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La Guerra de Sucesión Española
La Guerra de Sucesión Española fue un conflicto internacional y nacional por la sucesión al trono de España tras la muerte de Carlos II, que duro desde 1702 hasta 1713,aunque la resistencia en Cataluña se mantuvo hasta 1714 y en Mallorca hasta 1715 .Se saldó con la instauración de la Casa de Borbón en España. . Fue una guerra civil entre borbónicos(reino de Castilla) y la casa de Austria (la Corona de Aragón=.
Unos años antes de morir Carlos II, el no tener descendencia se convirtió en un problema para España y para las Cortes Europeas.
Con la muerte de Carlos II en 1700, se iniciaba la Guerra de Sucesión Española, al no haber un sucesor al trono claro. Había tres candidatos, * José Fernando de Baviera, bisnieto de Felipe IV, era el candidato perfecto para Inglaterra y Holanda. Murió en 1699 * el archiduque Carlos de Austria, que tenía fuertes partidarios en la corte española; podía unir los reinos españoles y austriacos * y Felipe de Anjou, nieto de Luis XIV, rey de Francia. Que podía unir Francia y España
Felipe de Anjou contaban con el apoyo de la Corona de Castilla; y el Archiduque Carlos de Austria con el apoyo de la Corona de Aragón, que tenía miedo que Felipe de Anjou hiciese, al igual que su abuelo, un modelo de administración centralista, y así perdiesen sus fueros tradicionales.

Al principio Holanda e Inglaterra intentaron dividir el reino en tres partes, para que los tres aspirantes a la corona se repartiesen los territorios, lo que dio lugar al Primer Tratado de Partición, pero al morir José Fernando decidieron que el trono español tenía que ser para el Archiduque Carlos dejando a Felipe de Anjou los territorios italianos pertenecientes a España, se firmo el Segundo Tratado de Partición. El Archiduque Carlos no estaba de acuerdo con este segundo tratado, así mismo Carlos II, medio moribundo hace testamento nombrando sucesor al trono a Felipe de Anjou (debía renunciar a su derecho sucesorio al trono francés).

Empezó así la dinastía borbónica, pero Luis XIV intentar unificar España y Francia. Al ver esto el resto de países europeos, se formo la Gran Alianza de la Haya, que agrupaba a Holanda, Gran Bretaña, Austria, Portugal, Saboya, Prusia y Hannover, que no reconocieron a Felipe de Anjou como rey de España.

Comenzó la Guerra de Sucesión Española, en la que la Gran Alianza de la Haya derrotó claramente a las tropas borbónicas, para las cuales las guerra significo un gran desastre Comenzó así la Guerra de Sucesión española, que se unió a la guerra civil existente en España, entre la Corona de Aragón, que apoyaba al candidato austriaco, ( el cual había ofrecido garantías de mantener el sistema federal y foral, similar al de las imperiales Austria e Inglaterra) y Castilla (que había aceptado a Felipe V, cuya mentalidad era la del estado centralista de monarquía absoluta comparable al modelo de la Francia de la época). Fue una gran victoria de la Corona de Castilla frente a la de Aragón, pero con respecto a lo internacional, las fuerzas borbónicas fueron derrotadas por las de la Gran Alianza, con lo que Luis XIV, se vio obligado a iniciar tratados de paz.
Un acontecimiento internacional fue clave para entender el desenlace del conflicto: Carlos de Habsburgo heredó en 1711 el Imperio alemán y se desinteresó de su aspiración a reinar en España. Sus aliadas, Inglaterra y Holanda, pasaron en ese momento a ver con prevención la posible unión de España y Austria bajo un mismo monarca.
La guerra concluyó con la firma del Tratado de Utrecht en 1713. El tratado estipuló lo siguiente: * Felipe V era reconocido por las potencias europeas como Rey de España pero renunciaba a cualquier posible derecho a la corona francesa. * Los Países Bajos españoles y los territorios italianos (Nápoles y Cerdeña) pasaron a Austria. El reino de Saboya se anexionó la isla de Sicilia. * Inglaterra obtuvo Gibraltar, Menorca y el navío de permiso (derecho limitado a comerciar con las Indias españolas) y el asiento de negros (permiso para comerciar con esclavos en las Indias).
El Tratado de Utrecht marcó el inicio de la hegemonía británica.
El rey Felipe V mantuvo los fueros del Reino de Navarra y de las Provincias Vascongadas en agradecimiento por su apoyo en el conflicto. Por el contrario, a los territorios españoles que no lo apoyaron, les quitó sus privilegios y fueros. Así, hasta el siglo XX, los únicos territorios españoles que aún mantenían fueros eran Navarra y la provincia vasca de Álava.
Los Decretos de Nueva Planta son un conjunto de decretos por los cuales se cambió la organización territorial de los Reinos Hispánicos y se abolió el derecho público de los reinos de la Corona de Aragón, que habían luchado contra Felipe V de España en la Guerra de Sucesión, de la misma manera que se disolvió la organización territorial en reinos de la Corona de Castilla y se anularon los fueros y libertades de sus municipios. Formalmente se trata de una serie de Reales Cédulas por las que se establece la "nueva planta" de las Reales Audiencias de los territorios de la Corona de Aragón y de Castilla. Todos ellos vienen precedidos de una abolición de las instituciones propias.
Una vez aplicada esta serie de decretos, los territorios del rey de Aragón quedan unificados jurídica y estructuralmente al de Castilla. Esto supone: * La desaparición de los antiguos reinos (salvo el de Navarra) y el nacimiento de las provincias en la Península y la generalización y la reorganización interna de los virreinatos, gobernaciones y capitanías generales en América.[ * También el gobierno y la hacienda del Reino quedan unificados (salvo las excepciones que Felipe V quiso mantener para vascongados, navarros y araneses). * Que el Consejo de Castilla (solo "de Castilla" en el nombre) pasa a asumir todas las tareas de gobierno (salvo en Navarra) y, con el tiempo, será origen del consejo de secretarios (de ministros). * Oficialmente, la creación de unas nuevas Cortes españolas, siguiendo el modelo representativo de Castilla, a las que se suman como representantes minoritarios los de Aragón, Valencia, Cataluña y Mallorca. * La aplicación de un solo derecho común para todos los súbditos, con la consiguiente anulación de usos y costumbres y de derechos particulares (siempre que entren en conflicto con la legislación común) y la unificación del derecho procesal al de uso castellano. * La aplicación de una sola lengua administrativa: el castellano. Esta medida tiene excepciones en algunas instituciones locales catalanas y valencianas Razones y efectos globales de los Decretos de Nueva Planta

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