematics. Ayodele (2001) analysed trends in the performance of candidates in WAEC/SSCE mathematics as a subject area for the year 1990 to 1996. he discovered that for each year, the bar for F9 in mathematics was always higher than those for other grades combined. Obioma (1985) expressed worries over the poor performance of students in mathematics when he discovered that deficiency profile of Junior
Secondary School Students in mathematics were highest in geometry and statistics. WAEC (1996) noted that the performance of candidates in mathematics continued to slide on the downward trend.
That it appeared that many of the candidates did not have clear understanding of the subject matter.
WAEC noted that the candidates were generally weak in areas of geometry and trigonometry. WAEC
(2002, 2003, 2004) also reported that candidates performed poorly in mathematics and also identified that candidates were weak in areas of geometry, WAEC attributed the weakness to among other reasons; inadequate coverage of the syllabuses, poor knowledge of the subject matter and inability of the candidates to show any firm grasp of the details needed to answer the questions.
Bature and Bature (2005;P.64) opined that the teaching and learning processes in mathematics are in a situation that requires urgent attention if better performance is to be expected. They further opined that mathematics is poorly learnt because it is poorly taught in secondary schools. Onah
(2006;P.136) observed that the poor performance of students in mathematics can be attributed to lack of the understanding of the subject matter. Oyetunde (2003) pointed out that it is the concern of educational administrators around the world to improve the quality of education generally
(mathematics included) and how best to teach because there is general dissatisfaction with the kind of teaching that goes on in the classroom. Herrera (2001) noted that teaching for improved performance in mathematics as a subject of study in schools and colleges should be done in a meaningful manner and that this should also conform to the widely acclaimed standard advocated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), where they emphasize acquisition of skills for problem solving, reasoning, communication and connections among mathematics topics and to other subjects when students learn mathematics. Thus, in trying to improve the performance of learners in mathematics, the role of the teacher becomes crucial in teaching/learning process. The teacher should not only teach content knowledge of mathematics but should be able to indicate strategies that are required by the content to make leaning meaningful, integrated and transferable. Hence this paper discusses the teaching of geometry and the importance of transformation approach to the teaching of geometry in secondary schools which could improve students’ performance in mathematics and enhanced scientific and technological advancement in Nigeria.
Rationale for Transformation Approach to Geometry Teaching.
According to Marjoram (1974), researches into how children learn mathematics indicated that learning based on intuition and experiences of the children can enhance retention and application.
Also Fremont (1969) noted that these research findings arrived at differing points of view regarding learning process but have established common characteristics as well. That the direction of learning moves from concrete, physical experience with complete freedom to project hypotheses and test them in given situations to the more logical, analytical abstract ordering of what has been done.
Furthermore, those teachers who are intended upon building mathematics experience for children can
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Daniel Adikpe Ekirigwe

not ignore these works if they are to help each of their students to experience the joy and satisfaction that are all often missed in mathematics classroom.
Lassa (1998;P.6) opined that the children in secondary schools should be made to have pleasure in learning mathematics. He noted that on the whole it used to be dreadful business, and no attempt was made to select subject matters that reflected their culture and be related to their future profession. He further noted that our ideas about the subject depended very much upon the ways in which we study mathematics in the schools and colleges. That some of us experienced only rote learning where teachers showed us on backboard, how to work out a particular problem, then we had to do a number of examples in the same way often without understanding what we were doing, but always trying very had to get the right answer. However, we did not find it easy to do examples that were not exactly like those we had been shown. And that others of course were fortunate, that teachers helped them to understand what they were doing, by providing practical activities and encouraging them to find out as much as possible for themselves. Thus, that they became confident in dealing with questions they had not seen before. He furthermore noted that with the demand for more mathematical knowledge of all professions and for coping with life there is need to change the method of teaching mathematics in the secondary school.
Timku (2004;P.111) noted that generally speaking, there are two extreme methods of teaching geometry, which are intuitive approach and the formal/axiomatic approach. He opined that for any topic of instruction, a place can be found for it between these two extremes. He further noted that recommendations are converging on the position that emphasis should be laid more on practical, intuitive numerical application strategies rather than relying on the previous strategies which emphasized memorization of book theorems.
Transformation Approach to Geometry Teaching.
Fletcher (1976) noted that the first contact pupils in primary schools have with the study of geometry is through motion geometry`: when a shape or an object is moved from one position to another and the motion can be thought of in terms of separate processes, under the guide of the teacher. The movements, she termed transformation and the separate processes involved include turning (rotation), sliding (translation) and mirroring (reflection). She noted that this approach to teaching geometry encourages the pupils to develop geometric thinking, explore and discover geometric ideas to the best of their ability and maturity and eventually aided them in problem solving and stimulated their interest in geometry.
Marjoram (1974) noted that the mostly neglected group of missed opportunities in secondary schools is the development of the study of geometry through the basic transformations of reflection, rotation, translation and enlargement. Bishop (1991;P.860) noted that concerning the methods of teaching geometry, which transformation approach allows, that it can be seen that ideas of rotation and reflection are all intuitively familiar to students. That many actions of body operate on objects in our environment by means of rotation, for example throwing and twisting; and mirrors, windows and water give reflection; sliding and balancing give translation. That this appeals to intuition lays the foundation for geometry as empirical study in schools. He further noted that actual objects can be transformed as can drawn shapes at later stages. That many paper-folding activities can be developed once connections are made with aesthetic ideas of pattern, symmetry and balance. Line symmetry can be approached through the practical methods of folding. That this reinforces the fact that a line of symmetry divides a shape or an object into equal halves each fitting exactly onto the other and can be useful in treatment of similarity in geometry. Tessellation can be looked at and the ideas of congruence are introduced in this framework. Students can be encouraged to look at tessellation in
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Improving the Teaching of Geometry in Secondary Schools for Enhanced Scientific and Technological
Advancement in Nigeria.

their world around them. Later the transformation can be symbolized algebraically and systematically analysed. Combinations of transformations can be explored and suitable axiomatic treatment proposed linking geometry with other branches of mathematics (Wynne, 1977). The basic aim is to encourage students to approach the study of geometry in a spirit of discovery and adventure for them to understand to the fullest extent consistent with their ability and maturity how mathematical facts are discovered and how mathematical concepts are formulated and can be generalized and extended. In fact, the students should be led to develop mathematical understanding and power. For example
Archimedes in attempting to find the formula for the area of a segment of a parabola, imagined this area placed at one end of a level arm and the other end the rectangle circumscribing the parabola. He then undertook to determine where the fulcrum must be placed so that the figure may be in equilibrium. From this consideration he deduced that the area of the parabolic segment was two-thirds that of the rectangle.
Bishop (1991) noted that on the problem of the objects of this geometric study, that they are not the details of particular shapes but highly general operations and relationships. That, however, this is not to say that objects such as triangles, circles, quadrilaterals and polygons generally are ignored.
That, in fact parallels relate to translation, circles relate to rotation and perpendiculars relate to reflection and many Euclidean theorems can be interpreted transformationally. That the transformations predominantly studied in schools now are the rigid motion of plan-isometrics-where distances between points are preserved, that is translations, reflections, rotations, enlargements and similarities, and affine transformation, where parallelism is preserved, that is, shears, stretches.
The transformation approach to geometry enables it to be connected with other parts of mathematics like vector, matrices, abstract algebra and group theory. Also, the transformation approach helps to unify mathematics of algebra and arithmetic in the concept of application of vector space and linear algebra. Furthermore the transformation approach can lay the foundation for scientific and technological advancement in that it provides powerful link between geometry, algebra and the physical world. Situations in the physical sciences which involve one or other of these selfsame operations; reflection, rotation, translation and enlargement require transformation geometry.
Also technology requires these self-same operations in that the mechanisms of technology rely on the principles of reflection, rotation, translation and enlargement.
Conclusion
Crucial to this paper is the importance of making the Nigerian child become familiar with science and technology through instructions in geometry. Most Nigerian children come to secondary schools without exposure to scientific and technological knowledge and also the age which children find themselves in secondary schools, call for instructions in geometry to be adopted to the experience and maturity of the children. The best approach to meet the needs of Nigerian growing children therefore is to start early in life to provide the necessary training and the experiences for the development of scientific attitude. Thus teachers must have to direct their instructions to appeal to the intuition of the students to encourage and stimulate scientific and technological advancement.
Recommendations
Federal Government of Nigeria. (1998) identified one of the specific aims and objectives of secondary education is to equip students to live effectively in our modern age of science and technology. Literatures available indicated that instructions in mathematics can facilitate the attainment of this aim and objective. Also literatures are available that observed that students perform poorly in mathematics and that an area of students weakness is geometry. In order to attain this aim
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Daniel Adikpe Ekirigwe

and objective through instructions in geometry in secondary schools, the following recommendations are among the many that can be adopted.
1. Teachers should engage in the meaningful teaching of geometry not only to teach the content of geometry course but take cognizance of the ability and maturity of the students.
2. Teachers should teach geometry with links to real life situations.
3. Teachers should encourage students to participate in the teaching/learning process of geometry. 4. Teachers should be given opportunities to attend seminars and workshops to expose them to innovations in teaching/learning of mathematics.
5. Government should employ qualified and well-trained teachers to teach mathematics.
6. Government should provide incentives to well-dedicated mathematics teachers.
7. School authorities should provide adequate textual materials for teaching geometry.
8. Schools authorities should increase the number of periods of teaching mathematics on the school timetable.
9. Parents should provide adequate textual materials for learning geometry.
References
Ayodele, S.O (2001). The challenge of secondary education in the 21st century. Being a keynote address at the Curriculum Organization of Nigeria conferment of Fellowship Ceremony, held in the University of
Jos.
September, 4-7.
Bature, I.J. & Bature, F.S. (2005). Attitude of teachers and students towards teaching and learning of mathematics: A case study of some Secondary Schools in Badagry, Lagos State. Journal of educational studies. 11(11), 64-70.
Bishop, J.A. (1991). Transformation geometry progamme. A. Lewy (Ed). The International
Encyclopedia of Curriculum. Oxford: Pergamon. 839-860.
Davies, P. (2001). The mind of God: Science and the search for ultimate meaning. Johannesburg:
Penguin Books.
Federal Government of Nigeria (1998). National policy on education. Lagos: NERDC press.
Fey, J.T. (1991). Geometry: Educational Programme. A. Lewy (Ed). The International Encyclopedia of Curriculum. Oxford: Pergamon.
Fletcher, J.E. (1976). Enjoying mathematics in the primary school. A handbook for teaching methods for primary school teachers. Ibadan: Heinemann educational books (Nigeria) limited.
Fremont, H. (1969). How to teach mathematics in secondary school. London: W.B. Saunder.
Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia. (MCMLXXIX). Volume 11.New York: Funk and Wagnalls,
Inc. 90-92.
Herrera, T. (2001). An Interview with Marily Burns ENC Focus, 8(2), 16-19.
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Improving the Teaching of Geometry in Secondary Schools for Enhanced Scientific and Technological
Advancement in Nigeria.

Hushkowtize, R; Brucshenier, M; & Vinner, S. (1987). Activities with teachers based on cognitive research, NCTM (1987). Year book.
Kline, M. (1979). Mathematics in western culture. London: Penguin books.
Lassa, P.N. (1998). The relevance of mathematics and its application in Nigeria in the 21st century:
Implications for Secondary Education. Being a paper presented at the 35th Annual Conference of the Mathematical Association of Nigeria, held at University of Jos. September, 1-4.
Marjoram, D.T.E. (1974). Teaching mathematics. London: Heinemann educational books.
Marut, J.M. (1999). History and Importance of mathematics. In E.E. Ike and F.X.O. Ugodulunwa
(Eds). History and Philosophy of Science. Jos: Unijos Consultancy Limited, 35-57.
Obioma, G.O. (1985). Deficit measurement in Junior Secondary Mathematics. Journal of Science
Teachers Association of Nigeria, 25(2), 92.
Onah, E.S. (2006). Repositioning mathematics for sustainable scientific development in Nigeria.
Journal of Research and Contemporary Issues, 2(1&2), 136-145.
Oyetunde, T.O. (2003). The nature of teaching and learning: Principles of good teaching. Jos:
LECAPS Educational Publishers.
Pilant, M.S. (Ed). (2009). Mathematics. Microsoft®, Encarta® 2009 (DVD). Timku, L. (2004).
Methods of teaching geometry in schools. T.O. Oyetunde, Y.A. Mallum & C.A. Andzayi (Eds).
The practices of Teaching: Perspectives and Strategies. A Resources Manual for Today’s Teacher.
Jos: LECAPS publisher.
Ukeje, B.O. (1997) Teacher education in Nigeria: Current status 21st century challenges and strategies for improvement. A keynote paper presented on the occasion of inter-university collaboration workshop on teacher education held at the University of Jos, September, 9-12.
WAEC. (1996). The Chief Examiner’s Reports Nigeria. SSCE NOV/DEC.

1996. Yaba.

WAEC. (2002). The Chief Examiner’s Reports Nigeria. SSCE May/June 2002, Yaba.
WAEC. (2003). The Chief Examiner’s Reports Nigeria. SSCE NOV/DEC, 2003, Yaba.
WAEC. (2004). The Chief Examiner’s Report Nigeria. SSCE NOV/DEC 2004, Yaba.
Wynne, W. (1977). The Mathematics Curriculum: Geometry. Glasgow: Blackie.

17

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) AND
THE STUDY AND PRACTICE OF FINE/APPLIED ARTS
Festus O. Otoba

Abstract
The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has made the world a global village. ICT enables networking of computers all over the world, which makes sharing of information and resources possible no matter where they are located and are needed. The introduction of ICT in Fine and
Applied Arts education has been observed to enhance the quality of graduates from art schools, productivity, and also save time and cost. This paper analyses the application of some ICT tools and packages in the teaching, learning and practice of Fine and Applied Arts. It identifies shortage of ICT facilities and personnel in schools as some problems, and recommends among others, the review of the art curriculum and active involvement of the art students, teachers and practitioners in ICT so as to benefit maximally in terms of increased productivity, teamwork, collaboration and socio-cultural integration.

Introduction
With science and technology and the spirit of teamwork, collaboration and socio-cultural integration, the world seems to be gradually approaching a target where the sharp distinction between art and science is rapidly being replaced with the mission of global development. The introduction of
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is an indispensable recreation of the theory and practice of the arts and sciences and the usage for the advancement of global development must be properly understood. According to Jon-Nwakalo (1995), the sooner you fall behind in information and communication technology, the more time you have to catch up. An individual that is grossly inadequate in ICT might spend enormous amount of time, perhaps, a lifetime trying to catch up. In recent time, the study and practice of Fine and Applied Arts has been griped by this all-embracing technology that encourages teamwork, generation and dissemination of quality information and visuals and collaboration in art education.
Definition of Basic Concepts.
To position our thought and imagination on a clear path in this discourse, the understanding of some key concepts is necessary. Such as “Information”, “Communication”, “Technology”,
“Information Technology” “Information and “Communication Technology” and “Fine and Applied
Arts”.
What is information? According to the 6th edition of Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, information is fact or details about somebody or something. Fact refers to a situation that is known to exist and true.
Communication
Akpoveta and Ogbemi (2006), gave a social perspective definition of communication as a process of information exchange within, between or among individuals, groups, association, organization and nation. Nwosu (2000), defined communication as a social process that uses signs, symbols and other such means to bring about interchange of thoughts and meanings between and among individuals and groups for better understanding and relationships.
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Communication therefore involves senders and receivers of messages using symbols and icons to create meaning. Okoye and Adigwe (1998), opined that communication can be one- way requiring no response or feedback or two-way or bi-directional allowing for feedback or exchange.
Technology- According to Perrow (1965), technology is a technique or complex of techniques employed to alter materials (human or non human, mental or physical) in an anticipated manner. It is the knowledge of using tools and machines to do tasks effectively and efficiently.
Information Technology refers to the creation, gathering, processing, storage and delivery of information and the processes and devices that makes all these possible (Okonta, 2008). This definition sees information technology as the use of hardwares, softwares, services and supporting infrastructure to manage and deliver information using voice, data and video.
Information and Communication Technology is the science and skill of all aspects of computing, data storage and communication. It involves hardware, software, transmission and presentation of information. Fine and Applied Arts - The term Fine and Applied Arts refers to two subsets of the broad classification of the art field. Fine art which is based mainly on aesthetic functionality consists of painting, sculpture and drawing, while applied art that is mainly utilitarian and rarely aesthetic, consists of graphic design, textile design, fashion design, ceramics (pottery), photography technology, industrial design, jewelry design among others. Fine and applied arts is also known as visual arts.
Other areas of art include dramatic arts (music, drama and dance) and liberal arts (poetry, literature, philosophy, history among others).
ICT tools and Packages in the Study/Practice of Fine and Applied Arts
ICT consists of the hardwares, softwares, transmission and presentation of information. The use of ICT in the classroom has been observed to support both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation of students and greatly enhancing productivity in practice. The various tools and packages available to the artist have been observed to enhance and manifest the skill already acquired therefore, the
Nigerian artist must as a matter of obligation, supplant ideological sensitivity into the use of tools and equipment in the process of solving visual communication problems. As Uche- Okeke (1982) puts it, techniques as far as they relate to art, have universal application, whereas design proper is a product of a socio-cultural system or a national artist. The artist can therefore achieve his goal through technology by skillfully and creatively manipulating ICT tools and packages. Some common ICT equipment includes:
(a)
Desktop/Laptop computers
(b)
LCD projector
(c)
Video recorder/discs
(d)
Film, slide, transparency or filmstrip projectors
(e)
Tapes/flash cards.
(f)
Record players/discs.
(g)
TV sets
(h)
Talking books
(i)
Video/Audio sensors
(j)
Digital camera
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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the Study and Practice of Fine/Applied Arts

Some common application packages include
Word processing package (MS-Word)
Spreadsheet package (MS- Excel)
Presentation package (MS-Power Point)
Desktop publishing package (Corel Draw)
Architectural package (AutoCAD)
Database package (MS-Access)
An important skill that is prominent today is computer literacy. Although computer technology is relatively new in Nigeria, the artist must have adequate knowledge of its application if he must retain his pride of place in the competitive market. Dvorak (1994) cautioned that we must remember that the driving force behind computers has always been to gain competitive advantage over the person sitting at the next desk.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

The Old Technology
Technologies of the present day are nothing more than accumulated heritage of the past; the combined experiments and technical creations of hundreds of generations. In every age, new techniques are invented and old forms are discarded or revived or combined with the new.
(Onuchukwu, 1990; Uzoagba, 2002). Every civilization therefore, evolves its science and technology in response to its inner logic and material resources. While the old technique of study and practice has left much positive impact to posterity, art is evolving so rapidly with the introduction of information and communication technology that another revolution in the study and practice of art is gradually creeping in. Every artist must be up and doing, so that no one is left behind in this craze of modernization. With more modern electrical and electronic equipment, the former mode of operation in Fine and Applied Arts is becoming more automated with less time and cost involved.
The New Technology
Many aspects of Fine and Applied Arts are recently experiencing a subtle wind of revolution both in the methods, materials and processes. This is a direct consequence of the Information and
Communication Technology. Let us briefly analyze some aspects of Fine and Applied Arts that are influenced by ICT.
Design /Illustration- with the availability of softwares like the Corel draw, Corel photo, instant artist, draw etc, the artist can draw, shade or paint objects using the appropriate menu and tools. Fonts of various classes are available for use either as headlines, sub-headlines or text matters. Fonts could as well be configured to form display typography in designs. The computer can be effectively used for the illustration of textbooks, posters, advertising copy and so on. Clip-arts are available either stored in the hard drive or diskette and can be retrieved directly or through the CD-ROM and treated to suit local needs. The scanner is an input/output peripheral that can reproduce photographs, drawings or paintings to be used in any part of a design. Such illustrations can as well be treated or configured as required. According to Vickers (1995), the addition of scanning board into computers is a current advantage. Publishing: Before the introduction of the computer to Nigeria, production process in publishing was a herculean task for the artist. He manually illustrated both the cover of the text book and the text pages. He also drew the layout and pasted the typesetting, done in scroll by the compugraphic machine, into their proper positions manually. Larger fonts for display functions are difficult to
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achieve and type characters are limited. Letraset materials for display typography are expensive and scarce. These stages of production are indeed painstaking, time consuming and the end products are relatively inferior.
In Desktop publishing, there are softwares like the PageMaker, Microsoft Word, Word
Perfect and so on that are specially adapted to meet the requirements for publishing a book. There is a wide range of type fonts to choose from and there is the freedom of enlarging and reducing them. The different facilities required for book production are abound in these softwares. In page planning, layout could be drawn choosing either symmetrical or asymmetrical format. Margin and columns/gutter planning could be easily and speedily done with the computer. Commands for indenting, spell checking, justification, highlighting or emphasis (either bold, light, underlined or italicized), rendition of fonts in both upper and lower cases and so on are readily provided in the computer. Microsoft word 2007 has all the reference styles to choose from. There are no more manual paste-ups as type matters are set into their appropriate positions in the design.
Photography Technology: there are two important ICT equipment that are absolutely essential in the recording, treatment and presentation of photographs for use in the art field. These are the scanner and digital camera. Packages such as Adobe photo shop and Corel draw can also be used in the treatment and presentation of photographs. With the digital camera, the computer can undertake task on pictures, music and video, working with the video and audio files. The photo editing tool of the digital camera provides a complete photo enhancement, editing and retouching controls. It can also create personal album with unique design and layout for greeting cards, photo book, calendars and so on.
Scanned photographs can be configured, distorted, blurred, sharpened and used as required in any design. Information Dissemination according to Okonta, Iyawa and Ugbo (2006), one of the newest applications in the world of multimedia is video and audio conferencing over the internet. These applications range from point to point products such as vocal Tec's internet phone to multi users conferencing packages such as Microsoft net meeting. Telecommunication is the electronic transmission with devices, laser beams, optical cables or fiber and direct wiring. This includes teleconferencing where group of people can meet miles away and discuss, dialogue and exchange discussions as if they are in the same room. Advertising presentations in form of animation, cartoons and real-life photographs can be carried out easily using the computer and other multimedia devices to amuse people and as well sell products.
Teaching and Learning Computer programmes can be used to teach students directly. Tabwassah
(2006), upholds that it is particularly useful in drill and practice lessons, where repetition is necessary in order that concept of skill can be learnt. The distant learning system or open air learning is easier through the Information and Communication Technology. Lecture materials are transmitted through e-mails, TV and radio. With ICT, the deaf and blind can learn art with less difficulty. ICT also encourages lecture-sharing where instructors are short in supply and teachers and students are geographically separated from each other. ICT learning eliminates barriers such as age, distance, time and cost thereby, bringing educational opportunities to the doorstep of Nigerians. It also reduces the hardship students experience as a result of poor library services and high cost of professional books.
With ICT, library services can be shared all over the world.

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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the Study and Practice of Fine/Applied Arts

Web Exhibition paintings and other art works are scanned, stored in files and can be electronically transferred to other parts of the world through electronic mail attachment. With this, planning for exhibition anywhere in the world is made easier. Web exhibition can also be organized through the internet. Visitors to such gallery can subscribe and purchase original works through such exhibitions.
Production in most art industries, computers are used in business for increased productivity, efficiency, flow of information, improvement in the performance of planning, decision making and control of activities. In addition to data base package used in industries, Computer-Aided Design
(CAD) software and Computer-Aided Manufacturing systems (CAM) software are available to undertake the tasks of decision making, product designs, and product manufacturing. With the introduction of ICT, ceramic industries, textile industries, fashion industries, painting and publishing industries to mention a few are now operating with automated machines that ensures increased productivity. Challenges in the Application of ICT in Fine and Applied Arts.
Because of the numerous advantages of networking which is made possible by Information and Communication Technology, many employees see ICT as a treat to job security. Networking enables sharing of resources for instance, one printer can serve 20 computers in an organization.
There is also the advantage of entering data, evaluating and processing shared data at the same time.
This amounts to increased productivity and not an attempt to lay off workers. More production outlets can be opened that can engage the services of other workers.
However, the cost of ICT gadgets for art industries are expensive. Very few practitioners can afford all the ICT gadgets required for effective production of art products. Majority of these art industries are privately owned and in an economy that is struggling to stabilize, access to fund is difficult and where possible, very costly.
Another setback in the use of ICT equipment is power supply. Most ICT gadgets are powered by electricity and requires constant supply. Erratic load shedding of electricity and fluctuating power supply are detrimental to the life of these gadgets. The use of suitable generating sets for ICT gadgets is expensive and not reliable.
In most public art schools, the availability of ICT equipment is grossly inadequate. More of them are found in private schools whose charges are beyond the reach of the common man. The education personnel in art schools should be conversant with modern ICT equipment so as to be effective in instructional delivery. More and more ICT equipment are introduced periodically and educational personnel must undergo retraining on them to avoid dissemination of obsolete instructions. The art curriculum that are implemented in some art schools are not ICT- compliant. Some aspects of the curriculum should be modified in accordance with ICT specifications. This is the only way that artists could be trained to be knowledgeable in information and communication technology.
Conclusion
The aesthetic and utilitarian nature of Fine and Applied Arts, subjects it to diverse operations in an attempt to satisfy people from all works of life. In all these operations, the introduction of
Information and Communication Technology has offered a common denominator by which diverse human wants and desires can be satisfied through the art medium. Creators of art products therefore, should not only embrace this technology, but also monitor its rapidly evolving developments so as to continually create products that will always meet the current needs of members of the society.
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Recommendations
(1)
The art curriculum of schools, colleges, polytechnics and universities should be modified to give more emphasis to ICT in terms of content and methodology.
(2)
Education authorities at local, state and federal government levels should as a matter of obligation, establish ICT centres in all public schools. This should be done at the basic education level, senior secondary school level and tertiary institution level. Such effort will motivate pupils to develop interest in ICT from the cradle.
(3)
Education authorities should recruit and post ICT instructors and engineers to all schools to implement ICT curriculum and install/maintain ICT facilities respectively. Because ICT is a new technology that is very dynamic, the trainers should be retrained periodically through workshops, conferences and/or seminars so as to be well informed of recent developments in information and communication technology.
(4)
Government and non-governmental organizations should endeavour to assist art industries especially those who accept students for industrial training with ICT facilities and other grants that will enable them render quality service to the education industry.
(5)
To solve the problem of power supply in Nigeria, all hands must be on deck: government should formulate tenable policies and purposeful budgeting; the private sector in partnership with government, should embark on feasible investment in electricity; the religious organizations should embark on intercessory prayers that can break the yoke of nonattainment of goals in the power sector; the international community should assist the power sector with technical aids/grants; and the entire citizens should develop the spirit of patriotism and total positive rebranding.
References
Akpoveta, E. & Ogbemi, B. (2006). Introduction to mass communication- A modern approach.
Asaba: Otoba press Ltd.
Dvorak, J.C. (1994). Keep the edge. New York: Zip-Davies publishing company.
Hornby, A.S. (2001). Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jon-Nwakalo, D. (1995). Computer appreciation for beginners. Awka: Future Tech publishers.
Nwosu, I. E. (2000). Effective media writing. Enugu: Precision Printers and publishers.
Okeke, U. (1982). Art in development a Nigerian perspective. Minneapolis, USA: African-American
Cultural Centre.
Okonta, E.; Iyawa, J.; & Ugbo, E. (2006). Computer Studies for Schools and Colleges. Asaba : His bride publication.
Okoye, P. & Adigwe, P. (1998). Management Information System- theory and application. Enugu:
Snaap press limited.
Onuchukwu, C. (1990). Impact of modern technology on traditional arts and crafts of Nigeria. Mubi:
Jotter , 11, (2).
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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the Study and Practice of Fine/Applied Arts

Perrow, C. (1967). A framework for the comparative analysis of organizations. American sociological review, 32, (194).
Tabwassah, G. C. (2006). Information communication technology. Jos: Deka publications.
Uzoagba, I. N. (2002). Understanding Art in General Education. Onitsha: Africana-Feb Publishers
Ltd.
Vicker, C. (1995). Dirty digits. London: Creative Review 15, (12).

24

RELEVANCE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) TO
THE TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS IN THE 21ST CENTURY
Scholastica E. Ncharam and Francis Okoyediji

Abstract
The relevance of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the field of education cannot be underrated. It is an innovative and inevitable tool in the teaching and learning process which has turned the world into a global technical village. Presently, no nation can develop without the positive impact of science and technology. Thus, there is a dire need to adopt new measure that will foster better understanding of what is taught and learnt. The thrust of this paper is to examine the concept of Information and Communication Technology and its importance in the teaching and learning in the 21st century. It also suggests some ways of using ICT meaningfully in order to achieve optimum teaching and learning.

Introduction
The industrial and technological prowess of any nation is measured to a large extent with the level of education attained by her citizens at all levels. Simply put, literacy is the backbone of development. However, this laudable objective cannot be achieved in the classroom bedeviled by teacher-oriented lecture, memorization and regurgitation of facts and principles. In other words, production of literate individuals cannot thrive well in an atmosphere of dogmatism.
Considering the foregoing, a lot of innovations have been introduced in the teaching and learning process in the 21st century in a bid to foster understanding and application of what is taught and learnt. (Nwagbo, 2002). The contemporary age is regarded as the knowledge age (Jarbor, 2001).
In this vein, it is timely to explore the efficacy of modern technologies which will bring what is taught to the door-step with real-life experiences. Thus, the succinct recognition of the persuasive influence of information and communication technology which has made knowledge the most prized commodity. It is assumed that ICT will make teaching and learning process more relevant by delving into the problems of learning difficulties and poor teaching (Olorutegbe & Odutuyi, 2003).
Inappropriate method of delivering lessons and lack of resourcefulness are obvious, hence, the adoption of ICT-based approach to teaching and learning is necessary as the paper examines its implications. Concept of Information and Communication Technology
Information and communication technology is an integrated application of computers and telecommunication technologies in solving problems created by global information explosion. ICT as a concept, is relatively new. Today it permeates all domains of society-workplace, school, homes. In some cases,it has transformed the way we do things. (Awotua-Efebo, 2006). In the words of Sanmi and Osungbemiro (2002) ICT refers to the use of electronic equipment to process, store and dissemination information to and over a wide audience. It is the merging of various technologies ranging from electrical/electronic engineering, computer science/engineering and telecommunication into one field that has been found useful in space exploration engineering, banking, medicine, communication commerce, education among others.
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In their contributions, Taimiyu (2000); and Tjaden (1996) adopted a tool centred definition by which they see ICT as an equipment used to produce, obtain and send information. It comprises knowledge about the nature interrelationship and use of data and information. Putting forward his ideas, Okwor (2002) described ICT as the use of computer and telecommunication systems in the collection, collation, analysis, processing, manipulation, storage, retrieval transmission and communication of data in different forms which may include audio, visual and audio-visual formats.
Information and communication technology has been in existence in various forms. For instance the talking drum, radio, television might be considered the ICT of its time (Awotina-Efebo,
2006). Nonetheless, today’s ICT is, essentially different due to its unique characteristics. It captures, stores, manipulates and disseminates information (Wall & Kemp, 1987).
In view of the potentials of ICT, there is a need to embrace it in the teaching and learning process, because it relays information at a very fast rate. It also keeps the clients abreast of current knowledge at par with issues that affect mankind.
Importance of ICT in the Teaching and Learning Process in the 21st Century
The emergence of ICT has ushered in great advancement in the education sector. In fact, it is indispensable in improving and re-focusing the awareness of the individual in the subject/courses that are taught in schools. According to Kmitta and Davis, (2004) advances in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT) with their attendant impact on education can be likened to the book revolution which occurred with the Guttenberg invention of movable press in the 15th century.
ICT is a virile tool for upgrading the standard of education through quality teaching.
The role of ICT in education is becoming more and more important and this will continue to grow and develop in the 21st century, (Laurillard, 2001). The importance of ICT in teaching and learning process can be categorized into two namely: instructional strategy and knowledge resource
(Ivowi, 2002). As an instructional strategy, ICT can be used to reach out to learners at every corner of the globe. According to Bates (2005), ICT consists of computing facilities and features that variously support teaching, learning and a range of activities in education. Computer Assisted instruction has been found to be pedagogically more useful and effective in teaching sciences than conventional tutorials. Educationist will admit that knowledge cannot be transmitted like information in a pipeline.
This means that knowledge is constructed. Through ICT (internet), the learner has access to the largest information bank virtually on any topic. Students using ICT for learning become engulfed in the process as it gives room for information sources and cognitive tools (Brewton, 2000).
Furthermore, ICT concretizes lessons and sustains interest of learners. Slow and fast learners can benefit from what is taught (Ezeliora, 2003).
ICT also brings ease to learning at distance using fax, email, teleconferencing, videoconferencing etc. These eliminate the fear of accidents as a result of traveling long distances to conferences and seminars venues. Precisely, ICT, saves time and energy on the part of resource persons and participants. As a knowledge resource, ICT extends beyond the walls of the school. The traditional paradigm for teaching (i.e. teachers lecturing while students listen is changing). The influence of world wide web (www) is apparent in terms of providing readily accessible information and promoting communications between learners and experts. In line with this, Olayiwola (2003), opined that conventional mode is no doubt, giving way to more sophisticated and rewarding modes due to the development of modern ICT.

26

Relevance of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to the Teaching and Learning Process in the 21st Century

Bottlenecks to the use if ICT in the Teaching and Learning Process.
Population Explosion
Most schools are over-populated that ICT devices (computers), cannot go round. This will inhibit effective teaching and learning. In the computer centers where students go for browsing, they wait for several hours because the number of clients outweighs available facilities.
Computer Illiteracy
Acquisition of basic knowledge of what a computer is all about and its applications is paramount. Teachers and students must be competent in the use of ICT (Essia;2005 Davis, 2003) in order to derive the benefits therein. In contrast, most Nigerians do not know how to use modern ICT facilities to promote educational efficiency, and they are not adequately trained to use information media. Insecurity and Poverty
Poverty and unemployment can hamper the availability and use of ICT in the teaching and learning. Most Nigerians are living below the poverty line and cannot afford the ICT devices due to economic meltdown Besides, cases of vandalism are eminent in some areas thereby, endangering the safety of the gadgets. This ugly situation should be curbed to the barest minimum by security agents.

Brain Drain
Nigeria has lost her qualified technical personnels due to poor remuneration. This has adversely affected the quality of computer training given to teachers and students. This has led to the shortfalls in the formal training in the area of networking to give a broad view of net communicating system. Improper Handling of ICT Devices
ICT facilities are delicate and therefore, need carefulness in terms of operation and maintenance. Inexpediently in Nigeria, personnels handling the gadgets are grossly insufficient.
Poor Power Supply
There has been epileptic nature of electricity supply by Power Holding Company of Nigeria
(PHCN). This affects the efficient networking of ICT. Continuous power supply is inevitable.
Poor Funding/Lack of Political Will
Internet connectivity is capital intensive. According to Baron (2001), the costs associated with the development of high quality technology-facilitated learning materials are quite high. In addition, most public schools (especially in rural areas) do not have ICT devices and no curriculum has been developed to guide its study. This does not augur well with sustainable development.
Ways of Using ICT Meaningfully to Achieve Optimum Teaching and Learning
The relevance of ICT cannot be underrated in the ever-growing world of technology. The significance of information and communication technology lies in the way they are used not used not merely in their procurement. Even though ICT enhances teaching and learning, the pertinent question is how can it be utilized to ensure successful teaching and learning in schools. For effective use of
ICT, sufficient micro computers should be available; conducive classroom environment should be created. Adequate and continuous supply of electricity to operate and maintain the system with well
27

Scholastica E. Ncharam and Francis Okoyediji

groomed computer/ICT experts should be put in place. Even though, the cost of utilizing ICT in the teaching and learning process, is much, the gain is not contestable.
Conclusion
The importance of ICT in the teaching and learning process is unquantifiable. Thus taking advantage of global information revolution will help in positive transformation of Nigerians in the 21st century. Knowledge is power and innovation is a key to success in this computer age. Any country that cannot measure up with the information and communication technology will be left to its perils.
ICT has enormous potentials for developing countries and thereby fostering sustainable development
(Mansell & When, 1998).
References
Awotuwa-Efebo, E.B. (2006) ICT: Fuel for development: A seminar paper presented at the committee on 2006 science and Technology week, Port Harcourt: RSG.
Awotuwa-Efebo, E. B (2006) ICT. A lead paper presented at the World Council for curriculum and instruction (WCCI) Region 2 6th Biennal Conference at Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.
Bates, C. (2005). The impact of technological change on open and distance learning. A paper presented at the open learning university.
Baron, J. (2001). Teaching for learning at University: Theory and practice. London: Kegan.
Brewton, C.C. (2000). Using the internet to enrich science education, the case of the moon watch project. Journal of Science Teachers Association of Nigeria 35. (1&2), 10-15.
Davis, S. (2003). Designing web-based training. British Journal of Education Technology 29 (4)
355-371.
Ezeliora, B (2003) Problems affecting the effective use of ICT in the teaching and learning of chemistry in school in Nigeria. Proceedings of the 44th Annual Conference on ICT and Science
Technology and Mathematics Education (pp.139-141).
Essia, N. (2005) Distance Education Journal Nigeria Open University. 56
Ivowi, U.M.O. (2002). Educational challenges for the information age. Interdisciplinary education journal. (INTEJ) 4 (1), 3-17.
Jabor, K. (2vol). British journal of educational technology. 23 (2), 312-323.
Laurilland, M. (2001) Rethinking university teaching. London: Routhledge.
Mansell, R & When, U. (1998) Knowledge societies: Information technology for sustainable development. New York: Oxford University Press.

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Relevance of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to the Teaching and Learning Process in the 21st Century

Nwagbo C. (2003) Level of scientific literacy of secondary school, science students: Implications for sustainable development in Nigeria Proceedings of the 43rd annual conference and inaugural conference of common wealth Association of Science Technology and Mathematics Education
(Africa) (pp73-76).
Okwor, F.A. (2002) Science technological issues for education in the information age
Interdisciplinary education journal (INTEJ)
Olayiwola, M.A. (2002) Promoting science learning in the primary school through ICT: Implications for the Teacher. A paper presented during the 2nd school of Science Education Series FCE/T Bichi,
25th March.
Olorutegbe, K.O & Odutuyi, M.O. (2003) An innovative ICT based approach to the teaching and learning chemistry proceedings of 44th Annual Conference of Science Teachers Association STAN
(pp135-138).
Sanni, R.O & Osugbemiro, N.R. (2002) An innovative I.T-based approach to the teaching of biological sciences at the senior secondary school level of education, being a paper presented at the
2nd Annual conference of Ondo State STAN, July 8-10 in Akure.
Taimiyu, M.A. (2000) Available accessibility and use information technologies in Nigeria Federal
Agencies: A Preliminary Survey. Database academic research.
Wall, T. D., & Kemp. N.J (1987) New technology work organizations and industrial relations. Omega
12 (3), 203-10

29

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF CHEMISTRY EDUCATION WHEN USING
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)
Rhoda Okon Mbuk

Abstract
Information and communication technology (ICT) is a vital instrument needed in improving and promoting the art of teaching and learning of chemistry concepts. This paper gives the background of the need for ICTassisted chemistry teaching and learning in Nigeria. The definition and features of computer that make the device indispensable in the educational system are highlighted. The meaning of ICT is given and its application in teaching chemistry concepts as well as solving chemistry problems in other parts of the world is expressed. The prospects and problems of ICT in chemistry education are highlighted. The following recommendations are proffered: securing and installation of ICT infrastructure and equipment by the federal and state governments in schools, steady power supply, training of teachers and every school child and subsidizing laptop prices for federal and state workers so as to encourage every teacher and tertiary institution student to own one.

Introduction
The teaching and learning of chemistry at the secondary and tertiary levels of education has over the year’s yielded unsatisfactory result according to different sources. Some of the factors responsible for such results have been identified to include the manner in which chemistry curriculum is organized and its contents presented (Ezeh, 1998); the abstract nature of chemistry concepts
(Ezeudu, 1998); the rote learning of chemistry concepts (Shaibu, 1986) and teaching methods
(Nwosu, 1982). Despite the many efforts made by different researchers to improve the quality of chemistry teaching and learning, there has been persistent un-improvement in the achievement scores of learners. Ezeudu (1998) declared that from 1981 – 1990 not more than 39.15% of those who sat for
West African School Certificate Examination (WASCE) obtained credit and above in chemistry. This result points to the fact that there exists low students’ achievement in the subjects which could be discouraging to both teachers and learners.
Application of ICT – assisted chemistry program is proposed as a means of alleviating student’s poor performance and enhancing their interest in chemistry. This paper further highlights the prospects and problems of ICT – oriented chemistry education.
Computer Technology
There are several varieties of computer with each variety of characteristics according to
Odion, Agana and Gbaden (2003). They went further to state that in electronic data processing in computer industry, computer refers to a particular type of computer which is defined as
“electromechanical device which under the control of a set of instructions or programs performs desired functions or carries out any processing tasks and generates information”. In other words, a computer is a machine which is electrically powered to perform a specific task and also generate information based on programmed instructions. Hence computer technology could be referred to as the study and application of applied sciences such as engineering in computer industry.
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Rhoda Okon Mbuk

Laosebikan (1996) in Mbuk (2002) declared that computer has features that distinguish it from other information processing tools. These features are speed, storage capacity, accuracy, diligence and versatility. These features of the computer have enabled it obtain wide applications, such as health care delivery, education, crime detection, banking, record keeping, manufacturing etc.
Computer application is more popular in developed countries.
ICT and Chemistry Education
Longman dictionary defines information technology (IT) as the study or use of electronic processes for gathering and storing information and making it available using computers. Woherem
(2001) as quoted in Gbaden and Mbuk (2005) defines IT as a systematized body of tools, techniques and infrastructure for generating, collecting, storing, processing and transmitting data and information. Osaro and Obueh (2005) say ICT refers to the handling and processing of information as instructions, graphs, texts and images for use by means of electronics and communication devices such as computer and telephone.
The above definitions have shown that computers and telephones are the main media for information generation, retention, retrieval and dissemination. ICT provides access to information that is made reachable to larger population than other forms of media. Full application of ICT in education in Nigeria is yet to be enforced or practiced. Nevertheless, it is expected that ICT will offer great advances in our educational system if only it is put in place.
ICT-assisted chemistry education is a means of facilitating the teachers work and promoting the understanding of chemistry concepts as well as skills and acquisition. For instance, chemistry problem solving is effectively taught at the University of New England where an on-line tutorial is mounted aimed at developing the problem of first year science students. The computer disk read-only memory (CD-ROM) is used to provide a wider range of learning activities (Hollingsworth, 2001).
Computer – based multimedia teachings utilizing constructivist design principles to facilitate students’ chemistry understanding and learning attitudes are also conducted in a research by KingDow (2007). The results show that:
(a) Students acquired a better understanding of targeted chemistry concepts during multimedia representations (b) students’ average performance on the pretests and posttests through our chemistry course indicated a 10-point growth. (c) All variants under constructivist instructions, such as F-ratio, P-values and Cohen’s effect sizes of attitudes toward chemistry and learning chemistry were detected in terms of students’ gender, major, computer-based multimedia and disposition toward computerization (p.1).

ICT-assisted chemistry teaching and learning removes the abstractness of chemistry concepts as the lessons are presented to learners in the form of pictures, graphs, charts, animations, models etc. the lessons are made available to learners individually thus fostering learning at individual’s pace, convenience and comfort. Dawson, Faster and Reid (2006) in King-Dow (2007) asserted that ICTbased chemistry approach can make our teaching effective, flexible and multiple.
Zhao (1996) as quoted in King-Dow (2007) declared that “ICT application can be classified into four major aspects: instruction, communication, resource and tool and guide for technology improvement and multiple learning”. Human and material resources are indispensable in the application of ICT-based instruction. An expert in the subject area is required to carefully select the instruction for the lesson that is appropriate to the mental level and age of the learners in order to produce meaningful result.

31

Problems and Prospects of Chemistry Education When Using Information and Communication Technology
(ICT)

Prospects of ICT-Assisted Chemistry Education
Prospects of ICT-assisted chemistry education include enhancing the quality of teaching and learning of the subject. Sharing of information and resources by many learners at the same time and yet providing individual learning.
Concretizing learning experiences is made available by audio and visual presentations in ICTbased teaching. This provides enabling environment for effective teaching of abstract and difficult chemistry topics and concepts. Chemistry students can receive instructions on many topics from different experts from any part of the world. ICT-based learning is self-motivating, enhancing learner’s creativity, participation and academic excellence.
The foregoing outlines the prospects of ICT-based educational programme in chemistry. But its other side of the coin which limits its application in Nigeria school system is problems which include: finance to provide the needed infrastructure, lack of ICT-trained staff, lack of internet services in villages and towns outside the main cities, lack of networking of personal and institutional computers and the greatest problem is lack of steady supply of electricity.
Conclusion
The application of ICT in teaching and learning in developed countries has registered positive results. These include enhancing problem solving in chemistry, acquisition of better understanding of targeted chemistry concepts and improving students’ performance in chemistry. Nigeria’s educational activities or systems, especially science education requires being overhauled in order to achieve vision
20:20. Responding to this clarion call entails computerizing the educational system and securing the workable environment for ICT to thrive.
Recommendations
Developed countries are ranked as world leading economic nations because of globalization.
Globalization was brought about when such countries embraced computerization. The computer revolution changed their general way of life and economy. However, computer application in Nigeria is yet to gain wide application in Nigeria as recorded by the World Bank’s report for the year 2002, in
Osaro and Obueh (2005) that “there is a low level of ICT application in skills development among
Nigerian youths in the modern ICT oriented society”. Thus the following suggestions are made to ensure that computer application is popularized especially in this period that Nigeria aspires to achieve vision 20:20:20.
1. The federal and state government should provide the necessary ICT infrastructure.
2. The federal government should ensure to provide the enabling environment for ICT application, especially steady electricity.
3. Computer training should be included in the school curriculum and made mandatory for every learner up to the level that the learner will be proficient enough. Training programmes should be mounted for the teaching staff.
4. The above can be facilitated if only our primary and secondary schools will have enough computers for every child to have sufficient access to.
5. The government should subsidize the cost of laptops to enable every civil servant to own one and also buy for their children / wards.
6. Personnel should be trained by the government for servicing and maintenance of ICT equipments in government schools and organizations.

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Rhoda Okon Mbuk

References
Ezeh, P.N. (1998). Diagnosis of student’s difficult concepts in senior secondary school chemistry curriculum. Review of education, 15(1), 242 – 248
Ezeudu, F.O. (1998). Effects of concept maps, on student’s achievement in selected units of organic chemistry. Review of Education, 15(1), 181 – 190.
Gbaden, T & Mbuk, R.O. (2005, April). Highlights of best practices in IT – assisted teachers’ training in vocational and technical education. Paper presented at the school of sciences national conference on issues on teachers preparation in Science Technology and Mathematics Education
(STME) held at FCE, Zaria, 12th – 15th.
Hollingaorth, R. (2001, July). The role of computers in teaching chemistry problem solving. From http://www.juenac.jp/scien/cssj/cejmlE.html. King – Dow, S. (2007). An ICT – based chemistry approach with constructivist instructions.
Proceeding of the 2nd NICE symposium.
Pearson Education Limited (2005). Longman dictionary of contemporary English. Updated edition.
CD – ROM
Mbuk, O.A. (2002). The need for computer literacy in the Nigerian school system. In J.O. Eriba (Ed.)
Readings in science, technology and mathematics education in Nigeria (14 – 21). Onitsha: West and Solomon Publishing Co. Ltd.
Nwosu, S.N. (1982). Welcome address by Prof. S.N. Nwosu, provost, Alvan Ikoku College of
Education, Owerri at the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria: National Workshop in New
Nigeria Integrated Science Project and the 3-3 Secondary School System. Workshop proceedings.
16-17.
Odion, T., Agana, M. & Gbaden, T. (2003). Computing in the computer age. Ikeja: Setop Arts
Productions.
Osaro, I. & Obueh, H.O. (2005, April). ICT- a prerequisite for professional preparations of science teachers. Paper presented at the school of sciences national conference on issues on teachers
Preparation in Science Technology and Mathematics Education (STME) held at FCE, Zaria, 12th15th.
Shaibu, A.A.N. (1986). The initial learning of organic chemistry in schools. Journal of Science
Teachers Association of Nigeria 24 (1&2), 158-163.

33

NIGERIAN WOMEN AND PARTICIPATION IN SPORTS
R. O. Okaka and E.D. Omoifo

Abstract
This paper highlights women and sports participation in Nigeria.. Effort was made to define sports and trace the historical background of women participation in sports in Nigeria. Some reasons that enhance women participation in sports were also addressed. This included health and fitness movement, Federal government legislation and new opportunities. Some recommendations were also made to enhance women’s participation in
Nigeria sports. Such as provision of adequate female coaches, incentives scholarship to female athletes and the general education of the public on the need for female participation in sports.

Introduction
An analysis of participation in sports in Nigeria indicates that men constitutes the greater number either as players, coaches, referees or as sports administrators. The low involvement of women in sport and games is not due to the lack of interest in sports and games by women alone. It is due to the discrimination resulting from the mind-set from childhood that sports is meant for boys alone, that it affects their physiological construct and development by making them masculine and, that it also adversely affects their ability to procreate. Females who participate in sports are also seen as people who are socially and sexually too exposed and as such unfit as faithful housewives (Coakley
1984). If Nigeria is to fulfill her aspiration of being amongst the fore runners in sporting activities in the world, the issue of women participation in sports and games must be successfully addressed.
Women and Sports Participation in Nigeria
According to Coakley (1984) sports is amusement, fun and activity engaged in especially outdoors, for amusement and exercise. It can also be defined as one of the mass duties of the machine age. Bucher (1979) defined sports as a pastime, a division and it is synonymous with fun. Sports is also any game played according to rules and regulations of the governing bodies (Omoghele, 1989).
Sports were also seen to have come into Nigeria through the colonial masters and western education. The Empire Day provided the first opportunity for formal and recorded competition. The first recorded organized sport was in 1910. Women’s participation in competitive sports was however traced under the following headings-post-independence era (1960 - 1966), post first republic military regime (1966-1978), the second republic (1979-1983) and women in sports to date (1984-date). These periods witnessed a steady rise in women’s participation in sports in Nigeria. (NTI, 2007).
Throughout history, men’s sport participation has been greater than that of women. Dalen and Bennett (1971) explained that historically, women have never been expected to participate in any vigorous physical activities. In the ancient Athens, according to him, boys took part in active physical education while girls stayed indoors to help their mothers in domestic work. They sang song of praise to the heroes, presented their gifts and dance to celebrate the victory. But in Sparta, girls participated with boys in the processions and at certain festivals danced and sang in the presence of young men, praising the courageous and making fun of the coward. Regular exercises made the Spartan girls attractive specimen. According to NTI (2007) women had to fight for political and professional emancipation, they also had to fight for the right to be physically fit and compete in athletics. It is
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R. O. Okaka and E.D. Omoifo

argued that women’s anatomy should not determine her destiny. This is consequent upon the fact that the traditional role of the female is changing.
Nigerian women are constantly setting records at National and International levels. At the
Atlanta Olympics in 1996, Nigeria athletics won one gold, one silver and two bronze medals for the country. The soccer skills displayed by Nigeria female teams remained long after the games. An analysis of gold medals won by Nigerian in All African Games since it started showed that while
Nigeria men won twenty eight (28) gold medals, their female counterparts won 57 medals (Audu,
1999).
There has been a steady rise in Women’s Participation in Sports in Nigeria in recent times.
Many factors may have contributed to the awareness. Among them are the introduction of the Better
Life For Rural Women by the former First Lady, Maryam Babaginda and the birth of the National
Women Commission. The aims of the two bodies were to encourage women to participate fully in political, economic and social life of the country. This awareness motivated the First Lady to donate the First Challenge Cup for the Women Soccer in Nigeria. Some of the female soccer teams in various states are the Obasogie Babes of Benin, the Ufoma Babies of Warri, the Queens of Bendel, etc. The women have not only made other mark in local competitions, they have been able to make their impact felt internationally by defeating their Cameroonians and Guinea counterparts to win the soccer cup competition.
The Nigerian women have made their mark in other sports such as tennis-table or lawn where we have Victoria Onyebochia and Nosa Imafidon. Nigeria was also represented at the Common
Wealth Under 18 Handball Championship held in Delhi, India where the Borno Girls defeated their
Indian counterparts 16 -11 Goals. In athletics, women have also made their mark. An example is
Mary Onyali who took part in the World Malmo Athletics meet held in Sweden on 5th August, 1991 and won silver.
Reasons for Increased Participation in Sports among Females
The following factors are responsible for the increased participation in sports among women.
A. Pressure from the Federal Government in form of Title ix legislation.
B. The Women’s Liberation Movement
C. The health and fitness movement.
D. New opportunities
E. The visibility of the athletic role models.
Pressure from the Federal Government in form of Title IX legislation: The Federal Government of United States does not want any discrimination in sports. To achieve this, laws were passed abolishing sex discrimination in any organization receiving Federal Government financial assistance.
Consequently the Title IX legislation was passed and enforced. Stated that “No person in the United
States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance” and that those organizations including the vast majority of schools at all educational levels, have to show proof that they have provided enough opportunities for male and females.
The Health and Fitness Movement: Since physical education is a process of training, the body and mind through a well selected physical activities. Sports too also help to build the body and mind.
Women now feel that sports too can help to develop their body hence the increase participation by women. 35

Nigerian Women and Participation in Sports

The Visibility of Athletic Role Models: The advertisement of women star athletes on the television, radio etc. made them role models and their professional activities help to encourage women in sports.
As role models, they have reinforced the female folks’ interest in sports and this has brought to reality the definition of sport as a human activity rather than strictly a male activity.
The Women’s Liberation Movement: The women’s movement has traditionally emphasized the idea that females are enhanced as human beings when they have opportunities to be competent and able. This idea has encouraged many women of all ages to pursue their interest in sports.
New Opportunities: The major factor underlying the growth of sport participation among females is an increase opportunities. Before the mid 1970’s many girls and women did not participate in sports for one simple reason: teams and program did not exist. Today some students may not be aware of this fact, but few of their parents had any of the opportunities they have today. Recently formed teams and programs have uncovered and cultivated interest ignored in the past. Budgets are still not equally distributed among males and females, but increased participation has clearly gone hand in hand with the investment of new resources in women’s program (Coakley, 1984).
Reasons for Low Level of Participation by Women in Sports
Women have not been involved in sports on a much large scale because societies have discouraged women from competing in sports by dwelling on several myths : (Adeyanju, 1993).These myths included:
a. The inability of women to remain feminine while participating in athletics. Men regarded women athletes as masculine because sports require some degree of development of muscular strength. b. The inability of women to engage in strenuous physical activities.
c. The belief that physical activities are harmful to the gynecological process such as child conception and birth.
d. Psychological inability of the female to deal with the stresses of competition.
e. Cultural factor is another phenomenon that had inhibited the dimension of women participation. f. Religious reasons.
g. Domestic responsibility of women folk which tended to describe them as purely home keepers. h. Media coverage of men sporting events is more pronounced compared to the women.
i. Non awareness by women of the gains of participation in sports. (Coakley, 1984).
Sex discrimination has been a major feature in sport programs in the vast majority of United
States of America and Nigeria. It became so pronounced in 1990 in the USA that researchers started looking into the problem. This was so obvious in the facilities and equipment that women were made to practice in old gymnasium with old facilities where ultra modern stadia were built for men with modern or recent facilities and equipment. Women were not given training care where and when men took airplanes, women were made to take buses.
Most often, male coaches were made available to coach female athletes. This is not too good because he would not understand and be sensitive to the problems and needs of female athletes; and also they would not be disposed to revealing their problems to him (Coakley, 1984).
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R. O. Okaka and E.D. Omoifo

Men athletes were given more publicity than female athletes. When any record is set by any male, all media houses carried it for a very long time whereas if it is a woman, the publicity was less.
Sports men were often used to advertise products than women athletes.
Governments budget more money for men sports than women’s and fewer event or programs are made available to women than men. This tells much on the morale of sports women as it tends to demoralize sports women. This is a noticeable development in all international competitions.
Conclusion
Summarily those factors which hinders women in sports especially in the area of leadership, policies, structure, programmes, budgeting, training, publicity, welfare and health issues must be eliminated. The attainment of gender equality in sports will afford Nigeria the opportunity to actualize the vast potential that Nigerian Women constitute. Women had to fight for political and professional emancipation; they also had to fight for right to be able to compete in athletes. It is argued that women’s anatomy should not determine their destiny, this is consequent upon the fact that traditional role of the female is changing. New opportunities for women in sport are continually increasing. The past fifteen years witnessed great changes that had occurred in sports and in particular high level competitive sports in which more opportunities are now made available for women. This is evident in their participation in those activities mentioned earlier such as women soccer, track and field, various ball game e.t.c.
Recommendations
1
Female Coaches: More women should be encouraged to take up coaching job, since they would understand the female athletes problem better than the male. This also would go to disabuse the minds of parents against the men coaches defiling their wards.
2

Equipment and Facilities: For every sports, appropriate and adequate program facilities and equipment should equally be made available for both the male and female sports.

3

Training Schedule: Equal opportunities and programs should be made available to both men and women to afford them equal opportunities for training for effective performance.

4

Incentives: Scholarships and other incentives of equal weightings should be given to outstanding female athletes in schools; and those out of school should be given job opportunities and when retiring from active sports, pensions should be granted.

5

Education: This has to do with enlightening and informing the general public on the need for women participation in sports. This medium of approach should be through jingles on radio, television, and newspaper advertisement. Schools should also organize seminars for parents and the general public about the need for women participation in sports.

6

Publicity: Equal publicity should be given to both men and women athletes for this would engender the interest of the female folks in sports participation.

7

Budgets: The same amount of money should be budgeted for both men and women sports in order not to negate the principles of equity and justice.
Female Athletes should be given comprehensive insurance because of the associated sports hazards. 8

37

Nigerian Women and Participation in Sports

References
Adeyanju, F.B. (1993). Female leadership role: Implication for sports development in Nigeria.
Kaduna: Edited proceeding of Nigeria association of woman in sports first national conference, p
108-121.
Audu, M.D. (1999). Empowering Women in Sport: Future Directions. Zaria: A paper presented at the
National conference of Nigeria association of women in sport.
Bucher, C.A. (1975). Administration of physical education and athlete programme, 7th Ed. London:
Mosby Company.
Coakley, Jay (1984). Sports in Society: Issues and Controversies. St Louis. The C.V. Mosby
Company.
National Teachers Institute (2007). Physical and health education year: special teacher upgrading programme (STUP). Kaduna, Federal Government Publication.
Omughele, C. O. (1989). Physical education handbook. Benin: Ambik Press.
Van Dalen, D.B. &Bennett, B.C. (1971). A World history of physical education (2nd ed) Englewood
Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

38

INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AND EDUCATION IN NIGERIA.
A.G. Ossai (Ph. D) and E.N. Nwalado (M. Ed.)

Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of the Nigerian National policy for information Technology and Education. The analysis reveals that the policy is inadequate to impact positively on the Nigerian education system and that the philosophical frame of reference is market driven. The policy places little emphasis on the integration and infusion of ICT in the country’s education system. Policy implications and suggestions are offered to ensure maximum use of ICT potentials in the Nigerian schools system. If we succeed at this level, Nigeria can be a role model for effective utilization of
ICT for education and sustainable development for not only Africa countries but also the whole world.

Introduction
Information Communication Technology(ICT) is the technology that deals with the study, design, development, implementation, support and management of computer-based information system that is used to acquire, convert, store, protect, process, distribute and retrieve information according to the user’s requests. The various applications of ICT have a revolutionary impact on how we see this world and how we live. It is becoming the driving force for effective and efficient operations of trade and commerce, government, medicine, education, human resources development, arts and culture, agriculture, national security and other areas of human endeavors. The developing use of ICT in these areas motivated the need for an ICT policy built on reliable human resources and infrastructure that will constitute the fundamental tool and means of assessing, planning, managing development change and for achieving sustainable growth. In view of this, every progressive country has a national ICT and an implementation strategy. In fact, the pervasiveness of ICT has brought about rapid technological, social, political and economic development which has eventuated in a network society organized around ICT (Castells, 1996).
The field of education has not been selected by the penetrating influence of Information and
Communication Technology. Undoubtedly, ICT has impacted on the quality and quantity of teaching, learning and research in traditional and distance education institutions. In concerts forms, ICT can enhance teaching and learning through its dynamic, interactive, and engaging content, and it can provide real opportunities for individualized instruction. Information and communication technology has the potential to accelerate, enrich and deepen skills; motivate and engage students in learning; helps to relate school experiences to work practices; helps to create economic visibility for tomorrows’ workers, contributes to radical changes in school; strengthens teaching and provides opportunities for connection between the school and the world (Davis and Tearla, 1999, Lemke and
Coughlin, 1998). Information and communication technology can make the school more efficient and productive thereby, engendering a variety of tools to enhance and facilitate teachers’ professional activities (kirschner and Woperies, 2003).
In research, ICT provides opportunities for schools to communicate with one another through e-mail, mailing list, chat rooms, and so on. It also provides quicker and easier access to more extensive and current information, and it can be used to do complex mathematical and statistical
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A.G. Ossai (Ph. D) and E.N. Nwalado (M. Ed.)

calculations. Furthermore, it provides researchers with a steady avenue for the dissemination of research reports and findings (Yusuf and Onasanya, 2004).
Based on a review of 28 major reports on technology integration in American schools, Culp
Honey and Mandinach (2003) advanced three major reasons for ICT in education. They suggested that technology is usually (a) a tool for addressing challenges in teaching and learning (b) a change agent, and (c) a central force in economic competitiveness. As a tool for addressing challenges in teaching and learning, Technology has capabilities for delivery, management, and support of effective teaching and learning, technology has capabilities for delivery, management, and support of effective teaching and learning. It is equally good for geographical dispersed audiences and it also helps to collect and make sense of complete data. It also supports diverse and process oriented form of writing and communication, and it broadens the scope and timeliness of information resources available in the classroom. As an agent of change, it catalyses various other changes in the content, methods, and overall quality of teaching and learning, thereby ensuring constructivist imaging-oriented classrooms.
As a central force in economic competiveness, it deals with economic and social shifts that have technology skills ethical to future employment of today’s students.
Looking at the role of education in the development of the any society, the school will be indispensable in developing an ICT culture of any country. The school must provide effective leadership in ICT integration, through research, modeling of effective integration of ICT, and provision of opportunities for professional development of citizens of a country.
A National Policy for Information Technology
In order to husband the potentials of ICT, most nations of the world have evolved national
Information and Communication Technology policies to serve as a framework for ICT integration in all facts of the society. African countries and Nigeria in particular are not exceptions to this practice.
The digital divide between advanced and developing countries, particularly in Africa is well established. Like most African countries, Nigeria as a nation, came late and slowly in the use of ICT in all sectors of the nation’s life. Although Africa has 12 percent of the total world population, the continent has two percent presence in ICT use (Jenson, 2002). In Africa, there is low access to basic
ICT equipment, low internet connectivity, low participation in the development of ICT equipment, and even low involvement in software development. In fact, New York City has higher internet connectivity than the whole of Africa (Ajayi 2002, Hall 1998).
The seeming backwardness of the African continent in ICT necessitated a continent wide initiative, the African Information Society Initiative (AISI), which had the origin in the African
Regional Symposium on Telemetric for Development held in Addis Ababa in April 1995. The symposium organized by the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), the Informational
Telecommunication Union (ITU), UNESCO, the Informational Development Research Centre
(IDRC) and Ballonet Informational, urged the ECA conference of ministers to consider the importance for Africa of the global information revolution (Ajayi, 2002; ADF, 1999). Based on this recommendation, the ECA conference of ministers in May 1995 passed resolution 795(XXXS) titled
“Building Africa’s Information Highway” which called for work on national information and communication networks for planning and decision making as part of an African information highway, and for the establishment of a high level working group made up of African experts in ICT, to prepare African entry information society. Subsequently in May 1996, the ECA conference of ministers through its resolution 812(XXXS) approved the plan of action prepared by the high level working group entitled the African Information Society Initiative, An action framework to build
Africa’s Information and communication infrastructure (Ajayi, 2002, ADF 1999). The AISI action plan framework called for the formation of National Information and Communication Infrastructure
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Information Communication Technology and Education in Nigeria.

(NICI) plans and strategies. This was to be an on-going process through planning, implementation and regular evaluation of programmers and pilot projects, developed according to the needs and priority of each country (ADF, 1999). It should be stressed that Nigeria did not achieve much on the
MIC plan and strategies at the beginning of 1999.
A significant leap was made when the Nigerian government in October of 1999 issued a document on telecommunications development strategy and investment opportunities in Nigeria.
Similarly, in October 1999, the National policy on Telecommunication was approved (Ajayi, 2002).
The document contained policy statements on objectives, structuring competition policy, satellite communication, management structure, finance and funding, manpower development and training, internal research and development, safety and security, international perspectives, and policy implementation and review (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2002).
The National policy on communication was a key step in the development of infrastructural base for ICT. In 2001, the Federal Government approved the Nigerian National policy for Information
Technology (IT) and followed this up with the establishment of National Information Agency (NIA), which was charged with the implementation of the policy (Ajayi, 2002).
A National Policy for Information Technology and Education.
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) policy, as noted by Rowland (1996) and cited in Harkin (2002), can be categorized into vertical, Infrastructural and horizontal policies, vertical ICT policy addresses sectional needs, such as education, health and tourism. The
Infrastructural aspect deals with the development of National Infrastructure and this is closely linked with telecommunication. The horizontal aspect deals with the impact on broader aspects of society such as freedom of information, tariff and pricing, privacy and security. These three aspects are adequately addressed in the Nigerian I.T. policy. It is now imperative to analyse the document as it relates to education.
First, the document mission statement recognized the need “to use IT for Education” (P.
III). In addition, the general objectives in three (XV, XVI and XXIV) of the 31 stated objectives must be used to:
XV. empower the youths with IT skills and prepare them for global competitiveness. XVI. integrate
IT into the mainstream of education and training.
XXIV. establish new multifaceted IT institutions as centers of excellence to ensure Nigeria’s competitiveness in international markets.
In order to achieve these obligations, 20 strategies were enumerated. The fifth strategy was stated in this way “Restructuring the education system at all levels to respond effectively to the challenges and imagined impact of the information age and in particular, the allocation of a special IT development fund to education at all levels.
It should be underscored that although as this mission, general objectives, and strategies recognized the importance of ICT in education, the document has no sectoral (vertical) application to education issues relating to application for human resources development. Under these sectoral application objectives 1 to 4 as follow:
To develop a pool of IT engineers, scientists, technicians and software developers;
To increase the availability of trained personnel;
To provide alternative career opportunities; and
To develop requisite skills in various aspects of IT.
In order to achieve the objectives for human resources development, nine major strategies are outlined. These strategies are targeted at the building of knowledge and skills in information
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technology. These include (a) making the use of ICT mandatory at all levels of educational institutions, (b) development of ICT curriculum for primary, secondary and tertiary institution, (c) use of ICT in distance education, (d) ICT companies investment in education, (e) study great and scholarship on ICT, (f) training the trainer scheme for National youth service corps members, (g) ICT capacity development at zonal, state and local levels, (h) growth of private and public sector dedicated
ICT primary, secondary, and tertiary educational institutions; and (i) working with international and domestic initiatives for transfer of ICT knowledge. In spite of these objectives and strategies that are focused on education, the document is inadequate to cater for the needs of the country’s education system. Some of the differences noted in the document are enumerated as follows:
The policy has no specific application to education, while there are sectoral applications for health, agriculture, culture, tourism and governance, education is subsumed under human resources development.
The objectives and strategies related to education are market driven,
Computer education introduced into the Nigeria secondary school has largely been unsuccessful as a result of teachers’ incompetence (Yusuf, 1998).
The national policy does not recognize the need to create quality software.
None of the issues relevant to ICT application in the Nigerian education system addresses the issue of research, evaluation and assessment, all of which are critical to ensure success.
The implications of these inadequacies are that the national policy cannot adequately take care of the need of Nigerian education system. Its education focus is limited to the market driven goal. The need for integration in teaching and learning, the need for quality professional development programs for pre-service and serving teachers, research, evaluation and development and the development of local context software are not addressed. These are major component of quality application in education.
ICT in Education
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are diverse set of tolls and resources used to communicate, create, disseminate, store and manage information. These technologies include computers, the internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television) and telephony. There is increasing interest in how companies and the internet can improve education at all levels in both formal and non-formal settings. The use of computers and the internet is still in its infancy in developing countries due to limited infrastructure and the attendant high costs of access. In order to fulfill the vision 2020 of Nigeria, the educational system has to be transformed and driven by ICT.
ICT is an increasingly influential factor that could facilitate and speed up the transformation expected in education. ICT is the key tools giving birth to the contemporary e-commerce, e-Government, emedicine, e-Education, teleconferencing, data-conferencing and Videoconferencing. Computers and mobile phones are being wisely used in developed countries both to complement established education practices and develop new ways of learning such as online education. This gives the opportunity to people in remote locations to have access to education (formal or non-formal).
ICT offers powerful learning tools that demand new skills and understandings of students including multimedia literacy. It provides new ways to engage students such as classroom management software. ICT is being used more not only in administrative duties in education but also in the instruction of students. The use of technologies such as Power points, Mobile Note Taker and interactive Whiteboard is capturing the attention of students in the classroom. ICT is also being used in the assessment of students. One example is the Audience Response Systems (ARS), which allows immediate feedback tests and classroom discussions.
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Information Communication Technology and Education in Nigeria.

ICT can provide stakeholders and administrators with new tools for increased communication for management efficiencies; teachers and learners with improved learning opportunities by:
Empowering citizens, managers and other stakeholders by enabling online teamwork for increased participation, collaboration and information sharing through the use of email, the web and other remote collaboration tools,
Enabling the rapid creation and inexpensive distribution of educational information and knowledge. Encouraging professional development, in-service training, remote support and mentoring for lifelong learning for teachers, manages and other citizens,
Facilitating fast and easy access to information and expertise around the world.
Increasing motivation through the use of multimedia such as sound, video, graphics animation and text.
Allowing each student to learn as his/her level and speed thereby giving pupil greater control over their own learning,
Enhancing the development of the abilities of mentally and physically challenged students,
Promoting active rather than passive learning,
Engaging students in research, data analysis and problem solving, there by facilitating higher-order thinking processes such as synthesizing, interpreting and hypothesizing.
In the context of these opportunities, the national policy for ICT in education will help to locate
Nigeria in the emerging global knowledge based economy. This will be achieved by strategic investment in education to enable greater productivity in the workforce and increased national competiveness. Nigeria Government e-Education Initiatives
There are presently at least nine ICT for education initiative at various stages of development being carried out by the education coordinating agencies of government and the ministry of education. They include:
a.
The Nigerian Universities Network (NUNet) project.
b.
The Polytechnics network (Poly Net)
c.
The school Net project,
d.
The Nigerian Education, Academic and Research Network (NEAR Net).
e.
The teachers Network (Teach Net) project,
f.
National Open University,
g.
National Virtual (Digital ) Library (Ministering of Education / NUC),
h.
National Virtual Library (Ministry of Science and Technology / NITDA)
i.
National Information, Communication and Education Program of the presidency.
Proposed ICT Policy Framework for Education
In harmonizing the efforts in the education sector with the national efforts, the Ministry of
Education should have a standard policy for stakeholders to have input to the process of defining a common vision for the systematic integration of information and communications technology in the education system.
Today, there are many government approved formal and non-formal Institutions of teaching and learning and they are expected to align with the vision 2020 and therefore produce a national workforce with ICT driven initiatives. The need therefore arises for the preparation of a formal
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A.G. Ossai (Ph. D) and E.N. Nwalado (M. Ed.)

national document (an ICT policy) for education that states the norms, regulations and procedures to ensure that ICT is used for teaching, learning and research in all the institutions of learning. This policy will guide the various schools to produce ICT driven curricula. Therefore, students running any education program would have acquired basic skill in ICT before the completion of their course and be able to apply it effectively in their work.
The following key points may be considered as recommendations for the development of eeducation in Nigeria:
1. IT education should be included in the educational curriculum including the provision of necessary infrastructural support and massive training and deployment of skilled manpower into both secondary and tertiary institutions.
2. Young software developers should be trained and supported with the necessary equipment to develop usable e-education softwares;
3. The various government education coordinating agencies should work together to develop an integrated broad-based model / strategy for e-education with a definitive timeline for its completion; 4. Government should increase funding for the entire educational sector with particular emphasis on ICT;
5. Government should work with private sector and civil society to ensure affordable and sustainable access to ICT infrastructure,
6. A policy environment which encourages investment in ICT should be put in place in order to promote affordability and wide range usage at all levels of the educational system;
7. The importance of youth participation in ICT decision-making processes cannot be over emphasized; therefore their participation in ICT policy making processes at the national and other levels should be encouraged and supported by all stakeholders.
Ministry of education must lead by its own proactive adoption of ICT in its internal processes and its communication with national and international stakeholders. Standard policy will help to create a human resources platform through the formal education system up to the end of high schooling on which the tertiary institutions can build the array of skills and competencies needed for productivity, research, economic growth and genuinely sustainable development. In the process, individual creativity, innovation, inventiveness will be encouraged and facilitated by improving the environments in which interactions with ICT take place.
Conclusion
The use of ICT as a force to drive all subjects and courses in Nigerian Schools is a major undertaking but it is an investment in the future productivity of the workforce and the future prosperity of the country. Thus policies, norms and guidelines will have to be established to promote the use of ICT in schools. Successful application in every sector can only be assured through adequate coverage of needed areas. Identified gaps should be filled through the involvement of important stakeholders in education. ICT is a powerful tool for the development of quality teaching and learning; it is a catalyst for radical change in existing school practices and a veritable vehicle for preparing the students for the future. Success in the implementation of an ICT policy will be dependent on the recognition of the importance of sectoral application to education and sustainable implementation. Maximizing ICT potentials will involve quality ICT policy, greater involvement of private and public sectors in the funding of the implementation, and proper implementation and monitoring. 44

Information Communication Technology and Education in Nigeria.

References
African Development Forum (1999). The process of developing national information and communication infrastructure (NICI) in Africa (online) http//:www.uneca.orgladf99/nicihtm
(Accessed Dec.2, 2004).
Ajayi , G.O. (2002), African response to the information, communication technology revolution,
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Castells, M (1996), The Rise of the Network Society (Vol. 2) Oxford Blackwell publisher
Davis, N. (2003). Technology in teachers education in USA: What makes for sustainable good practice? Technology, Pedagogy, and Education, 12 (1) 59-84 (online) http:// www.triangle. co.uk/jit/indexhtm (Accessed October 1,2004)
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Teleteaching 98conferennce, Vienna (online) http://www.ex.ac.uk/telematics/ IT3/corecurr/ teach98.htm (Accessed Nov. 23, 2003)
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Yusuf, M.O.& Onasanya S.A. (2004) Information and communication technology (ICT) and technology in tertiary institution. In E.A. organization (Ed). Teaching in tertiary institution (PP6776), Ilerin: Faculty of Education.
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APPLICATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN
NIGERIAN EDUCATION: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
Rume E. Yoro

Abstract
The rapid spread of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) is changing the way economic and social development occurs in most countries. ICT tools can make institutions and markets more productive, enhance skills and learning, improve governance at all levels, and make it easier for the poor to access services and make their voices heard. Its use to further developmental goals is also evolving: Citizens can apply for admission into institutions of learning online, techniques to boost crop yield or improve well-drilling can be sent instantly around the world and health specialists can more effectively coordinate to halt the spread of diseases.
The application of ICT is freeing millions of bright minds to work together in ways never before possible to bring about development. This paper presents a review of ICT, its contributions to development, and the imperative for an improved educational usage of ICT tools in managing current global challenges.

Introduction
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is one of the important driving forces for modern development. With the advancement of Information and Communication Technology, one can live in the global village irrespective of distance, national and international boundaries. The term
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) springs from the convergence of telecommunication, computing and broadcasting through the use of digital information. It covers any product that can store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit and receive information electronically in a digital form. ICT comprehends technologies that can process different kinds of information i.e. voice, video, text, data and facilitates different forms of communications among humans and among information systems. The telecommunication infrastructure plays an important role to boost the development of a country in this information society. The advent of ICT brings all the citizen of this planet close together and has a quicker access to all the information and benefits that the world may have.
The use of ICT by developing countries, especially Nigeria, has grown divergent over the years. Initially, the dominant perspective in developing countries has been one of promoting growth of ICTs as one of the key sectors of a country’s economy. The ICT sector presents a great opportunity for them to enhance economic growth and employment by way of buying and the assembling of computers and its accessories to replace the typewriter as typified by Nigeria.
However, a second perspective that has emerged in the last couple of years and that has come to stay is the deployment of ICT, especially the Internet, as catalyst for national development. As in richer nations, this once unimaginable resource is being harnessed, along with other Information and
Communications Technologies (ICTs), to improve education, health, agriculture, governance, and business — sometimes in surprising ways (Tinio, 2003).
Contributions of ICTs to National Development
This will be discussed under the following headings:
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E-government
Procurement Reforms
Education & Sharing Knowledge
(a)

E-government
E-government refers to the use of ICT to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability in the delivery of government services. Improvement in delivery of Government services is an important issue for many developing countries as the largest cost of inefficiency is borne by the poor. Electronic delivery can improve efficiency, cut delays for citizens, lessen corruption, and increase transparency. Applications that focus on online delivery of services to citizens, businesses, and different arms of government are covered within the broad definition of electronic government. E-government is about a process of reform in the way Governments work, share information and deliver services to external and internal clients. Specifically, it harnesses ITs
(such as WAN, the Internet, and mobile computing) to transform relationships with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government. The resulting benefits can be less corruption, increased transparency, greater convenience, revenue growth, better information for planning, spending, serving and cost reduction.
Various Applications and Delivery Models of E-government: Applications for e-government to improve governance are myriad. They can be categorized according to the constituency that is served:
(i) Delivery of services to citizens
(ii) Delivery of Services to Business and Industry
(iii) Increased Efficiency of Departments/ Govt. Enterprises
Three distinct delivery models are used in most cases:
Departments going on-line: Here citizens interact with departments/private operators by accessing data and information from on-line terminals located in the premises of the department. Examples of these include the Delta State Project e-delta and the Delta Sate Board of Internal Revenue.
Conveniently located Service Centers in public places: Here multiple services are offered at each location: payment, issue of licenses and certificates, etc. Examples include Banks and other locations used by the Lagos State Internal Revenue Service.
Self Service through a Portal: The portals are designed to offer a variety of services and the interface is organized in a fashion that makes it convenient for citizens to access the services. This is currently in use here in Nigeria by higher institutions of learning, including the Military for admission purposes, the Customs for international passport and many private organizations for employment purposes. (b)

Procurement Reform
In the routine details of how a government award contracts to build schools, drill water wells, or buy vehicles, can be found some of the greatest opportunities for saving public resources and promoting a more dynamic private sector in developing countries. Even small efficiency gains can mean freeing up millions of naira for education, building roads, or social programs to help the poor.
Unfortunately, procurement systems in many developing countries are extremely inefficient. Lack of capacity to process and manage tenders, and lack of internal and external transparency in the competitive system can be important factors. Moreso, in any country at any stage of development, the
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Application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Nigerian Education: Issues and
Challenges

large amounts of money involved can make procurement systems prone to corruption. Public procurement reforms therefore, is borne out of the need to shed light on government spending, increase efficiency, reduce costs and corruption in government procurement process.
E-procurement: According to the BNET Business Dictionary, e-procurement (also known as
Electronic Procurement) is the business-to-business sale and purchase of goods and services over an electronic network such as the internet.
The chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply (CIPS) defined it as the using of the internet to operate the transactional aspects of requisitioning, authorizing, ordering, receipting and payment processes for the required services or products.
Simply put, it is the use of electronic systems to purchase goods, works and services and process payments; a system that utilizes the Internet technology to streamline the purchases of goods and products to reduce costs.
Employing ICT is a critical element for procurement reform. The results are immediate and impressive. With an initial investment of $26 million to install an e-procurement system, Korea saved
$2.5 billion a year; ICT-based procurement reform in the Philippines education sector saw the price of school textbooks drop in half and the cost of classroom construction fall by 40 percent
(Development Gateway Foundation, 2007). Development Gateway Foundation is of the opinion that though it is not every country that is ready for a full e-procurement system or that can spend millions of dollars to get one, studies has shown that simply increasing access to information about tender opportunities via the Internet can increase the number of bidders, with dramatic cost-saving results, thus giving government affordable options, increasing the efficiency of the system and saving cost.
(c)

Education & Sharing Knowledge
For developing countries, ICTs have the potential for increasing access to and improving the relevance and quality of education while at the same time ensuring that the convergence of the two technologies works for every one through increased educational and business usage. It thus, represents a potentially equalizing strategy for developing countries. This is aptly captured by Tinio (2003) thus:
“[ICTs] greatly facilitate the acquisition and absorption of knowledge, offering developing countries unprecedented opportunities to enhance educational systems, improve policy formulation and execution, and widen the range of opportunities for business and for the poor.
One of the greatest hardships endured by the poor, and by many others who live in the poorest countries is their sense of isolation. The new communications technologies promise to reduce that sense of isolation, and to open access to knowledge in ways unimaginable not long ago.
However, the reality of the Digital Divide—the gap between those who have access to and control of technology and those who do not—means that the introduction and integration of
ICTs at different levels and in various types of education will be a most challenging undertaking. Failure to meet the challenge would mean a further widening of the knowledge gap and the deepening of existing economic and social inequalities.”

Current Global Challenges
The world now faces a series of challenges and crisis such as climate changes, food, water, peace, financial etc. According to The Millennium Project, there are 15 interdependent global challenges facing humanity, which they believe are crucial questions for policy action now and in the next decade and if timely and wise decisions about them are taken, will set the course of global development and societal achievements in the years immediately ahead. These are typified below:
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Source: Adapted from the Millennium Project
Challenge no. 6 has to do with the global convergence of ICT. The questions are: what is the role of
ICTs in addressing these challenges? How can we use ICTs to support the work of the international community in crisis areas? How can ICT strengthen the crisis management capacity of the international community and find solutions to global crisis? In essence how can the convergence of
Information and Communication Technologies work for everyone?
The Imperative for an Improved Educational Usage of ICT Tools in Managing Current Global
Challenges
According to the Millennium project, the internet and mobiles phones are merging. The internet is evolving from a passive information repository, through user-generated and participatory system to a more intelligent partner with a collective intelligence and justin-time knowledge, thus making it the most powerful force for globalization, democratization, economic growth and education in history. Its features that qualifies the above description includes:
(a) Its ability to transmit wirelessly, making it possible to be mobile, while covering wider range;
(b) Its access in local and remote areas in developed world as a result of (a) above;
(c) The manufacture of cell phones with internet facilities making it possible for e-mails, instant messaging and collaborative software (Video-conferencing, etc) to link groups of people in humanitarian, scientific and business projects;
(d) Multimedia growth in the internet, which has given birth to multimedia approach to learning
(using several different ways of giving information).
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The features above is a true reflection of the fact that “ the information revolution and extraordinary increase in the spread of knowledge have given birth to a new era-one of knowledge and information which effects directly on economic, social, cultural and political activities in all regions of the world, including Africa” (Ogunsola, 2005). Governments worldwide have consequently recognized the role that ICTs could play in socio-economic development. According to Ogunsola (2005), a number of countries especially those in the developed world and some in the developing countries are putting in place policies and plans designed to transform their economies into an information and knowledge one (in the words of the 6th global challenge, making the convergence of ICT work for everyone), which in the case of most developing countries like Nigeria, must start with an improved educational usage of ICT tools. This is, because, ICTs can help in the management of current global challenges in the following ways:
(i)
ICTs help expand access to education: ICTs are a potentially powerful tool for extending educational opportunities, both formal and non-formal, to previously underserved constituencies—scattered and rural populations, groups traditionally excluded from education due to cultural or social reasons such as ethnic minorities, girls and women, persons with disabilities, and the elderly, as well as all others who for reasons of cost or because of time constraints, are unable to enroll on campus. This is as a result of two distinct features of ICTs viz: - their ability to transcend time and space (Anytime, anywhere)
- access to remote learning resources, as teachers and learners no longer have to rely solely on printed books and other materials in physical media housed in libraries (with restricted access and available in limited quantities) for their educational needs. With the Internet and the World Wide Web, a wealth of learning materials in almost every subject and in a variety of media, can now be accessed from anywhere at any time of the day and by an unlimited number of people.
(ii)
ICTs helps improve the quality of education: ICTs can enhance the quality of education in several ways:
Motivation to learn: ICTs such as videos, television and multimedia computer software that combine text, sound, and colorful, moving images can be used to provide challenging and authentic content that will engage the student in the learning process. Interactive radio likewise, makes use of sound effects, songs, dramatizations, comic skits, and other performance conventions to compel the students to listen and become involved in the lessons being delivered. More so than any other type of
ICT, networked computers with Internet connectivity can increase learner motivation as it combines the media richness and interactivity of other ICTs with the opportunity to connect with real people and to participate in real world events.
Facilitating the acquisition of basic skills: The transmission of basic skills and concepts that are the foundation of higher order thinking, skills and creativity can be facilitated by ICTs through drill and practice. Some educational TV programs use repetition and reinforcement to teach the alphabet, numbers, colors, shapes and other basic concepts. Most of the early uses of computers were for computer-based learning that focused on mastery of skills and content through repetition and reinforcement. Enhancing teacher training: ICTs have can be used to improve access to and the quality of teacher training. For example, teacher training centers can take advantage of the Internet to provide better teacher professional development opportunities to in-service teachers by offering self-directed, self51

Rume E. Yoro

paced Web-based courses for primary and secondary school teachers without necessarily disrupting their teaching activities.
(iv) ICTs help prepare individuals for the workplace: One of the most commonly cited reason for using ICTs in the classroom has been to better prepare the current generation of students for a workplace where ICTs, particularly computers, the Internet and related technologies, are becoming more and more ubiquitous. According to Tinio (2003),
EnGauge of the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (U.S.) has identified what it calls “21st Century Skills,” which includes digital age literacy (consisting of functional literacy, visual literacy, scientific literacy, technological literacy, information literacy, cultural literacy, and global awareness), inventive thinking, higher-order thinking and sound reasoning, effective communication, and high productivity. The table below shows a brief explanation of each skill.
Table 1: Skills Needed in the Workplace of the Future
Digital Age Literacy
Functional Literacy
Scientific Literacy
Technological
Literacy
Information Literacy
Cultural Literacy
Global Awareness

Ability to decipher meaning and express ideas in a range of media; this includes the use of images, graphics, video, charts and graphs of visual literacy
Understanding of both the theoretical and applied aspects of science and mathematics Competence in the use of information and communication technologies
Ability to find, evaluate and make appropriate use of information, including via the use of ICTs
Appreciation of the diversity of cultures
Understanding of how nations, corporations and communities all over the world are interrelated

Inventive Thinking
Adaptability
Ability to adapt and manage in a complex, interdependent world
Curiosity
Desire to know
Creativity
Ability to use imagination to create new things
Risk-taking
Ability to take risks
High-Order Thinking
Creative problem-solving and logical thinking that result in sound judgment
Effective Communication
Teaming
Ability to work in a team
Collaboration &
Ability to interact smoothly and work effectively with others
Interpersonal Skills
Personal & Social
Be accountable for the way they use ICTs and learn to use ICTs for the public
Responsibility
good
Interactive
Competence in conveying, transmitting, accessing and understanding information
Communication
High Productivity
Ability to prioritize, plan and manage programs and projects to achieve the desired result; ability to apply what they learn in the classroom to real-life contexts to create relevant, high-quality products

Source: Adapted from Tinio (2003).The ICT in Education.
The potential of ICTs to promote the acquisition of these skills is tied to its use as a tool for raising educational quality.
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Application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Nigerian Education: Issues and
Challenges

Problems and Prospects
The use of ICT tools in managing current global challenge is however fraught with some problems. These are enumerated below:
1. Internet facilities are not widely available in most developing countries, especially in the local and remotes villages.
2. Where they are available, the facility (including the cost of computers) is so expensive that the poor cannot afford it. In most cases students and the poor go to cybercafé, where (in
Nigeria) they stand the risk of being arrested as “419ners”.
3. There is lack of flexibility as a result of the non-ability to employ local languages in educational contents targeted at specific communities. Thanks to Goggle.com where searches can now be made in Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo and other languages.
4. There is the issue of under-utilisation of computers in many schools in developing countries.
5. Lack of computer literacy: Even when computers are available, not all are computer literate.
The solutions to the these problems lies in deliberate government policies geared and designed to transform the economy into an information and knowledge one by
1. Making internet facility available in all areas (both local and remote), at affordable prices, if not free. This can be done by the deployment of mobile internet centres (e.g. Vans), and community telecentres (maybe based in schools).
2. Making efforts to lower the cost of acquiring internet facility (computer inclusive) via local manufacture/development of hardware/software components.
3. The adoption of local languages in educational contents and web sites.
4. According to Ogunsola (2005), government should carefully guide the growth of ICT through government policy, while at the same time, make effective use of the ICT in the performance of its legitimate functions.
5. Encouraging its populace to make voluntary attempts at being computer literate.
References
Tinio, V.L. (2003). ICT in Education. Available from http://en.wikibooks.Org

/wiki/ICT_in_Education
E-procurement (2006). In The BNET business dictionary. Retrieved February 2, 2009 from
Diction.bnet.com /definition/e-procurement.html
Development Gateway Foundation. (2007). Procurement reforms. Retrieved February 2, 2009 from http://www.dgfoundation.org/issues/procurement-reforms.html The Millennium Project. (2008). Global challenges for humanity. Retrieved April 4, 2009 from http://www.millennuim-project.org/millennuim/challeng.html Ogunsola L.A (2005). Information and communication technologies and the effects of globalisation; 21st century Digital slavery for Developing countries—Myth or Reality. Electronic of Academic and Special Librarianship, 6,1-2. Retrieved from
Journal

http://southernlibrianship.icaap.org/content/v06n01/ ogunsola_101.htm

53

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE, TRANSPARENCY AND SHAREHOLDERS’ RIGHTS: THE
ROLE OF THE FORENSIC ACCOUNTANTS IN PROPELLING ECONOMIC GROWTH
B. O. Ali-Momoh and A. I. Oseni

Abstract
The goal of realigning organizational activities with the interest of shareholders and regulatory authorities has made the prevention of weaknesses in the key areas of corporate governance, internal control and financial statement very crucial. Scandals in the corporate accounting world and the resultant need for transparency and honesty in reporting have made needful the engagement of forensic accounting skills in untangling complicated accounting maneuvers and entrenching good corporate leadership. This paper shows the role played by forensic accountants in responsibly addressing the concerns of investors about the financial report system, so as to protect shareholders’ rights. It discusses the current corporate governance framework in Nigeria, the country’s forensic accounting related effort and submit that in today’s rapidly changing business landscape, it is important for accountants and companies to step away from the traditional approach that emphasized mere compliance with rules, and focus on the study and investigation of the traits underlying corporate behaviour and management. It recommends a very extensive engagement of the forensic accountant as a key component in the corporate governance system in order to engender economic growth.

Introduction
A number of fraud discoveries shook public confidence and the system of checks and balances designed to protect the interest of shareholders, creditors and other beneficiaries of public companies. The public and policymakers were jolted in October of 2001 when Enron, then the United
States’ seventh largest company, revealed more than $1 billion of accounting errors that stunned investors and launched investigations. Since then, dozens of companies have been prosecuted or investigated for financial fraud, including WorldCom, which was responsible for the largest instance of accounting fraud as well as the largest bankruptcy in history. The conviction was on nine counts of fraud including securities fraud, filing false reports, and conspiracy. Up until that time, convictions for corporate fraud have been much more widespread than many realized. On March 22, 2005, the Wall
Street Journal reported that from 1978 – 2002, Federal regulators initiated 585 enforcement actions for financial misrepresentation by publicly traded companies. (Crumbley, Apostolou, and Nicholas,
2005).
These recent corporate accounting scandals and the resultant outcry for transparency and honesty in reporting have made crucial the need the engagement of forensic accounting skills in untangling complicated accounting maneuvers that have obfuscated financial statements. The public demand for change and subsequent regulatory action has transformed the field of corporate governance. Increasingly, company officer and directors are under ethical and legal scrutiny. The goal is to responsibly address investors’ concerns about the financial report, thereby protecting their shareholder rights (Ramaswamy, 2005). The fact of failure of the corporate communication structure have made the organizational stakeholders realize that there is a great need for skilled professionals that can identify, expose and prevent weaknesses in the key areas of poor corporate governance, flawed internal controls, and fraudulent financial statements.
Multidisciplinary Journal of Research Development Volume 15 No 1 September, 2010

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Entrenching good corporate governance in Nigerian quoted companies is a must. There have been incidents of corporate failures, corporate frauds, and overstatement of accounts both locally and internationally. Any failure to properly deal with this problem may result into total loss of confidence in the capital market with all the attendant negative consequences. In particular, the match towards attaining international competitiveness of the Nigerian capital market would suffer a major set back.
Not long ago, there was another unpleasant discovery of overstatements of accounts Cadbury. (Nig)
Plc. This no doubt is another challenge to the regulators as it apply showed that no company is above board on this problem. Corporations scramble to realign their interests with those of their stakeholders by ensuring a well-developed and implemented policy of corporate governance, and honest and transparent reporting system, and effective/efficient internal control system.
It is believed that repositioning the Shareholder Associations will enable them become more effective in entrenching good corporate governance and that an efficient and focused Shareholder
Associations’ oversight on activities of company management will go a long way stemming cases such as the discovered Cadbury saga. This way, infractions and misconduct by those entrusted with managing corporate investments would be detected and dealt with (Al-Faki, 2007a).
It is a against the background of recent accounting standards which are focused peoples’ attention on the role of financial reporting and forensic accounting that this paper set out to: enunciate how forensic accounting serves as a catalyst in entrenching good corporate governance practice, transparency, and the protection of shareholders’ rights; and bring limelight the Nigerian contexts as regards corporate governance, transparency and shareholders’ rights. Since accounting is one of the links in the chain needed to promote good governance, transparency and protection of shareholder rights, it therefore becomes necessary for forensic accounting skills to become increasingly relied upon within a corporate reporting system that emphasizes accountability and responsibility to shareholders. Shareholder Rights and Challenges in Nigeria
Although, the law provides that directors are to have regard to the interests of the shareholder and the company’s employees in the performance of their duties, many times there is a divergence of opinion between the directors and shareholders as to how this works in practice. For example, the directors may prefer deferring a dividend or paying a lower dividend in for the reason of building reserves whilst shareholders maybe rooting for an immediate payout. More often today, the issue may be curbing a ballooning management compensation structure or the more complex manipulation of any forecasts in order to benefit from share option schemes agreed for management. The shareholder’s challenge is how to ensure that a reality, the director’s duties of care and skill are exercised with his best interest at heart. Regardless of the legal provision of the general meeting at the shareholder forum of overseeing the board, certain hurdles remain in the way of a proactive shareholder. These include problems such as holding meetings at locations inconvenient to many shareholders, affording shareholders an opportunity to heard in the actual conduct of meetings, failings in providing timely notification of meetings. However, the changing face of capital market calls for a radical departure from current shareholder attitudes of passivity. Evidence indicates that most individual shareholders buy and keep shares looking to long-term capital appreciation without an active monitoring of the corporate decision making process. An encouraging trend is the fact that the privatization process in Nigeria has enabled the average Nigeria to own shares in the newly privatized entities, heightened chances for increased participation, increased awareness of the mechanics of the corporate sector and increased demand on the process of wealth creating that is embodied in the
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Corporate Governance, Transparency and Shareholders’ Rights: The Role of the Forensic Accountants in
Propelling Economic Growth

capital market. This hopefully should lead the shift from passivity to active involvement in the process of managing public corporation in the country.
In Nigeria, shareholder right issues such as the handling of general meetings, compliance and enforcement of the prohibition against Insider trading, the publication of director’s dealings and transactions, adequate notification to shareholders of changes in capital affording them adequate time to participate, as well as the transparency of any extra ordinary transactions regarding price must always be adequately addressed. According Ali-Faki, 2007a, the following areas have been identified as key problem areas towards the effectiveness of Shareholders Associations in Nigeria: Proliferation of Shareholder Associations; Lack of regulatory oversight; Concerns over behaviour of some members at Annual General Meetings (AGM); Intense competition towards getting on companies’
Audit Committee; Funding constraints; Governance problems and unclear succession arrangements; and Inadequate public enlightenment on shareholders rights, privileges and responsibilities. In a survey conducted amongst regulatory agencies, and other relevant stakeholders like chambers of commerce, issuing houses, lawyers, stockbrokers and shareholder organizations using the organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) corporate governance assessment instrument, Nigeria was ranked low in the enforcement of shareholder rights in court and shareholder access to information.
The Code best practices on corporate governance in Nigeria stipulates the following on
Shareholders’ rights and privileges: directors should ensure that shareholders’ statutory/general rights are protected on the time; shareholders are to elect directors and approve the terms and conditions of their directorships; venue of annual general meetings should be carefully decided such that majority of shareholders can attend and vote at the meeting and not be disenfranchised in terms of distance and cost; notices of annual general meetings should be sent a least 21 working days before such meetings with details such as annual report, audited financial statements and other information that will enable shareholders vote properly or any issue; the board should propose a separate resolution at general meeting on every substantial issue in such a way that the issues can be voted for in an organized manner; the board should ensure the implementation of decisions reached; at least one director should be on the board representing minority shareholders; shareholders holding more than 20% of the total issued share capital of a company should have a representative on the board unless they are in a competing business or are having conflicts of interest that warrant their exclusion; all shareholders should receive equal treatment from the board such that none is given preferential treatment or superior access to information or other materials; and the board should use the annual general meeting to communicate with shareholders as well as encourage their participation.
Further, the code states that with respect to institutional investigators, shareholders’ activism through either institutional organized shareholders’ group should not be discouraged by the boar, institutional and non-institutional shareholders with larger holdings should act and influence the standard of corporate governance positively and thus ensure the optimization of stakeholders’ value, and that information made available to institutional shareholders should as well be made available to other shareholders at the same time in such a way that neither group enjoys preferential treatment
(Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria, 2006).
Corporate Governance
Corporate governance mechanisms aim to protect shareholders’ interests by limiting, without stifling, the decision rights of managers and controlling shareholders. According to the Institute of
Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (ICAN) (2006), corporate governance is the system by which a company’s affairs are directed and controlled by those charged with the responsibility.
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Focus on Corporate Governance to Prevent Fraud: It is important to situate Shareholder rights in an anti-fraud context. Governance structures must serve to protect all investors and not individual investors (e.g. a company with single controlling shareholders) so that fraud will be allowed to proceed (Example: the “Parmalat” report). Some types of governances protection are:
1.

2.

3.

4.

Independence of Board Members: The purpose of independent directors is to help protect the interests of shareholders from that of management. Directors who are truly independent/honest can, for example, prevent the outright corporate looting and shady related-party transactions by preventing controlling shareholders from extracting private benefits from the company to the detriment of minority shareholders.
Controls on Related-Party Transaction: The existence of stricter controls on related-party transactions should be an important way of reducing the ability of both management and controlling shareholders to undertake transactions to benefits themselves over shareholders generally or individual shareholders in particular. Jurisdictions could require: (1) disclosure;
(2) specific board approval of related-party transactions or (3) approval of a majority disinterested directors of such transactions, in order to be able to achieve this.
Legal Protection for Shareholders and Minority Shareholders: Specific legal protection designed to give concrete right to minority shareholders are important to individual shareholders. Examples are: (1) preemptive rights with respects to additional stock issues; (2) independent appraisals for buyout or going private transactions; (3) heightened voting requirements for certain transactions; and (4) direct and quick access to the court to address any potential violation of these rules. In addition, directors should be bonded by fiduciary duties to all shareholders, including minority shareholders. However, fiduciary duties are only as good as the ability of a shareholder to bring an action for readdress in the court as a different access to the court or too lenient standard for directors will result in the existence of amorphous fiduciary duties which amount to very little.
Sarbanes-Oxley, Internal Control and The Audit Committee Relationship: A large part of a Sarbanes-Oxley Act is designed to help private fraud by, among other things, improving internal controls, requiring Chief Executive to satisfy the accuracy of their financial report, and strengthening the independent auditor relationship with the independent audit committee.
It is important that internal controls, an independent auditor, an audit committee and Chief
Executive Certification does not exist as mere requirements but that they operate effectively and should not be overridden-able by circumstances. It should be made possible CEOs and
CFOs to override or sidestep internal control above fictitious revenue. A concentration of better controls, better follow-up of suspicious conduct, and Forensic Audit, cannot be overemphasized in this respect. (Campus, 2007).

Corporate Governance in Nigeria
These days, the need to ensure good corporate governance by management becomes difficult to realize as shareholders only have opportunity to find out about a company’s management at annual general meetings, and these meetings are poorly attended. The security and exchange commission
(SEC) in junction with corporate affairs commission (CAC) inaugurated a 17 member committee head by Peterside Atedo in June 2000 in Nigeria to identify weaknesses in corporate governance practices, examine international best practices, and make recommendations. The final outcome of the committee’s work was an approved Code of Best Practice on Corporate Governance in Nigeria. The code is applicable to quoted companies and public companies with multiple ownership (Al-Faki,
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2007b) and its main goal is the board of directors as leaders of corporate organizations and the responsibility of other stakeholders, shareholders and professional bodies inclusive. The code was divided into three parts namely: Board of Directors, Shareholders and the Audit Committee. Al-Faki
(2006) affirms that all the public companies have been directed by the Nigeria federal government to report their level of compliance with the code in their annual report, accounts and prospectus (when ever issued). One of the SEC’s operations departments (Office of the Chief Accountant) has been changed among others with the responsibility of monitoring public companies compliance with the code. On reporting and control, the code emphasize that: the duty of presenting a balance, reasonable and transparent assessment of the company’s position is that of the board; there is an overriding need to promote transparency in financial and non-financial reporting ensuring good internal control in the primary responsibility of the board; the board has a duty to ensure that the objective and professional relationship is maintained with external auditors who should not be involved in business relationships with the company; there should exist an audit committee of at least
3 non-executive directors with written term of reference which clearly spells its authorities; the director’s presentation of a report on the effectiveness of the organization’s internal control system in the annual report; and the directors ought to report that the business is a going concern with supporting assumptions/qualification as imperative, with written reference terms.
The enforcement and compliance of corporate governance in Nigeria is more of self regulatory effort than statutory backing has obtained in the United Kingdom, United States of
America, and internationally, because large institutional investors exerts pressure on organisation to improve on corporate governance. Thus, the position of SEC and CAC is enforcing the code in
Nigeria is the voluntary compliance should be encouraged, but appropriate sanctions applied where this become necessary and applicable.
Role of Forensic Accounting
The growth in field of Forensic Accounting has been as a result of the large-scale corporate scandals in the United States and Europe. It is a specialist area which has existed for a very long time, although forensic accountants are just now being increasingly quoted in the press, used by regulators and law enforcement agencies as well corporate organizations. Forensic accounting is the application of the skills and training of a chartered accountant to investigations, disputes and other reviews, the result of which might end up in a law court. Michael Brocks and Associates (2007) asserts that
Forensic Accounting uses investigative and audit skills to reveal an accurate accounting of transaction or series of transactions, and that forensic accounting services are called upon before legal action commences as well as after the filing of a suit. Forensic accounting is further defined as “pertaining to or employed in legal proceedings”. At the conclusion of the investigative process, the forensic accountant typically, issues an expert’s report and is expected to defend the report and findings in court. The forensic accountant cannot rely on the works of internal and external auditors.
The forensic accountant is usually required to unravel the transaction issue and review what as actually occurred in cases of fraud, which by nature, are hidden in the accounting systems of the organizations. The forensic accountant is often the one called upon to qualify the value of the loss experienced by an organisation or individual (e.g. a shareholder). Loss funds are traced from back accounts to back accounts in order to identify where funds (or other assets) have ended up before working with a legal team to secure the necessary freezing and recovery of such funds or assets. The forensic accountant role is to understand the accounting records and show the true nature of the transaction been recorded.
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For instance, in financial statement fraud cases (e.g. Enron), it might not be so much the case cash been stolen, but company looses or liabilities been hidden (or assets been overstated) by false accounting in the financial statements and records.
Forensic accountants are a key part in the investigation of shareholder or director disputes and insurance claims. Above all, the key skill of the forensic accountant is in communicating complex financial transactions or information in a succinct manner using pictures, graphs, and language which are readily understandable by non-accountants, particularly the legal profession, the judiciary, and juries. (PricewaterhouseCoopers New Zealand, 2007).
Although the forensic accountants is retained in a variety of areas, the following are his most common assignment: shareholders and partnership disputes; business interruption claims; employee fraud investigations; Matrimonial disputes and criminal investigations. Forensic accountant is retained by lawyers, insurance companies, courts, business and individuals. More often than not, the forensic accountant get advice by a client’s counsel or legal protocol and privileges issues before the commencement of an engagement (Michael Brocks and Associates, 2007). Other services that might be rendered by forensic accountants include: the acquisition and disposal of businesses, resolution of disputes between shareholders and joint venture partners, resolving ambiguity in the accounting aspects of purchased price adjustment and helping to minimize the risk of disputes arising post deal, professional negligence claims, undertaking forensic due diligence on target companies and individuals prior to the completion of deals, reviewing compliance with anti-money laundering regulations for transactions involving regulated entities, tackling transaction related misrepresentation and helping to resolve shareholder disputes which might arise, for instance, as a result of difference of opinion concerning contractual liabilities, suspected fraud or negligence and minority prejudice actions. (PricewaterhouseCoopers U.K, 2007).
In spite of the introduction of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), the Statement on Auditing
Standards-99 (SAS 99), and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) the pressures on chief financial officers to manipulate accounting statement have not been removed. The
PCAOB recommends that an auditor should perform at least one walk through for each major class of transactions. SAS 99 recommends brainstorming, increased professional skepticism and unpredictable audit tests. These are ensured through a proactive fraud approach which involves a review of internal control and the identification of the areas most subject to fraud. Certified Forensic Accountants (CFA) are on hand to always supplement the efforts of internal and external auditors in these regards. In the wake of recent landmark corporate governance reforms, the demands on expectations of the audit committee have changed dramatically in the sense that the audit committee’s role, on behalf of the board of directors (and ultimately the shareholders), is more demanding and requires a deeper level of commitment. A failure to tackle these stepped-up responsibilities would be a detriment to the audit committee, the board and, most important, the shareholders (Reed, 2003). What ought to be the driver for the agenda of audit committees are financial reporting risks, the task for which forensic accountants are well qualified.
According to Ramaswamy (2005), the alignment between corporate governance, internal control, and external reporting activities are driven by governance committees. The forensic accountant can make significant contributions as part of the governance committee. For instance, in the area of corporate governance, the forensic accountant helps formulate and establish a comprehensive governance policy which ensures an appropriate mix of management, independent directors on the board, sets out the appropriate responsibilities of the board and the audit committees; and reinforce ethical behaviour through code of ethics for employees and management.
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Propelling Economic Growth

Others are: (i) helping to establish an efficient control system that encompasses a good control environment underlined by ethical behaviour and strong corporate governance policies, a superior accounting system which reports all relevant transactions; and strong procedural controls that guarantees the safeguarding of assets, proper authorizations, audit mechanisms, and proper documentation, in order to prevent fraud (ii) create, through policies, a positive work environment where employees are highly motivated and very responsible (iii) support the dissemination of the required information about governance and ethics policies to interested parties within and outside the organization since adequate reporting is also necessary to meet the compliance requirements of the stakeholders and the stock markets. This translates to the establishment of communication for stakeholders to be aware of their rights and responsibilities. (iv) Ensure vigilant oversight through monitoring compliance at the top levels of corporate power, management procedures and employee activity. (v) Initiate fraud deterrence by establishing consequences through an expectation of punishment. (vi) Tidying up forensic investigation issues by ensuring the integrity of financial statements against fraud, areas of risk and associated fraud symptoms, pursuing each anomaly aggressively, and rooting for the minutest details of accounting and financial anomalies.
Forensic Accounting Efforts in Nigeria
Forensic accounting is very new in Nigeria. There are private and public consultants who have shown strong interests in the forensic accounting discipline. Adeyemo (2007), a Nigerian forensic accounting report, attests to the need for forensic accountants by asserting that Nigerian banks are ripping off their customers and shareholders through means such as spurious or fraudulent bank charges, transaction debits, and excessive interest deductions on loans, advances, or credit facilities. Forensic accounting efforts in Nigeria include: the Due Process Review, Budget Monitoring and Price Intelligence Unit (BMPIU) (regulatory functions certification functions, monitoring functions, and training/advisory functions), Independent Corrupt Practices and other Related Offences
Commission (ICPC), the Economic and financial Crime Commission (EFCC) and the Extractive
Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).
Conclusion
This work has been able to showcase forensic accountants as those who uncover the investigate fraud, financial detectives, as well as independent experts employed by management to uncover fraudulent financial reporting and misappropriated assets. Currently, forensic accountants are in great demand for their accounting, auditing, legal, and investigative skills in addition to their ability to coordinate company efforts to achieve a cohesive policy of ethical behaviour for the enthronement of a good corporate governance culture. The forensic accountant’s skills in financial accounting, internal control systems, the law, other institutional requirements, investigative proficiency, and interpersonal skills have made it possible for corporations to rely on them for the development of a consistent system of corporate governance, disseminating such governance information within and outside the company, ensuring that governance policies and objectives are interwoven into the internal control system, setting up fraud prevention systems, and investigating any existing fraud.
An increasing number of researchers are finding that poor corporate governance is a leading factor in poor performance, manipulated financial reports, and unhappy stakeholders. Corporations and regulatory bodies are now trying to analyze and correct any existing defects in their reporting system. The interests of investors and other stakeholders are usually protected by a three-tier security system vis-à-vis reporting system regulated by public and private institutions which subject public companies to accounting and disclosure standards, and their auditors to audit, independence, ethical,
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B. O. Ali-Momoh and A. I. Oseni

and quality control standards while the third is the system of internal control, which provides reasonable assurance on the effectiveness and efficiency of operations, the reliability of financial reporting, and compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Organizations/accountant should step away from the traditional approach to mere compliance with rules to begin the study of traits/behaviour of corporate management, which forensic accounting affords.
The legal framework for effective corporate governance in Nigeria appears to be in existence but compliance and/or enforcement appears to be weak or non-existent. The role of the courts in strengthening the corporate governance enforcement mechanism by the regulatory institutions is not in place.
Recommendations
The following measures are therefore recommended for Nigeria in respect of corporate governance, transparency, shareholder rights protection and the forensic accountant:
(i)
The role of courts as an enforcement mechanism of regulatory bodies should be strengthened in order to restore the confidence of the average shareholders in the capacity of the judicial system to help him enforce his rights through the rule of law.
(ii)
The capacity of the regulatory bodies e.g. SEC, CAC, etc be strengthened to enable them put in place more robust enforcement mechanisms to carry out oversight function on corporate governance compliance and monitor the activities/performance of quoted companies.
(iii)
The Institute of Directors (IOD) in Nigeria partner with the Securities and Exchange
Commission in monitoring compliance with the code of corporate governance by companies for the purpose of promoting investors’ protection.
(iv)
Companies, shareholders, and the government, must, more than ever before engage the services of forensic accountants in adopting and disclosing a code of business conduct and ethics for directors, officers and employees. The code must address conflicts of interest, confidentiality, fair dealing, protection, proper use of company’s assets, reporting of illegal and unethical behaviour and compliance with laws, rules and regulations.
(v)
To prevent or deter fraud, prevent future meltdowns, and guarantee transparency and honesty which are the two important qualities of corporate reporting, the forensic accountant’s role must be accorded a prominent attention.
(vi)
There should be effective and honest communication with shareholders to enable them understand the business, risk profile, financial condition and operating performance and trends of the company. Other avenues such as company websites and establishment of investors’ desks at designated locations should be explored apart from annual report and accounts, proxy statements and formal shareholders’ meetings. Shareholders should participate in not only in removal of directors but also in nominating them for appointment.
They should also be given opportunity to place items on the agenda, ask questions of the board at the general meeting on the company’s remuneration policy for key executives and board members which should be linked to performance.
(vii)
Finally, the active involvement of Institutional investors ought to ensure that: Board members possess adequate experience and are truly independent; Executive remuneration is not excessive; Early warning signals are detected from the wealth of information made available to shareholders; Company funds are not diverted to non-core activities or for the benefit of related parties; and Shareholders are led in demanding corrective action where such action is warranted. 61

Corporate Governance, Transparency and Shareholders’ Rights: The Role of the Forensic Accountants in
Propelling Economic Growth

References
Adeyomo,
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(2007)
Business section: Nigerian http://www.newsng.com/modules/news/article.php?storyid=3674 Banks

are

Fraudulent,

Al-Faki, M. (2006) Public lecture presentation, presented at 3rd distinguished faculty of social sciences public lecture series, University of Benin Main Auditorium on June 26th, 2006 http://www.sec.gov.ng/word/capital%20market%20and%20economic%20development.doc Al-Faki, M. (2007a) A welcome address by the Director General Musa Al-Faki at the shareholders forum for code of conduct of shareholder associations, http://www.sec.gov.ng/ dgwelcomadress.htm Al-Faki, M. (2007b) Good corporate governance: Essentials for leadership and performance excellence, http://sec.gov.ng/papersgovernances.htm
Campus, C. R., (2007) Remarks before and CNMV Corporate Governance and securities markets conference http://www.gov/news/speech/2007
Crumbley, D. L. Apostolou, and Nicholas, G. (2005).The expanding role of the forensic accountant, http://goliath.ecnext.com Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (2006). Financial reporting and audit practice study pack, Victoria Island; VI Publishing Limited
Michael Brocks and Associates (2007) Frequently asked questions: Forensic accounting, http://www.michaelbrocks.com/fag.htm PricewaterhouseCoopers, New extweb/service/nsf/docid Zealand

(2007)

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accounting,

http://www.pwc.com/

Ramaswamy, V. (2005) Corporate governance and the forensic accountant, The CPA journal Online http://www.nyscpajournal/2005/305/essentials/p68.htm Reed, S.A. (2003) Financial reporting risks should drive audit http://www.allbusiness.com/accounting-reporting/auditing/1066404-1.htm committee

agenda,

62

APPLICATION OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) TO
TEACHING AND LEARNING IN TERTIARY INSTITUTION
Adamu Maidallah Abdullahi

Abstract
This paper discussed application of information communication teaching
(ICT) to teaching and learning in tertiary institution. Teaching and learning are concepts that are defined together each depends upon the other.
Teaching is much more than the process of presenting information or idea, it involves guiding students to learns by means of discovering, probing, examining and analyzing activities. While teaching method is the professional technique which the teacher adopts in his instructional exercise to enables him to impact the necessary knowledge and skills to his students.
Learning is a positive change in behaviors, which comes about as a result of an encounter with some form of experience. Information and communication technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a micro-electronic based combination of the application of technology to information. ICT relate to teaching and learning through the use of internet.
What is known as e-learning. The internet assured total quality in tertiary education. The internet enhance teaching and learning in tertiary education and ensure cost, cutting motives, because mass education is given and save the cost of providing physical infrastructures. In facts the discussion concluded that the information communication technology is revolutionizing education. Quality assurance is obtained with this type of learning. The discussion offered the following suggestion: universities, colleges and polytechnics should provide infer-structural facilities for ICT; e-learning programmes should be designed to cater for those that may not afford or may not have time to be on campus to obtain tertiary education; Tertiary institutions should embark on training of staff on ICT to meet future demands; workers that may require on the job training should consider online training as opportunities for them to be trained on the job; government and private organizations should offer scholarships to their employees for on-line courses.

Introduction
Teaching and learning are concepts that define together each depends on the other. Tella,
Ajayi and Olowoye (1990) asserts that learning is the goals of teaching. When teaching takes place, the teachers expects that the end result would be learning and an individual cannot be educated without having learnt. They said that for someone to be regarded as an educated man he must have acquired some kind of knowledge, skills altitudes and information, he must also be a man of excellent character, the end product of which is learning. Teaching is much more than the process of presenting information or ideals. Asuquo (2005) said that teaching involves guiding students to learn by means of discovering, probing, examining and analyzing activities. Teaching method is the professional technique which the teacher adopts in his instructional exercise to enable him to impart the necessary knowledge and skills to his students. Learning as asserts Obanya (1985) is a positive change (or a modification) in behavior.
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The change in behaviors usually comes about as a result of an encounter (or a series of encounters) with some forms of experience. What gives rise to the experience can vary, so can the nature of the experience. He said one can pick up an experience by chance. Thus, an experience can be transient or enduring. Olaitan and Agusiobo (1982) defined teaching as an attempt to bring about desirables changes in human learning abilities and behavior. They said the aim of teaching is, therefore to influence learners to make those desirable changes in their behavior that contribute to better living. These changes as they said may take three forms:
1.
an increased store of useful information and the understanding of basic principles in the subject – matters;
2.
acquisition of skills, abilities and habits; for instance, psychomotor skills - the physical competencies required to perform certain activities efficiently;
3.
possession of desirable attitudes and ideals, such as developing satisfaction about learning outcomes or achievements obtained through the process of sharing meaning.
Furthermore, effective teaching according to Olaitan and Agusiobo (1982) contribute to the individual understanding, helps him to impose his abilities and develops in him more desirable attitudes. They said the production of desirable changes in behaviors of the students in school through and learning is an indication that the teacher possesses a clear understanding of:
(a)
the special changes in knowledge, understanding skills or attitudes towards the subject
– matters, that are desirables;
(b)
how people learns: that is, how people can be influenced to change through the use of effective strategies;
(c)
how to teach: that is, how to involve teaching methods and materials to bring about changes in students behaviors.
Teaching method according to Tonne, Popham and Freeman (1976) as in Asuquo (2005) is the procedure by which the teacher meets learners at his level, starting with his interest and his problems and then establishing conditions that enable him to process to his set goals in the most possible and effective manners.
The teachers is able to effect learning through the application of certain principles of teaching.
His ability is also enhanced by his knowledge of educational psychology and adoption of the philosophy of education. Tella, Ajayi and Olowoye (1990) said that methods are ways of things doing things in teaching, they can be referred to as orderly systems by which the teacher performance his teachings. Thus, they defined teaching methods as general strategies by which the teacher attempts to achieve his educational goals for his students. Ehiametalor (1892) as in Tella, Ajayi and Olowoye
(1990) said that the numerous methods of teaching could be grouped into two basic headings traditional and informal. They referred the term informal in this sense can be constructed to mean modern. a.
The traditional method consists of the lecture method, textbook assignments, workbook assignment and question and answer methods etc.
b.
The informal method on the other hand consists of spontaneous discussion method, panel discussion, seminar, debate, committee and group work, problem solving method research, case-study method, the project method, and filed trips technique.
Concept of Information Technology
The national policy on information technology (2001) as in Habila (2007) said that information technology is the bedrock for national survival and development in a rapidly changing global environment. The policy further defined information technology in two ways.
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Institution

i.

The term information technology means computers, ancillary equipment, software and firmware (hardware) and similar procedures, services (including support services) and related resources. ii.
The term information technology includes any equipment of interconnected system or subsystem of equipment that is used in the automation, acquisition, storage manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission of reception of data or information.
Information and communication technology as asserted Eze (2002) as in Habila (2007) is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a micro-electronic based combination of the application of technology to information.
The internet is one of the major players in ICT, Howe (2006) as in Dabels, Mamman and Mafwalai
(2007) said that the internet is a world-wide broadcast medium, a mechanism for disseminating information. Also at the same time, it is a medium for collaborative interaction between individuals and their computers, without regards to geographical location. Rutrowski (19997) as in Dabels,
Mamman and Mafwalai (2007) described the internet as basically make up of a large group of computers that are interconnected to communicate with each other. This interconnectivity of computers allows any computer on the network to access information stores in any of the other computers. Today, the internet links millions of computers from all over the world, they shares information and various resources. Dabels, Mamman and Mafwalai (2007) asserted that the use of internet have expended through the years to include teaching and learning skills on-line in what is known to as e-learning.
Information Communication Technology (ICT) as in tertiary education, Garson (2007) reveals that quality education is a universal goal. He said further that technology believers perceive no intrinsic obstacles to total quality assurance using information technology in higher education. Garson
(2007) in his inspection of leading quality – in – online – education guideline remarks three center themes. 1.
Quality to defined in terms of “appropriate” and “complete” online education, with appropriateness and completeness to be adjudged by faculty. Faculty agreement of course, is apt to refer to faculty with internet in promotion of online education with tacit consent of peers in a typical academic culture which strongly encourages faculty course development autonomy and an administration more interested in “getting into the online education game” than in creating quality standards impediments to launching on line offerings. Using the same textbook as the traditional course is often sufficient to meet this criterion.
2.
Students must have access to support services (example library, computer, faculty access, peer interaction). In fact most make available to online students only a fraction of the library resources, computer resources, faculty access peer interaction, and other advantages of oncampus students. However, as long as the most important resources are available online in some form, this standard is ordinarily deemed to have been met.
3.
Quality is defined in terms of “evaluation” of specific, measurable “learning outcomes or
“competency – based objectives”. This is met by the instructor formulating a set of syllabus statements of the “At the end of the course, the students will be able to, “type, and making sure examination questions relate to these statements. As in traditional courses, content of the objectives in the prerogative of the faculty member having objectives not their content is what quality standards assess.
Garson (2007) concluded that quality guidelines such as the foregoing are not difficult to meet in practice. 65

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Wagner (2000) as in Garson (2007) identified some ways by which students of vocational and technical education can use the internet to enhance teaching and learning
Students can sign up for listeners which are automated mailing lists of people with a similar interest. They are used for transmitting news, searching for information and networking. All the messages are sent to the member’s mail boxes. Through this kind of facility, students can obtain personalized instruction on a wide range of course entirely on-line.
Large industrial corporations can use the internet to distribute technology – based training applications, come skill acquisition and reinforcement, knowledge transfer and sharing and the use of job – specific smart applications that perform lower – level tasks and provide on demand expertise.
Students can communicate with others in other countries to share information on any given technological or vocational issue.
The internet provides opportunities for business contacts, to buy and sell products online.
This, if properly natural is a sure way of developing self and economic emancipation.
It is possible for students to make friends and converse with other in real time over the internet. They can learn about cultures, lifestyles, art and philosophies of other lands including goods and services that are in demand in those lands. This is a way of opening up not just business contacts but opportunities for further training.
Information communication technology as asserted Dusen (2007) as in Garson (2007) that it will transform education from faculty – centered to learner – centered making instruction better by replacing the “sage on the stage” with interactive, individualized learning possibilities, will improve scholarly research by enabling far greater collaboration as well as information access; and will improve educational organization by facilitating interdisciplinary connections and encouraging academic “total quality management”.
Moreover, online education potentially may be disseminated to millions who previously could not have hoped for a college education due to circumstance with the erosion of job tenure and job security, and the challenge of twenty-first century university education will more and more have to do with dispersed adult learners who must remain at work but retool for career changes.
Hamilton and Miller (1997) viewed the Information Communication Technology era as possible to deliver education on a mass based without the need to process the expenses of physical infrastructure once through necessary. Many others also believe that enormous salary cost could be saved by restriction high paid expert facility to content while actual mass online course delivery is mediated by technicians, graduate students part-timers, and other lower-paid staff. Thus, the ICT has cost-cutting motives.
Conclusion
In facts, the information communication technology is revolutionizing education in this era.
Quality assurance is associated with the type of education being learnt on the internet, and mass education is being obtained.
Suggestions
However, in order to expend accessibility to tertiary education the following are offered as suggestions. Universities, college and polytechnic should provide infer-structural facilities for ICT. e-learning programmes should be designed to cater for those that may not afford or may not have time to be on campus to obtain tertiary education.
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-

Tertiary institutions should embark on training of staff on ICT to meet future demands.
Workers that may require on-the jobs training should consider on-line training as opportunities for them to be trained on the job.
Government and private organizations should offer scholarships to their employees for online courses.

References
Asuquo, E.E. (2005). Fundamental of vocational and technical education. Smith Standard Nigeria
Ltd, Sabon Gari, Kano.
Dabels Y. Mamman, O.J. & Mafwalai, J. M. (2007). Using the internet for repositioning vocational and technical education for self reliance in colleges of education in Nigeria. Journal of vocational and technical educators (JOVTED).
Garson, G.D. (2007). The Role of technology in quality education. Retrieved January 6, 2007 from http://hcl.chass.ncsu.edu/sscore/garsons2.htm Habila, D.B. (2007). Information and communication technology; A catalyst in the reformation of business education towards actualizing self-reliance. Journal of vocational and technical educators, 5.
Hamilton, K. & Miller, S. (1997). Internet U-noivy no walls, no key parties. Newsweek, 12.
Obanya, P. (1985). Teaching Methods across the Curriculum, London, UK: Collins Int. Textbooks.
Olaitan, S.O & Agusiobo, O.N (1982). Principles of practice teaching. Ibadan: Spectrum books Ltd.
Tello, O, Ajayi, T. & Olowoye, B. (1990). Becoming a teacher, an introduction to teacher education
Adeokuta: Gbemi Sodipo Press Ltd.

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INTEGRATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY INTO
THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS:
HOPE AND CHALLENGES.
Chiazoka Kelechi Inyamah

Abstract
Integration of Information and Communication Technology into the teaching and learning of English Language in the age of globalization is of utmost importance considering the importance of the use of English
Language both in Nigeria and globally. There are evidences that several facilities of the ICT enable effective teaching and learning of different aspects of the language. These in-turn will enable communicative competence in students both in speech and in writing. However, there could be challenges to the realization of this in Nigeria. This paper looks at these challenges and suggests ways of ensuring proper integration of ICTS into the teaching and learning of English Language in Nigerian Schools.

Introduction
The 21st century is witnessing changes in our ways of life as a result of explosion of knowledge in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) globally. The Internet and the web which are some of the ICT facilities have now provided wider access to information and new instructional possibilities thus, changing the process of education.
Integration of ICTs into the teaching and learning of English Language has become an urgent need in this Information and Communication Technology age, considering the importance of English as a Language of globalization. This is because English Language is an international language, spoken by nearly 2 billion people in the world. In our Nigerian situation according to Otagburuagu and Eze
(2007:88), the national linguistic policy has no alternative to the use of English. The national language policy demands the continued use of English as a medium of instruction in schools. Therefore, to teach this all important language very effectively as to warrant competence and profiency in its use both in speech and in writing, the teaching and learning of English must be enhanced through the use of instructional resources. Some ICT facilities have been found very useful for the teaching and learning of English.
The teaching of English Language is geared towards acquisition of skills in the four language skills:- Listening, Speech, Reading and Writing. These enable the use of the language for effective communication. To achieve this especially in this present time when a great number of students lack the spirit of scholarship is not easy. Teaching English Language is very complex. Infact, Otagburuagu and Eze (2007:90) opined that the teaching of languages such as English as a second language is far more complex than the teaching of theoretical subjects; that it involves not only the teaching of linguistic forms but also the teaching of communicative uses. They also pointed out from Obanya
(1987) that the second language learner does not have the natural native environment to learn the language, the knowledge he gains is from the teachers in a formal setting.
With innovations in language education, opportunities abound for children to benefit from learning another language by developing competence in the second language. Therefore, it must be borne in mind that to develop this competence, ICTs must be used and for there to be any use of the
ICTs in teaching and learning of English, teacher’s competence sets the limits to students proficiency both in the use of ICT to learn English and in using the Language for effective communication.
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It is also evident that with integration of ICTs into education, there are possibilities for stimulating accurate second language teaching and learning of the various language skills. It is against the backdrop that this paper examines these possibilities and posits that the extent to which these could be achieved will depend on overcoming of the challenges of administrative and institutional readiness, preparation of teachers and students to use the facilities, attitude to innovations, pedagogical changes in curriculum of English Language and other things.
Meaning of ICT
Information and Communication Technology refers to technologies facilitating communication and transmission of various kinds of information world over. It is a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to create, disseminate, store and manage information. Such technologies include: Computers, Internet, Broadcasting technologies- radio and Television and
Telephone.
In relation to Education, the use of ICTs in teaching and learning is described as most important widely discussed issue. Akabogu (2007:173) reported that educational system all over the world are under increasing pressure to use the new information and communication technologies
(ICTs) to teach students the knowledge and skills required for the 21st Century. Earlier in their world report (1998), UNESCO in Akabogu (2007:173) described the radical implications of the new information and communication technology have on conventional teaching and learning, and predicted transformation of the teaching and learning process and the ways teachers and leaders gain access to knowledge and information.
ICTs and the Teaching of English Language
Like any other subject learnt in schools, English language must be taught with the use of resources enabling effective understanding of the contents and the contexts of its study. ICT facilities have been found as a veritable tool for effective teaching and learning of English. Otagburuagu and
Eze (2007:91) believed that ICT can perform multivalent roles in English Language teaching especially in a second Language setting; that it can be a complement to the teacher, as well serve as a coping strategy where the teacher as a role model, is contestable. In other words, in a second
Language learning situation of English such as in Nigeria, teachers need to complement their teaching with these resources as it may be practically impossible to replicate all real life, meaning and accurate situations in which learners are likely to use the Language in their everyday life and activities. It is believed that ICTs provide opportunities and possibilities for stimulating accurate second language teaching and learning contents.
Educators world over recognize the fact that multidimensional aids such as ICTs can create both dependent and collaborative learning environment in which students can learn the language. In other words, ICTs can provide broad experiences to the learners. It also means that for there to be any meaningful use of ICTs for English Language teaching and learning, a curriculum for this must be drawn up. To buttress this, Butler-Pasloe (1997) in Akabogu (2007:173) drew attention to silent characteristics and benefits of a technology-enriched curriculum for second language learners that underscore the central role technology can play in a second language teaching and learning. For instance, because computers utilize multi-sensory collection of texts, sound, pictures, video animation and hyper-media, it can be used to provide meaningful contexts to facilitate comprehension. Again, with ICTs the learner of English can be provided with experience as they move through the various stages of Language acquisition; can be used to support the writing process approach, and equally used for drills and practice designed to reinforce class instruction.
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Integration of Information and Communication Technology into the Teaching and Learning of English
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ICT facilities have been found very useful in teaching of phonology of English Language. It must be remembered that English is not native to Nigerian learners of the Language. For this reason, there is need to understand correct pronunciation of English words. Microsoft 2003 which has speech mechanism capacities can enable one hear, speak and write sentences once activated, as well as to detect right and wrong pronunciation. Also, the Power-Point facility of the computer can facilitate teaching of English pronunciation since it has inbuilt voice recorder which can be activated for dialogue. Also Akabogu (2007:173) pointed to the limitless opportunities provided by on-line databases for students to have access to authentic audiences and allow second language learners to compare the voice patterns of their speech with that of native speaker. In other words, when second language learners are placed in situations which they find interesting, providing linguistic commentaries, checking and testing students’ progress and providing automatic recognition of learner’s speech, they will perform well in the language to be learnt.
Aspects of Grammar – the soul of language can be learnt with ICTs. Otagbuaragu and Eze
(2007:92) pointed out that the Microsoft 2003 package which has facilities for graphics and text editing can be used to correct redundancy / tautology, inappropriate use of punctuation marks, correction of grammatical errors and wrong expressions. This is because, this facility underlines in red or blue all the grammatical or mechanical errors in written texts with the help of the inbuilt dictionaries. The Wikipedia facility of the Internet is helpful to students of English Language especially those who cannot go to English classes to study.
It is useful for finding supplementary materials for class, shows great way to help aspiring
English learners, non-European learners to learn the language etc. Again, Akabogu (2007:176) enlisted some of the advantages of ICT for English to include increasing opportunities for collaborative writing, reducing intimidation factor and improving students’ attitudes towards writing and encouraging creativity in Language use. Generally speaking, ICT has facilities which promote teaching in all aspects of English grammar, reading comprehension, dialogue, vocabulary etc. Internet enables English language learners to engage in live interactions irrespective of locations in the globe through e-mail, SMS thereby, encouraging writing skill.
Challenges of Integrating ICTs into the Teaching and Learning of English in Nigerian Schools
In developing nations such as Nigeria, ICTs have the potentials for increasing access to, and improving the relevance of quality of education. They are powerful tools for providing educational opportunities both in formal and non-formal learning situations. With regards to the teaching of
English Language, they have been found to perform multivalent roles. However, integrating this allpervading revolution into the teaching and learning of English in Nigerian educational system seem like an uphill task. Several challenges stare us in the face with respect to this. This situation seems to confront most educational systems in the world. Unio (2009:1) opined that the experience of introducing ICT in the classroom and other educational setting all over the world in the past decades suggests that full realization of potential benefits of ICT is not automatic. Effective integration of ICT into educational system is a complex, multifaceted process that involves not just technology. Indeed, given enough initial capital, getting technology is the easiest part, but also curriculum pedagogy, institutional readiness, teacher competence and long term financing and others. From this standpoint, this paper looks at these challenges.

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Infrastructural Readiness
Before there could be any kind of integration of ICTs into teaching and learning, there must be infrastructural readiness. Techankee (2003), and de Leon Genova (2003) in Masagca and Lenderio
(2008:3) stressed that in integrating e-learning to teaching and learning, that ICT can be integrated by embedding the use of web in different levels for all classes.
Considering the prerequisite above in Nigerian educational system, how ready are the educational planners and managers with infrastructural arrangements like providing enough computers to Nigerian classrooms for use by teachers and students hooking schools up to with the
Internet and training of personnel? This is a million dollar question. In the universities for instance,
Otagburuagu and Eze (2007:93) posited that some Universities have not acquired enough computers for instructional process, while some are yet to have Internet services to make ICT functional as instrument for English language teaching and learning. This situation is same in other tertiary institutions. No department of English in any of our institutions can boast of enough computers not to speak of having enough for instruction considering the manner in which our policies and programmes are implemented and projects funded.
Again, it is equally doubtful whether integration of ICTs into the teaching of English will be quickly realized; in the present time of economic melt-down, and government’s inability to resolve crisis of strikes by teaching personnel in our educational system embarked upon partly to seek for improvement of provision of existing facilities in our institutions.
Possession of IT Skills
Another challenge for integration of ICTs into the teaching and learning of English in Nigeria even when ICTs have been put in place is possession of IT skills by teachers and students. This is very necessary if maximum benefits are to be enjoyed of the ICT potentials in teaching and learning.
According to Carnoy (2004:1), despite schools having more and more access to ICT, new technologies, are still scarcely used as part of teaching methodology; He also pointed out that lack of training creates difficulties as many teachers don’t have necessary IT skills as well as specific training needed for them to be able to use the new resources in the classroom. ICT use in classrooms for
English Language teaching depends on teachers’ skills. It is a fact that teachers cannot develop students’ skills without first acquiring such skills themselves and to a much greater depth than the materials they are supposed to teach.
Most teachers of English language have not acquired the necessary skills needed to integrate
ICTs into English Language teaching and learning. Otagburuagu and Eze (2007:93) noted that one of the problems facing the use of ICTs in English Language instruction in Nigerian Universities is the high rate of computer illiteracy among English Language lecturers. This situation is not different in other levels of education. For instance, Umeano (2007:59) noted that many educational systems in
Nigeria have since been battling to respond effectively to the new clarion call for ICT awareness and literacy. Equally studies carried out by Yusuf (2005) and Jegede and Owolabi 2005) revealed that even though computers have come to the Post Primary Schools, the teachers have not really been affected by their presence. Teachers are key factors in any teaching and learning process. It must be noted that teachers of English Language in Nigeria are trainers of global users of the Language, if they are inadequately trained to deal with the global challenges in methodology, content and utilization of modern technologies enabling effective teaching and learning of English, standard of performance by
Nigerian learners of English as second language, who they are supposed to be teaching may not measure up with those of other users all over the world who learn with ICTs.
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Awareness of Use of ICT Facilities
Awareness of how to use ICTs in learning English Language is yet another challenges facing integration of ICTs into the Language teaching in Nigeria. Generally speaking, for students to understand and benefit from the use of ICTs to learn, they must be conversant with various ways ICTs can be used to learn. According to Carnoy (2004:14), for ICT to permeate teaching, students may have to have access to computer on a scale only available in limited numbers of schools and to databases that are now largely proprietory. In our Nigerian situation, Otagburuagu and Eze (2007:93) pointed out that most students are not computer literate, and that ICT-assisted English Language instruction will demand a measure of computer literacy and awareness by students. Again, from interaction with students, most are not aware that teaching and learning can be done via the Internet.
With this kind of exposure, it may not be possible to get most Nigerian students to benefit from the riches of ICTs.
Consideration of Existing Curriculum
Integration of ICTs into teaching and learning of English will require consideration of existing curriculum context and methodology of English Language and making it ICT compliant i.e a curriculum that will be structured to embed the use of ICTs in the teaching / learning process. There must be an analysis of the present curriculum pedagogy. Masagca and Londerio (2008) reported that integrating ICTs in the school curriculum must be greatly considered so that effectiveness and efficiency could be ensured. Further more, Pope and Golub (2000) in Akabogu (2007:175) emphasized infusion of technology into language and teacher preparation schemes by introducing and infusing technology in context. That is to say that integration of ICTs into the curriculum of English language in Nigeria in this 21st century, will not only integrate authentic environment, but also integrate the various language skills as well as technology fully into the language learning process.
Resistance to Innovative Changes
Resistance to change is yet another major challenge of integrating ICTs to English Language education. It is a common knowledge that people are averse to change. Evidences abound that often times, people show great resistance to innovations even educational ones. Many reason attest for this fact. For instance, Cuban historical research findings cited in Carnoy (2008:14) suggested that classroom teachers resist any technology that does not facilitate their achieving the diverse goals the educational system set for them and that teachers resistance to use of ICTs may lead to failure of this technology to permeate teaching. He went further to give reasons that teachers resistance to ICT is because they don’t feel comfortable using it except for the rudimentary operations; and that resources are not available to train them in teaching methods that incorporate ICT into every teaching.
This attitude to change also applies to the students. Enuesike, Otagburuagu, Okwor and
Ezeonwu, (1997) in Otagburuagu and Eze (2007:91) in their studies on “Attitudes of Nigerian students towards the use of the media in English Language” found out that students are often not positively disposed towards the use of the media in Language teaching because they consider such exposure a waste of time. However, Pope and Golub (2000) in Akabogu (2007: 176) contended that in this ICT dominated era, language teachers must be ready to step into the status quo as well as advance the teaching profession by infusing technology into their teaching.

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Preference to Old Methods
Many a times, integration of innovations in education also have been resisted as a result of preference to old methods and as a result, nothing really changes. Critically, looking at the average classroom situation and position of teaching and learning today, Obeng (2009:2) observed that nothing substantially changed as students have continued to use paper, pen and pencil, teachers write extensive notes on the blackboard with students furiously trying to copy all that is written, expecting to memorize all facts and spit them out during exams. A closer look at our institutions shows continuous focus on traditional methods of teaching and learning. Preference to traditional methods in heat of implementation of innovations has been reported in several studies carried out on the use of resources in teaching and learning as one of the impediments to application of such innovations.
With regards to the teaching of English, Otagburuagu and Eze (2007:89) reported that efforts made in the 1980s to introduce communicative methodology through English for specific purposeoriented curriculum were subtly resisted by English Language teaching practitioners. Also most ICT materials in federal universities were locked up in cupboards in administrative offices, and teachers considered this methodology an outrage which they cannot condone and felt satisfied with old methods of teaching. This experience is not different elsewhere in the world. For instance, in Carnoy
(2004:11) it is reported that despite characteristically greater ICT skills of university personnel, professors still teach in classrooms, present their materials in lecture forms and ask for written assignments, even though these assignments may be sent to the professors in electronic form. The highest form of academic work, PhD dissertation is still a written book supervised by an advisor in a series of personal meetings.
With these experiences and considering the lackadaisical attitude of Nigerians towards implementation of policies, there is fear that many teachers in the educational sector may still prefer teaching English Language using traditional methods even in the face of these great pervading revolutionary changes in education.
What can be Done?
In the light of these challenges facing integration of ICTs into the teaching and learning of
English Language in Nigerian Schools, the question now is what can be done to arrest these challenges? To fast track the achievement of the achievement integrating ICTs in teaching learning of
English Language, the following suggestions have been given:
1.
As a nation, we should recognize English Language Education as a priority and view ICT as an important investment area both as a pedagogical tool and as a means of enhancing development of expertise. To achieve this will require huge financial resource to equip our schools with modern ICT facilities. There is also the need for private and public sector involvement in building and upgrading ICT infrastructures as this will gradually lead to virtual system education which is the desire of every nation.
2.
Literacy of ICT facilities and modes of utilization are very essential to use by teachers and students for teaching and learning of English Language. There is need for digital literacy which is believed will empower them to teach and learn this language effectively in schools.
Training programmes must be organized for Language teachers in our schools to keep them abreast with potentialities of ICTs for English and how to effectively integrate this in their teaching. Also, students are required to acquire necessary skills to enable them participate fully and benefit immensely from modern ways of learning English Language.
3.
It is believed that for the desired change in curriculum pedagogy, use of ICT should be incorporated into the English Language curriculum. This could serve as a tool to change the
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Integration of Information and Communication Technology into the Teaching and Learning of English
Language in Nigerian Schools: Hope and Challenges.

traditional content of course and enable students acquire basic knowledge of ICT and its integration into the subject. In order to enforce use of communicatively-oriented methodology, there is also need to discourage teachers from sticking to orientation of using traditional methods in teaching the Language. This could be in form of elevations to higher positions or punishment for non-compliance with the new methods.
Conclusion
There is no gainsaying that ICT facilities if fully integrated into the teaching and learning of
English language in Nigerian Schools will enhance communicative performance of students in this language both in speech and in writing in the face of globalization.
However, possibilities of using ICTs for English language hinge on certain predictions which include: institutional, teacher and student readiness for ICT policy implementation, changes in curriculum pedagogy, attitude of educational personnel and students towards adaptation to changes etc. It is believed that the suggestions given in this write up could lead to achievement of integration of ICTs to teaching of English language and realization of some of the millennium development goals for education in Nigeria if nipped in the bud.
References
Akabogu J. U (2007); The relevance of ICTs in the teaching and learning of English language in
Nigerian secondary schools, in Eze D N and Onyegegbu N (ed.), Information and communication technology in the service of education, Enugu, Timex publishers.
Carnoy M. (2004); ICT in education: Possibilities and Challenges, inaugural 04/dt/eng/carnoy 1004. Pdf

http://www/u.o.c.educ/

Musagca, J. T & Londerio, N. M (2008); Teachers’ perspectives on the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in school counselinghttp:// ijedidec. Uwi.edu/view article.
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Obeg, T.K. (2009); Practical Application of ICT to Enhance University Education in Ghana, modern
Ghana, http//www: modern Ghana. com/news/11437/50/practical-application of ICT-to enhancetini…Retrieved 9/22/2009.
Otagburuagu, E.J. & Eze V.O. (2007; English language teaching in Nigeria Universities and the ICT revolution, in Eze D.N and Onyegegbu N. (ed.), Information and communication technology in the service of education, Enugu, Timex publishers.
Umeano E.C. (2007); Lecturers computer self- efficacy and its implication for their computer usage, in Eze, D.N. and Onyegegbu N (ed), information and communication technology in the service of education, Enugu, Timex publishers.
Unio, V.L. (2009); ICT in education, retrieved from Internet, 22/09/09. Retrieved from Internet,
1/10/09 Teaching English as a foreign Language: simple English”, Wikipedia.org/wiki/Teaching.
Retrieved from the Internet 1/10/09, Talk to the clouds, simple English, Wikipedia, www.talk to the clouds.com/2008/18/ 74

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AS A MEANS OF EMPOWERING YOUTH FOR POVERTY
ALLEVIATION IN NIGERIA
E. P. Emumejaye, O. Eboibi, and B. E. Umurhurhu

Abstract
The paper examined the poverty situation in Nigeria and how youth empowerment through vocational education can help alleviate poverty. It also advocates for well-articulated, implemented and supervised vocational
Education policy and programmes which can assist in employment generations and poverty reduction in Nigeria. Nigeria has other socioeconomic peculiarities such as inflation and corruption. These have worsened the incidence and level of poverty in Nigeria. Vocational education even though it prepares individuals for gainful employment, has had little or no positive impact on the poverty status of Nigerians. Graduates of vocational schools undergo further training before they are employed in industries or companies because of insufficient practical exposure. Those who open their own businesses make meager income; because they compete with large scale entrepreneurs’ as such they have not been able to raise their living standards.

Introduction
Vocational Education or vocational Education and Training (V.E.T) also called Career and
Technical Education (CTE), prepares learners for jobs that are based on manual or practical activities.
It is traditionally non-academic and totally related to a specific trade occupation or vocation, hence the term. And the learner directly develops expertise in a particular group of techniques or technology. Vocational and Technical Education may mean different things to different people. The committee on research and publications of the American Vocational Association as cited in Joshua
(2002) defines Vocational and Technical Education as education designed to develop skills, abilities, understandings, attitudes, work habits and appreciation encompassing knowledge and information needed by workers to enter or make progress in employment of a useful and productive basis. Joshua
(2002) also saw Vocational and Technical Education as a type of education made up of theoretical and practical instruction given to those who wish to be employed in commerce and industry or any type of enterprise that require the use of tools and machinery for the operation, production, preservation and distribution of goods and services. In the same vein, Aghenta (1982) sees Vocation and Technical
Education as a form of education designed to prepare the learners to enter occupations requiring technical information and an understanding of the laws of science and technology as applied to the modern designed production. Babaji (2004) distinguished Vocational Education from Technical
Education. He asserted that Vocational Education is occupation related training whereas Technical
Education is more based on theory and practice.
Youth empowerment is an attitudinal, structural, and cultural process whereby young people gain the ability, authority, and agency to make decisions and implement change in their own lives and the lives of other people, including youth and adults.
From the definitions and explanations given above, it is obvious that Vocational and Technical
Education is that aspect of Education which equips individuals with necessary skills, knowledge and
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E. P. Emumejaye, O. Eboibi, and B. E. Umurhurhu

attitudes needed for a purposeful employment to earn a living. Vocational and Technical Education does not only equip individuals with basic scientific knowledge and practical skills for self-reliance, but also help in making an individual to be productive members of the society giving the enabling environment. Vocational and Technical Education therefore is a functional education.
Poverty Alleviation
The mainstay of Nigeria`s economy is crude oil and agriculture. Nigeria is also blessed with other mineral Resources like clay, salt deposits, natural gas, lead, zinc, etc. Nigeria is the 6th oil producing country in the world yet poverty is persistent in the country.
Mike (2006), asserted that growth is useless without poverty reduction. Poverty is raging
African continent when compared to other continents, poverty in Africa is frightening. According to the African Development Bank (ADB), 40 to 45 percent of Africa`s population live in absolute poverty and 30 percent belong to the extreme poor. These statistics are worrisome and frightening with a destabilizing influence that may exacerbate conflicts, environmental degradation, crime and violence (Ovia, 2003).
The socio- economic conditions prevalent in Nigeria is worth mentioning. They include inflation and unemployment. Unemployed adults cannot maintain a family, Children in such situations are often forced to drop out of school and join the Army of street traders to provide whatever income they can for the family. These economic conditions have made meeting the demands for food, education, health and shelter a herculean task (The Progress of Nigerian children, 1997).
Also, corruption is the bane of Nigerian society. Corruption puts the economy in parlous state.
Money disappears into private accounts thereby, making some individuals billionaires while many remain in destitution and penury. Many people are dehumanized and debased as a result of poverty.
One possible avenue to poverty reduction is through Vocational Education.
Ojo and Vincent (2000), asserted that’ education is many things to man, a visa to success, a passport to the unknown, a catalyst to great heights. Education empowers, emboldens, refines, civilizes, enlightens, enriches and gives confidence to man``.
All education systems in the world give priority to Vocational Education because it is the fulcrum of technological development. Gone are the days when people who attended commercial or technical schools were looked upon as intellectual inferiors.
Vocational education is the total of those organized and purposeful experiences essential to the career development in a trade, industrial or technical occupation. The programme enables individuals to learn about, explore and prepare for a trade. These occupations are found in any of the career clusters (manufacturing, construction, communication and transportation) and identifiable in the dictionary of occupations which functions in the designing, producing, processing, fabricating, assembling, testing, modifying, maintaining, servicing or repairing of any product or commodity.
These colleges and schools impact marketable skills to unemployed youths, school leavers, drop outs, women and others. The vocational skills learnt will lead to the production of skilled personnel who will be self reliant and enterprising. This caliber of manpower is also required for the development of any nation. The questions that quickly come to mind are; to what extent are the vocational skills so acquired relevant for rebuilding our economy and for bringing prosperity to graduate of such schools.

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Vocational Education as a Means of Empowering Youth for Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria

Vocational Education Problems
There are so many problems that have hindered the realization of the objectives of vocational education. These problems revolve around the human and material resources required for vocational training. Specialist teachers are generally in short supply especially in areas like woodwork, automechanics, metal work and their likes. Igwe (2000) “any science teacher is co-opted to teach or handled such core subjects like integrated science, introductory technology. In a school where there is only one science teacher, the teacher is made to teach other science subjects, thereby making him a jack of all trade.
Most of the technical workshops especially in the rural schools are lying waste, abandoned and rusting away in the bush. In some communities, they have been vandalized, where they are intact, there is no electricity to operate these Workshops, and the required manpower to handle the equipment. In the area of the quality of the products, most of the products are considered as half-baked, unusable by users of the products, most of the Graduate of vocational schools who read business courses become road-side typists. Those who did home economics establish fast food centres. Some of the graduates who read pure technical subjects enter into apprenticeship training with a master craftsman. This is the case with graduates of mechanics, metal work, wood work. Even after completion of apprenticeship there is usually no fund to establish their own workshop or trade. Thus they end up as wasted effort/unemployed.
The curriculum is not related to the needs of employers. Most of the graduates of vocational schools undergo another period of training before they are accepted as company workers.
Ajayi (1977) noted that many accuse the institutions of pursing irrelevances. Others say they imitate what is done in advanced countries without adaptation. Another problem of the vocational schools is finding a way of updating graduates of such schools to avoid obsolesce and inefficiency at a future time.
Many institutions cannot follow up their graduands to know the level of impact there trained persons are making in the society. This can help to reshape curriculum and technology to reflect the need of the society from time to time.
The assistance from government is usually very rare even after budgeting for huge sum of money for youth empowerment. When such assistance is available, the beneficiaries cannot have access to the fund because of banks demand for collaterals.
In some case, materials for construction are too expensive especially it concerns welding and fabrication works. This is traceable to our steel industries which cannot meet up to the market demands. Conclusion
Vocational Education is very important aspect of technological development. To achieve this objective, it must be made to provide training for youths in business and technicians activities.
Vocational Education should be the type that will help to impart the necessary skills, leading to production of craftsmen, technicians and others skilled personnel who will be enterprising and selfreliant. By this, a frame work for poverty reduction is being laid down. The case experienced in
Nigeria is not only disencouraging but worrisome. The attention Technical Education deserves is not given to it.
Recommendations
1. In schools apprenticeship training should be encouraged among our youths.
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Manpower needs of vocational schools should be by employing people who have the basic human capacity, and knowledge of vocational courses.
Enough funds should also be earmarked for the development of human and material resources for vocational education.
Curriculum should be upgraded regularly to suit the need of the society.
Graduates of Vocational Technical Education (V.T.E) should be assisted to establish their own enterprises by the provision of interest free loans that are easily assessable without collaterals. Government should be encouraged to establish a database of all Vocation Technical
Education (V.T.E) graduate with feedback on Career development after training.
Steel industry should be developed; this will has much positive impact on local content development. References
Aghenta, J.A.(1982). Strategies for the reform vocational education Nigeria: Education and
Development.
Ajayi, O.(1977). The structure of instructional programmes in Technological institutions, Heinemann educational books Nigeria Ltd.
Babaji, G.A. (2004). New challenges in Teacher production for sciences, Vocational and Technical education in Nigeria. Keynote address presented at the 3rd national conference of FCE (T) Gombe on 9th November.
Federal Republic of Nigeria (1997). The progress of Nigerian children: Lagos Federal Government of
Nigeria.
Igwe, S.O. (2000). Professional handbook for Teachers, Owerri: Milestone publishers Ltd.
Joshua, P. (2002). Vocational and technical education. The need for guidance and counseling. A paper presented at the 2nd national conference at FCE (T) Gombe from 13th – 15th November.
Mike, O. (September 5, 2006). Growth useless without poverty reduction “National Mirror, page 26.
Ojo, .A. & Vincent, O. (2000). Education, unity and development in Nigeria, central educational service, Lagos – Nigeria
Ovia, J. (2003). How to lift Africa out of poverty, This Day Newspaper December 14th

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METAL TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION FOR SELF RELIANCE
Ibrahim Abdulhamid

Abstract
Technical Education is considered as one of the basis for scientific, technological and economic growth of any nation. Metal workers are found in many categories in both the public and private industries and establishments as fabricators, fitters, panel beaters and blacksmiths. The paper examines the status of metalwork technology with a view to ascertaining whether or not achieving its desired objectives as is designed by
NPE for producing self – reliant graduants. Analyses of technical education were taken, problems were identified, solutions, conclusion and recommendations were suggested. The paper further emphasized that any nation that aspires to make adequate use of her human and other resources in order to develop technologically must first of all develop her technical education. Introduction
Technical Education which metalwork is aimed at introducing the relationship between individuals that are provided at this level are aimed at creating an awareness or orientation so that they can make better regarding their future occupation. Activities in such programmes are centered on their immediate environment and should include the home, the school and their understanding through experiences, (Aluwong: (2004).
The National Policy on Education NPE (2004) emphasized the production of teachers with the intellectual and professional skills adequate for carrying out their primary assignments, and to make them adaptable to any changing situation not only in the life of their country but also in the whole world. The broad objective of teaching metalwork technology education as enshrined in the
National Policy on Education is highly appreciated. Among which are acquisition of appropriate skills and development of mental, physical and practical skills abilities and competencies as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of the society.
The metalwork teacher is the manager for the learning resources, creating enabling learning environment in his class with a view to achieving technical objectives (Abdulhamid II).
According to him a metalwork teacher can do this by careful selection of his teaching and learning strategies, sequencing and structuring of his subject matter so that the learner can readily grasp it.
According to Allison (1982). The teacher is a guide. This suggests that every teacher that teaches metalwork must clearly understand that teaching of the subject is not just away of imparting information but also guiding the students in to the unknown. This will give the learner a firm grip of the practical and applied skills and the subject matter as much as possible. Hence the teacher should shoulder the responsibility of developing the potentials inherent in all the learners. According to Mac
Greedy (1982) all learners are created creatively, but it are the teachers responsibilities to discover and nurture this great potentials inherent in them. The metalwork technology teacher therefore, is a crucial component of any educational system because no organized learning can take place without teachers. Multidisciplinary Journal of Research Development Volume 15 No 1 September, 2010

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The Goals of Metalwork Technology Education
The goals of technical education of which metalwork is among as stipulated in the National
Policy on Education (NPE 2004) are:i.
To cultivate inquiring, knowledge and rational mind for the conduct of a good life and democracy. ii.
To produce scientists for national development. iii. To service studies in technology and the cause of technological development and iv. To provide knowledge and understanding of the complexity of the physical world, the forms and the conduct of life.
In pursuance of these goals, the Federal Government stated that science technology and mathematics (STM) teachers should emphasized the teaching and learning of these processes, and principles at all levels of education. Special provision and incentives should be made for this study at each of the national education system. The government also stated that the study of STM should be popularized to enhance the production of adequate number technological personnel to inspire and support national goal.
Metalwork technology is an activity of making objects with substance that is opaque, fusible, ductile, good conductor of heat and electricity, for cations by loss of electrons and yields basic oxides and hydroxide.
According to Hornsby, (2001): metalwork is an activity of making objects out of metal in an artistic and skilful way. Technology in the other hand involves the methods and process what they eat, drink, wear, and provide shelter for themselves communicate with one another and a host of others. In the same vein technology according to Nwaokolo (2002). Is a systematic application of the knowledge of science to practical tasks in industry, the know-how of doing things. He further defined metal technology as an application of scientific way. It is the totality of all the process involved in the production of metal articles Nwaokolo (2002).
Technology education as an aspect of metalwork can be seen as an education to earn a living in an occupation in which success is dependent largely upon technical information and understanding of the laws of science and principles of technology as applied to modern designs production, distribution and services.
The Antecedents of Metalwork Technology
Metalwork trades are the various area of specialization in metalwork technology. Metalwork technology is the totality of all the process involved in the production of metal articles. The areas of metalwork technology are:
Fitting and machining of mechanical production which deals with the use of machine tools or hand tools to produce fabricated metal components and articles like funnels, water cans, containers for putting beverages and others welding, which is concerned with joining of two or more pieces of metal together with the aid of heat and welding rod; Foundry which deals with casting of metals into various shapes forging which is the process of heating metal pieces to a certain temperature and hammered to a required shapes.
Yusuf, (2001); observed that the beneficiaries of metalwork technology education pass through institutions without mastering the skills that will scale them through the labour market successfully. With the low level of skill acquisition there is great fear of failure that prevents an individual from venturing into unfamiliar grounds. Ezewu, (1992); also observed that the practical training given to metalwork technology students may not be sufficient for them to become self reliant, he claimed that what we are practicing now is for examination purpose to attain a certificate of
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education. Consequently, many that have graduated can not defend their certificate, hence, there are many employees that can not face the challenges of the task, they were engaged to handle. A metalwork technology graduate can only become self employed if he is practically balanced with good entrepreneurial initiatives. The labour market has become saturated and metalwork technology graduates float the streets without government paid jobs majority of these graduates are without sufficient practical skills and entrepreneurial initiatives to make them established a workshop of their own. They carry faces that clearly spelt out frustration, dejection and hopelessness.
Akale, (2004); observed that the infusion of entrepreneurial education in NCE Technical curriculum is a reaction to the escalating incidence of graduates unemployment. The goal of entrepreneurial skills is to orient students towards self reliance. Metalwork training will be directed towards more practical oriented society with more entrepreneurship and practical computer training, the problems facing metalwork technology graduates will be minimized. Olaitan, (1992) also observed that instructional methods relevant to the teaching of metalwork are practical projects, discussions, excursion or trip and homework he further explained that lecture method might be used effectively, since the objectives is specifically to train personnel who will eventually be useful in the production line industry or set up their own business.
Problems Facing Technical Education
Although this form of education was given adequate recognition in the (NPE 1998). The policy provided a basis for its recognition and effective implementation. otherwise, the situation on ground does not only discourage technical education, but in addition frustrate those already in it.
Because of the neglect of these forms of education for very long time and the inferiority complex associated with it in the past, students consider it the ultimate alternative. This can be supported as opined by Olagunju, (1994); who stated that my entrance into technical profession was not intentional, but rather as a result of frustration and inability to pursue the desired University Degree programme due to lack of academic requirements. Another problem identified is on inadequate metalwork technology educations, this problem need serious and urgent attention because technical educators are the main catalyst of education productivity. Oga, (2003); observed that in Nigeria the problem of inadequacy of metalwork technology educators and other related courses both in quality and quantity has been with us for decades. Most of the new metalwork technology educators available are of poor quality either because they have nor been trained well, less commitment to duty, frustrated on the job or because they have no facilities to work with. At present, professional teachers are insufficient in our institutions of learning and so, non professionals often referred to as “Quacks” find their way into teaching profession thus contributing in producing non-practicing metalwork technology education teachers.
Udo, (1977): opined that skills can not be taught by lecturing alone. This is because metalwork technology training is mostly concerned with doing things practically and therefore the most effective medium is that which presents the syllabus in the most practical useful way. This will enhance the development of practical skills leading to self-employment through exposure to the metalwork equipment. Lack of curriculum implementation. The prescribed curriculum may be analyzed as impressive and contain all the important skills to be acquired, however, implementation remains questionable. Technical education curriculum prescribed skills acquisition that can lead to self employment. The extent to which the prescribed curriculum has succeeded half way in attaining the needed technical skills. The attitudes of some metalwork students towards the skills content of the curriculum seem to be very poor for a long time. In addition, most of the students in metalwork technology education in Nigerian tertiary institutions are with less interest in manual skills as
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contained in the curriculum, because of their envious attitudes towards their colleagues in liberal arts going about with long ties round their necks. Such attitudes can result to poor performance of students in their practical work.
Metalwork Technology and Self Reliance
The report of comparative Technical Education Seminar Abroad of 1966 recommended the following objectives for a National Plan of Vocational – Technical Education in the Republic of
Nigeria.
i.
To provide technological literacy to all pupils, that is to prepare every pupil for life in technological age. ii. To help develop the right attitude towards work is and habits of mind conducive to the proper use of technology. iii. To provide adequate technological orientation and preparation for advanced professional education and training in technology. iv. To equip school leavers with skills to earn a living.
v.
To stimulate and encourage creativity. vi. To provide the awareness that technology does not only solve problems but create some as well.
Vocational and Technical Education are the basis elements of nation building and self – reliance improved our agriculture, health and expanded our trade, increased our knowledge and gainful employment, transportation and communication have reduced the whole world to a small village where one can not only communicate with neighbours but also see and interact with him technologically. Development or independence can not exist without Vocational and Technical Education because it aid to the production of materials, the know-how and the labour for such development can lead to self-reliance.
Way Forward to Self–Reliance
Metalwork Technology is the totality of all the process involved in the production of metal articles. These areas include fitting and machining of mechanical production, which deals with the use of machine tools or hand tools to produced metal components, fabrication which deals with working with sheet metal to produce fabricated metal component and articles like funnels, water can containers for putting beverages and others, welding which is concerned with joining two or pieces of metal together with the aid of heat and welding rod, foundry which deals with casting of metals into various shapes, forging which is the process of heating metal pieces to certain temperature and hammered to required shape.
Self reliance metals workers are found in all of these facets of metalwork technology, they are scattered around everywhere in Nigeria. They produce metal articles and components of different size and shapes for these public to purchase e.g. of these are metal spoons, forks and knives to eat with which had been cooked in metal pots. We use vehicles motor cycles, trains or bicycles they are also made of metals. Electric light, radio, televisions and the likes are all made up of metal parts. Our constructions work both simple and complex each one of them has a steel enclosure, also our modern electrical gadgets are all made of metals.

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Conclusion
The importance of practical acquisition in metalwork technology education for self reliance can not be overemphasized. The position of this paper therefore emphasized on the need to develop curricula which can guarantee the realization of the goals and objectives of vocational and technical education to meet the technical manpower needs of society. The students need to be adequately skilled in their various fields of specialization to meet the challenges of the future. With the appropriate skills acquired in the training institutions the students will be able to get involved in employment or self employed for economic self support after graduation.
Recommendations
Having realized the problems/shortcoming coupled practical skills acquisition in metalwork technology for self-reliance it is the opinion of the writer that such challenges can be resolved if the following recommendations are considered for proper implementations.
1.
The curricula of Vocational and Technical Education should be reviewed from time to time to include what is left out of the University curricula.
2.
Colleges of Education and Polytechnics should be up-graded to degree awarding institution for Vocational and Technical Education graduates climb to the apex of education in the country.
3.
More clustered areas for metal workers in the country is highly needed. Government therefore should build metalwork complexes all over the country where metal workers of different trades will stay and carry out their activities and provision for recruitment should also be provided i.e. apprenticeship. This will encourage intra and inter skills acquisition and development among them this will enhance their productivity and increase their overall sales above all, be self reliant.
4.
Provision of Equipment and Tool: Government should provide modern machines, equipment and tools in all these clustered of metalwork areas. This will enable them to be acquainted with the latest equipment machines and tools in different areas of specialization. 5.
Disbursement of Loans: Government should encourage metal workers by disbursing different loans to graduates to enable them be self employed as this will help them also to procure modern machines.
Considering the above recommendations metalwork educator and practitioners and all other stakeholders will meet all their designed and programmed aims and objectives appropriately.
References
Abdulhamid I. (2005) Assessing the effectiveness of technical education curriculum in teaching NCE technical courses. Nigeria journal of education services F.C.E. (Kano) Vol. 1 No. 6 June. 2005.
Allison, H. T. (1982): The training of primary school science teacher. (STAN) 23rd anniversary conference proceedings.
Akale, M. A. G. (2004): Educational policies and strategies for achieving reforms in Nigeria. A paper presented at workshop on capacity building for lecturers in college of education, organized by educational tax fund, (ETF) in collaboration with the national commission for colleges of education (NCCE) Held at FCE, Katsina.
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Aluwong, E. B. (2004) Metalwork technology and manpower development. A multidisciplinary
Journal of national association for the advancement of knowledge (NAFAK), Vol. 9, No. 4 Pp. 93
– 97.
Ezewu, E. E. (1992): Teachers education in the year 2000, in B. G. Nworgu (ed). Prospective on teacher education in Nigeria, Nsukka University Trust. Pp. 1 – 13.
Federal Republic of Nigeria, (2004): National policy on education Lagos: NERDC
Hornsby, A. S. (2001): Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (6th Edition) London: University Press.
Makama, G. B. (2000): Technical method unpublished booklet, Kaduna State College of Education,
Kafanchan.
Nwaokolo, P. O. (2002): Technology teacher education in the 21st Century Nigeria: Perspective of personnel and facilities requirement for national development. Journal of technical teachers education, Vol. 3 No. 1.
Oga, E. G. (2003): The challenges in the realization of qualitative education in Nigeria in the 21st
Century; in Agocha, A. (eds). Aspect of Nigeria education; A book of reading in education,
Makurdi: Braine books publication.
Olaitan, S. O. (1982): Theory and practice of vocational education in Africa unpublished
Monograph.
Olagunju, (1994): Secretariat profession in the 21st century, Lagos NAPSON Annual National
Workshop Journal Vol. 1 Pp. 42.
Udo, M. P. (2005): Towards practical skills acquisition in vocational education in Nigeria tertiary institution: A strategy for realizing its vision and mission in the 21st century. A paper presented at the 7th annual national conference, organized by the national association for advancement of knowledge (NAFAK). Held at F.C.T. College of Education Zuba – Abuja between 7 – 11 March,
2005.
Yusuf, A. O. (2001): Appropriation of technology education for self – employment panacea for poverty eradication in Nigeria.

84

THE ROLE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN
EDUCATION: SCOPE AND CHALLENGES
Benjamin Ekhobhan Iredia and John Olu Jegede

Abstract
To date, the main application of Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) in the business sector focuses on aiding access and processing of larger quantities of information for employees and management with the principal aim of increasing productivity. In the case of education, however, little or no information is being used to improve student performance, mainly because education managers are largely illiterate in information management tools. Likewise, despite schools having more and more access to ICT, new technologies are still scarcely used as part of the teaching methodology. Once again, it is the lack of training that creates difficulties. Many teachers do not have the necessary IT skills and feel uncomfortable, nor do they have the specific training needed to be able to use the new resources in the classroom. In the university sector, ICT has already made impact whether in terms of teaching, research or administration. However, despite some exceptions, there are few real examples with educational models that are based on this technology and there is still an important social preference for traditional education models. The paper reviewed critically the role of information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education.
It finally made some recommendations that would help in making the
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) functional in the educational system.
Introduction
It is expedient that we quickly peruse the definition or description of some common terminologies associated with this term “information and communication technology” (ICT). It is a diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information. These technologies include computers, the internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony. Communication and information are at the very heart of the educational process. Consequently ICT use in education has a long history. ICT has played an educational role in formal and non-formal settings. In programs provided by governmental agencies, public and private educational institutions for profit making organization and non-profit groups, secular and religious communities. For more than forty years, innovative educators have been optimistic about computer uses in schools. Their vision for computers, their multiple visions- have not been realized to nearly the extent thought possible. Despite a rapid fall in the price of hardware, the exponential increase in computing power, and the development of the internet, has opened a host of new possibilities not conceived a decade ago. The main obstacles in education to incorporating ITC into the teaching-learning process are not obvious. In this paper, the authors try to understand better where the problems lie.
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Benjamin Ekhobhan Iredia and John Olu Jegede

Four independent trends have run through the vision of educational computing since its inception. The first, computer assisted instruction (CAI), grew out of early work on self-scoring tests and mechanical teaching machines by S.L. Pressey in the 1920s (Smith and Smith 1966). Computer science, and specifically programming as a school subject, became a second major trend spun by proponents of computer use in school subject; Carlson, .S. and C. T. Gadio 92002. Luehrmann and
Peckham (1984) felt that students could not properly use a computer without learning to program it.
This made programming and computer literacy synonymous – a reasonable position at a time when application programs were virtually non-existent outside business data processing. The third trend is cognitive development and problem-solving skill.
The final, and most recent, trend is internet use for gathering information, and the role of information itself as a tool for cognitive development and improving problem-solving skill. The internet can be used as a major medium for accessing learning software, and for networking with other learners and teachers. Through in the Web, teachers and students can access curricular, teacher training, and other learning materials, some provided by their own central or state government administrations, and others through private providers. ICT is being used in distance education is to replace earlier correspondence school and educational television. The new distance education is to replace earlier correspondence school and educational television. Which is usually Web-based.
What is e-Learning?
Although most commonly associated with higher education and corporate training, e-learning encompasses learning at all levels, both formal and non-formal, that use an information network - the
Internet, an intranet (LAN) or extranet (WAN) - whether wholly or in part, for course delivery, interaction and/or facilitation. Others prefer the term online learning. Web-based learning is a subset of e-learning and refers to learning using an internet browser (such as Netscape or Internet Explorer).
What is Blending Learning?
Another term that is gaining currency is blended learning. This refers to learning models that combine traditional classroom practice with e-learning solutions. For example, students in a traditional class can be assigned to both print-based and online materials which have online mentoring sessions with their teacher through chat, and are subscribed to a class email list. Or a Web-based training course can be enhanced by periodic face-to-face instruction. “Blessing” was prompted by the recognition that not all learning is best achieved in an electronically-mediated environment, particularly one that dispenses with a live instructor altogether. Instead, consideration must be given to the subject matter, the learning objectives and outcomes, the characteristics of the learners, and the learning context in order to arrive at the optimum mix of instructional and delivery methods.
The Open and Distance Learning
Open and distance learning is defined by the Commonwealth of Learning as “a way of providing learning opportunities that is characterized by the separation of teacher and learner in time or place, or both time and place; learning that is certified in some ways by an institution or agency; the use of a variety of media, including print and electronic; two-way communications that allow learners and tutors to interact; the possibility of occasional face-to-face meetings; and a specialized divisions of labour in the production and delivery of courses.”

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The Role of Information and Communication Technology in Education: Scope and Challenges

A Learner-Centered Environment
The National Research Council of the U.S. defines learner-centered environments as those that “pay careful attention to the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and beliefs that learners bring with them to the classroom.” The impetus for learner-centeredness derives from a theory of learning called constructivism, which views learning as a process in which individuals “construct” meaning based on prior knowledge and experience. Experience enables individuals to build mental models or schemas, which in turn provides meaning and organization to subsequent experience. Thus knowledge is not
“out there”, independent of the learner and which the learner passively receives; rather, knowledge is created through an active process in which the learner transforms information, constructs hypothesis, and makes decisions using his/her mental models. A form of constructivism called social constructivism also emphasizes the role of the teacher, parents, peers and other community members in helping learners to master concepts that they would not be able to understand on their own. For social constructivists, learning must be active, contextual and social. It is best done in a group setting with the teacher as facilitator or guide.
Information and Communicational Technology (ICT) in Education
Most analyses of ICT in the educational sector focuses on the impact it has had on pupil in teaching/learning situation. However, I would like to analyze the role of ICT in education in three parts: Changes in the management of the educational sector associated with ICT.
Changes in the work process in education associated with ICT.
Changes in the training of educational personnel and of students associated with ICT.
ICT and Management of the Educational Sector
As in business, ICT has contributed greatly to networking among schools and universities and among individuals in the school system. This has been true especially in the developed countries, and is now spreading to developing countries. For example, Enlaces - the
Chilean government’s educational ICT system has made a priority of connecting rural schools to the internet and thereby integrating them more tightly into the larger educational system, and hooking them up to the outside world. Many school districts and almost all universities now communicate internally and externally largely through e-mail. Educational administrative offices in most developed countries have ICT, and data collection which is universally computerized. As in developed countries, such ICT systems have been used mainly for collecting enrolment data, student attendance, basic information on teachers, and basic information on schools. In other words, ICT mainly helps administrators get a better idea of the size of the educational system, student dropout and repetition, and the number of students per teacher. In some cases, this can be characterized as measuring the efficiency of the educational system and as a first step in improved resource allocation. Certainly, good school administrators do use data to improve student’s performance, but there is very little evidence that ICT is widely used even in countries where schools have ample computer hardware and software to use available information in this way. Some schools are using special prepared software package that allow teachers and the school to measure student gains on tests and compare test items missed by individuals and the sum of individuals in classroom against the required curriculum.

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Table 1: Enabling and Constraining Features Affecting ICT Implementation
Factors
Policy framework and implementation plans

Enabling Features
Most countries have developed, or are in the process of developing, a road map for the incorporation of ICT in thei r education systems. Some have de tailed implementation plans with pr iorities and timetables and measura ble indicators in place.
Progress in the development of policies and implementation plans has typically had champions for
ICT in education from various sources: the office staff, and senior staff, and from civil society such as women’s and country-based school net organizations.

Constraining Features
The predominant focus is more on the development of ICT operational skills than on the integration of ICT in pedagogical practice.

Gender equity

A few policies promote fender equity in terms access to ICT and the development of ICT competencies Infrastructure and access

Cyber cafes in urban areas provide public access for those who can afford to pay. Access for secondary and tertiary education institutions is growing rapidly in urban areas through wireless networks. Growth in mobile phone technology is also growing rapidly.
Collaboration models are emerging at national levels to involve stakeholders in policy development and implementation, to encourage investment in ICT development, and to share access to, and cost of, network accessing.
The need to train teachers in the use of ICT. To develop the user skills among education administrators, and a capacity to provide local support for ICT users is recognized in the policies and plans. Government are starting to recognize the need for investment and many now have ICT.- related

A larger number of policies do not consider gender equity issues at all and many implementation strategies have not considered the promotion of gender equity. The major constraints are inconsistent or unavailable supply of electricity, lack of ICT equipment, overcrowding of computer labs, and lack of affordable access to connectivity with acceptance bandwidth.

Advocacy leadership

Collaborating Mechanisms

Human resource Capacity

Fiscal resources

Advocacy needs to be both visionary and practical in the sense of not raising expectations beyond what is possible in the near term.

The notion of international collaboration on matters of content development, training, support services, etc. being explored aggressively.
The shortage of skills limits the implementation process

The lack of resources is a serious limitation in all countries. There is a general dependence on donors for the

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Learning content

line items in their annual budgets.
Initiative to develop on-line content repositories of freely available learning materials are becoming commonplace in the global world of education. These basis in Africa.

Procurement regulations

A lot of ICT equipment is normally imported to the country with their accessories.

Attitudes

Unlike many parts of the developed world, staff and teachers appear to be more welcoming of the prospect of ICT in education.
There are many examples of schools with ICT equipment and connectivity to the Internet developing services for the wider community on a cost-plus basis in order to generate revenue

Sustainable

implementation policy.
The lack of local digital content is a general problem. There is currently substantial reliance on content from the private sector. There is a need to develop materials in indigenous languages. The predominant use of
English on the Internet is also constraining. While a few countries have modified their policies to eliminate or reduce import duties on ICT equipment and software, this is yet to be adopted as widespread practice.
Government can encounter interministerial jurisdiction issues regarding the control and management of ICT applications.
Meeting the ongoing costs of maintaining equipment, staff training, connectivity, content materials acquisition, and development and consumables is a major challenge. Some government are allowing an ICT surcharge to be levied on students, but that is discriminatory. Planners need to improve their analysis of the true cost of ownership of the ICT models they adopt. Source; www.infodev.org
ICT and Changes in the Work Process in Education
ICT can change student and teacher’s work around teaching and learning. When computers are readily available for use, students and teachers can do a major part of their school work using web resources. For distance, preparing written work on their computers, and consulting special databases and learning software to help with their math. Teachers can also consult databases for lesson plans, interact with other teachers to share teaching ideas, and help students become more self-sufficient and creative in their schoolwork. A good example of changes in work practices is the United States
America that introduced laptops for all students and has trained teachers to organize teaching around students’ doing all their written assignments on their laptops.
Therefore, beyond putting computers into classrooms or into computer labs and employing them for training pupils in computer use; some add-on Web-based activities; or having pupils use student-centered individualized learning games, changing teaching practices around ICT requires a major investment in developing new teacher ICT skills and in training teachers to teach differently using ICT. The downside of this proposition is that in many countries teachers lack adequate content
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knowledge to teach even basic academic skills to primary school pupils. Thus, providing this kind of training to teachers is a tall order. The upside is that as a new generation of teachers, raised as children on ICT use, enter the schools, ICT training costs will fall substantially. Indeed, eventually, as training and hardware costs fall, we can assume that teachers will use ICT as easily as they use books today.
Nevertheless, unless teacher content knowledge also increase substantially, we may see little, or no increase in students’ achievement beyond the improvements facilitated by computer-assisted drill and practice. The Academic Benefits of Using ICT in Education
Research on cognitive impacts addresses the effect of ICT both on what students think
(intellectual content) and on how students think (intellectual competence). Studies of the effect on intellectual content focus on the relative advantages of ICT in the delivery of instruction in traditional subject areas, and measure the effect in terms of standard subject area achievement examinations.
Studies of how students think, researchers are primarily concerned with postulated side-effects of ICT on students’ reasoning skills. Thus, contrary to idealistic notions of changes in student thinking, particularly the enhancement of problem-solving skills through ICT in schools, there is little or no evidence that this occurs. On the other hand, ICT may be rather effective in increasing student performance on standardized tests by employing CAI, especially in conjunction with teacher- student interaction around imaginative drill and practice software (improving what students learn). Without
ICT as a supplement to improve test score results may however, be seen to be more effective than traditional teaching alone hence is much more applied. Similarly, using computers to teach middle and high school students to become familiar with standard ICT business applications is also fairly ubiquitous for the obvious reason that it contributes directly to students’ ability to earn a livelihood.
However, an important caveat in all these conclusions is that there is relatively little research on the academic effects of students’ Internet use, and this is becoming the dominant form of ICT in schools. There is little doubt that the Internet allows for more student independence in learning. But does this benefit all students in similar fashion? Are the effects on learning significant? These are important questions for future research.
Flexibility of Use
Previously, ICT-use required students to be grouped together in a controlled environment at a specific time and location. With some technologies, for example radio and television, use was rigidly tied to schedule developed by people far removed from the day-today functioning of the classroom.
New ICT applications have given rise to the term “any-time-any-place,” a reflection of the flexibility possible in using ICT to support teaching and learning. One outgrowth of this flexibility has been the development of “virtual” educational experiences. A virtual experience refers to educational situations in which distance and time separate the teacher and students, who use ICT to interactively share resources. Virtual education allows students to study at their own pace, time, and pace. In essence, a virtual education means having educational transactions accessible from the home, workplace, or anywhere that the student chooses to be. Virtual classrooms, schools, colleges, and universities offering classes by email, computer-mediated conferencing (CMC), videoconferencing, or websites, or combinations of these technologies, are proliferating.
Connectivity
Perhaps the most powerful feature of new ICTs is connectivity. Prior to the 1990s, computers in educational settings were seldom connected to local area networks (LANs) or the Internet. With the
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widespread adoption of LANs, decreasing telecommunications costs, increasing bandwidth, and the invention of the World Wide Web (www), and educational access to the Internet is becoming commonplace. If equipped with a computer, appropriate software, and Internet access, students and teachers have access to every other person on the planet that has an Internet account, hundreds of thousands of information archives, and millions of WebPages of educationally relevant content
(cf.htt;//www.classroom.net/grades). These four dimensions – integration of multiple media, interactivity, flexibility of use, and connectivity – distinguish digital ICT from previous technologies.
Because of these differences, educators are finding power new ways to integrate digital ICTs into the curricula. Effectiveness
Perhaps the most important question about ICT is how effective is its use in education? To answer this question one must consider three aspects. How effective is ICT-mediated instruction when compared to traditional face-to-face instruction? What does ICT enable that would not otherwise be possible? And is ICT worth its costs?
ICT Mediated Instruction
ICT mediated instruction refers to instruction delivered via a technological channel such as television, radio, or a computer and network. ICT-mediated instruction can be synchronous, with both the instructor and the student participating simultaneously. For example, instruction may be delivered via desktop videoconferencing by a teacher located at a university to employees at widely separated companies. ICT-mediated instruction may also be delivered asynchronously, with the instructor and student participating at different times. Instruction based on teaching materials placed on a website does not require simultaneous participation. Or synchronicity may not matter, as when self-contained instructional materials are packaged on a CD-ROM. In this case, the instructional designer may have developed the materials months or even years before the student uses them and communication between the two is impossible.
Enabling Collaboration
Not all resources are inanimate. ICT enables education between individuals and groups of people. Such collaborations may take place locally or between people in widely separated geographical locations. They may be temporary or long-term. Students may collaborate with peers in other schools community which may serve as mentors to students, scientists in government agencies may work with school children, and so forth. Only educational usefulness and access to ICT limit the possibilities. Email, computer-mediated conferencing, and desktop videoconferencing are all being used to support collaboration between individuals and groups.
Online Mentors
ICT can also enable mentoring programs to provide one-on-one guidance to individuals by well-established members of a particular community. Such virtual collaborations between individuals are an effective ways for senior members of a community to teach, inspire, and support newcomers.
Virtual Learning Communities
ICT makes it possible to engage people in widely dispersed in “virtual learning communities.” Virtual learning communities are learning groups based on shared purpose, not artificial distinctions of the location or age. Through ICT, learners can be drawn together from almost
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anywhere, and they can construct their own formal or informal learning groups. Such communities may transverse barriers of time, geography, age, ability, culture, and social status.
Lifelong Learning
Unlike in the past when a person’s education took place for a specific period of time during their youth, education is now widely seen as a continuing activity taking place throughout the lifespan. Establishing lifelong learning habits among citizens and providing lifelong learning opportunities have become a major goal of government initiatives worldwide. Lifelong learning is thought to be important for at least two reasons. First, it is no longer possible to master an entire discipline in a few short years. The amount of information available and the speed at which new information is being created makes this impossible. Consider, for example, that printed scientific information has been published in the last 10 years (Odlyxko, 1996). Second, career changes are becoming more frequent as are changing requirements within individual professions. For example, the
People’s Republic of China is facing changes of unprecedented magnitude in its traditional industries, and a large number of workers are being forced to change careers or take early retirement. In order for these industries to survive and to take advantage of market opportunities, the workforce will need to be upgraded to work at higher knowledge levels with new technology (Wu & Qilian 1998).
Conclusion
Education everywhere in the world, including in the (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), international organization founded in 1961 to coordinate the economic policies of industrialized nations) is largely publicly financed and publicly provided. ICT is rapidly becoming ubiquitous in developed countries’ public schools and is spreading in developing countries’ educational systems. As is evidenced by the OECD’s recent case studies of schools in 23 countries,
ICT is being used in many imaginative ways to teach higher order reasoning skills.
Recommendations
1) Compulsory re-training programme for teachers/lecturers should be put in place vigorously to update their ICT knowledge. This is only the possible way in which the role of ICT in our educational system can be effective. In fact it is this retracing programme that can remove the negative phobia from the old teacher/lecturers.
2) The government at various levels and corporate bodies should as a matter of necessity participate activity and meaningfully in providing ICT based equipment and accessories. This can be in the form of purchasing adequate computers for schools and colleges. Others include building ICT laboratories coupled with their maintenance.
3) Laboratory technicians and technologists should be specially trained and deployed to various schools to take care of ICT equipment. This step will sustain adequate maintenance of computers and other accessories which are very sensitive to rough-handling.
4) There should be adequate or regular power supply to motivate the ICT gadgets regularly with the recommended voltage. Efforts should be made by the various schools administrators to ensure an alternative power supply to bridge the gap often created by the irregular power supply by power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN). This can be in the form of providing Electricity generating plants.
5)
Finally, the library in each school should be well equipped with relevant and current ICT related textbooks to facilitate the embracing of the application of ICT in our educational system both on the part of students, and teachers/lecturers.
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References
Calson & Gadio C.T. (2002). Teacher Professional Development in the use of Technology in Hadded and Drexlar A Technologies for Education: potentials, Parameters and Prospects Washington DC
Academy for Educational Development and Paris UNESCO.
Dwler; Thomas A. & Margot Critchfield (1978) Basic and the personal computer reading M.A.
Addison – Westloy.
Lenhrmann Arthur & Herbert Peckman (1984) Computer literacy survival kit. New York: McGraw
Hill.
Odlyzko A (1996. Tragic loss or good riddance. The impending demise or traditional scholarly
Journals (91-110) MA: MIT press Cambridge.
OECD (2006) Are students ready for a technology-rich world? 22 Paris
OEDC (2005) E–learning in Tertiary Education where do we stand? OEDC Paris.
Smith, Karl U. & Margaret Foltz Smith (1966) Cybernetic Principles of learning and educational
Design. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.
Wu H. & Quilian Y. (1998) Lifelong learning in the People’s Republic of China; in M.J. Halton (Ed),
Lifelong learning: Policies, and Programmes

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ENHANCING QUALITATIVE MUSIC EDUCATION IN NIGERIA THROUGH
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)
Reuben O. Ibidun

Abstract
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is about digital information passing between devices. It has become a livewire that every successful business fellow, public or private set – up and particularly, researchers and educators must embrace in order to enrich and/or develop the nation and her people. The use of Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) has increased in the society and its development has changed every aspect of the human life. This paper therefore explores the objectives of ICT in Nigeria as proposed by National IT policy. The essence, importance, prospects and striking challenges of the application of
ICT to Music Education are briefly mentioned. This paper recommends way forward such as provision of ICT facilities, adequate funding, government commitment and the training of technical expertise, among others, to fully exploit the benefits of ICT in our schools.

Introduction
Music teaching has become one of the most challenging professions in our society where knowledge is expanding rapidly and much of it is available to music students as well as teachers at the same time. As new concepts of learning have evolved, music teachers are expected to facilitate learning and make it meaningful to individual learners rather than just to provide knowledge and skills. Today, modern development of innovative technologies have provided new possibilities to the teaching profession and at the same time, placing more demands on teachers to learn how to use this new technologies in teaching. These challenges require teachers to continuously retrain themselves on the use of computer in assessing internet to acquire new ideas, knowledge, and to acquire skills while maintaining their jobs (Mishra, Promila and Harish, 2007).
ICT remains one of the best ways through which one can enrich himself or herself with useful knowledge and skills. The most common form of ICT is the computer which happens to be the most recent and exciting of revolutionary technical advancement. The application of ICT in education is known as e–education. E–education according to FME (2004) is the comprehensive framework for delivery of education using ICT as a tool.
Information
Information is one of the unique factors that serve as pivot for the existence and survival of man in both his micro and macro environment. As a matter of fact, an individual who is not informed may soon discover himself or herself deformed. According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary
(2004), information refers to facts or details about something or somebody. Such facts or details have influence on how people relate with one another and how they react to situations and circumstances.
Challenges in music education as a discipline or career are adequately tackled depending largely on information that music educators/experts in music technologies, and researchers in the field of music have at hand.
Multidisciplinary Journal of Research Development Volume 15 No 1 September, 2010

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Communication
Communication can simply be seen as the transfer of information from one place or medium to another. According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2004), communication is the activity or process of expressing ideas and feelings or of giving people information. People communicate through many media, e.g. Music, Radio, Television, Mobile Phone, Computer, papers, etc. Any technology in the form of ICT must communicate in both directions. There must be the communicator, the media/channel, and the receiver. Music instructions or information, for instance, can be communicated by teacher, through the use of computers (on line), to the student
Technology Education
Technology education is the training that brings about human ability to change the world around him. It enables him to cut, shape or put together materials, move things around and to utilize the five natural senses (sight, smell, taste, touch and hearing) in a most unusual and far reaching manner (Olorundare 2001). In this case, the importance of technology in music education cannot be over looked.
However, today, a variety of ICT can facilitate not only delivery of music instructions, but also learning process itself. Also, ICT can promote professional development, international collaboration and networking in music education. There is a range of ICT options from video conferencing through multimedia delivery to web site, which can be used to meet the challenges music teachers face today.
The era of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), is one that has witnessed monumental transformation in every field of humanity, including music. Salau (2003) opined that ICT is seen as the technologies used in collecting, storing, editing and passing of information in various forms. These include the use of communication satellite, radio, television, telephone, video, tape, recorders compact disc, floppy disc, and the computers. These devices have made ICT an instrument of dynamic and progressive changes in our society and as such, have tremendously influenced development of all human endeavours: social, economic, technology, business, labour and education
(Osewinyen, 2008).
The Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) in the National Policy on Education (2004: 17, 24) asserts that:
In recognition of the prominent role of Information and Communication Technology in advanced knowledge and skills necessary for effective functioning in the modern world, there is urgent need to integrate Information and Communication Technology into education in
Nigeria. Government shall provide necessary infrastructure and training for the integration of
ICT in the school system in recognition of the role of ICT in advancing knowledge and skills in the modern world.

The vision of afore-stated IT policy if considered in the area of functionality, innovation, challenges and prospects in our present educational system is to make Nigeria an IT capable country in Africa and a key player in the information society by the year 2005 (FME, 2004), using it as the engine for sustainable development and global competiveness. Thus, on the advocacy for effective communication in all spheres of human endeavours by all the people in Nigeria and in the world at large, ICT becomes inevitable. The case of ICT in music education is not exempted.
Major Objectives of E – Education in Nigeria
FME (2004) listed the major objectives of e – education in Nigeria as follow:
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1. Enhancing access to quality education: E – education has potentials of reaching out to so many learners and offering education whose quality is not compromised. The large number of pupils for basic education in Nigeria can be trained more effectively by using e – education protocols. This is also applicable to music education.
2. Improve the education delivery system: ICT tools aid both teachers and students in teaching – learning process. Self – learning capabilities of ICT enabled education will enhance mastery of school subjects by Nigerian students as well as aid teachers in the Nigerian schools. This assistance will in turn be evident in the improved performance in school and public examination. Thus, ICT could as well enhance good learning capabilities and mastery of music subject/courses by music students and also aid music teachers in the Nigerian schools.
3. Ensure optimal utilization of existing of ICT resources: A cursory at the school system in
Nigeria will review series of efforts at the three levels of government (Local, State and
Federal) at implementing some forms of ICT enable delivery. The demands that all states of the federation have some forms of computer education programmes such as tech net, digital library, poly net, and munet. These bring lots of duplication under e – education framework resources to be pulled and optimally utilized.
4. Ensure a global competitive education system: When a global adoption of e–education as a delivery is achieved, any nation or educational system that does not conform will produce graduates that are not globally acceptable. With the adoption of e – education in Nigeria therefore, the nation will be on the right course of global competitiveness. In fact, through e– education most music teachers/educators have studied various Universities abroad.
5. Reduce or eliminate anti – social activities in the school system: The two counterproductive phenomena (Examination malpractices and cultism) which have strangulated the education system are caused by a host of factors including poor academic preparation of students. Since e–education has the potential of evaluating students’ performance and reducing the incidence of the vice, the elimination of examination malpractices and cultism subsequently make learning and teaching more effective.
Adherence to the above stated objectives of e – education in Nigeria by FME (2004), will to a large extent, enhance good standard of teaching/learning of music education in Nigeria.
Essence of ICT in Music Education
The essence of ICT in music education in our schools cannot be overlooked. The integration of ICT into music curriculum will make students and teachers to have equal access to richer learning materials. It will further help them to control their learning, environment, improved literacy level, language and communication skills. It is therefore important, in this regard, to continue to emphasise on the importance of staff development in our educational system in order to help teachers acquire knowledge and skills. Thus, perspectives that will improve instructional effectiveness and increase productivity in music education through the use of ICT has the potential of making music students in
Nigeria to share their knowledge with peers in other countries, get access to outside the country
(Nigerians or non – Nigerians) and collaborate with other students anywhere in the world on their projects. Also problems of inadequate facilities in school arising from insufficient funds to finance the equipment of every school could be obviated through sharing of facilities across school networks
(Elizabeth, 2008). Olalude (2006), quoted in Regha (2007), noted that ICT has positively influenced the quality and quantity of teaching; learning through dynamic, interactive and engaging contents and research in traditional and distant educational institutions around the world. He further pointed out that ICT has the potential to accelerate, enrich and deepen skills, motivate and encourage students in
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learning, help to relate school experiences to work practices, help to create economic viability for tomorrow’s works, contribute to radical changes in schools, strengthen teaching and provide for connection between institutions and the world. All these are of importance to music education in
Nigeria.
Importance of Training Music Teachers on the Application of ICT in Music Education
The training of music teachers is very paramount in our nation’s educational system. Music teachers should therefore be developed on the acquisition of ICT knowledge and skills, in order to:
i.
Be qualified and competent to employ the tools of technology to supplement their traditional teaching methods and thereby achieve enhanced students’ learning in music education. ii. Use the tools of technology to keep themselves abreast with the latest development in music education. iii. Contribute to their professional advancement. Also, music teachers in Nigerian schools should be encouraged, by the government and management of various schools/institutions, to be developed or to undergo training in computer studies in order to acquire basic knowledge and skills of operating and using various applications in computer, such as distinction between system software and application software, using word processing, document preparation and printing, spreadsheet applications, including graphical and statistical analysis of data, computer aided teaching and learning, using the internet for e – mail and file transfer, “surfing the internet for searching and selecting educational content and ideas for teaching” (Mishra et al 2007), etc.
Challenges of Information and Communication Technology in Music Education
There are several challenges to the successful use of ICT, particularly in music education.
Ohibusuyi (2008) quoted in Suleiman (2008: 89 – 90) opined that different challenges facing higher education have been identified as responsible for the harvest of poor quality education which hinders the achievement of sustainable development. These include:
1. Lack of expertise and skilled manpower: Owing to limited resources, Nigeria neither has the local capacity to develop the necessary human resources in this field nor the means to attract highly skilled and expensive experts from abroad. Skilled manpower for the development of
ICT in music education is very crucial.
2. Limited internet connectivity: Internet connectivity, though vigorously pursued in Nigeria, is still limited. In some institutions of higher learning where there is internet connectivity, it is seen to be limited only to the library and information and communication technology (ICT) centers and not to offices. Also, the current speed of connection may be inadequate for internet browsing. This makes its development in music education ineffective.
3. Poor infrastructure: Nigeria lacks the infrastructural facilities for the full scale development of e – learning facilities, apart from high cost of using and maintaining technology. Internet access is still concentrated mostly in urban centers and a few institutions of higher learning.
4. Non – affordability of computer and internet connectivity: Some music teachers in tertiary institutions or schools where music is studied cannot afford computer system and/or internet connectivity that would enable them to enhance good quality music education through ICT.
5. Teachers’ attitude: Another problem associated with the effective use of e – learning in music education may be connected to the non – familiarity of this Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) by most teachers. In other words, some music teachers are lazy and develop cold attitude to browsing or getting useful information from internet and
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other Information and Communication Technology means such as Radio, Television, Mobile
Phone, etc.
6. Unreliable power supply: Electric power supply is unstable and thus poses challenge to the use of new technology in music education.
Prospects of ICT in Music Education
ICT has the potential to:
i.
Motivate and encourage music students in learning ii. Increase, enrich and deepen skills acquired by both the music teacher and the student. iii. Contribute to radical changes in school system. iv. Help to create economic viability for young music teacher. Since music education has a lot of career prospects, ICT will help the teacher to function effectively and be useful to the society.
v.
Strengthen music teaching/performances and provide opportunities for connection between institutions and their host communities. vi. Avail music teachers with opportunities to always upgrade or improve themselves in the teaching profession by getting up – to – date information. vii. Faster communication speed: In the past, longer time is taken for any news or messages to be sent. But now, with the internet, news or messages are sent via e – mail to friends, business partners or anyone efficiently. With the capability of bandwidth, broadband and connection speed on the internet, information can travel fast at an instance. It saves time and is inexpensive. Music teachers do not at all time need to travel far to get information on music courses or programs. viii. ICT creates paperless environment: This means that information can be stored and retrieved through digital medium instead of paper. On – line communication via e – mail, on-line chat and instant messages also help in creating paperless environment in music education. ix. Effective Sharing of information: ICT helps to expose music scholars/educators to sharing and exchanging of opinion, news and information through discussion group, mailing list and form on the internet. This sharing of knowledge will contribute to the sustainable development of music education in Nigeria.
x.
It can be used to keep track of stock/inventory in music business setting like music production/recording, marketing, etc. xi. It helps to eliminate the risk of travelling in search of information associated with music education such as admission form, registration form, course outlines etc. Information regarding all these can be accessed on the internet. Through ICT, members of families can also be fortunate to be offered sponsorship abroad and employment can also be created. xii. ICT can be used to increase (music) literacy level when family members are exposed to it. xiii. Music teachers can use ICT as recreational tool when boredom sets in.
The Way Forward
Our educational system should aim at the creation of a new society of educational professionals who will adopt practical reasoning, creative production of things and preventive diplomacy in national resolution of human and environmental problems that may impede sustainable development and economy (Adeboyele, 2000).
Based on the foregoing importance, challenges and prospects of ICT in Music Education, this paper recommends the following, in order to have a solid ICT programme especially with regards to music education in Nigeria:
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1. Non – governmental organizations should endeavour to give support to augment government efforts especially in the area of funding ICT.
2. Government should show commitment by establishing support and monitoring teams
(with branches in all the tertiary institutions) to ensure proper running of the programme.
3. More awareness should be created by every educator on the usefulness of ICT for enhancing good quality of the teaching/learning process in music education and other subjects. 4. Technical experts on ICT should be made available by the government and private individuals within the country, Nigeria.
5. Computer hardware and music software resources should also be made available by public and private institutions where music is offered.
6. Government and private organization should ensure that there is stable power supply to run ICT programme.
7. Internet connectivity should be made available in both rural and urban areas, and computer system should be distributed to all academic staff in institutions of learning, in order to have direct access/connectivity to the internet for research purposes.
8. Parents should endeavour to purchase computers in order to create access for their children to have first – hand knowledge and skills in ICT through computer operation.
Conclusion
Nigeria is well endowed with natural and human resources, but can hardly take care of its citizens due to inability to develop our technology and educational system through effective teaching and learning of science and technology and art subjects like music, so as to develop people in such a way that will not only lead to increase in productivity achieved, but also increase the people’s talent, creativity, self confidence and self respect. Indeed, for sustainability and successful application of
ICT, an assessment expert adequately equipped with ICT, teaching (experience), operational and communication skills should be constituted in our schools/colleges in order to make the students and teachers (in the field of music) have access to quality teaching and learning.
References
Adeboyele, R.A. (2001). Welcome Address in O. Akindehin and R.A. Adeboyele (Eds): Challenges of the third millennium for primary education in Nigeria, Akure: Onward printers.
Elizabeth, C. (2008). The challenges and possible solutions of information and communication technology (ICT): A tool for e – learning in science education. Paper presented at the 5th National
Conference of school of sciences, F.C.E., Kontagora. June, 2008.
Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National policy on education (4th edition). Lagos: NERDC.
Federal Ministry of Education (FME) (2004). Ministerial initiative on e – education for the Nigeria education system, Abuja: Federal Ministry of Education.
Mishra, R.C. Promila, S. & Harish, B. (2007). International encyclopedia of education on modern methods of teacher training, Darya Ganj: APA publishing corporation.

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(ICT)

Olorundare, S. (2001). Science, technology and mathematics education for national development: Matters arising. A paper at train a trainer by ETF and NCCE at Okene.
Olubusuyi, A. (2008). Educationists identify obstacles to information and communication technology
(ICT) development good quality education Vanguard (Lagos). Retrieved on 17th May, 2008 from http://a//africa.com. Osewinyen, A.C. (2008). The use of e – learning in mathematics instruction in Nigeria secondary school: Problems and prospects. Paper presented at the 5th national conference of school of sciences, FCE Kontagora, June, 2008.
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2004). Oxford University Press.
Regha, I.O. (2007). The sustainability of information and communication technology (ICT) in the current education reforms in Nigeria. Kontagora Journal of Science and Technology (Konjost) 6
(1), 124 – 130.
Salau, M.O. (2003). Promotion of ICT usage in mathematics instruction at the secondary school levels in Nigeria: Some inhibiting factors. In M.A.G. Akale (Ed.) Information and communication technology and mathematics (STM) education: Proceedings of the 44th Annual Conference of
STAN, 167 – 171.
Suleiman, F. (2008). The challenges and prospects of information and communication technology
(ICT) in science education national development. Confluence journal of education (CJE) 4 (1), 82
– 92.

100

DETERMINANTS OF A FIRM’S CAPITAL STRUCTURE: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY
Friday I. Ohiokha; Paul B. Akhalumeh and A. O. Lawani

Abstract
This study examines the determinants of a firm’s capital structure in 16 nonfinancial Nigerian listed companies for the period 1992-2007. This paper attempts to empirically analyse the factors that affect a firm’s choice of capital structure, as well as determine which capital structure theory best explains the capital structure decision behaviour of Nigerian non-financial companies. The result obtained provides evidence that a firm’s profitability, growth pattern, tangibility and size significantly determine its capital structure. Also, we find evidence in support for the static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory and little or no support of the information asymmetry theory as to the capital structure behaviour of manufacturing companies in Nigeria. These findings have several implications, the most salient of which is that with the identification of major determining factors of capital structure, managers planning for the long-term are aided to improve their firms for better performance with its reverberating effects on the Nigerian economy.

Introduction
Macroeconomic changes in Nigeria such as deregulation of trade, liberalization of the exchange rate and the striving for monetary stability, necessitate an examination of capital structure of companies in Nigeria with respect to how capital structures of firms have evolved. Since the
Modigliani and Miller work of 1958, a theoretical framework has been developed to explain the capital structure decision of financial managers. While the development theory has evolved rapidly, empirical research lagged behind.
In this regard this paper addresses the funding patterns and capital structure of companies especially non-financial (manufacturing companies) in Nigeria. The primary objective of this study is to examine the relationship between a firm's capital structure and its profitability, growth opportunities, the tangibility of its assets and size.
Following this introductory section, the remaining parts of this paper are organized as follows: section
II forms a review of empirical literature as well as the conceptual framework. The methodology is outlined in section III while the results of the empirical estimations are presented and analyzed in section IV. Section V concludes the paper with a summary of findings, policy implications and recommendations. Review of Empirical Literature
Size and Financial Leverage
Previous studies indicate size as a proxy for business and document its effect on capital structure. Large firms, that are more diversified, hence lower variance in earnings, have large asset base of high tangibility and are less risky since they enjoy easier access to the capital market, receive higher credit rating for debt issues and pay lower interest rates on borrowed funds.
Berk and Demarzo (2007) found that the size of a firm is a good explanatory variable for its leverage ratio. Marsh (1982) reached the conclusion that the size of the firm has a positive impact on
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Friday I. Ohiokha; Paul B. Akhalumeh and A. O. Lawani

its "desired" debt-equity ratio, from experimenting with three measures of size which gave virtually identical results. Rajan and Zingales (1995) using the conventional ways of measuring, found their measure of size significantly correlated with their measure of financial leverage in a direct manner.
Hamid and Singh (1992) argued that large firms hold more debt as they have a larger debt holding capacity, while Barclay and smith (2000) argued that large firms hold more debt because they are regarded as being "too big to fail", and also concluded that size is negatively related to short term debt. Booth, Aivazian, Demirgue & Maksimovic (2001), and Pandey (2005) found a significant positive relationship between leverage ratios of firms and their sizes in developing countries.
Profitability and Financial Leverage
Previous studies document a negative relationship between profitability and financial leverage. Gale, (1967), Ezra (1963) marsh (1982) argued that a firm with a high profit rate, ceteris paribus, would maintain a relatively low debt ratio as it would have sufficient internal funds to finance itself. Titman and Wessels (1988) identified a highly significant inverse association when working with market values and no association when dealing with book values; they concluded that profitable firms have relatively less debt.
Other studies documented a positive relationship between profitability and debt. Taggart
(1977), Rajan and Zingales (1995) suggested a positive relationship between profitability and financial leverage as higher profitability gives rise to a higher debt capacity and accompanying tax shields, and also that if the market is effective, it forces firms to commit to payout cash by levering up. Growth and Financial Leverage
Marsh (1982) believed that for similar reasons, that firms experiencing high growth will have relatively higher debt ratios. Graham and Harvey (2001) claimed that such companies are forced to economize on their use of current asset holding and to borrow from all possible sources; Cookson
(2001) submitted that their ability to retain their earnings lag behind their market opportunities. As such, they concluded that high growth corporations tend to have high debt ratio and their growth rate in assets is a high significant positive determinant of leverage decision.
In contrast, Myers (1977), Titman and Wessels (1988) and Rajan and Zingales (1995) found a negative relationship between growth and the level of leverage of a firm. They argued that agency costs are likely to be higher for firms in growing industries so, firms trying to finance high growth investments will tend to use equity to avoid the less favoured terms required by creditors. They further submitted that as growth opportunities do not generate current taxable income that needs to be sheltered by debt, firms with relatively large future investment opportunities will tend to work with a smaller proportion of debt in their capital structure.
Tangibility and Financial Leverage
There exists conflicting views on the role that asset compositions play in influencing financial leverage decision. Pandey (2005) using conventional measures of both variables, claimed that since the use of fixed assets can magnify the variability of a firm’s future income, fixed assets should be negatively related to debts in a capital structure. Marsh (1982) concluded that firms with fixed assets were more likely to issue equity as a negative correlation was found to exist between total debt ratio and the proportion of fixed assets. Jensen and Meckling (1976) suggested that if a firm's level of tangible assets is low, management for monitoring cost reasons may choose a high level of debt to mitigate equity agency costs, hence proposing a negative relationship.
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The stronger direction of evidence is in favour of a positive relationship between firm tangibility and leverage. Titman and Wessels (1988), Rajan and Zingales (1995), Nuri (2000) and
Bevan and Danbolt (2000) all argued for similar reasons that firms with high fixed assets ratio tend to use more debt. They claimed that because of the debt capacity, they can borrow at lower interest rates relatively taking more debt, resulting in a positive relationship between tangibility and financial leverage. Conceptual Framework
Corporate capital structure mix is one of the fundamental decisions that companies must necessarily be involved with. Capital structure policy deals with the financing of firm’s activities with a mix of debt, equity and intermediate securities. Jensen and Meckling (1976) argued that the capital structure of a firm is made up of its amount of equity and debt. In a broader sense, capital structure can be said to be the permanent long term financing of a company which includes its long term debts, ordinary shares, preference shares and retained earnings.
Capital structure studies have generated some broad categories of capital structure determinants; though Titman and Wessels (1988) and Harris and Rejiv (1991) pointed out that the choice of suitable explanatory determinants is potentially contentious. Four key variables of size, tangibility, profitability and market-to-book or growth opportunities are the chosen explanatory variables, for our analysis.
Static Trade-off Theory
This theory suggests that a firm's target leverage is driven by three competing forces; taxes, bankruptcy (costs of financial distress) and agency conflicts. It posits that there is a positive relationship between corporate tax shield and firm value, because, adding debt to a firms capital structure lowers its corporate tax liability and increases the after tax cashflow available to the providers of capital. Also, when default arises in debt repayment, there are dead weight costs that arise when bankruptcy is the case. The optimum static trade capital structure is obtained where the net tax advantage of debt financing balances leverage related costs such as bankruptcy i.e. the optimum debt ratio is determined by a trade-off between costs and benefits of borrowing and holding the firm's assets and investment plans constant provided there are no adjustment costs attached to capital structure changes (Myers, 1984).
Information Asymmetry Theory
Two main strands have emerged under this theory. First, is the signaling effect of debt as a means to signal confidence to the firm's investors; second, is that information asymmetries mitigate distortions in investment decisions of companies.
This theory assumes that firm's managers or insiders possess information about the characteristics of a firm's return stream which is often unknown to investors. With this, under-pricing is often the case when the firm needs to finance new investment. This under-pricing can be reduced if information transfer can occur and firm’s capital structure serves this purpose given a fixed level of firm’s investment (Leland and Pyle, 1997; Meyers, 1984). Ross, Westerfield, and Jaffe (1996) developed an incentive-signaling model which provides a theory for the determination of the financial structure of the firm in a manner to signal the firm's worth.
Debt is a contractual obligation to repay interests and the principal of which default is very costly. In contrast, equity is more forgiving, allowing managers more discretion as to dividend payments. As such, adding debt to a firm's capital structure can be interpreted as a credible signal of
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managers’ confidence in the firm and its future cashflow. Accordingly, Ross, Westerfield and Jaffe
(1996) concluded that investors take higher levels of debt as a signal of higher firm quality and profitability. Agency Cost Theory
Jensen and Meckling (1976) defined agency cost ‘as the sum of the monitoring expenditures by the principal, bonding costs by the agent and a residual loss.’ Three forms of agency problems and their costs have received particular attention.
Risk Shifting: The risk shifting or bondholder expropriation hypothesis asserts that shareholders have the incentives to exploit bondholders once the debt is issued as managers whose ultimate responsibility is to the stockholders, tend to make investments that maximize shareholders wealth rather than total firm value. This could lead to the over investment problem (Taggart, 1977). This anticipated bias of managers towards shareholders prompts bondholders to demand a higher premium payment, hence increasing the cost of debt and shareholders to face the opportunity cost of issuing debt. As such, Jensen and Meckling (1976) posited that the firm trades off these agency costs of debt against the benefits of debts, leaving the ex ante solution as having the optimum capital structure tilted towards equity.
Underinvestment Problem: This problem refers to the tendency of managers to avoid safe positive net present value (NPV) projects in which the value increase consists of an increase in the value of debt and a smaller decrease in the value of equity (Myers, 1977). Thus the firm will refuse to accept good investment opportunities ex post, reducing the firm value ex ante. This problem affects more pronouncedly highly leveraged firms in financial distress, as the greater the probabilities of default during distress the more bondholders gain from value increasing projects. As such, this problem tends to tilt the firms capital structure towards equity. Mature firms with few profitable investments but good reputation find it optimal to choose safer projects and the reverse is the case with young firms.
The Free Cashflow Hypothesis: Free cashflow is the excess of cash that is required to fund all projects that have positive NPV. Jensen and Meckling (1976) argued that for companies that largely consist of assets and that produce stable operating cashflow, high leverage can add value by improving managers’ financial discipline. Firms with substantial free cashflow face conflicts of interest between stockholders and managers. While the former would desire that stable free cashflow be distributed by increasing dividends or repurchasing stock, the later would rather choose to invest even below the firm’s cost of capital or on consuming prerequisites such as corporate plans and building empires. However, leverage has been seen as a more effective means to addressing this free cashflow problem. This is because contractually obliged payments of interest and principal are more credible signal than discretionary dividend payments or share repurchases in giving back excess capital to investors. Accordingly, debt reduces the agency cost of free cash by reducing the cashflow available for spending at the discretion of managers.
Pecking-order Hypothesis Theory
This is the behavioural approach to capital structure, positing that firms follow a specific order of preferences in financing decisions in a manner that cause least inconveniences to management. Accordingly, the most popular mode of financing is retained earning as it does not entail external scrutiny by suppliers of capital when such internal fund is insufficient, then debt financing is
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Determinants of a Firm’s Capital Structure: An Empirical Study

the next option as it has no implication on ownership stake with regards to dilution of control. The next preferred means of financing is the preference share capital and other instruments like convertible securities. The last resort to financing becomes the issue of new equity capital.
Wurgler and Malcolm (2002) posited that more profitable firms should hold less debt because such high profits means high internal fund, whereas Booth, Aivazian, Demirgue and Maksimovic (2001) and Pandey (2005), all in developing countries, and Titman and Wessels (1998), in developed countries all found a negative relationship between leverage ratios and profitability. Chen and Jiang
(2001) argued that growing companies funding pressure usually outstrips its retained earnings and as such, in line with the pecking order, would choose debt rather than equity, creating a positive relationship between growth and leverage. Myers (1984) suggested that issuing debt secured by collateral reduces the asymmetric information costs, causing a positive relationship between tangibility and financial leverage.
Methodology
The population of the study is all non-financial firms listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange.
The sample is a cross section of 16 companies that are believed to adequately represent the population of manufacturing companies. Annual data on the selected variable over the period 1992-2007 were used in the study, ascertaining their correlation and then regressed using the ordinary least squares regression method.
The models used in Rajan and Zingales (1995) were used with some modifications.
Accordingly, leverage is the ratio of total debt to total assets, long-term debt to total assets and shortterm debt to total assets in alternative estimations. Profitability is the ratio of profit before tax to the book value of total assets; growth is the percentage change in the value of assets; tangibility is the ratio of fixed assets to total assets while size is the natural logarithm of total assets and the model to be regressed has been formulated as follows:
CS = f(PT, GW, TG, SZ)
The linear expression of the model is shown below:
CS = β0 + β1PT + β2GW + β3TG + β4SZ + ∈i β1, β2, β3, … βn > 0
Presentation and Analysis of Estimation Result
The estimated results are as presented below in Tables 1 and 2. Table 1 shows the estimated correlation matrix of the variables; Table 2 presents the OLS estimation (or cochrane-orcutt method to correct for negative serial correlation) of the relationships between the four regressors and each of total debt ratio (TDR) long term debt ratio (LTDR) and short-term debt ratio (STDR) respectively for the period of 16 years from 1992-2007.
Table 1:

Estimated Correlation Matrix

Variables

Profitability

Tangibility

Growth

Size

TDR

-0.388

-0.028

0.139

0.080

LTDR

-0.338

-0.0096

-0.033

LTDR

TDR

0.66

1.00

0.44

1.00

0.66

STDR

-0.30

-0.072

0.172

-0.11

1.00

0.44

0.96

Size

0.100

0.455

0.047

1.000

-0.1

0.52

0.081

Tangibility

-0.008

1.000

0.354

0.45

-0.0

-0.01

0.516

STDR
0.94

-0.03

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Friday I. Ohiokha; Paul B. Akhalumeh and A. O. Lawani
Growth

0.075

0.354

1.000

0.07

0.17

-0.0

0.139

Profitability

1.000

-0.008

-0.075

0.10

-0.3

-0.33

-0.39

Table 2: Results of Cochrane-or cutt Method
Variables

Profitability

Tangibility

Growth

Size

STDR

LTDR

R-Bar

F-

r2

value

SER

MDV

DWstatistics

Coefficient

R
STD
R

0.241

0.008

0.221

-

-

(7.5)

-

-

-

T-Value

(1.65)

(0.87)

(1.11)

(6.03)

(0.55)

0.93

0.84

9.9

0.10

0.6

1.97

-0.149

0.087

-0.526

-0.001

-5.01

-

-

(7.5)

-

-

-

T-Value

(-2.147)

(8.06)

(-4.96)

(-1.40)

0.776

0.87

0.68

4.6

0.05

0.10

1.89

Coefficient

LTD

0.011

Coefficient

TDR

0.243

0.425

-0.033

0.299

0.007

(2.08)

-

-

(7.5)

-

-

-

T-Value

(2.98)

(-2.74)

(1.46)

(5.39)

-

0.89

0.74

5.99

0.10

0.10

2.25

Note:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

C
=
Constant or intercept
SER =
Standard Error of Regression
MDV =
Mean of Dependent Variable
DW
=
Durbin-Waston-statistic
The correlation matrix in Table 1 shows that with profitability, size is positively related while growth and tangibility are negatively related. This implies that larger companies tend to have higher profitability whereas growing firms and firms with high tangible assets tend to be less profitable. As with tangibility, growth and size are positively related to tangibility implying that larger and more growing firms tend to have more tangible assets. Tangibility growth and profitability are all positively related to size, meaning that the larger the company, the higher the profitability, the more tangible assets and faster its growth. Although, the correlation matrix does not show joint effects of more than one variable on leverage, it implies in summary that:
(i)
Growing companies tend to use short term debt rather than long term debt.
(ii)
Profitable companies and firms with high tangibility are less likely to use short term debts and tend to use less debt on the whole.
(iii)
Large companies tend to use less of short term debt and more long term debt.
A close examination of the estimated regression results in Table 2 above shows that the results in general are satisfactory. The diagnostic statistics obtained are very impressive with the r2 standing at 0.84, 0.68, and 0.74 for the TDR, LTDR, and STDR respectively, hence, showing that the four regressors of size, tangibility, growth and profitability account for about 84%, 68% and 74% of the variations in the dependent variables of total debt ratio (STDR) respectively. The overall equation is highly significant at the 1 % level as all the computed t-values for statistic 9.9, 4.6 and 5.9 exceed the table value of 3.5, hence, validating the hypothesis of a significant linear relationship between the three debt ratios and the explanatory variables taken together. This implies that the estimated debt equation was an overall goodness of fit. The ratio of their standard error of estimation to their mean of dependent variable are all low, indicating a smaller residual variance and a high forecasting performance. Considering the individual significance of each parameter estimates of the explanatory variables on each of the debt ratios, with total debt ratio (TDR), only the growth variable appeared
106

Determinants of a Firm’s Capital Structure: An Empirical Study

significantly different from zero. This gives evidence that the rising growth of a firm does, indeed in a significant positive way, affect the total debt of a firm. On long term debt, the variables of size, tangibility and profitability pass the significance test with t-values of 8.06, 4.06, 4.96 and 5.21 respectively exceeding the table value of 2.6. This shows that as the level of assets of a firm rises, the firm’s long term debt ratio declines (negative relationship). In line with theoretical expectation, such high level of assets translates to favourable business condition and increase profitability. Also, such increasing profitability exerts a negative influence on the long term debt structure of the firm. Finally, with short term debt ratio (STDR), the variables of size, growth and profitability are significant determinants of the short term debt structure of a firm. Size exerts a negative influence whereas growth and profitability exerts positive influences on short term debt structure of a firm.
This paper also aims to find out which of the major capital structure theories applies more relevantly to the Nigerian setting. To achieve this aim, the estimated regression results are given below. Table 3 shows the expected signs of the coefficients for three capital structure theories.
Table 3: Expected signs of Coefficients of three Capital Structure theories
Theory/Proxy Definitions
Static Trade-off Asymmetric information Profitability
Profit before tax to the book value of total
+
assets.
Tangibility
Fixed assets to total assets +
+
Growth
The percentage change in the value of assets.
?
+
Size
The natural logarithm of total asset
+
?

Agency Cost
?
+ (debt cost)
- (equity cost)
+

Note: A positive sign “+” indicates that the theory suggests a positive relationship between the variable and the measure of leverage; a negative sign "_" means a negative relationship while “?” means that there is no clear prediction.
If the static trade off theory holds, significant positive slope coefficients are expected for the profitability, tangibility and size explanatory variables. This may imply that profitable companies with more tangible assets and/or larger companies will 'have a higher debt capacity and will therefore be able to borrow more, taking advantage of any available tax deductibility. We find evidence for the static trade off theory for total and short term debt as evidenced by their coefficients for profitability and tangibility, and evidence through the coefficients for size for total and long term debt, given the vast majority of debt in Nigerian manufacturing companies is from short term debt sources.
Furthermore, the static trade off theory does not predict a relationship between growth and leverage, whereas the slopes for growth are negative and those positive are not significantly different from zero is observed. This suggests that this theory is not the only relevant capital structure theory for Nigerian companies. We find little or no support for the information asymmetry theory that predicts a positive significant slope for growth and tangibility variables and a negative significant slope for profitability variables. The results suggest that none of these relationships exists for Nigerian manufacturing firms, with profitability having a negative significant slope.
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Friday I. Ohiokha; Paul B. Akhalumeh and A. O. Lawani

The agency cost theory predicts a positive significant and a negative significant slope for size and growth variables respectively, and either a positive or a negative slope for the tangibility variable.
Our results support the findings of Titman and Wessels (1988) as a negative relationship is evident between financial leverage and growth for long term debt. The high proportion of short term to long term debt used by Nigerian manufacturing companies also gives support to the agency cost theory as the conflict between shareholders and debt holders is less of a problem when short term debt is used.
This, coupled with the regression results, suggest that agency costs may be a real problem for
Nigerian manufacturing companies as the inability to offload shares in a secondary market may encourage shareholders to exert pressure on management to expropriate funds from debt holders to themselves, hence, the positive relationship between profitability and leverage which gives support to the static trade-off theory also supports the agency cost theory. The negative signs for the growth/tangibility variables on long term debt further provide support to the agency cost theory. This indicates that growing companies do not rely on debt to finance their new investment opportunities as they may often have enough internal funds for financing and more likely because of their high risk, they prefer less debt.
Summary of Findings, Policy Implications and Conclusions
This paper examined and analysed the determinants of a firm’s capital structure and also tested which capital structure theory best explains the capital structure decision behaviour of Nigerian manufacturing companies. The highlights of the findings are that: o A firm’s profit is a significant determinant of its capital structure; thus, as profitability increases, the debt structure is reduced especially in the long run. This supports the findings of Marsh (1982) and contrasts that of Rajan and Zingales (1995). o The size of a firm is indeed relevant to the determination of its capital structure. Its impact is of a positive influence such that larger companies have large debt capacity and tend to have higher debt ratios. This is in line with theory and previous empirical findings in previous researches. o While growth determines short term debt, tangibility influences long term debt. Tangibility was found to be of a negative relationship in line with the findings of Jensen and Meckling
(1976).
o Both the static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory are pertinent theories that explain the capital structure behaviour of Nigerian manufacturing firms. Also, stringent bankruptcy procedure or creditor oriented bankruptcy code and the tax advantage of retained earnings over borrowing facilitate more equity than debt.
The implications on policy formulation by firms and the government include the following: o The findings on growth pattern calls for management strategies that are aimed at affecting their capital base, as a way of aligning such base with those of the foreign firms. This will make for, to a large extent, a reduction in their accumulation of debt. o With respect to size, deliberate effort on increasing staff strength and capability, placing emphasis on human capital development both in terms of health, education and skills acquisition are very important. o The lack of a developed secondary market aggravates agency costs. As such, the Nigerian government should see to the development of the secondary market. o In planning to achieve an optimum capital structure, high growth firms with the risk of erratic cashflow streams and low tangibility should not rely on debt while firms with stable high income streams, may apply relatively higher levels of leverage.
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Determinants of a Firm’s Capital Structure: An Empirical Study

The lack of high quality databases might constitute the major barrier on conducting capital structure research in Nigeria. Consequently, improved and validated database should be made available to aid in identifying additional variables that could influence corporate capital structure. In conclusion, while it is essential to pursue a capital structure that minimizes a firm’s weighted average cost of capital and maximizes the firm’s market value, managers must reason like investors and take decisions in the long term interest of their company. The truth is that the size, profitability, growth and tangibility are all related and are significant determinants of capital structure and leverage. o References
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Ross, S.A., Westerfield, R. W., & Jaffe, J. (1996). Corporate finance. (4th ed.), Boston: IrwinMcGraw Hill.
Scott, J.H., (1976). A Theory of optimal capital structure, Bell journal of economics, 7(1), 33-54.
Taggart: R.A. (1977). A model of corporate financing decisions, Journal of finance, 32, 1467 -1484.
Titman S. & Wessels, R. (1988). The determinants of capital structure choice, Journal of finance, 43,
1-19.
Wurgler, J. & Malcolm (2002). Market timing and capital structure. Journal of finance 57, 1- 32

111

THE ROLE OF ICT IN THE TEACHING OF METALWORK TECHNOLOGY

Basheer Garba Fagge

Abstract
At the beginning of this millennium activities globally faced new challenges including teaching particularly with globalization of the world as one village in terms of information and communication technology. The modern technology has narrowed the world to the point that people interaction has become too close with virtually no barrier. To this angle education is not excluded. The paper views the role of ICT and the teaching of technical education in general and metalwork as a profession an forward possible ways to enhance its teaching through the effective usage of modern ICT techniques. Introduction
Human beings by their nature are not static in the sense they change due to physical growth, mental development, social interaction and environmental development and changes. These phenomena make human beings to be naturally dynamic. It is believed that education is the only tool that makes effective changes in human life and the changes are for better.
The dynamism of education caused it to constantly undergo reviews and changes triggered by societal demands and general needs. To this angle education is use as instrument per excellence for solving socio-economic problems of unemployment, hunger, poverty, Adewumi (2009). This assertion makes education to be dynamic in nature and must be under review from time to time.
Planners are always making it standard both in teaching and learning, incorporate new materials in terms of curriculum content to be in conformity with global changes.
Teaching and learning are the two principles components of what education is all about. Both of them can not be effective if required tools to enhance them are not available. These tools are materials needed in order to simply the teaching and learning of the curriculum.
In a classroom situation or any environment for the purpose of instruction, three elements are involved. These elements are:1. The source
2. The medium
3. The receiver
These three elements must always be functional if at all teaching and learning should take place. What is Information and Communication Technology (ICT)?
Information and Communication Technology is the processing and distribution of data using computer hardware and software, telecommunications, and digital electronics.
But in technical term ICT means the use of electronic gadgets for the transmission of information. Scholars have given definitions with regard to ICT in relation to its uses. Akindolu
(2005) in Robert (2009) sees ICT as all kind of electronics that are used for broadcasting, telecommunication and all forms of computer-mediated communication. Eze (2002) in Robert (2009) went further to include the acquisition, processing, storage, and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by micro-electronic. This is showing the scope or the extend ICT
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has gone or covered in human life. Virtually one will believed that ICT is a technological advancement in the creating, storing, retrieving, and dissemination of information with reference to olden days system of record keeping.
ICT components refer to the electronic gadgets that one manipulates for the purpose of solving one problem or the other. In this regard it is worth mentioning that while man progress through communication much earlier, the new technology in communication has lift him more advance and effective. There is no single area of human endeavour that new technology in communication has left untouched.
Education and ICT
For the purpose of this gathering my paper will restrict discussion to education and narrowed down to teaching of technical education general and to metalwork in particular.
Almost all aspect of education ICT has covered. This include on-line studies, on-line application for admission, on-line registration, on-line viewing of result e.t.c.
But when one refers to teaching and learning it will be seen that ICT has enhanced or improved these two components of education. While teachers have improved their teaching strategies on one hand, the learners have also enhanced their learning abilities through searching for information via the internet. These two have gain positive changes because the medium has great improvement in terms of effectiveness.
What is Technical Education?
At any forum of this nature terms like technical education are continuously being defined by scholars. In order to refresh our minds few of these definitions are given here. Olaitan (1996) in Rano
(2009) sees technical education as education designed to developed skills, abilities, understanding, attitudes, work habits, appreciation encompassing knowledge and information needed by workers to enter and make progress in employment in a useful and productive basis.
Also United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO, 2007) sees technical education with vocational as a comprehensive term referring to those aspect of the educational process involving, in addition to general education, the acquisition of practical skills, attitude and understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sector of economic and social life.
The definitions above are not contrary in context and meaning from the definition given by the national policy on education 4th edition of 2004 which says that technical and vocational education is the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupation in various sector of economic and social life.
Along this line Federal Government of Nigeria (2004) in Fagge (2009) gave the objectives of technical and vocational education as
a. A means of preparing for occupation fields and for effective participation in the world of work, b. An instrument for promoting environmentally sound sustainable development,
c. A method of alleviating poverty
By these and other objectives, the technical education focused at meeting the followings among other goals.

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a. .Provide trained manpower in applied science, technology and business particularly at craft, advanced craft and technical levels.
b. Give training and impart the necessary skill to the individual who shall be self-reliant economically (FGN, 2004).
It is important to mention areas that referred as technical fields, courses or trades. Technical education comprises the following five major areas. These are:
a. Automobile technology
b. Building technology
c. Electrical/electronics technology
d. Metalwork technology
e. Woodwork technology
As mentioned above in a nutshell the main objective is to produce skilled manpower that can successfully participate in the labour market of to at least be self-reliant (FGN, 2004).
Any of these area is characterized by both theory and practical activities and successful learning of the curriculum content can only be achieve if the practical which carries more weight are conducted and accomplished. At this point the emphasis is on the learning of the new technology of conducting these practical. The new techniques that are guided by computer, known as Computeraided technology or numerically control system. The ideas here will both assist the teacher in imparting the updated knowledge on one hand, and the needed information by the students will be obtained. This is because it is highly important as technical teachers to disseminate knowledge that is currently in use especially in terms of manufacturing processes.
The Role of ICT in Teaching of Technical Education
The national policy on education of 2004 has spelt out subjects or trades to be taught at both junior level and senior or technical colleges. Also the NCCE minimum standard has given the courses and their credit units. The documents have specified nature of teaching and learning materials needed and type of environment ideal for successful outcome.
Engineering or technological development in advanced counties is far ahead of our level and standard. This is because they see science and technology as tools for development and have already took the advantage of ICT into their educational system and became part and parcel of it. There is no aspect or field of study that ICT is not showing positive impact on both teachers and students. Among all areas of learning science, engineering and technology are dominants in the application of new technology of ICT.
In a typical classroom situation computer have replaced most teaching method where software programmes are develop to ease learning for both theory and practical components. With the nature of technical education which comprises about 70% practical and 30% theory in an ideal situation, computer-aided instruction is being use in most advanced countries. Learning and instruction materials especially in practical class are carried out with assistance of developed software programme and installed on machine tools. This programme is called numerical control system.
The Role of ICT in the Teaching of Metalwork Technology
Metalwork technology is of the areas of technical education, and it comprises theory and practical. By the nature of this course there is no part of it that does not involve practical. The practical aspect is made up of two parts. These are
1. Fitting or bench work
2. Machine work
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There is less involvement of computer-aided instructional work in the fitting or bench work, but the machine is the aspect that computer has completely taken over most instruction techniques in schools and manufacturing work. This is so in advanced countries.
In a typical metalwork classroom especially practical class, the following machine tools are found. These include:
Lathe machine
Milling machine
Shaper or shaping machine
Drilling machine
Surface grinder
The above mentioned machine tools and others are now operating via this technology i.e. numerical control system. This is a system whereby machines have attached computer through which operations are programmed and coordinated by reading or interpreting mechanism. The programme control and manipulate the machine tool table and cutting tool.
Krar, Oswald and Amand (1976) defined numerical control system as “a method of accurately controlling the movement of machine tools by a series of programmed numerical data which activates the motors of the machine tools”
This new technology in machine operation is the main reason here that both teachers and students of metalwork technology need to have knowledge in computer science. This will make everyone to adapt to this new changes in production or manufacturing processes. It should be known that two basic computer programmes are in use for the purpose of teaching and learning which are essential and will help greatly and effectively in the teaching of technical courses in general and metalwork technology in particular.
These are:
1. Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI): this is a software programme that guides a user on how to carry out intended work or project. Ralph (2008) explained the role of Computer-Aided
Instruction (CAI), as diverse and rapidly expanding spectrum of computer technologies that assist the teaching and learning process. Examples of CAI applications include guided drill and practice exercises, computer visualization of complex objects, and computer-facilitated communication between students and teachers (Raph, 2008).
2. Computer-Aided Design (CAD): The application of computers in the design and manufacture of components used in the production of items such as automobiles and jet engines. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) is a software for creating precise engineering drawings. Computer-Aided manufacturing (CAM) is another software attach to a machine tool, such as drill or a lather. CAM engineers similarly use computer modeling to determine the best overall manufacturing procedures for use in an industrial plant, including the test and handing of finished products. Engineers use CAD and CAM together to create the design in
CAD on one computer, and then transmit the design to a second computer that creates the part using CAM. (Ralph, 2008).
In the history of computer design and manufacturing, Ralph (2008) explained that the earliest
CAM software was a simple computer attached to a milling machine. Punching buttons on the computer’s front panel programmed the software for the machine. Since the mid-1980s CAD and
CAM have come close together, as some CAM software operates within the CAD software programs instead of through shared database.
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Therefore these two main tasks can not be carried out successfully without the knowledge in computer which the backbone of ICT. It is highly important that students pursuing technical and technology courses must learn certain aspect of computer application. This point has its basis from the current technical college curriculum in operation whereby students offer ICT as subject. This is an indication to the importance of computer science education for technology courses.
Conclusion
It is believe in our world of today things have changed due to technological advancement especially in engineering production or manufacturing processes. Therefore, we have not way out rather than to accept the challenges and address it squarely by adopting strategies that will give us the required technology in order to go with global trend.
Recommendations
The challenges of technological ambitions can be address if the following recommendations can put into practice.
1. Computer science should be part of all technical programmes for NCE students
2. All courses that involve use of machines tools, software programming of CAD and CAI should be incorporated 3. Government should put plans for replacing the present obsolete machine in our institutions with modern ones.
4. Reading materials in our libraries need to be replacing with current text.
5. There is no too much in funding education, government to fund education as recommended by
UNESCO.
References
Adewumni, T.H. (209). Effective utilization of information and communication technology in the teaching of science education. Bichi journal of technology education. Vol. 1 No.1
Grabowuski, R. (2008). Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing. Encarta Microsoft student, Microsoft Corporation.
Fagge, B.G. (2009). Modern approach in the teaching of metalwork technology as a component of basic technology. Bichi journal of technology education. Vol. 1, No. 1.
FRN (2004) National policy on education, NERDC, Lagos.
Krar, S.F., Oswald, J.W. & Amand J.S. (1976). Technology of machine tools. 2nd edition, Toronto
McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd.
Rano, H.G. (2009), Technical education: A source for economic development in Nigeria. Journal of vocational and technical educators. Vol. 2 No. 1.

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Robert, O.K. (2009). Information communication technology: A catalyst for reforming technical education for self-reliance. JOVTED vol. 2 no. 1.
UNESCO (2007). Revised recommendation concerning technical and vocational education. Retrieved from www.unesco.org/education on 5th October, 2009.

117

THE CHALLENGES OF EFFECTIVE UTILIZATION OF COMPUTER IN PROMOTING
EDUCATION FOR ALL IN NIGERIA.
Stephen Ayodele Shaibu and Ebireri Omovigho Rani

Abstract
Computers offer enormous potentials and benefits when effectively utilized.
These benefits include increased access of citizens to education and increase in benefits derivable from education. Nigeria as developing country cannot be exempted from partaking in the enormous advantages offered by computers. Unfortunately, certain challenges retard the effective utilization of computers in Nigeria as a developing country. It is against this background that this paper explores the definition of computers and its overview in education; advantages derivable from effective use of computers; challenges of effective utilization of computers in Nigeria and recommendations for achievement of progress in the subject matter.

Introduction
The advent of Computers into the Global system has resulted in greater efficiency in doing things. This has resulted in the computerization of most activities that occur in most spheres of national /global sphere. The educational sector has not been left out of this development. Evidence of the use of Computers in education has led to terms and realities like Computer Assisted Learning,
Virtual Universities, E-learning and the likes. The exploitation of Computer Assisted learning has great potentials in promoting Education for All. Unfortunately, this could only be achieved if the required factors for exploitation of the potentials of the Computers in education are rightly in place.
Computers which are simply referred to as an electronic device which is capable of receiving information or data, processing, storing the data and giving the desired result (output) had their development from earlier digital systems like calculators. Thus they marked a turning point in technology evolution. This is because the computer is capable of processing information from all other systems once the information is digitalized. The computer combines all the advantages of other information technologies, processes information at high speeds, generates new information and converts information from one encoding system to another. The computer can also be used in combination with other technologies. The main implication of the computer for instruction is its ability to aid further development of all other information systems used in education. For instance photography can be improved by using computerized cameras which can adjust automatically for light exposure and object distance (Samiyu, 1999).
In the 21st century, the ever-increasing needs of individuals and society are placing a heavy burden on established educational institutions. At the same time, traditional structures and modes of teaching appear less and less responsive to the challenges of our turbulent times. Thus, there is now a clarion call for innovation and transformation among educators everywhere. Furthermore, the internal problems of schooling are inseparable from external changes on a global scale, and must be seen in the context of contemporary world problems. These, in turn, will not be solved unless approached and treated educationally, as well as economically, politically, and socio-culturally (UNESCO, 2005).
The World Education Forum in Dakar, Senegal, April 2000, had two of the essential goals aimed at ensuring Education for All (EFA). These are goal 3 which is ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life-skills
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programmes and Goal 6 which is improving all aspects of the quality of education […] so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all.
In the United States of America for instance, schools are turning to high tech solutions for more and more of their teaching needs, from computer-aided reading instruction to word-processing to mathematics drill programs. Students are being encouraged to use computers as learning tools in ways that were unexpected just a few short years ago. What then could be said to be the challenges of achieving such trends in Nigeria. That is the crux of this paper. Hence, this paper explores the definition of computers and its overview in education; advantages derivable from effective use of computers; challenges of effective utilization of computers in Nigeria and recommendations for achievement of progress in the subject matter.
Advantages of Using Computers in Education
Setzer (2000) enumerated the advantages of effectively using computers in education to include: a) Computers are essential for the individual in the professional working place.
b) Students who do not master computers will not keep pace with their classmates.
c) Computers are good tools for learning.
d) Computers improve students' achievements.
e) Computers accelerate children's development, mainly intellectual.
f) Computers may provide a free environment for learning.
g) Computers may promote social (and family) cohesion.
h) Computers provide a fascinating learning environment, one that attracts children and young people. i) Computers provide for a challenge of traditional educational methods and values.
j) Computers induce a certain vision of the world.
k) Computers make it possible to learn without tensions and pressures.
l) Computers (through the Internet) make students get interested in foreign cultures and people.
m) Computers help to develop self-control in students.
n) Computers may provide for a more humanistic teaching.
o) Computers may enhance imagination and creativity.
p) Computers may be used to make children conscious of their own thinking process.
q) Computers provide for an individual way and pace of learning.
r) Children have to learn computers otherwise they will be afraid of them at adult ages.
s) Children who don't use a computer at home may develop psychological and social problems (e.g. a sense of inferiority).
t) Through the Internet, computers make it possible for students to access all sorts of information not available through other means.
The Link between Computers and Education for All in Nigeria
Nigeria has made various commitments at international fora to provide education for all.
Among these fora are the World Conference on Education, on Education for All at Jomtien, Thailand
(1990); New Delhi, India, (1993) (to reaffirm the commitments) and Dakar, Senegal, (2000).
Framework 8 (x) for instance of the World Conference on Education, Dakar, Senegal, (2000) reveals the commitment to “harness new information and communication technologies to help achieve EFA goals”. 119

The Challenges of Effective Utilization of Computer in Promoting Education for All in Nigeria.

Back home in Nigeria, the Federal Executive Council (FEC) of Nigeria approved the
National Information Technology Policy in March 2001. The National Information Technology
Development Agency (NITDA) was established in April 2001 to implement the Policy. The Mission
Statement is: To “use IT” for Education, Creation of Wealth, Poverty Eradication, Job Creation and
Global Competitiveness (Education underlined by the authors for emphasis of this paper).
NITDA collaborated with several multinationals and international organizations to deliver specialized training in some train-the-trainer workshops. Other efforts are the Virtual Library and
Virtual Laboratory projects for Nigeria (Ajayi, 2003).
Also, the Computerize Nigeria Project was set up in 2001 by the Board of Zinox
Technologies Limited to catalyze the adoption of the computer as a major tool of work and play. The
CNP has remained in the forefront of ICT penetration in Nigeria - donating laboratories to many schools, obtaining subsidies and passing same to consumers as discounts, working assiduously to change the face of education in Nigeria through the CNP Partnership with the Federal Government
(Abii, 2008).
Noting the importance of Computers in education in Nigeria, Integrated Regional Information
Networks (IRIN) (2007) revealed that in 2006 Nigeria's government ordered XO laptops, The XO laptop is a cheap laptop. 300 of these laptops were delivered to children at one school in Galadima, a village in the outskirts of the capital Abuja. The laptop is designed to withstand harsh conditions such as rain and dust. It has a screen that can be read under intense sunlight. Its battery lasts for 12 hours and can be recharged with the use of a solar panel or a pull cord. One teacher there in person of
Olugbile Oluyinka, said that computers have had a positive impact on the students. “Nice classrooms are important - and indeed the [school] environment here is not the best - but what is more important is the knowledge that we can bring to children”.
Challenges of Effective Utilization of Computers in Ensuring Education for All in Nigeria
The following are the challenges of effective utilization of computers in Nigeria:
1.
Erratic power supply: Power supply in Nigeria is most often erratic. As a result of which the utilization of computers in most cases rely on alternative sources of power supply. The much reliance on power supply hence results into higher cost required for utilizing computers in providing education for all in Nigeria.
2.
Cost of the computers and related software programmes needed to effectively utilize the computer: The exorbitant cost of the computer machines and corresponding software programmes could be said to discourage administrators from purchasing computers for use in educational institutions.
3.
Trained and competent man-power needed to effectively train students on how to effectively operate the computer: Sometimes even where the money is available to purchase computers the requisite skills for its operation may not be available. This sometimes led to the computers being packed up (sometimes even in environments detrimental to the proper functioning of computer machines).
4.
Attitude towards change: The introduction of computers into education is a great innovation which is associated with a great wind of change. This change is both for the teachers and the students. The attitude of the teachers and students towards welcoming this great change will go a long way in determining how well computers are effectively utilized in Nigerian education. Where there is a favourable attitude towards the change for instance, there is likely to be a better degree of the utilization of computers in education and vice versa.
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5.

6.

7.

Location: The location of an area based on whether it is an urban or rural area pose a challenge to effective utilization of computers in education. This is because most rural areas lack basic amenities present in urban areas. Moreover, most computer training and
Information and Communication Technologies centres are located in the urban centres at the detriment of the rural areas.
Finance: This is because finance is needed to purchase the computer machines, fuel, operating softwares, maintenance of the computer (periodically), and in most cases, payment of the manpower to handle the job. Where finance is therefore lacking or inadequate, it could then affect the effective utilization of computers in providing education for all.
Age differences: Experience of the authors have shown that children and youth who receive computer literacy are friendly with computers even at old age while adults who lack computer literacy have some skepticism for usage of computers. This leads to ineffective usage of computers among adults.

Conclusion
The enormous benefits derivable from the effective utilization of computers in promoting education for all cannot be over emphasized as discussed earlier. This is because it will go a long way in helping to achieve education for all. The effective utilization of computers in promoting education for all can thus be promoted if the challenges of its effective utilization are effectively tackled.
Recommendations for an Effective Utilization of Computers in Promoting Education for All in
Nigeria
Based on the challenges facing the effective utilization of computers in education discussed in this paper, the following recommendations are proffered:
1. The Government of the day should explore and change to other means/sources of providing electricity. This could be either the solar or nuclear power. This is because it will go a long way in helping to bring an end to the erratic power supply faced in Nigeria that affects implementation of innovations in Nigerian education. Where this is difficult, then the Power
Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) should procure gas supplies in excess including in reserve. This is to avoid failure in power supplies due to shortage of gas supplies to the
PHCN.
2. Educational institutions should procure cheap computers from Computer Recycling Projects
(CRPs). The organisations involved in these projects offer refurbished computers at cheaper prices to educational institutions at very cheap prices. While as for the issue of computer softwares, educational institutions should request for free and open softwares such as the
Linux operating system from www.linux.com. Other free and open softwares associated with education could be downloaded from the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural
Organisation’s website.
3. Individuals with great potentials, intellectual capability and zeal to learn in educational institutions of training should be sent for training in computer literacy. This is to ensure that they can benefit from the training they receive and pass the skills to others who can benefit from it. This will increase competent manpower requirement.
4. There is the need for education for attitudinal change. This is to promote positive attitude of everyone in the educational system towards the promotion of effective utilization of computers in education for all.
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5.

6.

7.

There is the need to provide basic amenities / infrastructures in rural areas of Nigeria. This will go a long way in providing an incentive towards the use of computers in rural schools and learning centres in the rural areas. Where this is difficult to achieve, there should be collaboration with computer training institutes in the nearby urban centres for training of individuals. The government should make adequate finance available for effective utilization of computers in education. Educational institutions should also seek partnerships or support with local entrepreneurs and agencies to help provide computers and allied products for use in educational institutions. Also, when funds are allocated for procuring computers, the funds should be judiciously used and not misappropriated.
As much as possible computer literacy should be given to individuals as early as possible.
This will promote friendly and effective usage of computers among adults in the long run.

References
Abii, V. (2008). Launch of digital knowledge democracy. Available at http://www.zinox technologies.com /newsp4.asp. Retrieved 30/09/2009
Ajayi G. O. (2003). NITDA and ICT in Nigeria. 2003 round table on developing countries access to scientific knowledge. The Abdus Salam ICTP, Trieste, Italy
IRIN (2008). Laptops-in-Schools. Retrieved 10/10/2008. Available at http://www.irinnews.org/
Report.aspx? ReportId=76023
Samiyu, A.M. (1999). New and emerging technologies in teaching and learning in higher education, lead presentation at the regional workshop on teaching and learning in higher education, Moi
University, Eldoret Kenya, 18-22 May.
Setzer, V. W. (2000). Computers in education a review of arguments for the use of computers in elementary education. Available at http://southerncrossreview.org/4/review.html; Retrieved
13/11/2007.
The World Education Forum, Dakar. (2000). Dakar framework for action, education for all: Meeting our collective commitments, (26-28 April).
UNESCO, (2005). ICT in schools: A handbook for teachers or how ICT can create new, open learning environments, UNESCO, Paris.

122

UTILIZATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN
BUSINESS EDUCATION: PROSPECT AND CHALLENGES
Ogudo A. Pius

Abstract
There have been major technological changes in the area of education as far as formal education is concerned. As the movement towards the 2015 draws close, nations are getting more concerned about the global capacity to achieve the pre-set goals. National, international as well as regional policy makers and managers are earnestly searching for structures, institutions and instrument that will enhance effective realization of the set goals. The use of
Information Communication Technology ICT in all works of life seems to be based on it. In view of these changes, there is the need for a change in the delivery system in business education through ICT and it is only rational.
This kind of reform begins with business educators as they are the ones responsible for utilizing ICT in delivery system. Based on this, the paper sees ICT in education as the application of digital equipment to all aspects of teaching and learning. It considers business education as training acquired that qualifies one for teaching, managerial or administrative posts both in the ministry and industries and as a businessman all at a time. The paper identifies some enablers to the use of ICT as an effective training, access to
ICT resources, and technical support. The paper further highlights some prospects of ICT and challenges and recommends that policy makers should set standards against which success in the use of ICT can be evaluated.

Introduction
There have been transformations occurring in the formal education system, as well as in other fields that are important for enabling people to develop new capabilities necessary for the society.
These transformations have been linked to Information and Communication Technical (ICT). The use of ICT in education has often be premised on the potential of the new technological tools revolutinalise an outmoded educational system so as to better prepare students for the information age and accelerate national development efforts.
Harvey (1983) predicted that the effectiveness of the use of computer in education may be an important factor in determining which countries will succeed in the future. Central to this vision is the powerful metaphor that “information age” to a developmental phase where media, business, industry and now education are increasingly becoming computer-reliant. Looking into tomorrow, the key issue facing all teacher education programmes and indeed business education is the application of ICT to the delivery system in education and regardless of specialization, every teacher must develop new technological capabilities to remain relevant in the face of these changes:
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
The terminologies, Information Technology (IT) and Information Communication
Technology (ICT) are often used interchangeably by different people from all works of life. This is because ICT as an educational tool and a tool that can be used to achieve educational goals presupposes IT capabilities in users and learners.
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Information Technology (IT), to Aporume, Tuayeringha, Oghorodi, Okorumah, and Mukoro,
(2004), is the acquisition, processing, storage and distribution of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by means of computers and telecommunication networks. Information
Technology (IT) is the study of concepts, skills, processes and application of design for representing physical, hypothetical or human relationships, created, collected, stored, retrieved, manipulated, protected and presented electronically. On the other hand, Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) refers to a whole range of technologies involved in information processing and electronic communications.
However, World Bank Group (2005) see Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) as consisting of hardware, software, networks and media for the collection, storage, processing, transmission and presentation of information (voice, data, text, images) as well as related services.
According to Wikipedia (2006), Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are the communication facilities and features that variously support teaching and a range of activities in education. Therefore, ICT in education can be understood as the application of digital equipment to all aspects of teaching and learning.
ICT Tools and Components
Some of the ICT tool or components include;
Print media (Newspaper, books, journals, magazines, etc);
Electronic media (radio, television, videos films, etc);
Computer;
Telephone;
Communication network;
E-mails;
Telex;
Facsimile (i.e. fax for short);
Sensors;
Interface boxes;
Satellite connections and
Internet and all the software and hardware materials.
The paper focuses therefore on two of the three categories of ICT which are the use of computer and networking technologies of which the best known is the Internet. Some ICT related activities necessary in business education include the use of CD-ROM as source of information, microcomputer with appropriate software and other device to teach literacy in writing, mastery of keyboarding, E-mail to support collaborative writing and sharing of resources and Internet-based research to support wider geographical enquiry.
ICT has a number of features which make it particularly suitable for education as it combines and integrates a full range of media essential for learning by the use of sound, vision, text and numeric data. It also provides teachers with new opportunity to increase their participation in distance learning and an involvement in the real world. In addition to this, there is an opportunity to involve the students on the one-to-one relationship with computer. It should be noted that all learning is necessarily done from books. The computer via ICT can act as a catalyst of interest, involvement and enthusiasm as it provides students with opportunity to work and learn on their own.

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Business Education
Business education programme according to Aliyu (2001) is a programme aimed at training and developing business educators. The programme has three major options namely accounting, distributive (marketing) and office (secretarial) options. The business educator like every other teacher, occupies a unique position in society and there is no other profession that has more opportunity to influence the youth and future of this country than the teaching profession. The business educators have the responsibility to help the students develop to their maximum capacity and in addition, they also have the responsibility of helping students who desire work in business to develop the basic skills, knowledge and attitude which are required for initial employment.
Use of ICT in Business Education
In so many ways, teaching in Nigeria is still “talk and chalk” despite the fact that ICT has opened numerous possibilities for proper education. Learning has been made much easier through the use of electronic devices; quite a number of skills can be taught using the computer when the appropriate software are in place. For example, Typing Tutor is a computer application that can be used in learning keyboarding. According to Aliu (2001), business educator need to support the diffusion of computer assisted learning in schools. Today the teachers’ role is being redefined in other to use the changing technology. The use of ICT in the presentation of lessons brings better understanding since the learner has the opportunity to visualize the concept taught. So much theoretical learning goes on coupled with a lot of memorizing without the chance of conceptualizing what is taught. What is the result? Clearly, our learners are programmed right from youth without the capacity of visualizing in concrete terms the concept learnt. This situation inevitably, results in inability to apply oneself to challenging situation at the required time, (Ayodele, 2001).
Business educators have complained over the years that skills of typewriting and word processing they are teaching the student secretaries are no longer meeting the requirements of their corporate employers. This is as a result of the rate at which technology is evolving and the changing methodology of office work is so alarming that it works ahead of the school. The 1989 curriculum used by business educators for teaching student-secretaries has Word Processing as the only course that teaches emerging technology skill. Since 1989, when this curriculum came into operation, a lot of changes have taken place from conventional to electronic technology and with it, the emergence of ecommerce, e-business, e-office, e-banking, which have altered the method, process and procedure for doing business.
Nwaokolo (2001) posited that as economy and technology change, new occupational opportunities emerges and this situation makes fresh demands on the secretaries for new skills required to operate.
Business education programme in some schools have been bedeviled by a number of problems like inadequate qualified teaching staff, and ill-equipped laboratories. It is so bad that some institutions have stopped offering business education at the post-graduate level. The advancements in
ICT have made distance learning opportunities more accessible and viable for a growing number of people and it is gaining popularity for students who wish to read to higher levels. Due to these technological assisted options, time and location are no longer defining criteria for participation in further education.

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Challenges of ICT in Business Education
A common generalization states “education is conservative, it takes time to bring about wide spread changes in content and methodology” (Saettler, 1998). Technology to a teacher represents a multitude of changes. Much of the literature looking at barriers to ICT use in schools suggest that in the teaching profession generally, there is an inherent resistance to change and this poses a barrier to some teachers’ use of new technology in education.
According to Albangh (1977), the resistance can be seen in terms of teachers unwillingness to change their teaching practices and also in terms of schools and institutions finding it difficult to reorganize ways which facilitate innovative practices.
Ekpeyond (1990) in Aliyu (2001) advised that in order to be qualified and fit into the new scheme of things, business teachers must not only be aware but also equip themselves with the knowledge and skill appropriate for importing the new skill and knowledge.
Grant (2002) suggested that effective training is crucial if teachers are to implement ICT effectively in teaching. It is also important that the training given be target-oriented and differentiated giving details rather than surface general training. The effective use of ICT or improving teaching and learning involves training teachers to create lesson plans utilizing ICT and educational software that is correlated to their area of specialization. Until this is done, courage and confidence will be lacking.
Another important challenge is the issue of access to, and availability of ICT resources. The business educator should be empowered to own their personal computers and where this is not feasible, they should be granted full access to software computers and hardware computers at times.
Mumtaz (2002) pointed out that the level of access to ICT is important in determining its level of use by teachers and lack of computers and softwares can seriously hinder what teachers can do with respect to implementation of ICT.
The epileptic power supply also poses a challenge. Where ICT is used in teaching, there is need for a stand-by power generator which automatically switches on as soon as there is power outage so as not to disrupt class work. Closely related is lack of technical staff. Machines are generally unpredictable therefore, it is necessary that a reliable technical support staff is always available to give prompt assistance to both teachers and students.
Bradly and Russel (1997), stated that technical faults with ICT equipment are likely to lead to lower levels of ICT use by teachers. In their view, recurring faults, and the expectation of faults occurring during teaching sessions are likely to reduce teacher’s confidence and cause them to avoid using the technology in future lectures.
Prospects to Use of ICT
Supportive National Policy – The successful use of ICT in business education depends to a large extent on a supportive policy environment at the national level. It is important that policy makers are informed on the nitty-gritty of using ICT, the various ICT options available and the need to ensure that ICT is appropriate to the local needs, language and budget. Relevant agencies such as NUC,
NCCE, and NBTE should be given the mandate to monitor the policy implementation.
Adequate Funding – The greatest singular operational problem in the use of ICT in business education is inadequate funding. Ulifun (1992) says that this problem has become a hydra-headed monster that cannot be conquered by the government subventions. A supportive national policy without adequate funding for implementation is not good. Materials and infrastructures will need to be put in place and for connecting school to the Internet, government might need to grant subsidies so as to encourage sustainability.
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Utilization of Information and Communication Technology in Business Education: Prospect and Challenges

Curriculum Modification – Curriculum of business education for both the teachers and students alike need to be modified to integrate the use of ICT. The bodies vested with these responsibilities will need to keep abreast with the technological changes in education and hence, ensure that new frontiers of knowledge are explored.
Conclusion
It is imperative to note that the wealth, strength, social and economic well being of any nation is evaluated in terms of its technological advancement. This, in turn has a multiplier effect on the quality of its education. To this end, the important issue for the future is how all partners in learning will make use of existing and emerging ICT to improve learning outcomes, enhance access to rich digital content, manage knowledge and engage students in real learning processes.
Recommendations
In order to ensure sustainability in the use of ICT in education when fully integrated, the following recommendations are made:
a)
Government should support and explore ways and strategies for making ICT more accessible and affordable to business educators.
b)
Government, in collaboration with educational institutions should promote the development of local appropriate ICT based educational materials and softwares.
c)
Policy makers should set standards against which to evaluate development progress and success in the use of ICT in education.
References
Akporume, D.; Tuagerinha, F.; Oghorodi, D.; Okurunmah, G. & Mukoro,
System 2. Warri: COEWA Publisher

G.

(2004).

Computer

Albaugh, P. (1997). The role of skepticism in preparing teachers for the use of technology. Education for community, a town and crown discussion Panel Westervil, o4, January 26, 1997: www.beta.org.uk/pagedocument/research Aliu, Y.O. (2001). Reassessing the future of education in Nigeria. Abuja: Education Tax Fund publisher Aliyu, M.M. (2001). Business education in Nigeria: Trends and issues. Zaria:

ABU Press

Ayodele, S.O. (2001). Reassessing the future of education in Nigeria. Abuja: Education Tax Fund
Publishers
Bradley, G. Russel, G. (1997). Computer experience, school support and teacher anxieties.
Educational Psychology 17(3), pp261-284: ww.beta.org.uk/pagedocument/research
Harvey, W.B. (1983). Educational technology and third world development. Journal of education technology system 2(3), pp265-276: www.beta.org.uk/pagedocument/research

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Mumtaz, S. (2000). Factors affecting teachers use of information and communication technology: A review of the literature journal of information technology for teacher education 9(3), pp319-341: www.beta.org.uk/pagedocument/research Wikipedia (2006). http://en.wilpedia.org/wikiinformation technology world Bank Group (2005). www.wordldbankgroup.com; www.beta.org.uk/page_documents/research

128

THE APPLICATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN
THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BUSINESS EDUCATION: ISSUES, BENEFIT
AND CHALLENGES
G.U. Ikenga; F.B. Oviri and P.O. Obiekea

Abstract
Recent developments have shown that Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) is an emerging force in the world educational system unfortunately; Nigeria is lagging behind in the application and utilization of
ICT in her educational sector. This however has affected Nigeria’s educational system. Therefore, the focus of this paper is on the challenges and benefits accrued to the application of Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) in the teaching and learning of Business Education. The paper further concludes that, proper application of ICT in Business
Education will improve the delivery system of Business Education and will make Nigeria meet with the global trends of technological changes, thereby making business education as aspect for actualizing the 20:2020.

Introduction
Business education is seen as educational programme that has enhanced the growth and development of business activities in any society. Etuk (2005) opined that Business education also known as commercial education or more properly, education for business. Business Education is also concerned with teaching the skills, attitudes and knowledge necessary for a successful business career.
It is also designed to develop special emphasis in marketing business skills and techniques in fields like sales or distributive occupations. Along the same direction of thought, Nanassey (1977), perceived Business education as that part of vocational teacher education which equips the learner with knowledge, skills and attitudes to function economically and wisely in the production and consumption of goods and services. This means that the primary purpose of business education is to prepare individuals for gainful employment in business occupations and to make them become intelligent consumers of the products of business. The above definitions do not differ from that of
Abati (1999), who conceived that Business education is a programme that develops skilled manpower that would be able to utilize the resources available in the country for national development.
Subsequently, the training Business Education offers enables a recipient to adjust to his/her business environment after graduation. It is also the intellectual and vocational preparation for earning a living in a contemporary industrial and business environment. Business education is also an education for the acquisition and developments of skills and competencies, attitudes and attributes which are necessary for efficiency of the economic system (Aliyu, 2006).
Eni (1999), further asserted that Business Education represents a broad and diverse discipline that is included in all types of educational delivery system. Business Education includes education for an office occupation, distribution and marketing occupations, accounting, business, teaching business administration and economic understanding. The foregoing point out that business education covers a wide spectrum of economic activities in any society and also refers to the pedagogical and desirable business competencies necessary for a sustainable development.
Presently, information and communication technology (ICT) is one of the major issues shaping the global economy and the educational system, which Business Education is a part of. The utilization of ICT in the educational system involves the aspect of navigating large amount of
Multidisciplinary Journal of Research Development Volume 15 No 1 September, 2010

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G.U. Ikenga; F.B. Oviri and P.O. Obiekea

intellectual information, analyzing, making decision, organizing new knowledge and also accomplishing complex tasks. Agusiobo and Uchendu (2004), described ICT as the physical structure of network of computer-based system (hardware, software and media) for the purpose of organizing, processing, communicating, assessing presenting, storing, retrieving and simplifying information when needed.
The use of ICT in the educational system (teaching and learning) has raised the standard of education as research and complex problems are resolved with ease. The use of ICT in education also requires computer skills and training, so it requires that the teacher and students undergo some training in operational approaches in operating the computer and other ICT resources.
The importance of ICT in the teaching and learning process can never be overemphasized, because ICT provides for more personalized direct function, makes education available to more people, avails people opportunities to have access to machines which permit higher order problem solving skills (Akor and Ekuije, 2006).
Asogwa (2000), in Ogbonna (2003) listed some advantages of ICT in the educational system as follows;
Provision of speed and easy access to information.
Provision of remote access to users.
Provision of round-the-clock access to users.
Provision of access to unlimited information from different sources.
Provision of information flexibility to be used by any individual according to their requirements.
Facilitation of reformatting and combining of data from different sources.
Base on the advantages of ICT in education, Udensi (2006), emphatically stated that our way of life have been greatly touched, ICT equipment have brought about speedy, timely and efficient information processing which is very significant to people. Again, ICT equipment has made it possible for the modern man to see more information in a day which before now, it took them years to see. Munzali (2006) posited that ICT has the potential to bring the products of the best teachers to classroom any where in the world. Even the world of Business has been influenced by the usage of
ICT. The use of this type of technology in business has really improved efficiency, reduce costs and improve customer satisfaction. Subsequently, ICT can be used in Business Education to achieve the following: Generation, amendment and recording students’ drill works and shares their ideas in different forms. Including texts, tables, images and sound.
Exchange information and ideas with others in a variety of ways, including using e-mail, Internet, etc. Discuss their knowledge and experience of using ICT and their observation critically in order to make improvements in subsequent work.
Use ICT models to test hypothese present and develop their ideas in a variety of ways.
Select and use of information systems suited to their work in a variety of context (Ogbaekirigwe and Illoh, 2008).
Benefits of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to Business Education
There is this fact that ICT can enhance and improve students and Business educators’ intellectual power, which is attributed to the uses of ICT in visualizing data in business and statistics thus, helping the user grasp abstract concepts into realities.
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The Application of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning of Business
Education: Issues, Benefit and Challenges

Learning has been made easier through the utilization of information communication technology. Quite a number of skills can be taught using computer software, for instance, tying tutor is computer software that can be used to learn typewriting skills like speed and accuracy and other key boarding exercises. Recently, the teacher’s role is being redefined in order to utilize the changing technology and its application in the classroom situation. The use of ICT in the presentation of lessons in business education enhances better understanding since the student has the opportunity to visualize the concept taught.
ICT can also help students to improve their intellectual power, for example it is used to visualize data in business, statistics and mathematics thus, helping the student to adequately understand abstract concepts thereby making these complex and abstract concepts into simple concepts. Okwuanaso (2004) citing Kosakowsk (1996) summarized the benefits of Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) as follows;
Application of information and communication technology to basic skills, using educational technology for drills and practice of basic skills can be highly effective according to a large body of data and a long history of usage. Therefore, the use of ICT enhance students learning abilities, learning occurs more rapidly in the use of computer assisted instruction (CAI).
Application of ICT to advanced skills; ICT allow students to have more control over their own learning abilities and makes them to think analytically.
Computers animate lesson; lesson presentation through the use of image, diagrams and illustrations makes teaching and learning business very interesting and captivating because the students will be involved in the learning process and learning at any period, will be individualized because the learning process will correlate with the pace of the student learning ability.
Challenges to the Application of Information and Communication Technology in Business
Education
Ohakwe (2001), cited the World Bank and UNESCO statistics published in 2000, that for every
1000 persons in Nigeria, there were only 4.1 computers, while South Africa, Mauritius, Namibia,
Botswana and Egypt had 37.7, 31.9, 12.7, 6.7 and 5.8 computers respectively. The statistics imply low utilization of computer in Nigeria educational institutions and private sectors. Some challenges faced in the proper application and utilization of ICT are as follows;
1) Supply of Electricity: Inadequate electric power supply is a major challenge to the utilization of ICT. Tell (2009) asserted that Nigeria is a nation with low electrical energy production
(Megawatts) at 1,800 and electrical energy consumption per million people at 0.06, even
Somalia, a war-torn country currently generate 400 megawatts and electrical energy consumption per people at 0.22. This problem has obstructed the application of ICT in the
Nigerian society. The epileptic power supply in Nigeria is a major hindrance to the application of ICT in the teaching and learning process. Therefore, its usage cannot be made at all time, while many educational institutes lack alternative power supply (Generator). The lull attitude of
Nigeria government at all level of governance calls for concern. Nigerian government are known to always have an articulated policies on programmes and project but these blue prints or policies always lack proper implementation, monitoring and evaluation. This is also the cause of the policy on ICT application in our educational system subsequently only few higher institutions in Nigeria are ICT compliant.

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G.U. Ikenga; F.B. Oviri and P.O. Obiekea

2)

Resistance to Change Attitude/Lack of Perception of Benefits: Conservatism on the part of some educators who refuses to align with the modern realities of teaching and learning methods.
Most of the teachers in Nigeria are comfortable with the old paradigm of the teaching pedagogy and disassociates themselves from learning how to operate, apply and use the computer or other gargets in the teaching and learning of Business Education. Based on the fact that many business educators are not computer literate which is as a result of these educators attitudes towards change and the aspect to embrace new technology but to continue with their traditional teaching method, while some business educators are ignorant of the huge benefits offered by the knowledge of ICT in the teaching and learning of business education.

3)

Lack of ICT Softwares and Internet Facilities: Inadequate fund for the procurement of ICT equipments or appliances. The Nigerian educational system is under-funded and this is one of the reasons of strikes in our educational institutions. Governments do not provide ICT resources such as computers, radio, and other ICT equipment due to lack of fund, government insincerity and lip service towards procurement and utilization of ICT in Nigeria educational sector. The absence of adequate ICT gadgets, softwares and Internet in most part of the Nigerian society adversely affect the application in teaching and learning process on our educational system.
This can also be attributed to lack of capital, public official corruption, etc.
Lastly, lack of adequate qualified technicians who can service and maintain these computers are inhibiting factors to the procurement and utilization of ICT in the educational system. Most times, when there are breakdown of computers it is difficult to get technicians to repair the computer.
Conclusion
The application of Information and Communication Technology in Business Education is important not only in the delivery system of Business Education, but to education in general and for
Nigeria to meet up with the global trend of globalization and technological changes, there must be genuine efforts towards the procurement and application of ICT in the teaching and learning process in Business Education. Therefore, emphasis should be placed on the application of ICT to arose learning in all aspect of Business Education Programme, which includes the learning of content, learning of strategies, evaluation, resource and educational management.
Recommendations
The paper further recommends the followings
There is an immediate need to aggressively use information and communication technology in impacting of skills, knowledge and potentials of Business Education on the students of the programme. Computer-Aided instrction packages or programme and other information and communicatoin technology techniques should be built into the curriculum of Business Education programme at all levels Computer should be made an esstential equipument requiried for a standard Accounting
Laboratory and typing pool
Business educators should be trained and retrained on the uses and application of information and communication technoloyg and computer Aided instruction packages in the teaching of Business
Education courses.

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The Application of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning of Business
Education: Issues, Benefit and Challenges

Government should endeavour to provide essential packages or softwares to be used in computer
Aided instruction at all level of education. This will ehance the learning and teaching process of
Busineaa Education.
References
Abati, O.A. (1999). Strategies for improving the teaching and learning of shorthand in junior secondary schools in Ogun State: A research project submitted to the department of teacher education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
Agusiobo, N.N. & Uchendu, O. (2004). Application of Information and Communication Technology
(ICT) to Education in the 21st Century: Implication and Communication Technology, ICT and
Enhancement of Education in the 21st Century in Nigeria. Journal of business educators of
Nigeria
Akor, R. & Ekuije, F. (2006). Information Technology and National
Development:Implication
for Economic Survival. Nigerian journal of teacher education and teaching (2), July
Aliyu, M.N. (2006). Business education in Nigeria, Trends and Issues: Goshy Multimedia, Illorin
Etuk, E.J. (2005). Business education in the Era of information and communication technology
(ICT) Issues, problems and prospects: Journal business education 5(1).
Iyama H.C. (2006). Repositioning technology education for effectiveness: The place of ICT based technology skill. National conference on current reforms and Nigerian education sector held at
F.C.E.(T), Umunze.
Munzal, J. (2006). Information and communication technology in the service education. A key note address presented at a national conference on information and communication technology on the service of education organized by the institute of education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
Ogbaekirigwe, A.C. & Uloh, E.V. (2008). The benefit of ICT in the delivery system of business education. book of readings, Journal of the association of business educators of Nigeria
Ogbonna, J.U. (2003). The functionality of university education: The role of library in Uzodimma,
C.U. (Ed) Functionality of education in Nigeria. Enugu: Bob Billion publishers.
Okwuanaso, S.I. (2004). Information and communication technology and enhancement of Vocation
Education in C.V. Nnaka and A.A. Okafor (Eds). Information and communication technology
(ICT) and enhancement of education in the 21st century in Nigeria.
Udoye, R.N. (2006). The use of computer in the classroom: Business education experience. A paper presented at the 2006 national conference of Nigerian primary and teacher educator, Enugu
2006

133

AN APPRAISAL OF THE TEACHERS’ LEVEL OF AWARENESS AND UTILIZATION OF
ICT RESOURCES FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION IN
ENUGU STATE.
Etesike, Celine Nwadi

Abstract
The importance of information and communication technology in today’s education sector cannot be over emphasized. These products of modern technology have the potentials to transform the educational landscape of
Nigeria at all levels: tertiary, secondary, primary and even nursery. The magnitude of this transformation is felt more at the instructional process.
The purpose of this paper therefore was to appraise the level of teachers’ awareness and utilization of ICT resources in Colleges of Education in
Enugu State. 80 teachers were randomly drawn from the 4 Colleges of
Education in the state. The result indicated that most of the teachers are not computer literate, though they are aware of the potentials of ICT utilization in the teaching learning process. The study equally revealed that in spite of this awareness, their level of utilization of ICT resources in the teaching learning process was considerably very poor.

Introduction
The world in which we live today is a world of information and communication technology hence, the 21st century is being described as the “information age”. The whole world is fast becoming a global village courtesy of developments in Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The key instrument in this globalization is the computer. To Iroha and Ekwueme (2003), “computer mediated communication ie increasingly becoming the fact of everyday life particularly in the developed and some developing countries”. In line with Berenfeld (1999), Iroha and Ekwueme
(2003), observed that “in these countries, ICTs have changed how people live, work, learn, play”.
What is information and communication technology? Ojo, Maiyanga and Ugwuanyi (2005) defined
ICT as “the combination of micro electronics, computer hardware and software, telecommunication that enable the processing, storage of huge amount of information and its rapid dissemination through computer networks”. These innovations have enabled the processing and storage of enormous amount of information along with rapid distribution of information through communication networks. Asim,
Kalu and Ani (2003) defined ICT as “hardware, software, networks and media for collection, storage, processing, transmission and presentation of information (voice, data, text and image)”. In the recent times, ICT includes facilities such as the internet, website, e-mail, mobile telephones etc. However, the term ICT can also be used to describe more traditional methods of communication such as fax, telephones, cable satellites, radio, television etc. It also includes other wireless modes, CD-Roms and
DVDS, Audio-visuals, tapes and other information storage and delivery technologies.
Information and communication technology has already made lots of significant impact on education. Outcomes of recent progress in ICT range from”
Solving many challenging tasks such as data analysis or program development (Smith and
Regan, 1993; Dick and Carey, 1996; mean, 1994 in Nkadi, 2003).
Means of communication, world wide web, intranet, e-mail, cyberspace and other means to send communication, data, information and feedback via networks (Kerr, 1996);
Engaging learners to meta-cognitive reflection and enhancing academic skills and results.
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Etesike, Celine Nwadi

There is hardly any field of human endeavour in which ICT cannot be applied. The extent and degree to which ICTs have taken control of virtually all aspects of human endeavour especially in information management in the educational sector is quite alarming. Bearman as cited in Williams
(1995) tried to describe the situation as follows,
“… how we make financial transaction, control the supply and movement of goods and services, educate people, communicate information, entertain… work or shop from home, communicate virtually from anywhere to everywhere, consult medial experts sharing patients information etc”.

It is therefore difficult to imagine day-to-day living in our contemporary society without information and communication technologies (ICTs). Transactions and interaction especially in the academic world are now routinely characterized by wireless information communication technologies, computer networking, satellite transmissions like telephony, television, radio, telematics and of course, the information super highway and other related technologies.
Nigeria as a nation recognizes this great impact of ICT, hence Isoun (2003) pointed out that
“for Nigeria, the rise of ICT is an opportunity to overcome historical disabilities and once again become the master of one’s own national destiny”. Isoun went further to observe that ICT is a tool that will enable Nigeria to achieve the goal of becoming a strong, prosperous and self-confident nation. To achieve this aim, the Federal Executive Council in March, 2001 approved the National
Information Technology Policy. The National Information Technology Development Agency
(NITDA) was established in April 2001 by the Federal government to implement the National ICT policy as well as develop the ICT industry in Nigeria. The vision statement of the policy is “to make
Nigeria an IT capable country in Africa and a key player in the information society by the year 2005, using ICT as the engine for sustainable development and global competitiveness”, while the mission statement is to “USE IT” for.
Education
Creation of wealth
Poverty Alleviation
Job creation
Global competitiveness
One of the major strategy of achieving both the vision and mission of the IT policy is human capacity building which involves both education and training. Training and re-raining programmes are very vital for acquiring better skills to enhance productivity especially in this era of “life-long” learning. Tertiary education essentially, is meant to be the means of producing high level manpower. It is thus, the means of developing human potentials, that is, capacity building in a specialist sense. It is also a vehicle for social development. It is against this background that this work is being carried out to find out the level of awareness and utilization of ICT resources for teaching and learning in
Colleges of Education in Enugu State.
Statement of the Problem
The ICT has become a big asset in the education sector just like in other sectors of human activities. With ICT, one can do lots of things which include development and use of special educational software (which include learning basic spellings, designing etc). One can also carryout networking and information sharing disseminate resources like lecture manuals, access to formats and so on. One can equally facilitate discussions like a multi-sectoral discussion about specific subjects and so on. It helps teachers in teaching their students hence there are Computer Assisted Instruction
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An Appraisal of the Teachers’ Level of Awareness and Utilization of ICT Resources for Teaching and
Learning in Colleges of Education in Enugu State.

(CAI), Computer Managed Learning (CML). Information and communication technologies give teachers relieve by affording students opportunities to learn, through micros, tutorials, drills and practices. ICTS can equally be used to source for materials in the library and a lot more.
This being the case, the problem now remains how far are the teachers in our colleges of education, aware of the potentials of ICT in the teaching and learning process. Moreso, to what level do teachers utilize ICT resources in the teaching and learning processes.
Purpose of the Study
This study is designed to find out the level of awareness and utilization of ICT resources for teaching and learning in colleges of education in Enugu State. In specific terms, the study will find out the following:
1.
the computer and ICT literacy level of teachers in colleges of education in Enugu State.
2.
their level of awareness of the applicability of ICT resources in teaching and learning process. 3. the teachers level of utilization of ICT resources in teaching and learning process.
4.
the factors that hinder the effective utilization of ICT resources in colleges of education.
Research Questions
The following research questions will guide the study:
1.
How Computer and ICT literate are teachers in Colleges of Education
2.
What are the teachers level of awareness of the applicability of ICT resources in teachinglearning process.
3.
To what level do teachers utilize ICT resources in teaching-learning process.
4.
What factors hinder the effective utilization of ICT resources in colleges of education in
Enugu State.
Research Design
The research design adopted in this study was the descriptive survey. 80 teachers, 20 from each of the four colleges of education in the state, selected through a random sampling technique constituted the population for the study.
Pertinent data for this study were collected through the use of a structured or fixed response questionnaire constructed by the researcher and face validated by experts in measurement and evaluation department and computer science department of Federal College of Education, EhaAmufu. The questionnaire was made up of two sections. Section A was on personal data of respondents and section B was concerned with items addressing the research questions.
Method of Data Collection
The researcher personally administered the instrument to the sampled teachers in the four
Colleges of Education in the State. All the 80 copies of questionnaire distributed were completely filled and returned thus, making a hundred percent return. This is mainly because the sample is considerably manageable.
Method of Data Analysis
The data collected were analysed using frequency count and simple percentage. Scores from
50% and above were taken to be positive (agreement) while scores below 50% were regarded as negative response (disagreement).
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Etesike, Celine Nwadi

Analysis of Results
The results of the research carried out are presented in the tables below according to the research questions.
Research Questions One: How computer and ICT literate are teachers in colleges of education in
Enugu State?
Table 1: Level of Teachers Computer and ICT literacy.
S/N Literacy Issue
Freq
%
Response
Yes
1
Possession of certificate in 20
25%
computer and ICT
2
Certificate obtain
13%
10
Degree
13%
10
Diploma
31.3%
25
Others
3
Have operated computer
20
25%
4
Can access internet
10
13%
5
Have browsed internet
15
19%
6.
Have attended 2 0
25%
workshop/seminar on computer and ICT
7.
I have a personal computer.
30
48%

Freq
Response
No
60

%
75%

70
70
55
60
70
65
60

88%
88%
69%
75%
88%
81.3%
75%

50

Remark

63%

From the above table, 75% of teachers in College of Education in Enugu State do not possess certificate in computer and ICT. This is against 25% of them that have different certificates. For those of them that had one certificate or the other, 13% have degree, 13% possess diploma certificate while
31.1% of them possess other related certificates. As regards the ability to operate a computer, only
25% have operated a computer while 75% have never operated a computer. On the ability to access the internet (that is open the internet environment), 13% of the teachers can access the internet while
88% of them cannot. 19% of the teachers have browsed the internet (that is being able to surf or move around the internet environment), while 81.3% of them have never. On the issue of having attended a workshop or seminar on computer and ICT, 25% of the teachers have attended while 75% of them have never. On the issue of having a personal computer, only 38% of the teachers possess a personal compute while 63% of the teachers do not have personal computers. From the above findings, one can conclude that computer and ICT literacy level of teachers in Colleges of Education in Enugu State is considerably low.
Research Question Two: What are the teachers’ levels of awareness of the applicability of ICT resources in teaching and learning process?

137

An Appraisal of the Teachers’ Level of Awareness and Utilization of ICT Resources for Teaching and
Learning in Colleges of Education in Enugu State.

Table 2: Teachers level of awareness of the applicability of ICT resources in teaching and learning process.
S/N
1

Teaching of most subject.

VA
Fre
50

2

Easy learning of most subjects.

45

3

Availing students of opportunity
60
to learn on their own.

75

10

13

-

-

10

13

Acting as experts in some fields.
For writing, drawing, playing.

56.3

20

25

10

13

5

6.3

4

Teaching Learning Process

45

%
63

FA
Fre
15

%
19

NA
Fre
10

%
13

DNK
Fre
%
6.3
5

56.3

20

25

5

6.3

10

13

5

Sourcing of information knowledge update.

for 60

75

10

13

5

6.3

5

6.3

6

Keeping and updating school 70 records. 50
Recording students attendance.

88

10

13

-

-

5

6.3

63

15

25

19

13

5

6.3

56.3

20

25

5

6.3

10

13

7
8

45

From the table above, most of the respondents are aware of the applicability of ICT resources in the teaching and learning process. This is shown in the percentage of teachers that affirmed that
ICT resources are very applicable in the teaching of most subjects (63%), easy learning of most subjects (56.3%), availing students the opportunity to learn on their own (75%), acting as experts in some fields (56.3%), for writing, drawing, playing (75%), sourcing of information (88%), keeping and updating records (63%) and recording students attendance (56.3%).
Research Question Three: How often do teachers utilize ICT resources in teaching-learning process.
Table 3: Teachers level of utilization of ICT resources for teaching and learning.

138

Etesike, Celine Nwadi

S/N

ICT Resources

1

Online self learning packages.

Often use
Fre
%
3
2

Seldom use
Fre
%
6.3
5

2

Interactive CD’s offline CD Roms.

10

13

2

3

68

85

3

Satellite

-

-

-

-

80

100

4

Radio/TV

15

19

5

6.3

60

75

5

Optical fibre technologies

-

-

-

-

80

100

6

Video Tapes and recorder

15

19

5

6.3

60

75

7

Telephony

-

80

100

8

Internet

10

13

2

3

68

85

9

E-mail

20

25

2

3

58

73

10

Telnet

-

-

80

100

11

Internet

-

-

80

100

12

Conferencing

13

Internet fax

-

-

80

100

14

Power point projector

10

13

5

6.3

65

81.3

15

Software packages
- Ms-word
- Word star
- Corel-Draw
- Mathematical packages (SPPSS,
SAS etc.
- Programming packages like visual Basic Q- Basic etc.

20
20
10

25

6.3

25
13

5
5
-

6.3
-

55
80
55
70

69
100
69
88

10

13

-

-

70

100

-

Never used
Fre
%
91.3
73

From the above table, the level of utilization of ICT resources by teachers in colleges of education in Enugu State is very low. This is evidenced in the high percentages of never used as indicated in the table. Most of the teachers never used most of the above listed ICT resources. Only very few often used and equally very few seldom used as indicated in the table.
Research Question Four: What factors hinder the effective utilization of ICT resources in colleges of education in Enugu State.
139

An Appraisal of the Teachers’ Level of Awareness and Utilization of ICT Resources for Teaching and
Learning in Colleges of Education in Enugu State.

Table Four: Factors that hinder effective utilization of ICT resources
S/N Hindering Factor
SA
A
Fre
%
Fre
%
1
Poverty.
50
63
20
25

D
Fre
5

%
6.3

SD
Fre
5

%
6.3

2

Irregular/Non payment of salary.

50

63

20

25

5

6.3

5

6.3

3

Lukewarm attitude towards ICT.

50

63

20

13

5

6.3

5

6.3

10

13

10

13

10

13

50

6.3

75

10

13

50

6.3

5

6.3

75

10

13

5

6.3

5

6.3

75

10

13

5

6.3

5

6.3

75

10

13

-

6.3

-

6.3

8

60
Hunger.
Dilapidated condition of available
ICT facilities.
60
School location.
60
Epileptic Power supply.
70
Computer and ICT illiteracy.

9

Non availability of ICT resources.

70

75

10

13

-

-

-

-

10

Non availability of necessary
70
social amenities.

75

10

13

-

-

-

-

of

govt

4
5
6
7

From the above table, most of the teachers strongly agreed that poverty, irregularity of salary payment, government lukewarm attitude, dilapidated condition of amenities, school location, epileptic power supply, computer and ICT illiteracy, lack of ICT resources, non availability of necessary social amenities are some of the factors that hinder effective utilization of ICT resources in Colleges of
Education in Enugu State. 50% of the teachers strongly disagreed that hunger hinders effective utilization of ICT resources.
Discussion and Implication of Findings
The study revealed that most of the teachers in Colleges of Education in Enugu State are not computer and ICT literate. This is because most of the respondents have no personal computers, possess no certificate in computer, have never operated a computer, cannot access the internet on their own, have never attended any workshop or seminar on ICT and computer. The implication is that the growth of ICT in these Colleges of Education will be considerably low and hence the realization of
ICT policy of Federal government of Nigeria will be considerably difficult. More so, these teachers being the implementers of the National Curriculum at the classroom level will find it difficult to move
140

Etesike, Celine Nwadi

with the trend in the field of ICT. This situation is not friendly to the growth of ICT in our present day
Nigeria society.
On the issue of level of awareness of the applicability of ICT resources for effective teaching and learning, most of the respondents are fully aware that ICT and computer can be used for teaching of most subjects and also easy learning of most subjects. It can avail students of opportunity to study on their own, act as experts in some fields, used for writing, drawing and playing, be a source of information for self improvement, used to keep and update records, record students attendance. Being aware of these potentials of ICT is not enough. There is urgent need for the effective utilization of these inherent potentials for the advancement of Colleges of Education system in Nigeria. Colleges of education are teacher producing institutions, therefore knowledge and utilization of ICT resources is compulsory and indispensable in the present day Nigeria society. No society can grow above the level of its teachers.
On the issue of utilization of ICT resources for teaching and learning, their level of utilization is considerably very low. This actually may not be unconnected with low (in some cases zero) ICT content and compliant level of the colleges of education used for this study. In some of the schools, there are ICT equipment which are packed in some offices and were not being effectively used for what they are meant for.
On the issue of the factors that hinder effective utilization of ICT resources in these schools, the respondents strongly agreed that poverty irregularity in salary, school location, computer and ICT illiteracy, epileptic power supply among others are some of the factors that hinder effective utilization of ICT resources in the Colleges of Education in Enugu State.
Conclusion
The utilization of computer and ICT are among the most recent break through in the education sector. It is an effective companion and a veritable instrument in the hands of today’s teachers. The fact remains that teachers in Colleges of Education are teachers of teachers and since no nation can develop beyond the capacity of its teachers, it then becomes necessary that all concerned should find ways of integrating ICT resources into their various curricula. This will ensure improvement and advancement in the attainment of an enriched and practical oriented educational experiences for both teachers and students in Colleges of Education both in Enugu and in diaspora.
References
Asim, A.E. Iroha, K. & Ani, B.O.E (2003). An assessment of ICTs skills development focus of computer literacy centres in Cross River State of Nigeria: In Akale, M.A.G (ed) STAN proceedings of the 44th annual conference 2003. Nigeria: STAN
Iroha, K, & Ekwueme, C.O. (2003) Assessment of Teachers’ level of literacy and attitude towards
ICT application in STM. In Akale, M.A.G (ed) STAN proceedings of the 44th Annual Conference
2003. Nigeria: STAN.
Isoun, T. T. (2003). A keynote Address. In Akale, M.A.G (ed) STAN proceeding of the 44th annual conference 2003. Nigeria: STAN.
Kerr, S.T. (1996). Visions of Sugarphims: The future of Technology, Education and the schools.
Chicago: National society for the study of education: University of Chicago Press.
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An Appraisal of the Teachers’ Level of Awareness and Utilization of ICT Resources for Teaching and
Learning in Colleges of Education in Enugu State.

Nkadi, Onyegegbu (2003). ICT in teaching and learning: Science Teachers Attitude. In Akale, M.A.G
(ed) STAN proceedings of the 44th annual conference 2003. Nigeria: STAN.
Ojo, M.O, Maiyanga, A.A & Ugwuanyi, C. (2005). Delivering messages on HIV/AIDS using ICT. In a workshop held at Federal College of Education (FCT). Obudu, 2005.
Williams, M.J. (1995). The Global information society. England: Aslib Grower.

142

RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY AND DETERMINANTS OF CATFISH PRODUCTION
OUTPUT IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA
C. O. A. Ugwumba

Abstract
This study which was conducted in Anambra State, Nigeria, examined the efficiency of resource use and determinants of catfish production output.
Data were obtained from 204 catfish farmers selected by means of multistage random sampling technique. It utilized descriptive and parametric statistics in data analysis. Results indicated that farmer’s age, cost of feed, stock size and farm size were significant determinants of catfish production output. Returns to scale value of 1.06 showed that the farms were operating at increasing returns to scale. Resource use efficiency values were 12.78,
1.12, 0.15, 4.70 and 14.47 for stock size, feed, labour and fuel respectively.
This implies over utilization of labour input and under utilization of the other ones. Policy must be directed towards measures that would ensure the availability of the under utilized inputs and at cheaper rates.
Key words: Catfish production inputs, Resource use efficiency, Income,
Econometrics.

Introduction
The importance of fish farming especially catfish farming to the sustainability of the fishery industry cannot be over emphasized. According to Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) (2003), majority of domestic food fish supply (81.6%) has been through artisanal activities. Regrettably, supplies from the artisanal sub-sector has been on the decline. For instance, from 90% in 1990 (Tobor, 1990) to
84.2% in 1994 (CBN,1994), 81.6% in 2003 (CBN, 2003) and down to 40% in 2006 (Global
Agriculture Information Network (GAIN), 2007). This drop was primarily attributed to insecurity along Nigeria’s coasts and waterways, higher energy costs and over-fishing (Adekoya, 2004; Inoni,
2006).
The only way to curb this ceaseless drop in supply from capture fisheries, ensure selfsufficiency in food fish production and bridge the widening gap between the demand and supply of food fish is to embrace fish farming. Fish farming preferably catfish farming has been proved by
Adediran (2002), Ugwumba (2005) and Nwosu (2009) to be the only way of boosting fish production and there by move the country towards self-sufficiency in food fish supply.
It is note worthy that the culture of African catfish has been on the increase (Ugwumba,
2005). This is due to encouraging Government and private interests through various fish production support initiatives such as the Federal government of Nigeria’s Presidential Initiative on fisheries and aquaculture development of 2003 and the Anambra State government’s year 2008 micro credit scheme for starter-catfish farmers. All these efforts hinged on the realization by the people of the importance of fish and fish farming. Fish culture provides lucrative returns to the farmers, employment opportunities, besides supplying good quantity and quality protein diet for the people
(Njoku, 2000; Onoja, 2005). Fish products constitute more than 60% of the total protein intakes in adults especially those living in the rural areas (Adekoya, 2004). Food fish is cheaper and posses nutrient profile superior to all terrestrial meat (beef, pork, chicken, e.t.c.) being an excellent source high quality protein and high digestible energy (Nwuba and Onuoha, 2007; Lawal et al, 2008).
Multidisciplinary Journal of Research Development Volume 15 No 1 September, 2010

143

C. O. A. Ugwumba

There is therefore the need to increase productivity and output of food fish by catfish farmers in order to meet the challenges posed by dwindling supplies, To achieve economic optimum output and thus profitability, resources have to be optimally and efficiently utilized. The efficiency of input utilization by all categories of farms enhances the profitability of such farms. The determination of efficiency status in the utilization of catfish production inputs and the influence of socio-economic factors on production output would enable the advocacy of policy for improvement and attainment of optimization. This is the genesis of the study.
Methodology
The study was conducted in Anambra State, which is one of the 36 States of the Federal
Republic of Nigeria. It is comprised of 21 Local Government Areas (L.G.A.s) and 4 Agricultural
Zones. The predominant language and religion are Igbo and Christianity respectively. The vegetation is tropical, climate humid with substantial rainfall and mean temperature of 87oF. The State was chosen for the study because of the preponderance of fish farms in most Communities occasioned by the existence of big daily food fish markets (Ugwumba and Obiekezie, 2008).
Six out of the 21 L.G.A.s were purposely excluded from the survey as a result of observable evidence of artisanal activities and are not involved in fish farming. A multistage random sampling technique was employed to sample 256 respondents from 8 of the remaining 15 L.G.A.s. Data were collected by means of respondent’s memory recall and interview instruments. At last, 204 copies of useful questionnaire were utilized in articulating data for analysis. Data were collected on socioeconomic characteristics of the farmers, stock size, feed, lab our, capital, fuel, output quantities and prices. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive and parametric statistics.
The implicit form of the regression models used to examine the effects of socio-economic factors of the respondents on production output as well as to determine the magnitude of input parameters employed to calculate the respective marginal value product of the inputs is given as:

Y = f ( X 1 , X 2 ,........, X n ; e)
Where:
Y = dependent variable
X1, X2,…………., Xn = independent variables e = error term
Four functional forms were tried and their explicit expressions are stated as:

Linear : Y = b 0 + b1 X 1 + b 2 X 2 + ....... + b n X n + e

Exponentia l : ln Y = b0 + b1 X 1 + b2 X 2 + ....... + bn X n + e

144

Resource Use Efficiency and Determinants of Catfish Production Output in Anambra State, Nigeria

Semi − log : Y = b0 + b1 ln X1 + b2 ln X 2 + .......+ bn ln X n + e
Double − log : ln Y = b0 + b1 ln X 1 + b2 ln X 2 + ....... + bn ln X n + e
For the effects of socio-economic variables on output, the variables were represented as:
Y = output (kg)
X1 = gender (Dummy: male = 1; female = 0)
X2 = age (years)
X3 = marital status (Dummy: married = 1; single = 0)
X4 = household size (number)
X5 = educational attainment (years)
X6 = access to credit (Dummy: accessed credit =1; otherwise = 0)
X7 = cost of feed (N)
X8 = stock size (number)
X9 = farm area (m2)
X10 = experience (years)
The estimation of resource use efficiency parameters was done with the dependent and independent variables represented as:
Y = output (kg)
X1 = stock size (number)
X2 = feed (kg)
X3 = labour (man-day)
X4 = capital (number)
X5 = fuel (litre) bo = constant in each case bi = regression coefficients e = error term
Output of the regression model found best fit for each set of data, that is, data for the influence of socio-economic factors on output or data for resource use efficiency parameters’ estimation, was adopted for results presentation. The criteria used for the selection were:
• the number, signs and magnitudes of significant estimators.
• the magnitude of R2, the coefficient of determination, showing the percentage of variation in output explained by the independent variables.
• the F-statistic value showing the overall significance of the regression parameters.
• the Durbin-Watson statistic value indicating the existence or non-existence of multicollinearity. At last, the linear regression model was selected for estimating the influence of socioeconomic factors on output, while the Cobb-Douglas functional form came out best for the estimation of resource use efficiency parameters. Further analysis to derive the Marginal Value Products (MVPs)
145

C. O. A. Ugwumba

of the production inputs was done using coefficients of the inputs from the estimated Cobb-Douglas output. The MVP was computed for each input as the product of its regression coefficient and the geometric mean value of farm revenue and the farm input. That is:

MVP = bi ×

Y
× Py
Xi

Where: MVP and bi are as defined earlier

Y = mean of output
Xi = mean of input
Py = per unit price of output
A given resource was optimally allocated when there is no divergence between its MVP and its acquisition cost (i.e. marginal factor cost (MFC)). The MFC is the opportunity cost / market price of each input in a competitive market.
A firm maximizes its profit with respect to an input if the ratio of its MVP to its MFC is unity. A ratio less than unity shows over utilization of that resource and profit would be increased by decreasing the quantity used of that input. Resource under utilization is indicated by a ratio greater than one and profit would be increased by increase in the rate of its use. Mathematically:
If,

MVP
= 1 , use of the resource is at optimum (optimum utilization)
MFC

MVP
< 1 , use of the resource is above optimum (over utilization)
MFC
MVP
> 1 , use of the resource is below optimum (under utilization)
MFC
Results and Discussion
Effects of Socio-Economic Characteristics of the Respondents on Output
A total of ten regressors were included in the linear regression model. The regression output is shown in Table 1. Four (4) of the variables, age of the farmer, cost of feed, stock size and farm size were significant and the other six (6) insignificant. Farmers’ age (AGE) is positively correlated with catfish production output and statistically significant at 5% level of probability. This implies that older farmers are more likely to generate bigger output than younger ones. The reason could be that the older farmers might have accumulated resources and experience with which to risk investing in large production outfits and thus turn out bigger outputs.
Cost of feed (COF) has a coefficient that is statistically significant at 5 % level of probability and positive. This is against a priori expectations that cost of feed should have negative influence on output. However, it might be that the farmers utilized mainly home-made feeds which are more cost effective and of comparable quality when well compounded than the expensive imported feed brands.
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Resource Use Efficiency and Determinants of Catfish Production Output in Anambra State, Nigeria

Further result of the analysis shows that farm size (FAS) is positive and significant at 5% level of probability. This means that farmers with large farm sizes who have adopted good management strategies are more likely to produce more from catfish production business.
The coefficient of farm area (FAA) is positively related to output and significant (P ≤ 0.05).
This implies that farmers with bigger farm areas are expected to produce more output than those with small farm areas bearing in mind the application of adequate stocking density, water quality sensitivity and other favourable management practices.
The overall significance of a regression is usually assessed by the F-statistic value. In this case the F-statistic value of 590.56 indicates that the socio-economic characteristics of the catfish producers significantly influenced their output. The R2 value of 97.6% implies that actually 97.6% of the variation in catfish output is explained by the 10 predictors with FAS exerting the highest significant influence on production output.
Table 1: Effect of Socio-Economic Characteristics of Respondents on Production Output.
Predictor
Coefficient Standard Deviation
T
P
Constant
-339.3
388.4
-0.87
0.384
GEN
20.6
177.8
0.12
0.908
AGE
16.427
7.024
2.34
0.020**
MAS
26.5
212.7
0.12
0.901
HOS
-13.15
31.25
-0.42
0.674
EDU
-13.777
9.961
-1.38
0.168
EXP
3.655
9.892
0.37
0.712
ACC
-90.4
110.7
-0.82
0.416
COF
0.00194
0.0018
10.76
0.000**
FAS
0.625
0.458
13.65
0.000**
FAA
0.986
0.245
4.03
0.000**
F-statistic =
590.56
R2 =
97.8%
2
R (adj) =
97.6%
Durbin-Watson statistic =
1.97
Source: Field survey, 2009. ** significant at P ≤ 0.05
Resource Use Efficiency of the Respondents
Result of the Cobb-Douglas regression analysis and resource use efficiency computations are represented in Tables 2 and 3 respectively. Table 2 shows that the coefficients of stock size, feed, capital and fuel were positive and significant at 5% level of probability. Only the labour input coefficient had positive but insignificant influence on output. More so, returns to scale value of 1.06 indicated that the farms were operating at increasing returns to scale and were at Stage I of the traditional production function. The catfish farmers should continue to increase output by increasing the use of resources and adopting improved management practices and technologies. This result is in consonance with Obasi (2004) who posted an increasing returns to scale value of 1.245 for extensive and intensive fish farming systems in Imo State, Nigeria. It equally corroborates Ogunbadejo et al,
2006 who recorded increasing returns to scale for inputs used in artisanal fish farming in Ogun State,
Nigeria.

147

C. O. A. Ugwumba

Table 2: Estimated Cobb-Douglas Production Function
Variable
Parameter
T-statistic
Probability
Constant
0.057
1.76
0.080**
Stock size
0.398
13.06
0.000**
Feed
0.558
16.95
0.000**
Labour
0.012
0.57
0.572NS
Capital
0.054
2.57
0.011**
Fuel
0.039
4.62
0.007**
R2 = 0.966
R2 (adjusted) = 0.956
F-statistic = 1409.825
Burbin-Watson statistic =
1.956
Source: Field survey, 2009. **: significant at 5% level of probability.
NS: not significant.
The estimated resource use efficiency ratios were 12.78, 1.12, 0.15, 4.70 and 14.47 for stock size, feed, labour, capital and fuel respectively. This implies that the labour input is over utilized contrary to stock size, feed, capital and fuel inputs that are under utilized. The reason for over utilization of the labour input could be due to its availability at cheap rates especially in the rural areas. There is need for the catfish farmers to reduce their usage of labour in order to increase output and profitability. This finding is at variance with Fashola (2000) who noted under utilization of labour in the analysis of resource use and productivity of fish in Owerri Agricultural Zone of Imo
State, Nigeria. On the other hand, stock size, feed, capital and fuel were under utilized. The reason could be the problems of high cost of feeds, financial incapacitation of the farmers, scarcity of fingerlings and high cost of fuel as reported by Ugwumba (2010). The farmers should endeavour to increase usage of these 4 resources to increase their output and realize more income.
Table 3: Estimated Resource Use Efficiency in Catfish Production
Variable
MVP
MFC
MVP/MFC
DECISION
Stock size
278.11
21.76
12.78
under utilization
Feed
247.09
219.82
1.12 under utilization
Lab our
2,257.12
1,495.83
0.15
over utilization
Capital
4,552
925.15
4.90 under utilization
Fuel
1,031.04
71.27
14.47 under utilization
Source: Field survey, 2009.
Recommendations and Conclusion
Catfish production output in the study area was positively and significantly influenced by farmer’s age, stock size, farm size and cost of feed. Mean while, the impacts of gender, marital status, household size, education, experience, and access to credit were insignificant.
The farmers were operating at increasing returns to scale, that is, increasing the inputs would increase the output by more than 100%. The labour input was over utilized, while stock size, feed, capital and fuel inputs were under utilized. Output could be improved by employing more of stock size, feed, capital and fuel inputs in the catfish production process and reducing labour usage. Policy should be tailored towards measures that would ensure the availability of fingerlings, feeds, capital and fuel at cheaper rates. Such measures should include the establishment of feed mills, hatcheries, provision of credits and subsidization of energy cost.
148

Resource Use Efficiency and Determinants of Catfish Production Output in Anambra State, Nigeria

In conclusion, catfish production inputs in the study area were not efficiently utilized. There still exist opportunities for farmers to increase output and income by employing more of the under utilization inputs and reducing the quantity of the over utilized labour input..
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Fashola, M. A. (2000). Management and production economics and macro economic theory. Concept
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Global Agriculture Information Network (GAIN) (2007). Nigeria Fishery Products, Nigeria’s Fish
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Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria, in Ume, Obinne and Lawal(eds), Prospects and challenges of adding value to agricultural products. Proceedings of FAMAM 22nd annual national conference, Markurdi, Nigeria. Pp 348-354.
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Nwosu, C. S. (2009). Analysis of resource use and productivity of fish farmers in Owerri agricultural zone of Imo State, Nigeria in Muhammed et al (eds), Sustaining agricultural growth to meet national economic development goal. Proceedings of the 23th Annual Conference of FAMAN,
Sokoto, Nigeria. Pp 655-661.
Nwuba, L. A. & E. Onuoha (2006). Fish Farming in the Tropics: A functional approach. Maxiprints, Awka, Nigeria.
Obasi, P. C. (2004). Economics of fish farming in Imo State, Nigeria. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences, 2 (1): 40-46.
Ogunbadejo, H. K., T. Alhaji & S. Otubusin (2006). Productivity of labour artisanal fish farming in
Nigeria. African Journal of Applied Zoology and Environmental Biology. 9:74-77.
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Onoja, G. O. (2005). Fish and poverty. Agribusiness Today: 1(8): 5 – 7.
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Ugwumba, C. O. A. & A. A. Obiekezie (2008). Impediments to the development of live-catfish retail markets in Anambra State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Research and Production
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Ugwumba, C. O. A. (2010). Profitability and technical efficiency of catfish production in Anambra
State, Nigeria. Ph.D Dissertation, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria.

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APPLICATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN
TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROCESS IN NIGERIA
Kabiru Mohammed Abdu

A b st rac t
The main policy objective of the Education sector has been to raise the quality of education at all level in o rd e r to m a k e t h e p r od u c ts of th e Educat ion
S y st em m o re u s e f ul t o t h e s o ci et y . T h e use of information and communication technology in technical and vocational ed u cation is tr emendous. T his p a p e r e x a m i n e s t h e c o n c ep t o f t e ch n i c a l a n d v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t io n a s w e l l as information and communication tech no log y. Atte mp t is mad e to identify reasons for using information and communication technology its benefits and challenges so far. There are however constraints hindering the policy such as inadequate funding, lack of monitoring and follow up of policies and has recommended among others provision of facilities, electricity, adequate funds, and close monitoring of policies. Introduction
No work of science has made comprehensive impact on the course of human development in the history of civilization as Information and Communication Technology (ICT) undoubtedly; (ICT) has been the greatest change agent of this century. It is changing every aspect of human life communication, trade, education, research etc.
Education is not left out of this wave of change. Most of the developed countries have exploited the potential of ICT to transform their educational landscape at the tertiary, secondary and even primary schools levels particularly instructional process.
Quality education is a universal goal. Therefore, the Nigerian goals of technical and vocational education as stated in national policy on education (2004 revised) are:
a) Provide trained manpower in the applied sciences, technology and business particularly at craft advanced craft and technical levels.
b) Provide the technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agriculture commercial and economic development.
c) Give training and impact the necessary skills to individual who shall be self reliant economically. In order to move with the other developing countries there is the need to improve the academic training for science, technical vocational education ICT, has been identified world wide as a way out of this.
Concept of Technical and Vocational Education
Technical education is an instructional in a skill or process usually of a mechanical type, and at a level between that of the professional scientist or engineer and that of a skilled craftsperson
(Abdullahi M. 2008). It is designed to prepare technicians for Industry, Agriculture, and Commerce,
Home economics, which is usually provided at Senior secondary or lower tertiary level. There is yet another definition of technical education given by Ouala (1981) in Raymond E (2007) as education to earn a living in an occupation in which success in dependent largely upon technical information and understanding of the Laws Science and Principles Technology as applied to modern design
Multidisciplinary Journal of Research Development Volume 15 No 1 September, 2010

151

Kabiru Mohammed Abdu

productions, distribution and services vocational education according to Makama (2005) in Raymond
(2007) is that type of education that deals with development of abilities, understanding attitudes work habit and appreciation needed by a worker to enter into and to progress in an employment in a useful and productive basis. Vocational Education could also be any form of education whose primary purpose is to prepare persons for employment in recognized occupations.
Information and Communication Technology
ICT refers to the use of electric equipment (especially computer) to process store and disseminate information to and over a wide audience. The word information and communication technology according to Burnett (1994) is the technology used for handling information, including multimedia and the internet, and devices such as video cameras and mobile telephones.
According to Ramatu Babangida (2009) “Multimedia” refers basically to the use of more than one medium to convey information. “Medium” can also refer to human senses (principally sight and sound) traditional means of conveying information (text, graphics, animated graphics, speech and music), or to the storage or communication devices employed (disc and tapes of various kinds, cable, radio, television and the internet). Interactive multimedia gives the user control over the information.
ICT Delivery Methods
ICT includes the radio, TV Videos, Computers Sensors, E-mail, Internet and all the software and materials which are employed by teachers for teaching and learning.
As an educational tool ICT can enhance and compliment learning and teaching in every curriculum area. According to Ikuomola (2007) ICT is one of the most exciting media methods of delivering training.
Instruction can be delivered over ICT through different way:Computer-Based Training (CBT): The delivery of training materials in the form of a CBT can replace classroom instruction. It is often used when students must be trained in distance location or at home. It requires the learner to have access to a computer with CD-ROM player. Online Documentation: Textbook or written class material can be replaced by online documentation, available on disk or downloaded from the internet.
Online Help: Most commercial software applications have a form of online help. Some of them are very good; including online tutorial and excellent explanation online help can also be used as a form of computer based training as well as to supplement standard documentation or textbooks.
Web Based Training (WBT): WBT provides training over the World Wide Web. It has the advantage of keeping the materials complete up to date. Teachers can use ICT to:- Prepare resources for science and technology instruction.
- Access information and education software through the internet.
- Communicate and exchange information with experts in specific fields, with other schools and with other teachers, for the benefit and development of education and training. - Teachers and learners could only avail themselves of these benefits of ICT if they are computer literate.
Issues and Reasons for Using ICT
In recognition of the vital role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in
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Application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Technical and Vocational Education
Process in Nigeria

advancing knowledge and skills necessary for effective functioning in the modern World,
Government decided to integrate it into her Educational System at all levels in Nigeria (NPE, 2004) the same policy emphasis that teacher education shall continue to be given major attention in all educational planning and development. It stated that Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) shall be the minimum qualification for entry into the teaching profession and that Government shall provide facilities and Communication Technology (ICT) at all levels of education. In view of the foregoing
ICT should be regard as a very vital instrument for instruction.
Challenges so Far
Despite the numerous advantages and benefit that can be derive from the ICT in our educational system; Nigeria is almost two decades behind in embracing the use of ICT.
According to Abdullahi (2008) the failure of large expenditures in education to produce much increase in gross domestics and national products is attributed to the fact that such skills training has been quite neglected in Nigeria, in favour of more formal, Academic Curricula. Education has been targeted to areas where employment for these skills does not exist, in other word, a glut of some professionals exist, while industry and agriculture are in a critical need of workers proficient in those aptitudes formulated in technical/vocational courses.
Typically, problems are associated with educational policy and planning in Nigeria. Policies when documented are fair and genuine but the implementation often encounter bottlenecks, hence objective and goals are eventually rarely met. Such include those of power relation at the directive stage of planning. Poor preparation and costing, and weak evaluation of projects. Studies have indicated the non implementation of Nigerian National Policies which only leads to stagnation or retrogression. A lot of funds are pumped into policy planning and documentation but it is disheartening when the plans fail to yield through lack of implementation or bad implementation.
Conclusion
The basic requirements of effective teaching are a highly motivated teacher, adequate teaching materials, conductive environment and prepared students. It is becoming increasingly clear that if the fundamental basis or the main goals of technical and vocational education is to be realized, there is a need for the government and stake holders to embrace the new challenges and system of education through the employment and use of ICT in our schools.
Recommendation
To make ICT and the development of technical and vocational education more meaningful and relevant to the development needs of Nigeria the following are recommended:1. To provide educational technology gadgets for improved content delivery and practicalworkshop activities for trainers and learners.
2. To employ ICT Technician who should see to the proper management and maintenance of ICT facilities in the schools.
3. Electric power supply should also be made available at all times so as to enhance the use of
ICT for teaching, learning and assessment.
References
Abdullahi, M. (2008) Realizing the millennium development goals and concern for science, vocational technical education in Nigeria. A lead paper Presented at the 1st National Conference,
Isa Kaita College of Education Dutsen Ma.
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Kabiru Mohammed Abdu

Burnett, G. (1994) Technology as a tool for urban classrooms ERIC/CUE Digest, 95, New York. Eric
Cleaning House or Urban Education, Retrieved from htt://www.ericdigests.org/1994/tool/htm.
Federal Government of Nigeria (2004) National policy education, Yaba: NERDC press.
Ikuomola, A.J. (2007) Enhancing technical and vocational education for sustainable development through information and communication technology. NATT 20th annual conference book of proceeding pages 149-154.
Ramatu A.A Babangida Z.A (2009) Information and communication entrepreneurship programme as a tool for Quality Education and development in Nigeria. A paper presented at 7th Annual National conference at FCE (T) Bichi.
Raymond, E. (2007) Vocational Technical education as an instrument for achieved the millennium development goals (MDGs) in Nigeria. NATT 20th Annual Conference Book proceeding pgs 48-50.

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