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Working Capital

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SUMMER TRAINING REPORT SUBMITTED TOWARDS THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF POST GRADUATE DEGREE IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT
On
Kotak Mahindra Group

INDUSTRY GUIDE FACULTY GUIDE

AMITY INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS SCHOOL, NOIDA
AMITY UNIVERSITY – UTTAR PRADESH

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter No. Subject Page No.

Ch No.1 Executive Summary…………………. 6
Ch No.2 Research Methodology……………… 7 2.1 Primary Objective(s)…………. 2.2 Hypothesis…………………… 2.3 Research Design……………… 2.4 Sample Design……………….. 2.5 Scope of the Study……………. 2.6 Limitations…………………….
Ch No.3 Critical Review of Literature……….. 9
Ch No.4 Company Profile ……………………. 18
Ch No.5 Industry Profile……………….. 21
Ch No.6 SWOT Analysis…………………. 45
Ch No.7 Data………………………………….. 46 7.1 Collection……………………… 7.2 Primary Data…………………… 7.3 Secondary Data….……………..
Ch No.8 Working Capital- Overall View……… 53
Ch No.9 Findings & Analysis…………………. 100
Ch No.10 Recommendations…………………… 112
Ch No.11 Bibliography…………………………. 114
Ch No.12 Annexure…………………………….. 115 12.1 Tables…………………………. 12.2 Graphs…………………………
Ch No.13 Case Study...…..................................... 117
Ch No.14 Synopsis of the Project………………. 122

CH NO.1: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Indian Life Insurance Company has seen a remarkable shift since the time of establishment of the first company, Oriental Life Insurance Company in 1823. At the time of Independence and thereafter, there were more than 200 companies operating in India and not all of them on sound ethical principles. Many factors combined together to prompt the then Government to nationalize the life insurance industry in 1956 to form the Life Insurance Corporation of India.

Insurance sector was once a monopoly, with LIC as the only company, a public sector enterprise. But nowadays the market opened up and there are many private players competing in the market. There are thirteen private life insurance companies who has entered the industry.

The study in the first part gives detail information on the on-job training provided the competitive analysis of product of Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance Ltd. with ICICI Prudential Life Insurance. Also, analysis of financial statements.

In the second part, is a project on “How does the Indian mutual fund industry compare vis - a - vis global standards and what should be our future expectations from it?”

The paper begins by analyzing the current scenario in the industry characterized by problems with distribution, low investor awareness and concentration of corporate investors. In the next section, a comparison of the Mutual Fund Industry with global standards reveals that the industry still compares unfavorably with developed countries in terms of penetration, investor awareness and diversity of products and the extent of use of risk management techniques. Further comparison reveals that the attitude of regulator towards investor protection and the governance of mutual funds are at par with global standards. The paper then analysis the future expectations from the mutual fund industry in terms of increased investor awareness, product diversity and improvement in penetration and distribution. In the end I recommend certain steps that SEBI and AMCs should take in order to build investor confidence and trust.

CH NO. 2: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Primary Objective(s)
The Basic objective of cash management is two fold: • To meet the cash disbursement needs (payment schedule); • To minimize funds committed to cash balances. These are conflicting and mutually contradictory and the task of cash management is to reconcile them.

Hypothesis: 1. Customers have basis of preference in selection of the final Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance 2. The choice of the Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance might have an effect either of the personal preference or the country of origin 3. The final decision is based on prior experience

Sample Size:
The size of the sample was around 70 people considering the time constraint.
Research Design:
Data Collection: Data has been collected through both primary and secondary approach.

Data Sources
The research involved gathering Secondary data as well as Primary data. For the purpose two types of survey was conducted by me to collect the data - • Customer survey and • Consumer survey

Primary Data
Consumer survey was done to know their purchasing behaviour because they are the one who constitute the market and are the target of the business . In Insurance Industry untill and unless we have the knowledge of the consumer behaviour and factor which influence them to buy a paticular brand ,companies cannot focus upon the target market. Hence a consumer survey was done to know their wants, purchasing power, and buying habits in order to segment the market , and based on this consumer profile was identified.
Secondary Data
Secondary data regarding sales figures, promotional expenses and other related expenses was collected from the company’s own record to analyse the impact on sales due to the running schemes and make cost benefit analysis.

Scope of the Study
Both primary and Secondary data has been be used for the study. Primary data was collected through direct interaction with the company’s finance and accounts department. If needed schedule/questionnaires would be devised to get the information on all the relevant areas of the study such as receivable management, inventory management, management of cash etc.
And I collected the data from the secondary sources comprising Annual Reports of the firm, other journals and peridocials.
Apart from the conducting this research work on the basis of these informations, various techniques of financial management e.g., comparative statement, trend analysis and ratio analysis etc. were used in the present study. To present a broad view so far the purpose of the analysis and to make it easy to understand the problem/concept of a few graphs and tables shall also be presented. In each chapter, the analysis has been compared with actual management practices of the company under study.

Limitation of the Study ➢ The present study is limited to one Co., i.e. Kotak Mahindra Life Insurance Ltd., and covers a period from 2005 and 2006 due to limitation of time and accessibility to data base. ➢ The authenticity of the suggestions and recommendations depend upon the rationality of the data provided to me. ➢ Have to rely upon the data supplied. ➢ Executives are not ready to part with the information beyond a limit.
CH NO. 3: CRITICAL REVIEW OF LITERATURE

WORKING CAPITAL - OVERALL VIEW

Working Capital management is the management of assets that are current in nature. Current assets, by accounting definition are the assets normally converted in to cash in a period of one year. Hence working capital management can be considered as the management of cash, market securities receivable, inventories and current liabilities. In fact, the management of current assets is similar to that of fixed assets the sense that is both in cases the firm analyses their effect on its profitability and risk factors, hence they differ on three major aspects:
1. In managing fixed assets, time is an important factor discounting and compounding aspects of time play an important role in capital budgeting and a minor part in the management of current assets.
2. The large holdings of current assets, especially cash, may strengthen the firm’s liquidity position, but is bound to reduce profitability of the firm as ideal car yield nothing.
3. The level of fixed assets as well as current assets depends upon the expected sales, but it is only current assets that add fluctuation in the short run to a business.
To understand working capital better we should have basic knowledge about the various aspects of working capital. To start with, there are two concepts of working capital: ➢ Gross Working Capital ➢ Net working Capital

Gross Working Capital: Gross working capital, which is also simply known as working capital, refers to the firm’s investment in current assets: Another aspect of gross working capital points out the need of arranging funds to finance the current assets. The gross working capital concept focuses attention on two aspects of current assets management, firstly optimum investment in current assets and secondly in financing the current assets. These two aspects will help in remaining away from the two danger points of excessive or inadequate investment in current assets. Whenever a need of working capital funds arises due to increase in level of business activity or for any other reason the arrangement should be made quickly, and similarly if some surpluses are available, they should not be allowed to lie ideal but should be put to some effective use.
Net Working Capital: The term net working capital refers to the difference between the current assets and current liabilities. Net working capital can be positive as well as negative. Positive working capital refers to the situation where current assets exceed current liabilities and negative working capital refers to the situation where current liabilities exceed current assets. The net working capital helps in comparing the liquidity of the same firm over time. For purposes of the working capital management, therefore Working Capital can be said to measure the liquidity of the firm. In other words, the goal of working capital management is to manage the current assets and liabilities in such a way that a acceptable level of net working capital is maintained.

Importance of working capital management:
Management of working capital is very much important for the success of the business. It has been emphasized that a business should maintain sound working capital position and also that there should not be an excessive level of investment in the working capital components. As pointed out by Ralph Kennedy and Stewart MC Muller, “the inadequacy or mis-management of working capital is one of a few leading causes of business failure.
Current assets, in fact, account for a very large portion of the total investment of the firm.

Table showing Current assets as percentage of Total assets
|Year |Percentage |
|2004 |31% |
|2005 |26% |
|2006 |35% |

It can be visualized from the table that in the first year of our study i.e. 2004 it was 31% which was reduced to 26% in the next year and in 2006 it is 35% shows fluctuating trend.

Determinants of Working Capital:
There is no specific method to determine working capital requirement for a business. There are a number of factors affecting the working capital requirement. These factors have different importance in different businesses and at different times. So a thorough analysis of all these factors should be made before trying to estimate the amount of working capital needed. Some of the different factors are mentioned here below:-

1. Nature of business: Nature of business is an important factor in determining the working capital requirements. There are some businesses which require a very nominal amount to be invested in fixed assets but a large chunk of the total investment is in the form of working capital. There businesses, for example, are of the trading and financing type. There are businesses which require large investment in fixed assets and normal investment in the form of working capital. 2. Size of business: It is another important factor in determining the working capital requirements of a business. Size is usually measured in terms of scale of operating cycle. The amount of working capital needed is directly proportional to the scale of operating cycle i.e. the larger the scale of operating cycle the large will be the amount working capital and vice versa. 3. Business Fluctuations: Most business experience cyclical and seasonal fluctuations in demand for their goods and services. These fluctuations affect the business with respect to working capital because during the time of boom, due to an increase in business activity the amount of working capital requirement increases and the reverse is true in the case of recession. Financial arrangement for seasonal working capital requirements are to be made in advance. 4. Production Policy: As stated above, every business has to cope with different types of fluctuations. Hence it is but obvious that production policy has to be planned well in advance with respect to fluctuation. No two companies can have similar production policy in all respects because it depends upon the circumstances of an individual company.

5. Firm’s Credit Policy: The credit policy of a firm affects working capital by influencing the level of book debts. The credit term is fairly constant in an industry but individuals also have their role in framing their credit policy. A liberal credit policy will lead to more amount being committed to working capital requirements whereas a stern credit policy may decrease the amount of working capital requirement appreciably but the repercussions of the two are not simple. Hence a firm should always frame a rational credit policy based on the credit worthiness of the customer. 6. Availability of Credit: The terms on which a company is able to avail credit from its suppliers of goods and devices credit/also affects the working capital requirement. If a company in a position to get credit on liberal terms and in a short span of time then it will be in a position to work with less amount of working capital. Hence the amount of working capital needed will depend upon the terms a firm is granted credit by its creditors. 7. Growth and Expansion activities: The working capital needs of a firm increases as it grows in term of sale or fixed assets. There is no precise way to determine the relation between the amount of sales and working capital requirement but one thing is sure that an increase in sales never precedes the increase in working capital but it is always the other way round. So in case of growth or expansion the aspect of working capital needs to be planned in advance. 8. Price Level Changes: Generally increase in price level makes the commodities dearer. Hence with increase in price level the working capital requirements also increases. The companies which are in a position to alter the price of these commodities in accordance with the price level changes will face fewer problems as compared to others. The changes in price level may not affect all the firms in same way. The reactions of all firms with regards to price level changes will be different from one other.

CIRCULATION SYSTEM OF WORKING CAPITAL

In the beginning the funds are obtained by issuing shares, often supplemented by long term borrowings. Much of these collected funds are used in purchasing fixed assets and remaining funds are used for day to day operation as pay for raw material, wages overhead expenses. After this finished goods are ready for sale and by selling the finished goods either account receivable are created and cash is received. In this process profit is earned. This account of profit is used for paying taxes, dividend and the balance is ploughed in the business.
Working capital is considered to efficiently circulate when it turns over quickly. As circulation increases, the investment in current assets will decrease. Current assets turnover ratio speaks about the efficiency of Kotak Mahindra in the utilisation of current assets. Fast turnover current assets results in a better rate on investment.

Table showing Current Assets Turnover Ratio

|Year |Ratio (in times) |
|2004 |1.78 |
|2005 |2.98 |
|2006 |1.98 |

Average: 2.24

The ratio average is 2.24 times in the study period of 3 years. In 2005 current assets turnover ratio is highest one i.e. 2.98 during the 3 year study. Reasons being during this year company has achieved sales growth 44.36% over the previous year and additional activity needs more funds.

KOTAK MAHINDRA LIFE INSURANCE LTD.

Ratios useful to analyze working capital management

|(A) Efficiency Ratios |2004 |2005 |2006 |Ideal Ratio |
|1. Working Capital Turnover (times) |4.84 |10.23 |5.71 |- |
|2. Current Assets Turnover (times) |1.78 |2.98 |1.97 |- |
|3. Inventory turnover (times) |9.49 |9.20 |7.88 |- |
| | | | | |
|(B) Liquidity Ratio | | | | |
|1. Current Ratio |2.12 |1.80 |2.41 |2.0 |
|2.AcidTestRatio |1.15 |0.98 |1.03 |1.0 |
|3. Cash Ratio |0.57 |0.08 |0.05 |0.5 |
|(C) Structural Health of Working Capital |
|Ratio/Year |2004 |2005 |2006 |
|1. CA |0.31 |0.26 |0.35 |
|2. CL |0.15 |0.14 |0.14 |
|3. Cash to CA |0.27 |.04 |0.02 |
|4. Receivables to CA |0.27 |0.50 |0.40 |
|5. Loans and Advances to CA |0.15 |0.19 |0.15 |
|6. Inventory to CA |0.42 |0.38 |0.50 |
|7. RM to Inventory |0.44 |0.46 |0.30 |
|8. Stock spares to inventory |0.12 |0.14 |0.11 |
|9. WIP to inventory |0.06 |0.08 |0.03 |
|10. Finished Goods to Inventory |0.38 |0.32 |0.56 |

Interpretation (Ratio Analysis)

➢ The utilization rate of net working capital as depicted by working capital turnover ratio is fluctuating during the period. It shows that working capital has not been effectively used over the period of years except in the year 2005. ➢ As shown by current assets turnover ratio, the utilisation of current assets in terms of sales has shown a decreasing trend which shows that current assets has been effectively used to achieve sales. ➢ Again if we look at the efficiency with which individual elements of working capital have been utilized, the picture of inventory turnover is not very bright. ➢ Receivables turnover also shows a declining trend. Generally such a situation does not suit the company. ➢ As we look at the extent of liquidity of working capital, we notice that the ratio shows an increasing trend. This indicates improvement on the liquidity front. ➢ If we analyze the structural health of working capital, the proportion of current assets to total assets has been appropriate during this period. Such a higher proportion of current asset in the assets portfolio of Kotak Mahindra Life Insurance Ltd. is quite acceptable.

Our analysis above indicates the areas of concern to management in making best possible use of resources. Decreasing efficiency in the use of current assets hints of the possibility of problems in working capital management.

On further analysis, inventory constitutes a major proportion of total current assets. Among its various components, raw materials, stocks, spared and finished goods in particular need further analysis as here stand out to the problem areas.

Cash Flow Statement (2005-06)

|Sources |Amount A |Application |Amount B |
| |( in Lacs) | |(in Lacs) |
|Proceeds from borrowings |162.37 |Loss from operation |185.27 |
|Sale of assets |27.34 |Change in cash |5.01 |
|Total |190.28 | |190.28 |

Summary of Cash Flow Analysis
a) Cash from operation to total cash available = 185.31/190.28 = 97.38%
b) Cash from long term sources to total cash available = 162.37/190.28 = 85.33%
c) Proceeds from sale of non-current assets to total cash = 17 14/19028 = 0.90%

Schedule of Changes in Working Capital

|Particulars |Amount |Changes in Working Capital |
| |(in lacs) | |
| |Dec’2005 |Dec’2006 |Increase |Decrease |
| | | |(Debit) |(Credit) |
|Current Assets | | | | |
|Inventories |93.87 |146.36 |52.48 |- |
|Sundry Debtors |123.22 |114.71 |- |8.51 |
|Cash and Bank |10.64 |5.63 |- |5.01 |
|balances | | | | |
|Other current assets |20.14 |21.66 |1.52 |- |
| |247.87 |288.36 | | |
|Current Liabilities |137.02 |116.07 |20.95 |- |
|Working capital (CA-CL) |110.85 |172.29 | | |
|Increase in Working Capital |61.44 |- | |61.44 |
| |172.29 |172.29 | | |
| | | |74.96 |74.96 |

Fund Flow Statement (2005-06)

|Sources |Amount A |Application |Amount B |
| |(in lacs) | |(in Lacs) |
|Increase in loan |162.37 |Increase in working capital |61.44 |
|Sale of asset |22.94 |Loss from operation |123.87 |
|Total |185.31 |185.31 | |

Summary of Fund Flow Analysis
1. Increase in net working capital — 61.44
2. Funds from operations to finance permanent address (123.87)
3. Ratio of fund flow from operations to total funds in the business (-) 123.87/85.31 = (66.85)

Interpretation (Fund Flow Statement)
1. Networking capital has been increased over the years, which has increased liquidity
2. Company should take corrective actions to covert loss from operation to funds from operation.
CH NO. 4: COMPANY PROFILE

CREATING BANKING HISTORY

Established in 1985, The Kotak Mahindra group has long been one of India's most reputed financial organizations. In February 2006, Kotak Mahindra Finance Ltd, the group's flagship company was given the license to carry on banking business by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). This approval creates banking history since Kotak Mahindra Finance Ltd. is the first company in India to convert to a bank.

The Complete Bank
At Kotak Mahindra Bank, we address the entire spectrum of financial needs for individuals and corporates. We have the products, the experience, the infrastructure and most importantly the commitment to deliver pragmatic, end-to-end solutions that really work.
* A license authorizing the bank to carry on banking business has been obtained from the Reserve Bank of India in terms of Section 22 if the Banking Regulation Act, 1949. It must be distinctly understood, however, that in issuing the license, the Reserve Bank of India does not undertake any responsibility for the financial soundness of the bank or the correctness of any of the statements made or opinion expressed in this connection.

The Kotak Mahindra Group
Kotak Mahindra is one of India's leading financial conglomerates, offering complete financial solutions that encompass every sphere of life. From commercial banking, to stock broking, to mutual funds, to life insurance, to investment banking, the group caters to the financial needs of individuals and corporates.
The group has a net worth of over Rs. 3,200 crore, employs around 10,800 people in its various businesses and has a distribution network of branches, franchisees, representative offices and satellite offices across 300 cities and towns in India and offices in New York, London, Dubai, Mauritius and Singapore. The Group services around 2.6 million customer accounts.

Our Story
The Kotak Mahindra Group was born in 1985 as Kotak Capital Management Finance Limited. This company was promoted by Uday Kotak, Sidney A. A. Pinto and Kotak & Company. Industrialists Harish Mahindra and Anand Mahindra took a stake in 1986, and that's when the company changed its name to Kotak Mahindra Finance Limited.
Since then it's been a steady and confident journey to growth and success.

|1986 |Kotak Mahindra Finance Limited starts the activity of Bill Discounting |
|1987 |Kotak Mahindra Finance Limited enters the Lease and Hire Purchase market |
|1990 |The Auto Finance division is started |
|1991 |The Investment Banking Division is started. Takes over FICOM, one of India's largest financial retail marketing |
| |networks |
|1992 |Enters the Funds Syndication sector |
|1995 |Brokerage and Distribution businesses incorporated into a separate company - Kotak Securities. Investment Banking |
| |division incorporated into a separate company - Kotak Mahindra Capital Company |
|1996 |The Auto Finance Business is hived off into a separate company - Kotak Mahindra Prime Limited (formerly known as |
| |Kotak Mahindra Primus Limited). Kotak Mahindra takes a significant stake in Ford Credit Kotak Mahindra Limited, for |
| |financing Ford vehicles. The launch of Matrix Information Services Limited marks the Group's entry into information |
| |distribution. |
|1998 |Enters the mutual fund market with the launch of Kotak Mahindra Asset Management Company. |
|2000 |Kotak Mahindra ties up with Old Mutual plc. for the Life Insurance business. |
| |Kotak Securities launches its on-line broking site (now www.kotaksecurities.com). Commencement of private equity |
| |activity through setting up of Kotak Mahindra Venture Capital Fund. |
|2004 |Matrix sold to Friday Corporation Launches Insurance Services. |
|2006 |Kotak Mahindra Finance Ltd. converts to a commercial bank - the first Indian company to do so. |
|2004 |Launches India Growth Fund, a private equity fund. |
|2005 |Kotak Group realigns joint venture in Ford Credit; Buys Kotak Mahindra Prime (formerly known as Kotak Mahindra Primus|
| |Limited) and sells Ford credit Kotak Mahindra. |
| |Launches a real estate fund |
|2006 |Bought the 25% stake held by Goldman Sachs in Kotak Mahindra Capital Company and Kotak Securities |

CH NO. 5: INDUSTRY PROFILE

Our Corporate Identity
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Kotak Mahindra Bank
At Kotak Mahindra Bank, we address the entire spectrum of financial needs for individuals and corporates. We have the products, the experience, the infrastructure and most importantly the commitment to deliver pragmatic, end-to-end solutions that really work.

Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance Ltd.
Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance is a 76:24 joint venture between Kotak Mahindra Bank Ltd. and Old Mutual plc. Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance is one of the fastest growing insurance companies in India and has shown remarkable growth since its inception in 2004.
Old Mutual, a company with 160 years experience in life insurance, is an international financial services group listed on the London Stock Exchange and included in the FTSE 100 list of companies, with assets under management worth $ 400 Billion as on 30th June, 2006. For customers, this joint venture translates into a company that combines international expertise with the understanding of the local market.
Every child is different. Each has their own set of dreams and aspirations. As a parent you would like to provide your child with all the building blocks that could develop his or her potential to the fullest. This could mean extra coaching or tuition for talented children, special training or equipment for natural athletes or professional training for born singers.

❖ HEADSTART CHILD PLANS A specially tailored, cost-effective plan, aims to give your children the financial means to pursue his or her dreams and live them.

The Headstart Advantage: • Choice of 2 plan variants o Future Protect o Assure Wealth • Maximizes wealth while providing protection • Joint life option • Save for 2 children with one plan • Additional bonus units • Flexible Withdrawal

Life is unpredictable, but the earlier you start planning for your future, the more likely are you and your family to reap the rewards.

❖ SUKHI JEEVAN
It is a long-term savings and protection plan that keeps pace with your changing needs at every step of life - be it saving for your kids’ future, or your retirement. This plan helps you prepare for important milestones in your life. And, most importantly, it ensures your family is secure when life dishes up harsh misfortunes.

Benefits • Fulfill your children’s dreams or plan your retirement • Small savings to meet your varying needs • Regular bonuses • Easy application: o Simple documentation o No medical tests* o Hassle–free sign-up • Premium payment options: yearly, half-yearly or monthly (through ECS only)

❖ KOTAK PRIVILEGED ASSURANCE PLAN
“In this policy, the investment risk in the investment portfolio is borne by the policyholder.”
Kotak Privileged Assurance Plan is exclusively crafted to ensure that while your money is protected, it multiplies. Concocting the best mix of steady and stable growth with dynamic and flexible management of your funds, the plan strives to give you that extra bit of return, protection and flexibility, in a single plan made specially for discerning customers like you. The plan offers you access to two# funds to provide you avenue for growth while offering you Capital Guarantee.
Please note that in this policy, the investment risk in the investment portfolio is to be borne by the policyholder. However, Kotak Life Insurance offers you a capital guarantee on this plan to safeguard against the downside risk of falling markets.
"Why should you invest in the Kotak Privileged Assurance Plan?"
This plan is ideal if you want • Low cost structure on an investment plus insurance package • A short investment horizon • Flexibility of investment amounts • Protection of your hard earned money • Aggressive growth with calculated risks • Smart protection for your family
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❖ KOTAK TERM PLAN
Kotak Term Plan is a pure risk product that aims to cover your life at a nominal cost. You may want to take this plan to cover your outstanding debts like a mortgage, a home loan etc. Since this is a pure risk cover product, there is no maturity benefits payable on survival. This is a non-participating plan.

"Who can avail of this plan?" • How old do you have to be to avail of this plan? Minimum age - 18 years Maximum age - 60 years

• For what term can I avail of this plan? 10 - 30 years for regular premium 5 - 30 years for single premium • What is the minimum premium that I need to pay and at what intervals can I pay them? Quarterly Rs.540 Half Yearly Rs.1055 Annually Rs.2000 Single Premium Rs.10000

• What is the maximum age that the plan can cover you till? 70 years

"What are the advantages of this plan?" 1. It is a low-cost insurance plan. 2. You can choose between a regular premium payment option or a single premium payment option. 3. In case you opt for the regular premium payment option, you may pay your premiums either annually, or in half yearly or quarterly installments. 4. Your Kotak Term Plan can be converted into any other plan offered by Kotak Life Insurance (except for another Term plan) provided there are at least 5 years before cover ceases*. 5. In case you forget to pay your premium by the due date, you are entitled to a grace period of 30 days from the date of unpaid premiums. 6. In case of a financial emergency, you have the option to surrender the policy provided you have taken the single premium payment option*.

"What value-adds can you opt for?"
You may avail of the following non-participating value-adds for a nominal premium at the time of taking your policy, subject to aggregate premium on all value-adds (except Critical Illness Benefit) not exceeding 30% of the basic Kotak Term Plan premium.

➢ Accidental Death Benefit: This benefit provides an additional amount (over and above the basic sum assured) to the beneficiary in the event of the accidental death of the life insured. The maximum cover available under this rider is equal to the basic sum assured (subject to a maximum of Rs.10 lakhs).

➢ Permanent Disability Benefit: This benefit can be added to your basic life insurance policy to provide financial support in case of disability due to an accident. The amount payable under this benefit would be paid out as an annuity. The maximum permanent disability benefit that you can avail of is equal to the basic sum assured (subject to a maximum of Rs.10 lakhs). ➢ Critical Illness Benefit: This benefit can be added to your basic life insurance policy to provide financial support in the event of a medical emergency. On the first occurrence of critical illness during the term of the policy, you would receive a portion of the sum assured to reduce your financial burden in this emergency.

"What do you receive on maturity of the policy?"
Since this is a pure risk cover plan, there are no maturity benefits.

"What happens in the event of death of the life insured?"
In the event of death during the term of the policy, the beneficiary would receive the sum assured.

"Are there any Tax Benefits?"
Section 80C, 10(10D) of Income Tax Act would apply. Premiums paid for Critical Illness Benefit qualify for benefits under Section 80D. These benefits are as per the currently prevailing tax regulations and you are advised to consult your tax advisor for details.
"How does this plan work?"
To explain, how his plan works….
Mr. Sanjay Gupta, a 30-year-old male, decides to buy the Kotak Term Plan for a sum assured of Rs.10, 00,000 for a 10 year term. The annual premium that Mr.Gupta pays is Rs.3, 747 annually. In the event of his unfortunate death during the next ten years, his family would receive Rs.10, 00,000.
In the illustration, some benefits are guaranteed and some are variable. Guaranteed Returns are marked "guaranteed" in the illustration. Variable returns are shown at two different rates of assumed future returns. These assumed rates of return are not guaranteed and they are not the upper or lower limits of what you might get back .The actual return may be different depending on a number of factors including future investment performance.

"What do you do next?"
To find out more about this plan, you can call us at any Kotak Life Insurance Branch Offices or send us an e-mail at lifeexpert@kotak.com.

"Exclusions"
In case the life insured commits suicide within 1 (one) year of the plan, no benefits outlined in the plan would be payable.

Exclusions for Accidental Death Benefit, Permanent Disability Benefit & Critical Illness Benefit: he Accidental Death Benefit, Permanent Disability Benefit & Critical Illness Benefit would not be paid out in the following circumstances:
a) Self inflicted injuries, suicide, insanity, immorality, committing any breach of law or being under the influence of drugs, liquor etc.
b) When the life insured is engaged in aviation or aeronautics other than as a passenger on a licensed commercial aircraft operating on a scheduled route.
c) Due to injuries from war (whether war is declared or not), invasion, hunting, other dangerous hobbies or activities, or having been on duty in military, para-military, security or police organization.

Additional Exclusions for Critical Illness:
a) Unreasonable failure to seek or follow medical advice.
b) Any pre-existing medical conditions not disclosed at inception.
c) Infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or conditions due to acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
In addition, no benefit would be paid in respect of the exclusions specific to each critical illness.

"Prohibition of Rebates"
Section 41 of the Insurance Act, 1938 states: - 1) No person shall allow or offer to allow, either directly or indirectly, as an inducement to any person to take out or renew or continue an insurance in respect of any kind of risk relating to lives or property in India, any rebate of the whole or part of the commission payable or any rebate of the premium shown on the policy, nor shall any person taking out or renewing or continuing a policy accept any rebate, except such rebate as may be allowed in accordance with the published prospectuses or tables of the insurer. 2) Any person making default in complying with the provision of this section shall be punishable with fine, which may extend to five hundred rupees. The product leaflet gives only the salient features of the plan. The policy document is the conclusive document, and provides in detail all the conditions relating to the Kotak Term Plan.

❖ KOTAK PREFFERED TERM PLAN
The Kotak Preferred Term Plan is designed to provide you with reduced premium rates for a sum assured of Rs.10 lakhs and above.

"Who is eligible for Kotak Preferred Term Plan?"
1) Males over the age of 18 years, who do not use tobacco in any form.
2) Females over the age of 18 years.

"What are the advantages of this plan?" • It is a low-cost insurance plan. • You can choose between a regular premium payment option or a single premium payment option. In case you opt for the regular premium payment option, you may pay your premiums either annually, or in half yearly or quarterly installments. • Your Kotak Term Plan can be converted into any other plan offered by Kotak Life Insurance (except for another Term plan) provided there are at least 5 years before cover ceases*. • In case you forget to pay your premium by the due date, you are entitled to a grace period of 30 days from the date of unpaid premiums. • In case of a financial emergency, you have the option to surrender the policy provided you have taken the single premium payment option*.

"What value-adds can you opt for?"
You may avail of the following non-participating value-adds for a nominal premium at the time of taking your policy, subject to aggregate premium on all value-adds (except Critical Illness Benefit) not exceeding 30% of the basic Kotak Term Plan premium.

➢ Accidental Death Benefit: This benefit provides an additional amount (over and above the basic sum assured) to the beneficiary in the event of the accidental death of the life insured. The maximum cover available under this rider is equal to the basic sum assured (subject to a maximum of Rs.10 lakhs). ➢ Permanent Disability Benefit: This benefit can be added to your basic life insurance policy to provide financial support in case of disability due to an accident. The amount payable under this benefit would be paid out as an annuity. The maximum permanent disability benefit that you can avail of is equal to the basic sum assured (subject to a maximum of Rs.10 lakhs). Permanent disability is defined as permanent and immediate inability to work or permanent loss of use of two limbs or total and permanent loss of sight. ➢ Critical Illness Benefit: This benefit can be added to your basic life insurance policy to provide financial support in the event of a medical emergency. On the first occurrence of critical illness during the term of the policy, you would receive a portion of the sum assured to reduce your financial burden in this emergency.

"What do you receive on maturity of the policy?"
Since this is a pure risk cover plan, there are no maturity benefits.

"What happens in the event of death of the life insured?"
In the event of death during the term of the policy, the beneficiary would receive the sum assured.

"Are there any Tax Benefits?"
Section 80C, 10(10D) of Income Tax Act would apply. Premiums paid for Critical Illness Benefit qualify for benefits under Section 80D. These benefits are as per the currently prevailing tax regulations and you are advised to consult your tax advisor for details.
* Please consult your tax advisor for details

"How does this plan work?"
Mr.Rajiv Sharma, 30 years old, is eligible for the Kotak Preferred Term Plan. He decides to take up this policy for a sum assured of Rs.10, 00,000 for a term of 10 years. His annual premium would be Rs.2, 645. In case of Mr. Sharma’s unfortunate death during the next ten years, his family would receive Rs.10, 00,000.
In the illustration, some benefits are guaranteed and some are variable. Guaranteed Returns are marked "guaranteed" in the illustration. Variable returns are shown at two different rates of assumed future returns. These assumed rates of return are not guaranteed and they are not the upper or lower limits of what you might get back .The actual return may be different depending on a number of factors including future investment performance.

"What do you do next?"
To find out more about this plan, you can call us at any Kotak Life Insurance Branch Offices or send us an e-mail at lifeexpert@kotak.com.
"Exclusions"
In case the life insured commits suicide within 1 (one) year of the plan, no benefits outlined in the plan would be payable.

Exclusions for Accidental Death Benefit, Permanent Disability Benefit & Critical Illness Benefit:
The Accidental Death Benefit, Permanent Disability Benefit & Critical Illness Benefit would not be paid out in the following circumstances: a) Self inflicted injuries, suicide, insanity, immortality, committing any breach of law or being under the influence of drugs, liquor etc. b) When the life insured is engaged in aviation or aeronautics other than as a passenger on a licensed commercial aircraft operating on a scheduled route. c) Due to injuries from war (whether war is declared or not), invasion, hunting, other dangerous hobbies or activities, or having been on duty in military, para-military, security or police organization.
Additional Exclusions for Critical Illness: a) Unreasonable failure to seek or follow medical advice. b) Any pre-existing medical conditions not disclosed at inception. c) Infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or conditions due to acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
In addition, no benefit would be paid in respect of the exclusions specific to each critical illness.

"Prohibition of Rebates"
Section 41 of the Insurance Act, 1938 states: - 1) No person shall allow or offer to allow, either directly or indirectly, as an inducement to any person to take out or renew or continue an insurance in respect of any kind of risk relating to lives or property in India, any rebate of the whole or part of the commission payable or any rebate of the premium shown on the policy, nor shall any person taking out or renewing or continuing a policy accept any rebate, except such rebate as may be allowed in accordance with the published prospectuses or tables of the insurer. 2) Any person making default in complying with the provision of this section shall be punishable with fine, which may extend to five hundred rupees.

How to live for today and plan for an independent tomorrow.

❖ KOTAK MONEY BACK PLAN
The Kotak Money Back Plan not only covers your life, it also assures you a certain percent of the sum assured as cash payment at regular intervals of every 5 years. It is a savings plan with the added advantage of life cover and regular cash inflow. This plan is ideal for planning special moments like a wedding, your child's education or purchase of an asset etc. This is a participating plan (with profits).

"Who can avail of this Plan?"

• How old do you have to be to avail of this plan? Minimum age- 18 years Maximum age- 60 years

• For what term can I avail of this plan? 15, 20 & 25 years

• What is the maximum age that the plan can cover you till? 75 years

"What are the advantages of this plan?" 1. The plan not only covers your life but also provides you with a survival benefit payout every 5 years. 2. In the unfortunate event of death of life insured, the beneficiary would receive the death benefit. The death benefit keeps increases by 7% of the sum assured every year. 3. On maturity, you would receive the sum of the Survival Benefit, Bonus addition* and Guaranteed addition**.

*Bonus addition is the amount in the Accumulation Account, in excess of the sum assured. Accumulation Account is your personal account in which the premiums that you pay are deposited, the return declared every year is added and the survival benefit payouts, risk and expense charges are deducted. Guaranteed addition is the guaranteed amount payable on maturity, over and above the Survival Benefit.

4. The amount available in the Accumulation Account is invested in various financial instruments (as per IRDA regulations) so your money works hard for you. 5. The Automatic Cover Maintenance facility ensures the policy remains in force even if you miss premium payments. This facility is available after the first three years of the term. 6. You have the benefit of a 15-day free look period. 7. You have the option of paying premiums quarterly, half yearly or yearly.

"What value-adds can you opt for?"
You may avail of the following value-adds for a nominal premium at the time of taking the plan, subject to the aggregate premium on all value-adds not exceeding 30% of the basic Kotak Money Back Plan premium.

➢ Term Benefit/ Preferred Term Benefit: In the event of death during the term of this benefit, the beneficiary would receive an additional death benefit amount, which is over and above the sum assured. The maximum Term Benefit you can avail of is equal to the basic sum assured. Where the term benefit cover applied for is more than Rs 10 lakhs, better rates may apply, subject to meeting eligibility requirements. ➢ Accidental Death Benefit: This benefit provides an additional amount (over and above the sum assured) to the beneficiary in the event accidental death of the life insured. The maximum cover available under this benefit is equal to the basic sum assured (subject to a maximum of Rs.10 lakhs). ➢ Permanent Disability Benefit: This benefit can be added to the basic life insurance plan to provide financial support in case of permanent disability due to an accident. The amount payable under this benefit would be paid out as an annuity. The maximum permanent disability benefit that you can avail of is equal to the basic sum assured (subject to a maximum of Rs.10 lakhs). Permanent disability is defined as permanent and immediate inability to work or permanent loss of use of two limbs or total and permanent loss of sight. ➢ Critical Illness Benefit: This benefit can be added to the basic life insurance plan to provide financial support in the event of medical emergencies. On the first occurrence of critical illness during the term of the policy, you would receive a portion of the sum assured to reduce your financial burden in this emergency. *Please contact our Life Advisor for the list of critical illnesses ➢ Life Guardian Benefit: This benefit can be availed of, only in case where the life insured and the proposer are two different individuals. In case of the unfortunate death of the proposer, this benefit keeps the policy alive by waiving all future premiums on the policy. ➢ Accidental Disability Guardian Benefit: In case the proposer is permanently disabled as a result of an accident, this benefit keeps the policy alive by waiving all future premiums on the policy.

"What do you receive on maturity of this plan?"
On maturity, you would receive the sum of the Survival benefit, Guaranteed addition and Bonus addition. The table below illustrates the survival benefit pay out for every Rs.1000 of sum assured.
Survival Benefit
Payout for every Rs. 1000 Sum Assured
Payouts (in Rs.)
|5th year |10th year |15th year |20th year |25th year |15-year Plan |

Survival Benefit
|250 |250 |500 |

Guaranteed Addition
|- |- |200* |20-year Plan |

Survival Benefit
|200 |200 |200 |400 |

Guaranteed Addition
|- |- |- |300* |25-year Plan |

Survival benefit
|150 |150 |150 |150 |400 |

Guaranteed Addition
|- |- |- |- |400* |

*The Bonus Addition, if any, is payable over and above these benefits.

"What happens in the event of death of the life insured?"
In the unfortunate event of the death during the term of the plan, the beneficiary would receive the death benefit. The death benefit increases by 7% of the sum assured each year. This increasing amount has been designed keeping in mind the rising inflation.

Death Benefit payout for every Rs. 1000 Sum Assured
Payouts (in Rs.)
Term
|1st year |2nd year |
|For what term can i avail of this plan? |10-30 years |
|What is the maximum age that the plan can cover you till? |75 years |

"What are the advantages of this plan?" 1. On maturity, you would receive the sum assured plus the bonus addition. Bonus addition is the amount in the Accumulation Account*, in excess of the sum assured. Accumulation Account is your personal account, in which the premiums that you pay are deposited, the return declared every year is added and risk and expense charges are deducted. 2. The amount available in the Accumulation Account is invested in various financial instruments (as per IRDA regulations) so your money works harder for you. 3. The Automatic Cover Maintenance facility ensures the policy remains in force even if you miss premium payments. This facility is available after the first three years of the term. 4. You can take a loan against your policy, after the policy has been in force for at least three years. 5. You have the option of paying premiums quarterly, half yearly or yearly. You also have the flexibility to pay premiums through the full term of the policy or pay it for a fixed term of 3, 5, 7, 10 or 15 years. 6. You have the benefit of a 15-day free look period.

"What value-adds can you opt for?"
You may avail of the following value-adDs for a nominal premium at the time of taking the plan, subject to the aggregate premium on all value-adds not exceeding 30% of the basic plan premium. ➢ Term Benefit / Preferred Term Benefit: In the event of death during the term of this benefit, the beneficiary would receive an additional death benefit amount, which is over and above the sum assured. The maximum term benefit you can avail of is equal to the basic sum assured. Where the Term Benefit cover applied for is more than Rs.10 lakhs, better rates may apply, subject to meeting eligibility requirements. ➢ Accidental Death Benefit: This benefit provides an additional amount (over and above the basic sum assured) to the beneficiary in the event of the accidental death of the life insured. The maximum cover available under this benefit is equal to the basic sum assured (subject to a maximum of Rs.10 lakhs). ➢ Permanent Disability Benefit: This benefit provides financial support in case of your permanent disability due to an accident. The amount payable is over and above the basic sum assured and would be paid out as an annuity. The maximum Permanent Disability Benefit that you can avail of is equal to the basic sum assured (subject to a maximum of Rs.10 lakhs). Permanent disability is defined as a permanent and immediate inability to work, the permanent loss of use of two limbs or a total and permanent loss of sight. ➢ Critical Illness Benefit: This benefit can be taken with the basic life insurance policy to provide financial support in the event of medical emergencies. On the first occurrence of critical illness during the term of the policy, you would receive a portion of the sum assured to reduce your financial burden in this emergency. The maximum Critical Illness Benefit that you can avail of is equal to half the basic sum assured subject to maximum of Rs. 20 lakhs. ➢ Life Guardian Benefit: This benefit can be availed of, only in a case where the life insured and the proposer are two different individuals. In case of the unfortunate death of the proposer, this benefit keeps the policy alive by waiving all future premiums on the policy. ➢ Accidental Disability Guardian Benefit: In case the proposer is permanently disabled as a result of an accident, this benefit keeps the policy alive by waiving all future premiums on the policy. This benefit is available also where the life insured is the proposer.

"What happens in the event of death of the life insured?"
In the event of death of the life insured during the term of the plan, the beneficiary would receive the sum assured or the amount in the Accumulation Account, whichever is higher.

"Are there any Tax Benefits?"
Section 80C, 10(10D) of Income Tax Act would apply. Premiums paid for Critical Illness Benefit qualify for benefits under Section 80D. These benefits are as per the currently prevailing tax regulations and you are advised to consult your tax advisor for details.

"How does this plan work?"
Mr. Sanjay Gupta, who is 30 years old, decides to buy a Kotak Endowment Plan for a sum assured of Rs. 5,00,000 for a 20-year term for his wife, who is aged 28. Mr. Gupta decides to take the Life Guardian Benefit as a rider to the plan. He does this to provide enhanced security and protection to his wife.

The annual premiums paid by Mr. Gupta are as follows
| |Amount (Rs.) |
|[pic] |
|Kotak Endowment Plan Premium |22,552 |
|[pic] |
|Life Guardian Benefit Premium |1,106 |
|[pic] |
|Total Annual Premium Paid |23,658 |

i) What would be the payout maturity?
On maturity Sanjay Gupta would receive the sum assured or Accumulation Account, whichever is higher.
Assuming that the Accumulation Account grows at a rate of 6%, the payout on maturity would be Rs. 6,93,800. At a growth rate of 10%, the maturity amount payable would be Rs. 10,97,700.

ii) What would happen in the event of Mr.Gupta’s unfortunate death at the end of 10th year?
Since Mr. Gupta is the proposer on Mrs. Gupta’s policy and has availed of the Life Guardian Benefit, all future premiums on Mrs. Gupta’s policy would be waived. Thereafter the policy will continue as if the premiums are being paid regularly. On maturity of her policy Mrs. Gupta would receive amounts as discussed above.*

* Assuming that the Accumulation Account grows at 6% and 10% respectively p.a.

In the illustration, some benefits are guaranteed and some are variable. Guaranteed Returns are marked "guaranteed" in the illustration. Variable returns are shown at two different rates of assumed future returns. These assumed rates of return are not guaranteed and they are not the upper or lower limits of what you might get back .The actual return may be different depending on a number of factors including future investment performance.

CH NO. 6: SWOT ANALYSIS

STRENGTHS • Market position is strong • Aggressive foreign bank • Shareholders return has grown more than 7 times • Maintains a position as a leading Asian Cash Management provider • Brand – Kotak Bank modern and dynamic look appeals to the growing middle income earners • Improved product proposition • Better geographic balances

WEAKNESS • HDFC, IDBI, ABN-AMBRO, Citibank and ICICI Bank are dominant players • Has disadvantage due to last entry • Fewer locations as compared to other MNC banks • Service delivery perception is weak

OPPORTUNITIES • Branch expansion for rapid growth • Increase focus on value creation in whole banking • Improve shareholders return • Build market share in consumer banking as consumer banking continues to offer highest potential for growth • Broadening of the demographic base • Tie ups with master card networks • Integrated sales and service approach • Can offer a complete corporate package under proposed corporate relationship •
THREATS
• ICICI is pitching in quite aggressively • Citibank is expanding in new markets • Competitive products and offers from IDBI and HDFC • Proposed networking of all branches in next 6 months
CH NO. 7: DATA COLLECTION

A semi-structured kind of questionnaire was designed which contain both open- ended and multiple choice questions.
The questionnaire designed was to provide dual information sharing type, it is seriously undertaken that anyone who in undergoing the process, should find his interest or else he might show disinterest towards the programme. Actually, I have been dressing my project as the awareness programme. This awareness programme provided all those filling up of the questionnaire with enough information about the services of the Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance. Thus the questionnaire was equally important both ways to the customers as well as to the bank to draw out its prospects.
The questionnaire designed to know the potential of the customer and help as a successful programme visiting the offices and small business enterprises without pre-appointment also provided me with information about that they demand from a new bank where they would prefer to open an account.
For those already holding a relationship with the Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance, shared with me their opinion about the back and its services as well as suggestions were also obtained from them of how to attract more potentiality for the bank.

SAMPLING PLAN

I have been assigned to visit the offices and small business firms in Delhi. I was free to choose my area. Hence I choose areas near the Bank or places where I could feel greater prospects, such a places where small shopping malls or new business firms have come out and over the industrial belts where several offices could be found out.
The sample areas I choose was the following: • Noida • Punjabi Bagh • Lawrence Road • Gurgaon
I was advised not to visit the bigger companies because they were not our target customers.

FIELD WORK PLAN

The field work was carried according the sampling plan formed. I visited the offices and small business enterprises /firms under my own limitations and time constraint at the following places. a) Noida b) Punjabi Bagh c) Lawrence Road d) Gurgaon
At some of the offices appointment were already made while at many places I visited, without pre-appointments.
The main motive for these visits was to identify the potential customers or the potential market. A two-way discussion was done through which the customers were made aware of the services of Kotak Mahindra. The questionnaires are either directly filled up or indirectly filled up by the people through this as well as the prospect of the areas as such were these campaigns were put up.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Kotak Mahindra Life Insurance Ltd...
Profit & Loss Account for the year ended 31St Dec, 2005

| |Current Year |Previous Year |
| |31st Dec. 05 |31st Dec 04 |
| |(in lakhs) |(in lakhs) |
|Income | | |
|Sales |1,134.22 |785.65 |
|Other Income |25.32 |21.33 |
| |1159.54 |806.98 |
|Expenditure | | |
|Materials consumed |738.73 |526.15 |
|Personnel Expenses |87.3 |70.36 |
|Depreciation |30.01 |29.93 |
|Financial Charges |26.72 |55.68 |
|Excise duty |130.87 |101.14 |
|Misc. Expenditure |18.33 |19.87 |
| |1198.26 |953.49 |
|Loss for the year before extra ordinary |(38.72) |(146.51) |
|items and prior period adjustments | | |
|Extra-ordinary items | | |
|- Expenses on abandoned projects |- |(2.15) |
|Assets w\off | |(6.64) |
|Pension liability |(5.14) |- |
|Prior period adjustments |(0.30) |(1.50) |
|Expenses of extraordinary items |44.16 |156.80 |
|Loss bought forward from previous years |(324.23) |(167.43) |
|Balance carried to the B/S |(368.39) |(324.23) |

Balance Sheet as at 31 Dec 2005

| |As on 31st Dec 05 |As on 31st Dec 04 |
| |(In Lacs) |(In Lacs) |
|Source of Funds | | |
|Shareholders funds | | |
|Share capital |734.20 |834.20 |
|Reserve and surplus |21.00 | |
| |755.20 |855.20 |
|Loan Funds | | |
|Secured loans |198.09 |217.96 |
|Unsecured loans |0.04 |2.95 |
| |198.13 |220.91 |
| |953.33 |976.11 |
|Application of funds | | |
|Fixed Asset | | |
|Gross block |520.94 |493.93 |
|Less: Depreciation |125.09 |95.21 |
| |395.85 |398.72 |
|Capital W.I.P. |1.58 |2.69 |
|Net book value |397.43 |401.41 |
|Investments |0.10 |- |
|Current Assets, Loans and Advances | | |
|Inventories |93.87 |129.57 |
|Sundry Debtors |123.22 |82.75 |
|Cash& Bank Balances |10.64 |82.20 |
|Other current Assets |20.14 |11.42 |
|Loans and advances |47.06 |45.68 |
| |294.93 |351.62 |

| |As at Dec 31 2005 |As at Dec 31.2004 |
|Less: Current Liabilities Provisions | | |
|Current Liabilities |137.02 |143.68 |
|Provisions |15.73 |8.56 |
| |152.75 |152.24 |
|Net current assets |142.18 |199.38 |
|Miscellaneous Expenditure (Total extent |45.23 |51.09 |
|not written off adjusted) | | |
|Profit and loss |368.39 |324.23 |
| |953.33 |1076.11 |

Profit & Loss Account for the year ended 31st Dec, 2006

| |Current Year 31 Dec 06 |Previous Year 31 |
| |(In Lacs) |Dec 05 |
| | |(In Lacs) |
|Income | | |
|Sales |903.92 |1134.22 |
|Other Income |34.09 |25.32 |
| |987.04 |1159.54 |
|Expenditure | | |
|Materials Consumed |621.23 |738.73 |
|Personnel Expenses |104.58 |87.33 |
|Mfg Other expenses |172.48 |166.27 |
|Dep / Amortisation |34.38 |30.01 |
|Financial Charges |30.57 |26.72 |
|Excise duty |120.04 |130.87 |
|Mis Expenditure W/off |20.28 |18.33 |
| |1224.32 |1198.26 |
|Loss for the year before extra ordinary items and prior period |(116.88) |(38.72) |
|adjustments | | |
|Extra ordinary items: | | |
|Expenses on abandoned project W/off |-- |-- |
|Assets W/off |-- |-- |
|Pension liability |-- |5.14 |
|Prior period adjustments |-- |0.30 |
|Loss after prior pd. Exp. & extra-ord. Items. |(116.88) |(44.16) |
|Loss b/f from early years |(368.39) |(324.23) |
|Less: Amt. Adjusted against Cap. Reduction300 |(68.39) |--- |
|Loss: c/f to B/S |(185.27) |(368.39) |

Balance Sheet as at 31 Dec 2006

|Sources Of Funds |31 Dec 06 (Lacs) |31 Dec 05 (Lacs) |
|Shareholders Fund | | |
|Capital |434.20 |734.20 |
|Reserves & Surplus |21.00 |21.00 |
| |455.20 |755.20 |
|Loan Funds | | |
|Secured loans |360.46 |198.09 |
|Unsecured loans |-- |0.04 |
|Application of Funds | | |
|Fixed Assets | | |
|Gross Block |530.59 |520.94 |
|Less: Dep. |153.55 |125.09 |
|Net Block |377.04 |395.85 |
|Capital work in progress inc. capital advances. |3.25 |1.58 |
| |380.29 |397.43 |
|Investments |0.10 |0.10 |
|Current assets, Loans & Advances | | |
|Inventories |146.36 |93.87 |
|Sundry Debtors |114.71 |123.22 |
|Cash & Bank Balances |5.63 |10.64 |
|Other current Assets. |21.66 |20.14 |
|Loans & Advances |44.39 |47.06 |
|Less: Current liabilities & Provisions | | |
|Liabilities |116.07 |137.02 |
|Provisions |14.11 |15.73 |
|Net Current Assets |130.18 |152.75 |
|Misc. Expenditure |47.43 |45.23 |
|(To the extent not w/off) | | |
|Profit & Loss A/c |185.27 |368.39 |
|Total: |815.66 |953.33 |

CH NO. 8: WORKING CAPITAL- OVERALL VIEW

CASH MANAGEMENT

Cash is the important current asset for the operations of the business. Cash is the basic input needed to keep the business running on a continuous basis It is also the ultimate output expected to be realised by selling the service or product manufactured by the firm. The firm should keep sufficient cash, neither more nor less. Cash shortage will disrupt the firm’s operations while excessive cash will simply remain idle, without contributing anything towards the firm’s profitability. Thus a major function of the Financial Manager is to maintain a sound cash position.
Cash is the money which a firm can disburse immediately without any restriction The term cash includes currency and cheques held by the firm and balances in its bank accounts. Sometimes near cash items, such as marketable securities or bank time deposits are also included in cash. The basic characteristics of near cash assets are that they can readily be converted into cash. Cash management is concerned with managing of:

i) Cash flows in and out of the firm ii) Cash flows within the firm iii) Cash balances held by the firm at a point of time by financing deficit or inverting surplus cash.
Sales generate cash which has to be disbursed out. The surplus cash has to be invested while deficit cash has to be borrowed. Cash management seeks to accomplish this cycle at a minimum cost. At the same time it also seeks to achieve liquidity and control. Therefore the aim of Cash Management is to maintain adequate control over cash position to keep firm sufficiently liquid and to use excess cash in some profitable way.
The Cash Management is also important because it is difficult to predict cash flows accurately. Particularly the inflows and that there is no perfect coincidence between the inflows and outflows of the cash. During some periods cash outflows will exceed cash inflows because payment for taxes, dividends or seasonal inventory build up etc. On the other hand cash inflows will be more than cash payment because there may be large cash sales and more debtors’ realization at any point of time. Cash Management is also important because cash constitutes the smallest portion of the current assets, yet management’s considerable time is devoted in managing it. An obvious aim of the firm now-a-days is to manage its cash affairs in such a way as to keep cash balance at a minimum level and to invest the surplus cash funds in profitable opportunities. In order to resolve the uncertainty about cash flow prediction and lack of synchronization between cash receipts and payments, the firm should develop appropriate strategies regarding the following four facets of cash management.

1. Cash Planning: - Cash inflows and cash outflows should be planned to project cash surplus or deficit for each period of the planning period. Cash budget should prepared for this purpose.
2. Managing the cash flows: - The flow of cash should be properly managed. The cash inflows should be accelerated while, as far as possible decelerating the cash outflows.
3. Optimum cash level: - The firm should decide about the appropriate level of cash balances. The cost of excess cash and danger of cash deficiency should be matched to determine the optimum level of cash balances.
4. Investing surplus cash: - The surplus cash balance should be properly invested to earn profits. The firm should decide about the division of such cash balance between bank deposits, marketable securities and inter corporate lending.

The ideal Cash Management system will depend on the firm’s products, organisation structure, competition, culture and options available. The task is complex and decision taken can effect important areas of the firm.

Functions of Cash Management:
Cash Management functions are intimately, interrelated and intertwined Linkage among different Cash Management functions have led to the adoption of the following methods for efficient Cash Management: ➢ Use of techniques of cash mobilization to reduce operating requirement of cash ➢ Major efforts to increase the precision and reliability of cash forecasting. ➢ Maximum effort to define and quantify the liquidity reserve needs of the firm. ➢ Development of explicit alternative sources of liquidity ➢ Aggressive search for relatively more productive uses for surplus money assets.

The above approaches involve the following actions which a finance manager has to perform.
1. To forecast cash inflows and outflows
2. To plan cash requirements
3. To determine the safety level for cash.
4. To monitor safety level for cash
5. To locate the needed funds
6. To regulate cash inflows
7. To regulate cash outflows
8. To determine criteria for investment of excess cash
9. To avail banking facilities and maintain good relations with bankers

Motives for holding cash:
There are four primary motives for maintaining cash balances:
1. Transaction motive
2 .Precautionary motive
3. Speculative motive
4. Compensating motive

1. Transaction motive: - The transaction motive refers to the holding of cash to meet anticipated obligations whose timing is not perfectly synchronised with cash receipts. If the receipts of cash and its disbursements could exactly coincide in the normal course of operations, a firm would not need cash for transaction purposes. Although a major part of transaction balances are held in cash, a part may also be in such marketable securities whose maturity conforms to the timing of the anticipated payments.

2. Precautionary motive: - Precautionary motive of holding cash implies the need to hold cash to meet unpredictable obligations and the cash balance held in reserve for such random and unforeseen fluctuations in cash flows are called as precautionary balances. Thus, precautionary cash balance serves to provide a cushion to meet unexpected contingencies. The unexpected cash needs at short notice may be the result of various reasons as : unexpected slowdown in collection of accounts receivable, cancellations of some purchase orders, sharp increase in cost of raw materials etc. The more unpredictable the cash flows, the larger the need for such balances. Another factor which has a bearing on the level of precautionary balances is the availability of short term credit. Precautionary cash balances are usually held in the form of marketable securities so that they earn a return.

3. Speculative motive: - It refers to the desire of a firm to take advantage of opportunities which present themselves at unexpected movements and which are typically outside the normal course of business. The speculative motive represents a positive and aggressive approach. Firms aim to exploit profitable opportunities and keep cash in reserve to do so. The speculative motive helps to take advantage of :In opportunity to purchase raw materials at a reduced price on payment of immediate cash; A chance to speculate on interest rate movements by buying securities when interest rates are expected to decline; delay purchases of raw materials on the anticipation of decline in prices; etc.

4. Compensation motive: - Yet another motive to hold cash balances is to compensate banks for providing certain services and loans. Banks provide a variety of services to business firms , such as clearances of cheques, supply of credit information, transfer of funds, etc. While for some of the services banks charge a commission of fee for others they seek indirect compensation. Usually clients are required to maintain a minimum balance of cash at the bank. Since this balance can not be utilised by the firms for transaction purposes, the bank themselves can use the amount for services rendered. To be compensated for their services indirectly in this form, they require the clients to always keep a bank balance sufficient to earn a return equal to the cost of services. Such balances are compensating balances. Compensating balances are also required by some loan agreements between a bank and its customer.

CASH MANAGEMENT: OBJECTIVES

The Basic objective of cash management is two fold:

(a) To meet the cash disbursement needs (payment schedule);
(b) To minimize funds committed to cash balances. These are conflicting and mutually contradictory and the task of cash management is to reconcile them.

Meeting the payments schedule: - A basic objective of the cash management is to meet the payment schedule, i.e. to have sufficient cash to meet the cash disbursement needs of the firm. The importance of sufficient cash to meet the payment schedule can hardly be over emphasized. The advantages of adequate cash are : (i) it prevents insolvency or bankruptcy arising out of the inability of the firm to meet its obligations; (ii) the relationship with the bank is not strained; (iii) it helps in fostering good relations with trade creditors and suppliers of raw materials, as prompt payment may also help their cash management; (v) it leads to a strong credit rating which enables the firm to purchase goods on favorable terms and to maintain its line of credit with banks and other sources of credit; (vi) to take advantage of favorable business opportunities that may be available periodically; and (vi) finally the firm can meet unanticipated cash expenditure with a minimum of strain during emergencies, such as strikes , fires or a new marketing campaign by competitors.

Minimizing funds committed to cash balances: - The second objective of cash management is to minimize cash balances. In minimizing cash balances two conflicting aspects have to be reconciled. A high level of cash balance will, ensure prompt payment together with all the advantages, but it also implies that large funds will remain idle ultimately results less to the expected. A low level of cash balances, on the other hand, may mean failure to meet the payment schedule that aim of cash management should be to have an optimal amount of cash balances

CASH MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES & PROCESSES

The following are the basic cash management techniques and process which are helpful in better cash management:
Speedy cash collection: In managing cash efficiently the cash in flow process can be accelerated through systematic planning and refined techniques. These are two broad approaches to do this which are narrated as under:
Prompt payment by customer: One way to ensure prompt payment by customer is prompt billing with clearly defined credit policy. Another and more important technique to encourage prompt payment the by customer is the practice of offering trade discount/cash discount.
Early conversion of payment into cash: Once the customer has makes the payment by writing its cheques in favor of the firm, the collection can be expedited by prompt encashment of the cheque. It will be recalled that there is a lack between the time and cheque is prepared and mailed by the customer and the time funds are included in the cash reservoir of the firm.
Concentration Banking: In this system of decentralised collection of accounts receivable, large firms which have a large no. of branches at different places, select some of these which are strategically located as collection centers for receiving payment for customers. Instead of all the payments being collected at the head office of the firm, the cheques for a certain geographical areas are collected at a specified local collection centers. Under this arrangement the customers are required to send their payments at local collection center covering the area in which they live and these are deposited in the local account of concerned collection, after meeting local expenses, if any. Funds beyond a predetermined minimum are transferred daily to a central or disbursing or concentration bank or account. A concentration banking is one with which the firm has a major account usually a disbursement account. Hence this arrangement is referred to as concentration banking.
Lock-Box System: The concentration banking arrangement is instrumental in reducing the time involve in mailing and collection. But with this system of collection of accounts receivable, processing for purposes of internal accounting is involved i.e. sometime in elapses before a cheque is deposited by the local collection center in its account. The lock-box system takes care of these kind of problem, apart from effecting economy in mailing and clearance times. Under this arrangement, firms hire a post office box at important collection centers. The customers are required to remit payments to lock-box.
The local banks of the firm, at respective places, are authorized to open the box and pick up the remittance received from the customers. Usually the authorised bank picks up the cheques several times a day and deposits them in the firm’s account. After crediting the account of the firm the banks send a deposit 4epo slip along with the list of payments and other enclosures, if any, to the firm by way of proof and record of the collection.
Slowing disbursements: A basic strategy of cash management is to delay payments as long as possible without impairing the credit rating/standing of the firm. In fact, slow disbursement represents a source of funds requiring no interest payments. There are several techniques to delay payment of accounts payable namely (1) avoidance of early payments; (2) centralized disbursements; (3) floats; (4) accruals.
Avoidance of early payments: One way to delay payments is to avoid early payments. According to the terms of credit, a firm is required to make a payment within a stipulated period. It entitles a firm to cash discounts. If however payments are delayed beyond the due date, the credit standing may be adversely affected so that the firms would find it difficult to secure trade credit later. But if the firm pays its accounts payable before the due date it has no special advantage. Thus a firm would be well advised not to make payments early i.e. before the due date.
Centralized disbursements: Another method to slow down disbursements is to have centralized disbursements. All the payments should be made by the head office from a centralized disbursement account. Such an arrangement would enable a firm to delay payments and conserve cash for several reasons. Firstly it involves increase in the transit time. The remittances from the head office to the customers in distant places would involve more mailing time than a decentralized payment by a local branch. The second reason for reduction in operating cash requirement is that since the firm has a centralized bank account, a relatively smaller total cash balance will be needed. In the case of a decentralized arrangement, a minimum cash balance will have to be maintained at each branch which will add to a large operating cash balance. Finally, schedules can be tightly controlled and disbursements made exactly on the right day.
Float: A very important technique of slow disbursements is float. The term float refers to amount of money tied up in the cheque that have been written, but have yet to be collected and encashed. Alternatively, float represents the difference between the bank balance and book balance of cash of a firm. The difference between the balance as shown in the firm’s record and the actual bank balance is due to transit and processing delays. There is time lag between the issue of a cheque by the firm and its presentation to its bank by the customer’s bank for payment. The implication is that although a cheque has been issued cash would be required later when the cheque resented for encashment. Therefore, a firm can send remittance although it does not have cash in its bank at the time of issuance of cheque. Meanwhile, funds can be arranged to make payments when the cheque is presented for collection after a few days. Float used in this sense is called cheque kitting.
Accruals: Finally, a potential tool for stretching accounts payable is accruals which are defined as current liabilities that represent a service or goods received by a firm but not yet paid for. For instance, payroll, i.e. remuneration to employees, who render services in advance and receive payment later. In a way they extend credit to the firm for a period at the end of which they are paid, say, a week or month. The longer the period after which payment is made, the greater the amount of free financing and the smaller the amount of cash balances required. Thus, less frequent payrolls, i.e. monthly as compared to weekly, are important sources of accruals. They can be manipulated to slow down disbursements.

DETERMINING THEOPTIMAL LEVEL OF CASH BALANCE:
Cash balance is maintained for the transaction purposes and additional amount may be maintained as a buffer or safety stock.
The Finance manager should determine the appropriate amount of cash balance. Such a decision is influenced by trade-off between risk and return. If the firm maintains a small cash balance , its liquidity position becomes week and suffers from a paucity of cash to make payments. But a higher profitability can be attained by investing released funds in some profitable opportunities. When the firm runs out of cash it may have to sell its marketable securities, if available, or borrow. This involves transaction cost.
On the other hand if the firm maintains a higher level of cash balance, it will have a sound liquidity position but forego the opportunities to earn interests. The potential interest lost on holding large cash balance involves opportunities cost to the firm.
Thus the firm should maintain an optimum cash balance, neither a large nor a small cash balance.
To find out the optimum cash balance the transaction cost and risk of too small balance should be matched with opportunity costs of too large a balance should be matched with opportunity cost of too large a balance. Figure shows this trade-off graphically. If the firm maintains larger cash balances its transaction cost would decline, but the opportunity cost would increase. At point X the sum of two costs is minimum. This is the point of optimum cash balance. Receipts and disbursement of cash are hardly in perfect synchronization. Despite the absence of synchronization it is not difficult to determine the optimum level of cash balance.
If cash flows are predictable it is simply a problem of minimizing the total costs - the transaction cost and the opportunity cost.
The determination of optimum working cash balance under certainty can thus be viewed as an inventory problem in which we balance the cost of too little cash ( transaction cost) against the cost of too much cash( opportunity cash)
Cash flows, in practice, are not completely predictable. At times they may be completely random. Under such a situation, a different model based on the technique of control theory is needed to solve the problem of appropriate level of working cash balance.
With unpredictable variability of cash flows, we need information on transaction costs, opportunity costs and degree of variability of net cash flows to determine the appropriate cash balance. Given such data the minimum and maximum of cash balances should be set. Greater the degree of variability, higher the minimum cash balance. Whenever the cash balance reaches a maximum level, the differences between maximum and minimum levels should be invested in marketable securities. When balance is falls to zero, marketable securities should be sold and proceed should be transferred to the working cash balances.

EVALUATION OF CASH MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCES

To assess the cash management performance this phase is divided as follows:
a) Size of Cash
b) Liquidity and Adequacy of cash
c) Control of cash

A) Size of cash: The quantum of cash held by KOTAK MAHINDRA during the study period is presented in the table. The trend percentage also calculated and shown in the table:

Size of cash balance (Rs. in Crores)
|Year |Cash (In Lacs) |Trend |
|2004 |82.20 |100 |
|2005 |10.64 |-87.83 |
|2006 |5.63 |-93.15 |

Source : Annual report

Size of sales (Rs. in Lacs)
| |Sales |Trend |
|Year | | |
|2004 |785.65 |100 |
|2005 |1134.23 |44.36 |
|2006 |903.92 |15.05 |

Source Annual Reports

(B) Liquidity and Adequacy of Cash:
One of the most important jobs of the Finance Manager is to maintain sufficient liquidity to enable the firm to pay off its obligations when they fall due. To test a firm’s liquidity and solvency we commonly use current and quick ratios. Traditionally 2:1 current ratio and 1:1 quick ratio are taken as satisfactory standards for the purpose. The former indicates the extent of the soundness of the current financial position of a firm and the degree of safety provided to the creditors, the later signifies the ability of a firm to settle all its current obligations on a particular date.

Current ratio and quick ratio

|Year |Current ratio |Quick ratio |
|2004 |2.12 |1.51 |
|2005 |1.80 |0.97 |
|2006 |2.41 |1.03 |

Source: Annual Reports
Our analysis clearly shows that the company has very sound position regarding liquidity and solvency. Further, all the ratios fluctuate throughout the period.

(C) Control of Cash:
One of the major objectives of cash management from the stand point of increasing return on investment is to economize on the cash holding without impairing the overall liquidity requirements of the firms. This is possible by effecting tighter controls over cash flows. The following ratio has been applied to assess the efficiency of cash control: ➢ Cash to Current Assets ratio ➢ Cash turnover ratio ➢ Cash to current liabilities ratio

Cash to Current assets ratio
|Year |Cash to CA Ratio |
|2004 |26.89 |
|2005 |4.29 |
|2006 |1.95 |

Average : 9.43
Source : Annual Reports

Conclusion: It can be inferred from the above table that cash to current assets ratio is decreasing which shows dark position of liquidity, which ultimately affect the operational efficiency of the firm.

Cash to Current Liability Ratio (%)
|Year |Cash to CL ratio |
|2004 |57.21 |
|2005 |7.76 |
|2006 |4.85 |

Average: 23.27
Source: Annual Reports

Conclusion:
Cash to current liability ratio shows the cash balance maintained by company at a certain point of time for meeting its current liabilities. The lesser the ratio, proves the efficiency of the company for maintaining liquidity at a minimum level of cash balance. It is reducing during the study period and is at the minimum level of 4.85% in the year 2006.

Overall Conclusion: The analysis of financial data reveals that the company has very sound position regarding liquidity and solvency as shown by the current and quick ratios. The cash to current liabilities ratio is nearly on decreasing trend shows the efficiency of operations.

MANAGEMENT OF INVENTORY

Inventories are the stock of the product made for sale by the company or semi finished goods or raw materials. Inventory of finished goods which are ready for sale is required to maintain smooth marketing operation. The inventory of raw material and work in progress is required in order to maintain an unobstructed flow of material in the production line. These inventories serve as a link between the production and consumption of goods.
The aspect of management of inventory is especially important in respect to the fact that in country like India, the capital block in terms of inventory is about 70% of the current assets. It is therefore, absolutely imperative to manage efficiently and effectively in order to avoid unnecessary investment in them. Although to maintain low inventories may prove to be profitable but to maintain very low inventories may prove risky on the contrary.
This aspect of management if tackled in a proper way may prove to be a boon its effective and efficient management would result in the maintaining of optimum level of inventories. At this level the profitability of the organisation will not be jeopardised at the cost of inventory.
Now from the above stated facts it is clear that maintaining of optimum level of inventory involves huge cost, so why should keep the inventories at all. Basically there are three main reasons for which inventories are stocked and they are:-

1. Transaction Motive: This motive lays emphasis on maintaining of inventories in order to maintain a smooth and unobstructed supply of materials for the sales and production operations.
2. Precautionary Motive: This motive emphasizes on the stocking goods in order to guard against the uncertainties of future i.e. unpredictable changes in the forces of demand, supply and other forces.
3. Speculative Motive: This motive influences the decisions regarding the increase or decrease in the level of inventory in order to take advantage of price fluctuations.

A company should maintain adequate stock of materials for a continuous supply to the factory for an uninterrupted production. It is not possible for a company to procure raw material instantaneously whenever needed. A time lag exists between demand and supply of material. Also, there exists an uncertainty in procuring raw material in time at many occasions. The procurement of materials may be delayed because of factors beyond company’s control e.g. transport disruption, strike etc. Therefore, the firm should keep a sufficient stock of raw material at a time to have streamline Other factors which may incite us to keep stock of inventories is the quantity discounts, expected rise is price.
The work in process inventory builds up because of the production cycle. Production cycle is the time span between the introduction of raw material in to the production and the emergence of finished goods at the completion of production cycle. Till the production cycle completes, the stock of work in process has to be maintained.
Efficient firms constantly try to make the production cycle smaller by improving their production techniques.
The stock of finished goods has to be held because production and sales are not instantaneous. A firm can not produce immediately when goods are demanded by customers. Therefore to supply finished goods on regular basis, their stock has to maintain for sudden demand of customers, in case the firm sales are seasonal in nature, substantial finished goods inventory should be kept to meet the peak demand. Failure to supply products to customer, when demanded, would mean loss of the firm’s sales to the competitors.
The basic objective in holding raw material inventory is separate purchase and production activities and in holding finished goods inventory is to separate production and sales activities. If raw material inventory is not held, purchase would have to be made regularly at the time of usage. This would mean production intereptions and high cost of ordering.
A sufficiently large inventory has to be maintained of finished goods so as to meet the fluctuating demands. If a close link is maintained between the sales and the production department then an organisation can do with a small inventory also. In the process, inventory is also necessary because production can not be instantaneous. But it should be seen that the size of production cycle should be small.

OBJECTIVES OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
In the modern business world there is practically nothing that is done without objective. The objective is also one that would help the organization in reaching its goals in a better way. Hence it can be inferred that the importance given to management of inventory in the business world is not devoid of a concrete reasons behind it.
The two main reasons behind all this are, firstly, to maintain a inventory big enough that the production and sales operation are carried on without any hindrance and secondly, to minimize the investment in inventory, in order to maximize the profits. Both, excessive as well as inadequate inventory level is not good. They are the two danger points that a company should try to avoid and should always try to maintain optimum level of inventory. The excessive investment in the inventory has the following drawbacks: ➢ Unnecessary tie up of firm’s fund and loss of profit. ➢ Excessive carrying cost. ➢ The risk of liquidity.
The over investment of funds in inventory eat up the precious funds which could have been put to some profitable use. The carrying cost incurred, can not be ignored, this is the cost of storage, handling insurance, recording and inspecting. These all costs incurred in order to have large inventories impair the profitability of the firm. Another danger of carrying excessive inventory is the deterioration, obsolescence and pilferage of raw materials.
Maintaining inadequate inventory is also dangerous. The consequences of under investment in inventory are ➢ Production hold ups; ➢ Failure to meet commitment
If the inventory of finished goods is not adequate than the demand of customer is peak periods may be left unmet and it the under investment is in the area of raw materials that is likely that the production process may be held up frequently.
The aim of inventory management thus should be to avoid excessive and inadequate level of inventory and to maintain sufficient inventory for smooth production and sales operation efforts should be made to place an order at the right time to right source to acquire right amount at the right price and for right quantity. The aspects of a effective inventory management should take care of are as:

➢ Ensure continuous supply of material to facilitate uninterrupted production. ➢ To maintain sufficient stocks of raw material in the periods of short supply and evident price rise. ➢ To maintain sufficient inventory of finished goods for smooth sales operation. ➢ Minimize carrying cost and time. ➢ Control investment and keep it to the optimum level.

Before discussing the inventory control technique, here is the discussion of the various terms such as economic order quantity, carrying cost etc.
1. Economic Order Quantity: It is the inventory level which minimises the total of ordering and carrying cost. Determining economic order quantity involves two types of costs i.e. ordering cost and carrying cost.
2. Ordering Cost: This is used especially in the case of raw materials and is included in the cost incurred in acquiring the raw material. It is proportional to the number of orders and inversely proportional to the size of inventory. Apart from the cost of acquired raw material this also includes requisitioning, purchasing order, transporting receiving, inspecting and sorting cost.
3. Carrying Cost: This is used in the case of all types of inventories. there are the costs which are incurred for holding a given amount of inventory, they include opportunity cost of funds invested is inventories insurance, taxes, storage cost and the cost of deterioration and obsolescence. It is directly proportional to the size of inventory.
4. Reorder Points: Reorder point is the inventory level at which an order must be placed to replenish the inventory and evade the risk of running out of raw material. To determine the reorder point under uncertainty we should know the lead time, the average usage, economic order quantity etc.
5. Safety Stocks: It is difficult to predict usage and the lead time accurately. The demand for material is never constant. Similarly the actual delivery time may be different firm the normal lead time. In case of increased usage or delivery delayed, there is bound to be problem of stock out. Stockout can prove to be costly affair for a company. Therefore in order to guard against the stock out, the company may keep some buffer stock as a cushion against expected increased and/or delay in delivery .This buffer stock is called as safety stock.

The various techniques or approaches used in the management of inventory by different firms to calculate the economic order quantity are here given below: -

1). Trial and Error Approach: This is the technique to resolve the economic order quantity problem. In this technique we take the annual requirement, purchasing cost per unit, ordering cost per order and carrying cost per unit for the computation of economic order quantity. We suppose a constant usage and then considering different sizes of orders and calculate the different total costs. The order corresponding to the minimum total cost has the economic order quantity.
2). EOQ Model: This is quite an easy approach to calculate the economic order quantity than the trial and error approach. Here we find the economic order quantity with the help of the formula EQ = Sqrt (2AO / C) Where A -> Total Annual Requirement O -> Ordering cost order C -> Carrying cost per unit
3). Graphic Approach: Here the economic order quantity is found out with the help of a graph. We take the order size on horizontal axis and cost incurred on the vertical axis. Now we plot the graph regarding the carrying cost and the ordering costs. Now with the help of these two we draw a graph of minimum total cost. The economic order point is the point at the lowest value of the total minimum costs.

EVALUATION OF INVENTORY MANAGEMENT:
In this section of this chapter, a attempt has been made to judge the efficiency of inventory management in kotak mahindra by examine composition movement and level of inventory held by the firm.

Composition of Inventory:
Composition of inventory generally depends upon the nature of business. The proportion of each component in the total inventory varies from industry to industry. In order to assure effective control on the total investment in inventories it is desirable to maintain a proper balance in all the components. The structure of inventory show us that which part of the inventory is more in the organisation. Such knowledge helps us in the efficient management of inventory. Table shows the composition of inventory in KOTAK MAHINDRA

Composition of Inventory:

|Year |Raw Material |Semi Material |Finished Goods |Stores Spares & Scarp|Total |
|2004 |44 |6 |38 |12 |100.00 |
|2005 |46 |8 |32 |14 |100.00 |
|2006 |30 |3 |56 |11 |100.00 |
|Average |40 |5 |42 |12 |100.00 |

Conclusions: Table reveals the proportion of each component of inventory to total of inventory in percentage terms. On the opposite, the percentage share of finished goods in the total inventory has increased significantly during last 3 years of the study period. The percentage share of store/scrap/spares etc. is moving between 10-12%. The increasing share of finished goods is to be checked and controlled, that shows the blockage of goods at finished stage.

Inventory Turnover Ratio

|Year |Ratio |In days |
|2004 |4.06 |90 |
|2005 |6.61 |55 |
|2006 |4.76 |77 |
|Average :74 days |

Inventory turnover ratio is generally regarded as indicator of inventory efficiencies. It establishes a relationship between the total sales during a period and average inventory hold to meet that quantum at 4.06 times, that signifies the slow moving of inventory. In other words, the stock held during 2006 is for 77 days as comparison of average at 74 days for the view of 3 years.

Overall Conclusion:

This can be concluded that overall composition includes the highest factor of finished goods and that is too on increasing trend. Moreover, the inventory level is maintained for 77 days for the year 2006 that is the highest during the study period. The to overall position of inventory is that adequate on following basis: ➢ The factor of finished goods in the composition of inventory in total is at higher level and also having an increasing trend. ➢ The stock is also very slow moving and the stock retention period is on fluctuating trend.
The above two factors increases the cost of production and decreases the profitability, therefore, these should be taken in to consideration for better productivity and efficiency of operation.
MANAGEMENT OF RECEIVABLES

Trade credit, the tool which as a bridge for movement of goods through production and distribution stages to customer, is a force in the present day business and a essential device. Trade credit is granted with a motive of protecting the sale from ones, competitors and attaching more of the potential customers. Trade credit is said to be extended to a customer when a firm sell its services or goods and does not receive the payment for them immediately. Thus trade credit creates receivable which refer to the amount which a firm is expected to collect in near future.
The book debt or receivable which arise a result of trade credit have the following features:

➢ It involves a element of risk and hence should never to be fiddled with. As credit sale leave a sum to be recovered in future and future can never be the certainty, hence it is risky. ➢ It is based on economic value, while for the buyer, the economic value in goods passes immediately at the time of purchase, while the seller expects an equivalent value to be received later on. ➢ It represents futurity. The cash payments for the goods or services received by the buyer will be made in future.
The management of receivable gain more importance in the view of the fact that more than one third of the total current assets is blocked in the form of trade debtors. The interval between the date of sale and the date of payment is financed by working capital. Thus trade debtors represents the investment. As substantial amount are tied up as trade credit hence it requires careful analysis and proper management.

GOALS OF MANAGEMENT OF RECEIVABLES
As all other aspects of management, this also aims at the maximisation of wealth by a beneficial trade off between liquidity risk and profitability. The main aim of management is not to maximise sales or minimise bad debt risk but in a way it is to expand sale to the extent that the bad debt risk remained within the limits. So in a effort to maximise the wealth, the goals of management of receivable are:

➢ To obtain optimum value of sales ➢ To control the cost of credit and keep it to the minimum level. ➢ To maintain investment in debtors at optimum level.
Sales maximization is not the purpose of credit management but an effective and efficient credit management helps in expanding sales and acts as a marketing tool. A good and well administered credit means profitable credit accounts.
In order to maximize the wealth of the firm, the cost involved in the credit and its management has to be controlled within the acceptable limits. These costs can brought to zero level but that would adversely affect the sales, therefore the objective should be to kept receivable to the minimum level. A dynamic credit policy and its management will help to optimize the sale at a minimum cost.
Debtors involve funds, which have an opportunity cost. Therefore the investment in debtors should be never be excessive. Extending liberal credit pushes the sale and results in higher profitability but the increase in level of investment in debtors result in increased cost. Thus we are to bring the investment at a optimum level by doing trade off between the costs and benefits. The level of debtors to a large extent depends on external factors such an industry norms, level of activity, seasonal variations etc. But there are lot of internal factors which affects the firm’ credit policy. These factors include credit terms, standard, limits and collection procedures. The internal factors should be well administered to optimise the investment in debtors.

OPTIMUM CREDIT POLICY
The whole set of decision variables that affects the investment in receivable is termed as credit policy. Generally, we can divide the credit policy into two types • Lenient Credit Policy • Stringent Credit Policy
The firms following Lenient Credit Policy tend to sell on credit to its customers very readily, without even knowing the credit worthiness of the customers. The firms with lenient credit policy will have more sales and higher profits. But they can also incur high bad debts losses and face the problem of liquidity. The firm which follows Stringent Credit policy are very selective in extending credit, and credit is extended to those customer only whose credit worthiness is well proven. These firms follow tight credit standards and terms as a result, minimize cost and chances of bad debts.
The stringent credit policy never poses the problem of liquidity but restrict the sale and profit margins.
Extension of credit increases the sale of the firm. The number of customers purchasing the firm’s goods and services increases as it makes its credit policy liberal. If the cost do not increase at a greater rate, the increased revenue will increase the profit of the firm. As a consequence, the market value of firm’s share will rise.
The extent to which the sales will be affected by pursuing a particular credit policy can not be gauged with accuracy. Sales forecast with respect to a particular credit policy can be made with regards to prevailing economic condition. However, cost benefit analysis has to be done in order to anticipate the acceptability of a credit policy.
Credit extension involves cost, the incurred cost can be of many types such as bad debt losses, production and selling costs., administrative expenses, cash discounts, opportunity cost etc.
Bad debt losses are incurred when a firm is unable to collect the book debts. Bad debt losses are more if the credit policy is lenient. This never means that a company should its credit policy, in case the profit generated by additional sales are more than corresponding costs the firm should surely go in for credit policy relaxation.
The additional sales resulting from the relaxed credit policy will increase the production and selling costs. Only the incremental production or selling costs should be estimated. Similarly, the expenses incurred in the administration of credit should be included in the costs of extending credit. The cost of administration generally includes the credit supervision costs and collection costs. Again, these costs will be nil if the credit policy simply utilize the idle capacity of the credit department.
The opportunity cost is the cost of foregone profits of the amount blocked as trade credit to customers in order to sustain or increase sales. As a result of the funds tied up in credit accounts often the firms have to go in for credit from banks in order to sustain their operations.
In order to collect the trade credits at an early date, often cash discounts have to be extended. As a result of these cash discounts firms are not in a position to collect the remuneration for their sales in full. This is essentially a tool to bring the trade credit to a optimum level.

Aspects of Credit Policy:
The important aspects of credit policy should be identified before establishing an optimum credit policy. The important decision variables of the credit policy are:

➢ Credit Terms: Credit terms are the conditions or stipulations under which the firm extends credit. The terms and conditions can be clubbed according to the period for which they are extended and according to the amount of discount offered thereby there are two important components of trade credit namely cash period and cash discounts. Credit terms can be effectively used as a tool to boost sales. The most desirable credit terms which increases the overall profitability of the firm, should be offered to the customers cost benefit trade off between credit terms should be done to choose the best one. If the action of relaxation of the credit terms is followed by the competitors. Then the firm may have to pay instead of gaining anything. The time duration for which the credit is extended to the customers is referred to as credit period. Usually the credit period of the firm is governed by the industry norms, but firms can extend credit duration to stimulate its sales. If the firm’ bad debts build up, it may tighten up its credit policy as against the industry norms. Cash discounts is the offer made by the firm to customer to pay less if the required amount is paid earlier. The cash discount terms indicate the rate of discount and the period for which discount has been offered. If the customer does not avail this offer, he is expected to make the payment by the due date. ➢ Credit Standards: The credit standards followed by the firm has an impact on sales and receivable. The sales and receivable levels are likely to be high if the credit standards of the firm are relatively loose. In contrast, If the firm has relatively tight credit standards, the sales and receivable are expected to be low. The credit standards are governed by various aspects such as the to willingness of the customer to pay, the ability of the customer to pay in the economic conditions etc. The credit Kotak Mahindra can be liberalised to the extent that the profits earned by them remain more than the cost incurred. Usually cost incurred in the case of making the credit standards more liberal are bad debt looses, selling and production costs etc. The result of a credit policy with loose standards is the lengthening of collection period.

➢ Collection Policy: The need to collect the payments early gave rise to a policy regarding it, called as the collection policy. It aims at the speed recovery from slow payers and reduction of bad debts losses. The firm has to very cautious while it goes in for collection from slow payers. The various aspects such as willingness, capabilities, and external conditions should be taken care of before you go in collection procedure. The optimum collection policy will maximize the profitability and will be consistent with the objective of maximizing the value of the firm.

CREDIT PROCEDURE
A clear cut guiding policy regarding the granting of credit to individual customers and the collection from individual account should be laid down. The collection procedure of the firm differs from customer to customer. The credit evaluation procedure before extending of credit is done in the following ways:

1) Credit Information : In extending credit to customers, the firm would ensure that the receivable are collected in full and on due date. To ensure this, the firm should have credit information concerning each customer to whom credit is given. Collection of credit information involves expenses. The cost of collecting information should therefore be less than the potential profitability. In addition to the cost, the time required to collect information should be considered. This information can be collected from financial statement, bank references, trade references, credit bureau reports etc.

2) Credit Investigation: After the collection of credit information the firm needs to go in for further investigation. These investigations are different for different people and depend upon the type of customers, customer’s background, nature of our product, size of the other, firm’s credit policy etc. Credit investigations involve cost. But a credit decision without adequate investigations can be more expensive in terms of excessive collection costs and possible bad debts losses. Therefore credit investigations should be cared so long as the savings, in terms of speedy collection and prevention of bad debts losses, from it exceed the cost incurred in the process.

3) Credit Analysis: In the credit procedure, the next step is of credit analysis. The appraisal regarding the financial strength, nature of business, type of management regarding the other party are to be considered. The decision to extend credit to the customers will basically depend upon the judgment of the credit analyst, although numerical, credit evaluation systems exist, if it is expected that more and more of qualitative systems will evolve in near future.

4) Credit Limits: Once the decision regarding the extending of credit has been taken then the decision regarding the duration and the amount of credit are to be taken. The credit limit is to be periodically reviewed and alterations, continuously done. The decision on the magnitude of credit will depend upon the amount of contemplated sale and the customers financial strength.

5) Collection Procedure: A clear cut and well administered collection procedure will speed up the rate of dues collection if collection is delayed then the chances of bad debts also increases. The procedure of collection can not be same for everyone, it has to down according to the relation of the firm with its customer the responsibility of follow up and collection should be clearly designated. To speed up the process of collection after we use discount schemes etc.

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF RECEIVABLES MANAGEMENT
Evaluation of the performance of the credit department is a difficult task. There is no Kotak Mahindra yardstick to compare with the actual performance. Yet a successful receivable management must ensure a comparatively slow growth of receivable as against sales, as factory collection period and receivable task over minimum bad debts losses and effective use of capital invested in receivable. To what extent the concern have been successful in their efforts, can be gauged by their actual performance. Accordingly the following criterion have been employed to evaluate the performance of receivable management in KOTAK MAHINDRA :

1. Composition of Receivable : It helps in showing the point where receivable are concentrated most.
2. Ageing of accounts receivable : To have a detail idea of a quality of accounts receivable through agency schedule.
3. Average collection period : To measure the effectiveness of collection efforts.
4. Relationship between debtors and sales : To know growth rate and also co-efficient of correlation and determination.
5. Receivable as percentage of sales ratio: To examine the level of investment is receivable

AVERAGE COLLECTION PERIOD
Average collection period explains how many days of credit, a company is allowing to the customer, a higher collection period indicates towards a liberal and inefficient credit and collection performances shorter the collection period the better the credit management and liquidity of accounts receivable.

Average collection period

|Year |Days |
|2004 |38 |
|2005 |40 |
|2006 |46 |

Average : 41 days

Conclusion : The receivable collection period at an average level is for 41 days during five years of study. The period is increasing

DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO

This ratio is calculated the effective utilisation of funds involved in receivable. An effective credit management result in a higher turnover of accounts receivable.

|Year |Debtors Turnover Ratio |Average collection period (in days) |
|2004 |9.49 |38 |
|2005 |9.20 |40 |
|2006 |7.88 |46 |

Conclusion: The debtors turnover ratio is decreasing which signifies dark side of debtor. The average collection period is at level of 41 days for the 3 years of study. The collection period of debtors should be kept at lowest level for the reduction in cost of capital and better productivity.

MANAGEMENT OF PAYABLES

A substantial part of purchase of goods and services in business are on credit terms rather than against cash payment. While the supplier of goods and services tends to perceive credit as a lever for enhancing sales or as a form of non-price instrument of competition, the buyer tends to look upon it as a loaning of goods or inventory. The supplier’s credit is referred to as Accounts payable, Trade Credit, Trade Bill, Trade Acceptance, commercial drafts of bills payable depending on the nature of the credit. The extent to which this ‘buy-now, pay- later’ facility is provided will depend upon a variety of factors such as the nature, quality and volumes of items to be purchased, the prevalent practices in the trade, the degree of competition and the financial status of the parties concerned. Trade credits or Payables constitutes a major segment of current liabilities in many business enterprises. And they primarily finance inventories which form a major components of current assets in many cases.

TYPES OF TRADE CREDITS
Trade credits or Payables could be of three types : Open Accounts, Promissory notes and Bills Payables.
Open Account or open credit operates as an informal arrangement wherein the supplier, after satisfying himself about the credit-worthiness of the buyer, dispatches the goods as required by the buyer and sends the invoice with particulars of quantity dispatched, the rate and the total price payable and the payment terms. The buyer records his liability to the supplier in his books of accounts and this is shown as Payables on open account. the buyer is then expected to meet his obligations on the due date.
The promissory notes is a formal document signed by the buyer promising to pay the amount to the seller at a fixed or determinable future times. Where the client fails to meet his obligations as per open credit on the due date, the supplier may require a formal acknowledgment of debt and a commitment of payment by a fixed date. The promissory note is thus an instrument of acknowledgment of debt and a promise to pay. The supplier may even stipulate an interest payment for the delay involved in payment.
Bills payable or commercial drafts are instrument drawn by the seller and accepted by the buyer for payment on the expiry of the specified duration. the bill or draft will indicate the banker to whom the amount is to be paid on the due date, and the goods will be delivered to the buyer against acceptance of the bill.

The seller may either retain the bill present it for payment on the due date or may raise funs immediately thereon by discounting it with the banker. The buyer will then pay the amount of the bill to the banker on due date.

DETERMINANTS OF TRADE CREDIT

Size of the firm:
Smaller firms have increasing dependence on trade credits as they find it difficult to obtain alternative sources of finance as easily as medium or large sized firms. At the same time, larger firms that are less vulnerable to adverse turns in business can command prompt credit facility from supplier, while smaller firms may find it difficult to sustain creditworthiness during periods of financial strain and may have reduced access to credit due to weak financial position.
Industrial Credits:
Different categories of industries or commercial enterprises show varying degree of dependence on trade credit. In certain lines of business the prevailing commercial practices may stipulate purchases against payment in most cases. Monopoly firms may insist on cash on delivery. There could be instances where the firms inventory turns over every fortnight but the firm enjoys thirty days credit from suppliers, whereby the trade credit not only finances the firms inventory but also provides part of the operating funds or additional working capital.
Nature of Product:
Products that sell faster or which have higher turnover may need shorter term credit. Products with slower turnover take longer to generate cash flows and will need extended credit terms.
Financial Position of Seller:
The financial position of the seller will influence the quantities and periods of credits he wishes to extend. Financially weak suppliers will have to be strict and operate on higher credit terms to buyers. Financially stronger suppliers, on the other hand, can dictate stringent credit terms but may prefer to extend liberal credit so long as the transactions provide benefits in excess of the costs of extending credit. They can, afford to extend credits to smaller firms and assume higher risks, suppliers with working capital crunch will be willing to offer higher cash discounts to encourage early payments.

Financial position of the buyer:
Buyer’s creditworthiness is an important factor in determining the credit quantum and period. It may be logical to expect large buyers not to insist on extending credit terms for small suppliers with weak bargaining power. Where goods are supplied on a consignment basis, the supplier provides extra finance for the merchandise and pays commission to consignee for the goods sold. Small retailers are thus enabled carry much larger levels of stocks then they will be able to finance by themselves. Slow paying or delinquent accounts may be compelled to accept stricter credit terms or higher prices for products, to cover risk.
Cash discounts:
Cash discount influences the effective length of credit. Failure to take advantage of the cash discount could result in the buyer using the funds at an effective rate of interest higher than the alternative sources of finance available. By providing cash discount and inducing good credit risks to pay within the discount period, the supplier will also save on the costs of administration connected with keeping records of dues and collecting overdue accounts.
Degree of risk:
Estimates of credit risk associated with the buyer will indicate what credit policy is to adopt the risk may be with reference to the buyer’s financial standing or with reference to the nature of the business the buyer is in.
Nature and Extent of competition:
Monopoly status facilitates imposition of tight credit terms where as intense competition will promote the tendency to liberalize credit. Newly established companies in competitive fields may more readily resort to liberal trade credit for promoting sales than established firms which are more formal in deciding on credit policies.

ADVANTAGES OF PAYABLES

Easy to obtain:
Payable or trade credit is readily obtainable, in most cases, without extended procedural formalities. During periods of credit crunch or paucity of working capital, trade credit from large suppliers can be boon to small buyers.
Suppliers Assume the risk:
Where the suppliers have the advantage of high gross margins on their products, they would be able to assume greater risk and extend more liberal credit.
Informality:
In trade credit, there is no rigidity in the matter of repayment of scheduled dates, occasional delays are not frowned upon. It serves as an extendible, convenient source of unsecured credit.
Continuous Financing:
Even as the current dues are paid, fresh credit flows in as further purchases are made. It is continuous source of finance. With a steady credit terms and the expectation of continuous circulation of trade credit backing up repeat purchases, trade credit does, in affect, operate as long term source.

EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF PAYABLES
The salient points to be noted on affective management of Payables are:

➢ Negotiate and obtain the most favorable credit terms consistent with the prevailing commercial practice pertaining to the concerned product line. ➢ Where cash discount is offered for prompt payment, take advantage of the offer and derive the savings there from. ➢ Where cash discount is not provided, settle the payment on its date of maturity and not earlier. It pays to avail the full credit terms. ➢ Do not stretch Payables beyond due dates, except in inescapable situations, as such delays in meeting obligations has adverse affect on buyer’s credibility and may result in more stringent credit terms, denial of credit or higher prices on goods and services procured. ➢ Sustain healthy financial status and a good track record of past dealings with the supplier such as would maintain his confidence. the quantum and the terms of credit are mainly influenced by suppliers’ assessment of buyer’s financial health and ability to meet maturing obligations promptly. ➢ Avoid the tendency to divert Payables. Maintain the self liquidating character of Payables and do not use the funds obtained therefrom for acquiring fixed assets. Payables are meant to flow through current assets and speedily get converted into cash through sales for meeting maturing short terms obligations. ➢ In highly competitive situations, suppliers may be willing to stretch credit limits and periods. Assess your bargaining strength and get the best possible deal. ➢ Provide full information to suppliers and concerned credit agency to facilitate a frank and fair assessment of financial status and associated problems. With fuller appreciation of client’s initiatives to honor his obligations and the occasional financial strains which he might be subjected to for a variety of reasons, the supplier will be more considerate and flexible in the matter of credit extension. ➢ Keep a constant check on incidence of delinquency. Delays in settlement of Payables with references to due dates can be classified into age groups to identify delays exceeding one month, two month, three month, etc. Once overdue Payables are given priority of attention for payment, the delinquency rate can be minimised or eliminated altogether.

Evaluation of Payables Management:

Creditor’s turnover ratio & Average Payment Period
|Year |Creditors Turnover Ratio |Average Payment Period |
|2004 |3.95 |92 |
|2005 |5.33 |68 |

Average : 80 days
Source : Annual reports

Conclusion: Table shows that the minimum average creditor period is
68 days and maximum is 92 days. Table reveals the decreasing trend in average payment period which is not good for the company.

FINANCING OF WORKING CAPITAL

WORKING CAPITAL FINANCE
Funds available for a period of one year or less are called short-term finance. In India, short-term funds are used to finance working capital the sources of finance that are used to finance current assets are as follows.

BANK FINANCE AND MARGIN REQUIREMENT
The Bank finances only that portion of the asset which are not financed by the creditors, Banker finances the working capital requirement after taking the net current assets into consideration. The bank will not finance the net working capital to the extent of 100% of net current assets. It will like the company and the rest of the amount put in that some amount o the asset may be financed by the bank.
The term margin money for working capital’ will imply the position of the current assets which are to be financed by the promoter / company. The Tandon and Chore committee are two notes worthy committees which had made important and significant recommendations in this regard .The prime importance of the margin money is that the amount to some extent should be brought in by the promoter to see that the current assets are not double financed. Thus the actual bank borrowings are, say 75% of the net current assets. The balance 25% of the contribution is to be brought in by the promoter company.

Following steps are involved on financing working capital
1. Receiving applications
2. Brief assessment of requirement as per application.
3. Processing of application — which involve: (a) Assessment of financial parameters (b)Assessment of need (on the basis of site visit) (c) Assessment of creditworthiness of party (d)Assessment of economic viability (e) Assessment of technical feasibility (f) Assessment on managerial competency.
4. Security — which involves (a) Scrutiny of securities (b) Valuation of stocks and securities (c) Obtaining legal opinion (d) Assessment of personal guarantors.
5. Forming opinion about the proposal
6. Sanction of credit
7. Documentation — which involves inspecting and acquiescing all legal document.
8. Release of credit
9. Follow up

ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CAPITAL
Recognizing the need for making the loan policy of the bank responsive, at the same time ensuring that it affords a comprehensive credit risk management, observing accepted prudential norms and exposure guidelines with regard to assessment of working capital requirements of the borrowers has to be followed by banks. The following method has been in effect since January 1998 and. may change with new guideline from RBI. But before new guidelines from RBI banks will follow these methods for assessing working capital requirements of borrowers.

ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CAPITAL FINANCE: METHODLOGIES
The following methods has been adopted, depending on the quantum of finance requested for assessing working capital requirements of the borrowers
Quantum of limits requested
(Rs in lacs)
1. Upto Rs. 200 from the banking system Turnover method
2. Rs. 200 and above from the banking system But upto and inclusive of Rs 200000 lacs from the bank. Eligible working capital Limit.
3. For limits above Rs 2OO lacs EWCL or cash budget method may be decided by the bank.

BASIC FINANCIAL PARAMETERS
The steadfast adherence to stipulated current ratios under the erstwhile MPBF system as mandated by RBI had rendered the system inflexible to the needs of the borrowers and at the same time did not afford any scope for the lending banker to exercise credit judgment. The raised assessment methodology envisages adoptions of a basket of basic financial parameters with broad bands to facilitate better risk management and to imbibe requisite flexibility in credit dispensation.
The following are the basic financial parameters to be observed in case of borrower assessment.
1. LIQUIDITY
The liquidity of any borrower is reflected in his current ratio and lowers the current ratio, tighter the liquidity is indicating a lower net working capital (NWC) in the business.
If other basic financial parameters are satisfactory, the bank may make available full sanctioned limits at lower than assessed NWC provided the resulting current ratio semained within the band fixed by the bank. The bank may on merits of the case make available additional finance either in the form of a short term loan or additional OD limit, provided other basic financial parameters are satisfactory and at the same time commensurate collateral security cover is available to the extent of 1.5 times of the value of credit facilities availed by the borrower.
2. INDEBTEDNESS
The ratio of total outside liability to tangible net worth (TOL TNW) is reflective of total in debtender of a borrower. A higher TOL : TNW ratio is cridicative of a higher level of indebtedness on the part of the borrower generally on TOL : TNW ratio upto 5:1 to 10:1 may be accepted as reasonable. But sanctioning authority is vested with necessary discretion to decide the ratio on a case to case basis.
3. SECURITY
The security coverage (Primary / esllateral put together) vis-à-vis the credit facilities enjoyed by a particular borrower shall not be less than the value of advance. This is a minimum requirement and a stronger security position should be tried for wherever possible for the purpose of arriving at security courage ratio, the value of the second change should be reckoned with after adjusting the quantum of first / prior charges. The value of primary security plus collateral security shall be taken into account to determine whether an advance is secured or clean.
4. PROFITABILITY
While sanctioning any credit proposal the minimum requirement shall be that the business is making profit and not incurring loss. However, exception may be made wherever a borrower suffers a temporary set back leading to an operating loss during a particular year. The credit proposals of used / sick units will however remain subjected to relevant guidelines mandated by RBI.

CREDIT MONITORING ARRANGEMENT (CMA)
The RBI regulates the overall credit granted by commercial banks to firms. It has replaced is credit authorization scheme (CAS) by its credit monitoring arrangement (CMA) in Oct 1988. Nov, RBI will oversee the sanction of the term loans and working limits beyond the levels as post sanction scrutiny.The banks are required to report to RBI about the cases, where the borrowers are enjoying the fund based limits from the banking system which is in excess of Rs, 10 cr, etc. the key issues examined in scrutiny are
(1) Whether the minimum CR is 1:33:1; (2) whether the estimates, of sales, production etc are in line with past trends if not, reason for deviation; (3) whether unit has complied with chore committee of information system. (4) Whether renewal of limits is in time? (5) Whether the bank is following norms of inventory and receivable procedures by RBI standing committee.
No working capital loan is available without entering into a credit monitoring arrangement with the banks. To enable complete control over the banking sector, the Reserve Bank of India, has a universal format for CMA. The same format is applicable to PSU banks, nationalized banks, private and foreign banks.
The format has 5 portions, which are described below:
A. Request: The corporate seeking the working capital has to make a formal request to the bank indicating its need for the loan.
B. Operating Statements: Operating statement of the corporate for 4 years has to be given, out of which for 2 years the actual results (audited past results) are to be given while for the 2 future year an estimated operating System (1st year) and a projected operating system (2nd year) have to be given.
C. Balance sheet spread: An analysis of the balance sheet for 4 years has to be given (last 2 years actual, as per audited balance sheet, current year estimates and following year projections).
D. MPBF: A statement showing the calculation of the maximum permissible bank finance for working capital for 3 years has to be given
E. Funds Flow Statement: Funds Flow statement of the corporate for 3 years has to be given (last year actuals as per audited balance sheet, current year estimates and following year projections).

DRAWING POWER OF COMPANY:

|S.NO | |Jan (in lakhs) |Feb (in lakhs) |Mar (in lakhs) |Apr (in lakhs) |May (in lakhs) |June (in lakhs)|
|1. |Total Inventory |201.5 |220.33 |235.9 |238.67 |275.91 |282.94 |
| |Less: 50% of JDF |24.18 |24.26 |24.27 |23.99 |23.99 |24.04 |
| | |177.32 |196.07 |211.63 |214.68 |251.92 |258.90 |
|2. |Debtors | | | | | | |
| |Less :Exp. & DEB over |69.31 |87.76 |92.88 |136.34 |119.18 |111.19 |
| |120 days | | | | | | |
|3. |Total |246.63 |283.83 |304.51 |351.02 |371.10 |370.09 |
|4. |25% of CAS |55.62 |64.90 |70.06 |81.76 |86.78 |86.52 |
|5. |Creditors |77.57 |75.21 |58.28 |73.48 |67.05 |51.55 |
|6. |Total Net WCG (3-5) |169.06 |208.62 |246.23 |277.54 |304.05 |318.54 |
|7. |Drawing power (6-4) |113.45 |143.73 |176.17 |195.78 |217.28 |232.03 |
| |Add | | | | | | |
|8. |Export Debtors |19.80 |25.98 |21.00 |26.00 |23.79 |25.00 |
|9. |Total Drawing power |133.25 |169.71 |197.17 |221.78 |241.06 |257.03 |

|S.NO |July(in lakhs) |Aug (in lakhs) |Sept. (in |Oct (in lakhs) |Nov (in lakhs) |Dec(in lakhs) |
| | | |lakhs) | | | |
|1. |Total Inventory |269.64 |249.36 |228.03 |196.52 |213.19 |193.91 |
| |Less: 50% of JDF |24.06 |24.22 |24.13 |24.61 |24.99 |24.92 |
| | |245.88 |225.14 |203.90 |171.91 |188.20 |168.99 |
|2. |Debtors | | | | | | |
| |Less : Exp. & Deb over |96.36 |113.36 |161.54 |165.32 |128.47 |109.58 |
| |120 days | | | | | | |
|3. |Total |342.24 |338.50 |365.44 |337.23 |316.67 |278.57 |
|4. |25% of WCG |39.87 |47.47 |78.49 |75.21 |77.83 |34.76 |
|5. |Creditors |39.87 |47.47 |78.49 |75.21 |77.83 |34.76 |
|6. |Total Net WGC (3-5) |302.37 |291.03 |286.95 |262.02 |238.84 |243.81 |
|7. |Drawing power (6-74) |222.82 |212.46 |201.62 |183.87 |165.92 |180.40 |
| |Add | | | | | | |
|8. |Export Debtors |25.00 |15.00 |12.00 |9.00 |4.00 |6.00 |
|9. |Total Drawing Power |247.82 |227.46 |213.62 |192.87 |169.92 |186.40 |

MPBF of Company

| |Jan (in lakhs) |Feb(in lakhs) |Mar(in lakhs) |Apr(in lakhs) |May(in lakhs) |June(in lakhs) |
|Current Asset |222.46 |222.46 |222.4 |222.46 |222.46 |222.4 |
|Less : 25% of WCG |55.62 |55.62 |55.6 |55.62 |55.62 |55.6 |
|Net WCG |166.85 |166.85 |166.8 |166.85 |166.85 |166.8 |
|ADD: | | | | | | |
|50% JDF |24.18 |24.26 |24.2 |23.99 |23.99 |24.0 |
|Export Debtors |19.8 |25.98 |2 |26 |23.79 |2 |
|Total Net NCG |210.83 |217.09 |212.1 |216.84 |214.63 |215.8 |
|Total Net WCG |210.83 |217.03 |212.1 |216.84 |214.63 |215.8 |
|Less : CL |77.57 |75.21 |58.2 |73.48 |67.05 |51.5 |
|Total Net WCG |210.83 |217.09 |212.1 |216.64 |214.63 |215.8 |
|Less : CL |77.57 |75.21 |58.2 |73.48 |67.05 |51.5 |
|MPBF |133.26 |141.88 |153.8 |143.36 |147.58 |164.3 |

| |July (in lakhs) |Aug(in lakhs) |Sep(in lakhs) |Oct(in lakhs) |Nov(in lakhs) |Dec(in lakhs) |
|Current Asset |222.46 |222.46 |222.4 |222.46 |222.46 |222.46 |
|Less : 25% of WCG |55.62 |55.62 |55.6 |55.62 |55.62 |55.62 |
|Net WCG |166.85 |166.85 |166.8 |166.85 |166.85 |166.85 |
|ADD: | | | | | | |
|50% JDF |24.06 |24.22 |24.1 |24.61 |24.99 |24.92 |
|Export Debtors |25 |15 |1 |9 |4 |6 |
|Total Net WCG |215.91 |206.07 |202.9 |200.46 |195.84 |197.77 |
|Less : CL |39.87 |47.47 |78.4 |75.21 |77.83 |34.76 |
|MPBF |176.04 |158.60 |124.4 |125.25 |118.01 |163.01 |

PROCEDURE ADOPTED BY KOTAK MAHINDRA REGARDING MPBF

METHOD 1
Company follows the procedure the second method of MPBF as per recommendations of the group related to approach to lending. It was stipulated that the unit should finance a part of its current assets from owned funds and term liabilities. It prescribed a minimum margin of 25% of CAS to be brought in by the units from its owned funds and long term liabilities and suggested 3 different methods of lending to arrive at the contribution of the borrower.

METHOD 2
The borrower should finance 25% of all current assets from owned funds and long term liabilities and the balance be financed by the bank.
As all we know that contribution from long term sources is to be progressively increased as we move fro of lending to the 3 rd method of lending and the ideal set up by the group. It is also known that 2 method ensures a minimum current ratio of 1.33 : 1.
As a first step now the existing units have to adjust the excess borrowings by bringing in additional capital or arranging the funds from long term sources.
The borrowings in excess of the permitted bank finance should normally be adjusted by the unit by arranging funds from long term sources by way of additional capital etc. In any case when it is not possible for the unit to arrange for funds for liquidating the excess of borrowings, the bank may consider to amortize these dues by granting a short term working capital loan. The repayment of working capital loan may be fixed according to the cash generating and capital raising capacity of the unit. To induce the units for early adjustment of working capital loan, it is suggest that a higher interest may be charged on the loan component as compared to the interest on normal working capital loan.

ROLE OF BANKS

In today’s increasingly competitive world, where the firms are trying their best to manage their working capital requirements most effectively the role of Bank in helping the firm in its Working Capital management has become of crucial importance. Today Banks not only provide short term or working capital loans but also play a major role in receivables and payables management. Thus the basic questions which need to be addressed with regard to Bank’s role can be stated as follows: ➢ What facilities does/can the Bank provide the firm to reduce its days of working cycle? i.e. what can the firm do to reduce firm’s average collection period and increase its average payable period. ➢ How can the Bank help the firm in reducing the cost of Debtors and Creditors without having an adverse impact on average collection and average payable period respectively?

CITIBANK
Kotak Mahindra’s Working Capital Management is basically done by Citibank. Citibank has been playing a major role in Kotak Mahindra’s Working Capital Management and recently it has come up several new products some of which will help Kotak Mahindra in reducing its cost of Debtors and Creditors.
Now what the Bank has offered is that instead of dealers sending cheque/drafts to the company, the Bank will directly collect cheque from the dealers. Citibank through its own branches and tie up with correspondent banks offer to collect cheque drawn in more than 2500+ locations and sent them for collection. This facility offered by the Citibank helps the firm in reducing their average collection period considerably from usual 9-10 days (cheque) or 4-5 days (drafts) to 2-3 days. This is because the Bank Agent collects the cheque from the day zero and deposits them in the Citibank branch or corresponding Bank on that day itself. By the day zero evening only, the cheques are sent to clearing house and then the entire process takes about 2 days. Thus there is reduction in average collection period by almost 6-7 days in case of cheques and 2-3 days in case of drafts by outsourcing B/R collection process to the Bank.
Another product/facility offered by the Citibank is purchase of client’s receivables.
In this the Bank buys client’s receivables and pay the client the discounted value (day zero). The client continues its collection process as usual.

On Day, the client pays Bank 1st installment and on Day B, the 2nd installment. Even if actual collection is less than the installment sold, the client has to bear/borne the shortfall up to FLDG
(first loss deficiency guarantee) given by it and the rest has to be reimbursed by the Bank. This facility offered by the bank enables companies to achieve off balance sheet treatment for trade receivables. It is a kind of factoring facility which is given by the bank to the firm. The main benefit to the client in this is that firstly it is getting money on the very first day and thus its funds are not stock up in Debtors for the usual 30 or 60 days as the case may be. Though the Bank does charge firm for this facility, it should be kept in mind that the present of discounted the firm will receive on the day zero will be almost equal to or could even be more than the present value of funds that the firm will receive on 30th / 60th day from the dealer. Thus it is definitely advantageous for the firm to get discounted funds from bank on day zero (it can utilize these funds somewhere else). Secondly, if there is default in payment by some debtors then the entire shortfall is not borne by the client (only FLDG).
Moreover contingent liability for FLDG amounts only has to be reported as against Balance Sheet.
Another advantage is that it does not disturb the clients existing structure for collection and recovery.
However, certain conditions are to be kept in mind: ➢ Securitization of receivables is done through assignment of debtors and assignment of debts is done under a Kotak Mahindra irrecoverable receivables agreement. ➢ Company is the collection agent throughout the tenure of the deal. Recourse to the company in the event of default (Pre determined recourse level- FLDG limit) ➢ Selection of poor of receivable based on pre defined criteria’s such as • Authorized dealers • No over dues greater than 90 days and no re-structuring of debts • Minimum association of 2 years • Consistent profitability record • Receivables pertain only to the sale of client’s products • Receivables do not present disputed amounts • Not from negative locations as specified by bank.

Another facility offered by banks for receivables is simple B/R discounting. In this the Bank takes the bill from the client and in return pays it the discounted amount on first day and on the due date it collects the amount from the dealer. Thus in this way the firm is getting the funds on the very first day.

PAYABLES
Recently, Citibank has come up with some new products/facilities in Payables Management; these products/facilities are as follows:
One such facility is post delivery financing which implies financing the purchase of critical raw materials. In the normal course of business, the client or the vendor usually pays the supplier after the expiry of pre determined period. Since the supplier is not getting the money immediately on delivery but after 2 or 3 months as the case may be, he will charge an interest rate which will be included in the cost of materials.
What Citibank has proposed is that it will pay the supplier discounted proceeds (i.e. after deducting cash discount) on the very first date. Thus if the supplier was suppose4to get Rs 100 from the client after one or two months as the case may be, now he will get Rs 93 from the Bank on the very first date (The Bank is charging an interest rate of 7%). On the due date the Bank will debit the clients a/c by Rs 93 plus the interest rate on Rs 93 (say 7%). The benefit to the client is that earlier it was paying the supplier Rs 100 + 7% = Rs 107, whereas now it is paying only Rs 99.51 to the Bank. Thus the entire extra cost of interest which the client was paying earlier has now been passed on to the supplier and in this way firm’s cost of creditors has gone down without having an adverse effect on payment period.

For this there are certain documentation requirements:
One time documentation • Citibank offer letter to be duly accepted by the client. • Board resolution from the client for signature verification on the transaction does. • Transactions based Documents • Request letter from client • Accepted B/E • Original invoice • Transport Documents.
Another facility offered by the Citibank is managing the entire payment process of the client.
In other words the Bank works as a “Back Office”. It involves everything from printing cheque, electronic authorization to payment advice generation and delivery.
Apart from these, Citibank also provide services in import and export finance by giving credit to both suppliers and buyers and they directly benefit as their cost of borrowing is lower in this case.

CH NO. 9: FINDINGS & ANALYSIS

The study conducted on working capital management of Kotak Mahindra shows the evaluation of management performance in this regard. Major findings and suggestions thereon are narrated as under: (Questionnaire given in Annexure A)

1. Do you know about Insurance? (a) Yes - 92% b) No - 8%

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2. Have you ever opted for Insurance from any Company? (a) Yes - 61% (b) No - 39%

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3. If Yes, Which Company have you taken Insurance from?

|LIC |42% |
|TATA AIG Life Insurance |7% |
|HDFC Standard Life Insurance |12% |
|ICICI Pur |19% |
|Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance |8% |
|Birla sun life Insurance |10% |
|Met life insurance |2% |

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4. How did you come to know about Insurance? (a) Advertisement - 76% (b) Word of Mouth - 14% (c) Referred by your company / Friend - 10%

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5. What made you select a particular Company for the Insurance? (a) EMI - 78% (b) Brand name - 3% (c) Procedures - 9% (d) Facilities - 1% (e) Policies - 7% (f) Advertisement - 2%

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6. How do you like the Marketing strategy by different Companies? (a) Good - 68% (b) Average - 19% (c) Bad - 13%

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7. What made you select this particular bank for the services & products? • Conveneint location • Procedures • Facilities • Working hours • Advertisement

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8. Advantages or Comment about Insurances (a) Advertisement should be more on the advantages and fact rather the features. (b) There is a Tax saving factors while opting for Insurance. (c) Procedure should be made easier for the normal public as it consumes a lot of time and effort for providing all the documents. (d) Insurance is a need and not Luxury.

9. Which Company would you prefer if you have never applied for Insurance?

|LIC |56% |
|Birla sun life Insurance |7% |
|HDFC Standard Life Insurance |12% |
|Icici Prudential |17% |
|Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance |8% |
|TATA AIG life Insurance |5% |

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FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS

This chapter deals with the concluded aspects of the study carried out on “General perception about Life Insurance”. The basic objective for which the study was carried out has been fulfilled in the earlier chapter, based on the objective interview schedule was designed. Data collected based on schedule was analyzed and some findings have emerged.

Major Findings of the Study
Based on the quantitative analysis the major findings of the study have been highlighted below….

• Most of the people are satisfied with the extent of their life insurance cover. They are not interested in buying more life insurance. • People do not consider life insurance as a good savings because of low returns. • As life insurance is a long term contract. Maximum people do not have faith on private life insurance companies, they still prefer LIC. • Because of less advertising not many people are aware about private life insurance companies. • Most of the people do not know about broker, corporate agents and banc assurance, they rely on their agents only • The most preferred type of plan is money back. The reason being availability of funds after every five years which can be used for paying further premium, thus saving the regular income. • Some people have no idea about what type of cover they have. • Most of the people feel that life insurance is essential but they think returns are low. • Some people have their doubts on the credibility and long stay of private insurance companies.

Suggestions • Advertising of the insurance product should stress on the need of security. • Insurance should be popularized as the means of securing future rather than saving tax. • New entrants should come out with innovative riders. • Policies should be issued quickly and with less formalities • Other service should also be improved. • Newspaper/Magazines and television are the most effective medium of advertising life insurance. • Insurance agents should be well trained.

Dividend for the Financial Year 2004-05
The Board of Directors of the Corporation has recommended payment of dividend of 170% (Rs. 17 per share), for the financial year ended March 31, 2007, for approval of the shareholders at the AGM. [Previous year 135% (Rs. 13.50 per share)].

Dividend entitlement is as follows: • For shares held in physical form: shareholders whose names appear on the register of members of the Corporation as at the close of business hours on June 30, 2007. • For shares held in electronic form: beneficial owners whose names appear in the statements of beneficial position furnished by NSDL and CDSL as at the close of business hours on June 30, 2007.

Findings: • Current assets comprise a significant portion i.e. 30.89% (average for three years of study) of total investment in assets of the company. There is fluctuating and rather increasing trend of this ratio during the period which shows management in-efficiency in managing working capital in relation to total investment. Further current assets to fixed assets ratio also shows on fluctuating trend during the study period which substantiate above mentioned criterion of in-effectiveness in management of working capital by the company. • Current assets turnover ratio for the first three years of study shows fluctuating trend which is due to significant increase in sales. In 2005 current assets turnover ratio is highest one i.e. 2.98 during the study, reasons being during this year company has achieved sales growth 44.36% over the previous year. • The ratio used for analysis of liquidity position are current ratio and quick ratio. These ratio reveals that company has sound liquidity position throughout the period of study. Both the ratio shows fluctuating trend within reasonable limit but these ratio are higher than conventionally accepted norms i.e. 2:1 in case of current ratio & 1:1 in case of quick ratio, which shows ineffectiveness of the management in managing current/quick assets in relation to current liabilities. • The ratios used for cash management are cash to current assets ratio, cash to current liabilities ratio. Cash to current liabilities also shows decreasing trend and cash to current assets ratio also shows decreasing trend. All these ratios reveals that management has no definite cash policy. • Inventory turnover ratio depict the fluctuating trend which indicates the accumulation of inventory in turn which cause loss to the company by way of deterioration of stock, interest loss on blockage of stock etc. Further composition of inventory reveals that portion of individual element of inventory has fluctuating trend which indicates that management has no policy in respect of inventory management. • Debtors Turnover ratio reveals a decreasing trend during the period of study and average collection period ranges from 38 to 46 days. Keeping in view of INSURANCE industry trend credit period of 41 days is quite very higher. It reveals that management has no specific policy in respect of debtors management.

Keeping in view of detailed analysis of our study and our findings mentioned in above paragraphs, the following suggestions shall be helpful in increasing the efficiency in working capital management. • Company should make a policy in respect of investment of excess cash, if any; in marketable securities and overall cash policy should be introduced. • In case of inventory management ABC analysis, FSN technique, VED technique should be adopted to increase the efficiency of inventory management. Further a inventory monitoring system should be introduced to avoid holding of excess inventory. • Management should develop a credit policy and proper self realisation system from customers so that efficient and effective management of accounts receivable can be ensured. This will significantly improve the profitability and liquidity of the company.

• Purchase policy regarding raw material, consumables, and tools and packing materials etc. should be introduced which ultimately helps in planning of inventory, availment of maximum trade cash discount and availment of maximum credit period from suppliers.

CH NO. 10: RECOMMENDATIONS

1. System of lending cash credit/loans/ bills The study group found that there was a substantial gap between the sanctioned limit of cash credit and the extent of their utilization. They recommended that the bank should strictly ensure that a review of all borrowers accounts, enjoying working capital credit limits of Rs 10 Lac and over from the banking system is made at least once a year. A working capital limit will include all fund-based limits for working capital purposes. It will verify the continued viability of the borrowers and also assess the need-based character of their limit.
2. Bifurcation of credit limits Bifurcation of cash credit limits into a demand loan portion and a fluctuating cash credit component has not found acceptance either on the part of the banks or the borrowers. Such bifurcation may not serve the purpose of better credit planning by narrowing gap between sanctioned limits and the extent of utilization thereof.
3. Reduction in over dependence on bank finances The need for reducing the over dependence of the medium and large borrowers both in private and public sectors on bank finance for their production / trading purposes is recognized. The net surplus cash generation on established industrial unit should be utilized partly at least for reducing borrowing for working capital purposes.
4. Increase in owner’s contribution In order to ensure that the borrowers do enhance their contributions working capital and to improve their current ratio, it is necessary to place them under the second method of sending recommended by hand on committee which would give a minimum current ration of 1.33:1. As many of the borrowers may not be immediately in a position to work under the second method of lending the excess borrowings should be segregated and treated as working capital term loan which should be made repayable loan, it should be charged at higher rate of interest. The committee recommends that the additional interest may be fixed at 2% per annum over the rate applicable on the relative cash credit limits. The procedure should be made compulsory for all borrowers (except sick units) having aggregate working capital limits of Rs 10 Lac and over.

5. Separation of Normal, Non-Peak Level & Peak Level Requirements While assessing the credit requirement, the bank should appraise and the separate limits or the normal non-peak level as also or the ‘peak level’ or requirement indicating also the periods during which the separate limits would be extended to all borrowers having working capital of Rs. 10 lacs and above. One of the imp. Criteria for deciding such limit should be the borrowers’ utilization of cr. Limits in the past.
6. Temporary Accommodation through loan If any ad-hoc or temporary accommodation is req. in excess of the sanctioned limit to meet unproven contingencies the additional finance should be given, where necessary, through a separate demand loan A/C or a separate non-operable cash Cr. A/C. There should be a stiff penalty for such demand loan or non-operable cash cr. Portion, ablest 2% above the normal rate unless the RBI exempts such penalty. The discipline may be made applicable in cases involving working capital limits of Rs. 10 lacs and above.
7. Penal Information The borrower should be asked to give his quarterly requirements of funds before the commencement of the quarter on the basis of his budget, the actual requirements being within the sanctioned limit for the particular peak level/non-peak level periods. Drawings of less than or in excess of the operative limit so fined (with a tolerance o 10% either way) but not exceeding the sanctioned limit would be subject to a penalty to be fined by the RBI from time to time. For the time being, the penalty may be fixed at 2% p.a. The borrower would be required to submit his budgeted requirements in triplicate & a copy of each would be sent immediately by the branch to the controlling office and head office for record. The penalty would be applicable only in respect of parties enjoying cr. Limits of Rs. 10 lacs and above subject to certain exemptions.
8. Info. Systems The non-submission of the returns in time is partly due to certain features in the forms themselves. Simplified forms have been proposed to overcome this prob. As the quarterly info. System is part and parcel of the revised style of lending under the cash cr. System, if the borrower does not submit the return within the prescribed time, he should be penalized by charging the whole outstanding in the A/C at a penal rate of int., 1% p.a. more than the contracted date for the advance from the due date of the return till the date of its actual submission.
CH NO. 11: BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS& REFERENCES: ➢ Khan M.Y. and Jam P.K., Financial Management ➢ Banerjee, Cash Management ➢ Kulkarni P.V., Financial Management ➢ Pandey I.M. Financial Management ➢ Business India ➢ Business Today ➢ Capital Market ➢ Business Standards ➢ Economic Times ➢ Dalal Street Journal ➢ Annual Report- Kotak Mahindra

WEBSITES: www.kotakmahindra.com www.karvy.com www.camsonline.com www.sbimf.com www.dundeefunds-India.com www.kotak.com www.utittrustofindia.com www.birlaglobat.com www.www.kotakmahindra.com www.hdfc-India.com www.licofindia.com www.icra.com www.crisil.com www.icici.com www.idbi.com www.reservebank.com www.sebi.gov.in www.icicibank.com www.bankofpunjab.com www.statebankofindia.com
CH NO. 12: QUESTIONNAIRE
(ANNEXURE A) 1. Name: 2. Occupation 3. Do you know about Insurance? Yes No 4. Have you ever opted for Insurance from any company? Yes No 5. If Yes, Which company have you taken Insurance from? LIC SBI Insurance HDFC Standard Life Insurance Icici Pur Max New York Life Insurance Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance TATA AIG life Insurance 6. How did you come to know about Insurance? Advertisement Word of Mouth Referred by your company / Friend 7. What made you select a particular company for the Insurance? EMI Brand name Procedures Facilities Policies Advertisement 8. How do you like the Marketing strategy by different Insurance Company? Good Average Bad 9. What motivates you for selecting any Company for Insurance? EMI Brand name Procedures Facilities Policies 10. Advantages or Comment about Insurances

11. Which Company would you prefer if you have never applied for Insurance? LIC SBI Insurance HDFC Standard Life Insurance HDFC Prudential Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance TATA AIG life Insurance

CH NO. 13: CASE STUDY

In spite of the vast potential, the retirement solutions category remained virtually untapped by the Indian Insurance players - until Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance decided to build and explore this hidden goldmine. The following case study discusses how Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance used smart strategies to exploit this opportunity to its advantage.

KOTAK MAHINDRA OLD MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE.

Market Scenario
With increasing life expectancy on one hand and rising inflation and medical costs on the other, the need for planning one’s retirement was emerging as an important one. However, it was quite surprising to know only 11 per cent of India’s total working population was adequately covered for post-retirement life. This was mainly due to low awareness of and attitudinal barriers with respect to these issues among consumers.

Opportunities
About 90 per cent of the working population in India was without retirement cover. Of this, a sizeable portion belonged to the age group of 30-40 yrs - a big market left unexploited so far. Even the market leader LIC, which has been in the country for decades, had failed to truly drive growth of the retirement products category. Proof being the mere 4.16 per cent contribution of pension products to its entire portfolio (as of end 2005).

Barriers
The task of capturing the unexploited market however, turned out to be an uphill one. The first barrier was low awareness of the need for early retirement planning among consumers. Add to it the consumer’s notion that planning for retirement starts only in your 50s. The bigger issue however, was the consumer’s perceptions and fears as far as retirement was concerned. The word ‘retirement’ itself brought to mind all the negatives associated with old age – loss of independence (social, financial and physical), causing ‘avoidance’ or deferment of decisions regarding the same.

The Challenge To re-position the traditional concept of retirement planning and thus create relevance for it among the 30-40 yrs age group. To change behavior, inducing consumers to invest in retirement planning early in life.

Campaign objectives
Bring the concept of planning for retirement into the consideration set of 30-40 year old working men/ women thereby creating a new market
50 per cent of pension’s contributions to come from persons below 40 years Sales and market share targets within six months post campaign (for the period Sep 2005 to Mar 2006): 1. Sales target: INR 400 million 2. Share of total pensions market: 10 per cent 3. Contribution of pensions to portfolio: 20 per cent.

Target Audience
SEC A, B, 30-40 year old, chief wage earner, who: is at the prime of his working life, with a higher disposable income and majority of work life still at hand.
Currently thinks that retirement planning holds very low importance, as compared to other needs of asset acquisition, child’s education etc.

Creative Strategy
Consumer Insight “Retirement is a long way off – why plan for it now?” Retirement means the end of all good things in life” Creative strategy.
To a younger target group, for whom retirement is synonymous with growing old, the strategy was to offer a fresh perspective by mirroring the never say die attitude of the 35 yr old. If age doesn’t stop him from sharing in the joys of life now, why should it stop him later? Proposition Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance Retirement solutions help you plan early for retirement, ensuring that you will continue to live life the way you always wanted to. The advertising message “Retire from work – not life!”

Other Communication Programmes
The laddered task of share gain through changing consumer attitudes and behavior, called for a multi-dimensional communication strategy that went beyond traditional mass media.
1. Retirement Solutions Seminars: Through a tie up with The Times of India, full-page educative advertorials were released in three metros inviting consumers for a free seminar on early retirement planning. Over 2000 consumers attended these seminars.
2. Direct Marketing Campaign: More than 15 databases were carefully chosen to accurately target the 30-40 yr old. Customers of/subscribers to KOTAK MAHINDRA Bank credit card holders, Safety Bond holders, Money control and Myiris are few of the databases that were used.
3. Retirement Planner: An educative booklet in the form of a planner was created explaining why it made better sense to start planning for retirement several years in advance. The mode of distribution was an innovation in Brand Equity (The Economic Times).
4. Retirement calculator: A user-friendly calculator was designed to help customers calculate the current savings required in order to meet post-retirement expenses. This was made available on the brand website and used extensively as a needs analysis tool at the time of sale.
Media Strategy
The overriding objective of the media strategy was customer interaction through various touch points using a 24-hour cycle. So a multi media strategy was developed to contact the target at every possible touch point.

1. TV: This was the main for reach, impact and demonstrates the emotional pay off. For the first month of launch a high reach, high frequency plan was implemented, followed up with three months of sustained activity. The activity started with 40-second commercials and then moved to 20 and 30 seconds edits aimed at increasing frequency.
2. Print: Press reinforced the rational benefit of saving early to cushion your retirement by highlighting the product’s comprehensive features. Vehicles were chosen based on the best cost per response i.e. the publication which would generate the maximum no of call ins.
3. Radio: The new FM channels launched in the previous year were explored to reach audiences out of home. The spots were aired so as to get the morning and evening office-going traffic.
4. Outdoor: A high visibility-high impact outdoor strategy was implemented across 21 cities. Morning traffic sites were specifically selected to target the office going consumer.
5. Internet: Used innovatively to seek responses via click-through. Financial sites and general interest sites were chosen considering the net is used both in office and at home.
6. Direct Marketing: Mailers and brochures played the dual role of educating the consumer on the rationale behind planning early for retirement and the advantages of Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance Retirement Solutions.
7. Public Relations: Was effectively used to educate consumers on early retirement planning, making them more receptive towards the brand’s communication. Competitive Media Spends: The combined spend of just the top 2 competitors put together amounted to Rs 16 crores approx. comparatively the spends on the Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance campaign was Rs 4.8 crores.

Media

1. Television 2. Newspaper 3. Consumer Magazine 4. Radio 5. Point-of-Purchase 6. Out-of-Home 7. Public Relations 8. Sales Promotion 9. Consumer Seminars

Evidence of Results -Overwhelming Response
To begin with, the campaign triggered a large number of consumer response calls and e-mails (35000 calls and 3000 emails).
The response rate for mailers sent out (Direct Marketing) varied from five per cent to 7.5 per cent, far higher than both domestic and international norms across categories.

Changing Attitudes
The average age of a person investing in Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance retirement solutions rose to 38.5 years.

Sales and Market Shares
The success of the campaign was not limited to phone calls alone. The campaign contributed greatly to the organization’s top line and bottom-line as is evident form the charts below: 1. Sales achieved for the period Sept ‘02 to Mar ’03, were INR 740 million as compared to a target of INR 400 million. 2. Market share Gain: The brand increased its share of pensions market to 23 per cent against target of 10 per cent for the period Sep 2005 to Mar 2006. The table below which compares Kotak Mahindra Old Mutual Life Insurance share in the pensions market with the overall life insurance category puts the campaign’s success in perspective.

CH NO. 14: SYNOPSIS OF THE PROJECT

KOTAK MAHINDRA LIFE INSURANCE [pic]

WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AT
KOTAK MAHINDRA LIFE INSURANCE

STUDENT’S NAME: KUSHAGRA DABUR

INDUSTRY GUIDE: MR. RUCHIR AGGARWAL

FACULTY GUIDE: MR. AJIT MITTAL

OBJECTIVE:

➢ To meet the cash disbursement needs (payment schedule); ➢ To minimize funds committed to cash balances. ➢ The present study is limited to one Co., i.e. Kotak Mahindra Life Insurance, and covers a period from 2003 and 2006 due to limitation of time and accessibility to data base.

The authenticity of the suggestions and recommendations depend upon the rationality of the data provided to me.

FINDINGS: ➢ The relative growth rate of short term trade credit and value industrial production. ➢ The relative growth rates of short term trade credit & inventories with industry & trade. ➢ The diversion of short-term credit for fixed asset acquisition & for lower and Investments. ➢ The incidence or multiple financing, ➢ The elongation of credit period.

RECOMMENDATIONS:
The study group found that there was a substantial gap between the sanctioned limit of cash credit and the extent of their utilization. They recommended that the bank should strictly ensure that a review of all borrowers accounts, enjoying working capital credit limits of Rs 10 Lac and over from the banking system is made at least once a year. A working capital limit will include all fund-based limits for working capital purposes. It will verify the continued viability of the borrowers and also assess the need-based character of their limit.

IMPLICATIONS:
The Bank finances only that portion of the asset that is not financed by the creditors, Banker finances the working capital requirement after taking the net current assets into consideration. The bank will not finance the net working capital to the extent of 100% of net current assets. It will like the company and the rest of the amount put in that the bank may finance some amount of the asset.
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...Sweden University Department of Social Sciences Business Administration D Master Thesis Fachhochschule Aachen Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften Europäischer Studiengang Wirtschaft Diplomarbeit THE IMPACT OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT ON CASH HOLDINGS – A Quantitative Study of Swedish Manufacturing SMEs Author: Place of Birth: 1st Examiner: 2nd Examiner: Tutor: Term: Due Date: Maxime Abel Frankenthal, Germany Prof. Håkan Boter (Mid Sweden University) Prof. Dr. Jürgen Stephan (Fachhochschule Aachen) Dr. Darush Yazdanfar Summer 2008 May 30th, 2008 Abstract This study examines the impact of working capital management on cash holdings of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises in Sweden. The aim of this work is to theoretically derive significant factors related to working capital management which have an influence on the cash level of SMEs and test these in a large sample of Swedish manufacturing SMEs. The theoretical framework for this study consists of a treatise of motives for holding cash, working capital management and cash level. From these theoretical findings, two hypotheses are deduced: • H1: Cash holdings are negatively related to the presence of cash substitutes • H2: Cash holdings are positively related to working capital management efficiency The quantitative investigation consists of the statistical analysis – namely comparison of means and correlation analysis – of key figures which are calculated from the financial statements of......

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Working Capital

...WORKING CAPITAL DEFINITION OF WORKING CAPITAL Working Capital = Current Assets - Current Liabilities ❖ Current Assets are - ➢ Customer Outstanding ➢ FG Inventory ➢ WIP ➢ GIT ➢ Other Current Assets ➢ Vendor Debits. ❖ Current Liabilities are - ➢ Customer Advances ➢ Vendor Credits etc. ❖ +ve WC signifies requirement of money and vice versa ❖ Analogous to Cash Inflow – Cash Outflows Working Capital Budgeting/ Monitoring of Various Parameters Customer outstanding – Amount receivable from the customer for progress / pucca invoices raised including the retention money both for divisible and indivisible contracts. Tax deducted at source by the customer should form part of outstanding until customer issue TDS certificates. For divisible contracts, the outstanding represent gross amount of the invoices less pure advance and milestone payments received. For indivisible contracts, the outstanding represent gross progress bill amount less pure advance, milestone and progress payments received. Format for computation of customer outstanding |Month |April 01 |. |. |Mar2002 |Average | | |1 |2 |3 |12 ...

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Working Capital

...materials cost Tk. 50 per unit Direct labor cost 20 per unit Overheads cost 40 per unit Total cost 110 per unit Profit 30 per unit Selling Price Tk.140 per unit You are also given the following additional information: (i) Average Raw material in stock: One month (ii) Average Raw materials in process: Half a month (iii) Stock of Finished goods: 30 days (iv) 20% of sales are cash sales (v) Expected cash balance is: Tk. 100.000 (vi) Credit allowed to debtors: Two months (vii) Credit allowed by Creditors: 45 days (viii) Time Lag in payment of wages: 15 days (ix) Time lag in Payment of Overhead: 1 month You are required to prepare statement showing the working capital requirement if level of activity of the company is at 70,000 units. Solution: First we should calculate the investment in all current assets: A. Investment in Inventory: 1) Inventory in Raw material: Consumption of Raw material x R.M. Conversion Period = Tk. 291,667 360 days 70,000 Units x Tk.50 = X 30 days 360 days (2) Inventory in work in progress: Cost of Production x W.I P. Conversion Period = Tk.3,20,833 360 days 70,000 Units x Tk.110 x 15 days 360 days (3) Finished Goods Inventory: Cost of Sales = X Finished goods conversion period 360 days 70,000 Units x Tk.110 = X 30 days 360 days Tk.......

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Working Capital Managemenr

...BETWEEN WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND PROFITABLITY OF LISTED MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN GHANA Agyemang Badu Ebenezer Lecturer, Department of Business Administration Presbyterian University College, Ghana Michael Kwame Asiedu Lecturer, Department of Business Administration Presbyterian University College, Ghana ABSTRACT This study examines the effect of working capital management on the profitability of companies listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange. Secondary data from the Ghana Stock Exchange on manufacturing companies within the Accra metropolis was used to examine whether working capital management influence the profitability of manufacturing companies in the country. The study found out that, the major component of working capital management such as inventory days, account payable and cash conversion cycle have influence on the profitability of manufacturing companies. The study recommended that, manufacturing companies should adopt efficient and effective ways of efficiently managing these components of working capital management. KEY WORDS: Working capital management, profitability, net operating profit 1.1 INTRODUCTION Working Capital Management has become very important in financial management because of its effects on the firm’s profitability, risk and consequently its value. There are several important reasons why the management of working capital is important to both small and large organisations. (Smith, 1980). A well designed and implemented working capital......

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Definition of 'Working Capital

...Definition of 'Working Capital' A measure of both a company's efficiency and its short-term financial health. The working capital ratio is calculated as: Working Capital This ratio indicates whether a company has enough short term assets to cover its short term debt. Anything below 1 indicates negative W/C (working capital). While anything over 2 means that the company is not investing excess assets. Most believe that a ratio between 1.2 and 2.0 is sufficient. Also known as "net working capital", or the "working capital ratio". Investopedia Says Investopedia explains 'Working Capital' If a company's current assets do not exceed its current liabilities, then it may run into trouble paying back creditors in the short term. The worst-case scenario is bankruptcy. A declining working capital ratio over a longer time period could also be a red flag that warrants further analysis. For example, it could be that the company's sales volumes are decreasing and, as a result, its accounts receivables number continues to get smaller and smaller. Working capital also gives investors an idea of the company's underlying operational efficiency. Money that is tied up in inventory or money that customers still owe to the company cannot be used to pay off any of the company's obligations. So, if a company is not operating in the most efficient manner (slow collection), it will show up as an increase in the working capital. This can be seen by comparing the working capital......

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Working Capital Management

...August 23, 2015 M. Shahjahan Mina Professor, Department of Finance University Of Dhaka Subject: Letter regarding Submission of report on Working Capital Management Of M.I. Cement Factory Ltd Dear sir, With due respect, we, a study group of six members of B.B.A. Program (18th Batch) under Department of Finance, University of Dhaka, submit the report entitled “Working Capital Management of M.I. Cement Factory Ltd.” that you have assigned us as the partial course requirement of the respective semester. We thank you, sir, for this assignment which has enriched our knowledge of this topic. Also, our involvement with little field study has nurtured our understanding, which will undoubtedly help us in the coming semesters and further. Respectfully ………………………………… Md. Akramuzzaman On behalf of the group, Roll: 18-113, Section: A Department of Finance University of Dhaka Working capital management is the management of current assets and liabilities of an organization. It is extremely important for any manufacturing company. WC represents a large portion of the total investment in assets. This clearly indicates that the finance manager should pay a close attention to the management of current assets on a continuing basis. Besides, there is a direct relationship between a firm’s growth and its working capital needs. As sales grow, the firm needs to invest more in inventories and debtors. In this report, we have...

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Working Capital Management

...Two Readings on Working Capital Management Keys To Successful Working Capital Management From the perspective of the Chief Financial Officer (CFO), the concept of working capital management is relatively straightforward: to ensure that the organization is able to fund the difference between short-term assets and short-term liabilities. In practice, though, working capital management has become the Achilles' heel of scores of finance organizations, with many CFOs struggling to identify core working capital drivers and the appropriate level of working capital. As a result, companies can be limited in their ability to weather unforeseen or adverse events and ensure that cash is readily available where it is needed, regardless of the circumstances. By understanding the role and drivers of working capital management and taking steps to reach the "right" levels of working capital, companies can minimize risk, effectively prepare for uncertainty and improve overall performance. Factors Influencing Working Capital Performance For most CFOs, the greatest challenge with respect to working capital management is the need to understand and influence factors that are out of their direct control, in order to obtain a complete picture of the company's needs. The CFO's span of control can be limited in terms of functional silos, though corporate finance may well have some powers of influence over operating units. While organizations generally concentrate on the right......

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Working Capital Management

...Money and Currency Market Assessment Working Capital Management Report #3 Faculty of Business Field of Study: Money and Currency Market Kozminski University, Warsaw Handed in by: Ewa Dembska, Jennifer March, Sarah Steinberger Course: WIB-bi 13 Academic tutor: Prof. Dr. Mieczysław Grudziński Warsaw, 25th March 2015 | Introduction to the problem You are the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) of BP. This afternoon you played golf with a member of the company’s board of directors. Somewhere during the back nine, the board member enthusiastically described a recent article she had read in a leading management journal. This article noted several companies that had improved their stock price performance through effective working capital management, and the board member was intrigued. She wondered whether BP was managing its working capital effectively and, if not, whether BP could accomplish something similar. How was BP managing its working capital, and how does it compare to its competitors? Upon returning home, you decide to do a quick preliminary investigation using information freely available on the Internet. Task 1 Obtain BP’s financial statements for the past four years from Yahoo! Finance (http://finance.yahoo.com). See attachments Excel File: Case#3 Spreadsheet Task 2 Obtain the competitors' ratios for comparison from Yahoo! Finance (http://finance.yahoo.com). See attachments Excel File: Case#3 Spreadsheet Task 3 Compute the cash conversion cycle for BP for each of......

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Working Capital Management

...Finance / under West Bengal State University, Barasat) Title of the Project WORKING CAPITAL MANGEMENT IN MARUTI SUZUKI INDIA.LTD Submitted by Name of the Candidate: TANUMOY ROY Registration No. : 13611131114020870 OF 2011-12 Name of the College: RBC EVENING COLLEGE College Roll No: 21 Supervised by Name of the Supervisor MR RANJIT KUMAR DUTTA Name of the College: RBC EVENING COLLEGE Month & Year of Submission FEB 2014 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank our head of the department (HOD) Mr. Ranjit Kumar Dutta, for giving necessary support during the course. Chapter No. | Particulars | Page No. | 1. | INTRODUCTION | 4-7 | 2. | AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY SCENARIO IN INDIA | 8 | 3. | PRESENTATION OF DATA, ANALYSIS, FINDING | 9-11 | 4. | CONCLUSION,RECOMMENDATION,LIMITATION | 12 | 5. | BIBLOGRAPHY AND REFERANCES | 13 | 6. | SUPERVISER CERTIFICATE | 14 | 7. | STUDENT DECLARATION | 15 | CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1.1CONCEPT OF WORKING CAPITAL The term working capital is used to mean that proportion of working capital of a business which is employed in short Term or current operations. There are two type of working capital: gross and net. Gross working capital is the sum total of all current asset, while net working capital is the difference between current asset and current liabilities. IMPORTANCE OF WORKING CAPITAL * The business can avail the advantages of cash discount......

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Minimizing Working Capital

...u08a1 Essay – Minimizing Working Capital Using Internet resources or the Capella University Library, research and write an essay on the importance and challenges of minimizing working capital. Your paper should be 4–6 pages in length and include three outside references. Your writing should be well organized and clear. Writing structure, spelling, and grammar should be correct as well. How to improve better performance of Working Capital Management Read more: http://www.ukessays.com/essays/finance/how-to-improve-better-performance-of-working-capital-management-finance-essay.php#ixzz2E8PrJWkr http://www.studymode.com/essays/Working-Capital-408723.html http://blog.accountingcpd.net/2012/08/16/working-capital-optimisation-in-smes-part-iii/ http://www.termpaperwarehouse.com/essay-on/Working-Capital/53803 * http://www.termpaperwarehouse.com/essay-on/Minimizing-Working-Capital/30029 * http://www.ing-wholesalebanking.com/insights/assets/pdf/research/1482.pdf * http://smallbusiness.chron.com/effect-revenue-increase-working-capital-42574.html * Working Capital * In business accounting, working capital is a benchmark measure of your company's ability to meet its short-term obligations. It's calculated by taking your business' current assets and subtracting its current liabilities. Current assets are those that can or will be converted to cash in the next year. The major current assets are cash, accounts receivable and inventory. Current liabilities are......

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Working Capital Management

...IJMBs Vol. 1, Issue 3, septeMBer 2011 I S S N : 2 3 3 0 - 9 5 1 9 (O n l i n e ) | I S S N : 2 2 3 1-2463 ( P r in t) Working Capital Management in Cement Company a Study 1 1 T.Chandrabai, 2Dr.K.Venkata Janardhan Rao Dept. of Mgmt. Studies, Padmasri Dr.B.V.Raju Institute of Tech., Narsapur, Medak, AP, India 2 Dept. of Commerce and Business Management, Kakatiya University, Warangal, AP, India Abstract Working capital is considered to be life-giving force to an economic entity and managing working capital one of the most important functions of corporate management. Working capital management (WCM) is the management of short-term financing requirements of a firm which includes maintaining optimum balance of working capital components – receivables, inventory and payables – and using the cash efficiently for day-to-day operations. The main objectives of this study are to examine and evaluate the working capital management in ACC Limited, examine the management pattern of inventory, liquidity, cash position and receivables management. This also finds the relationship between Working Capital Efficiency and Profitability, Profitability and Market ratios. Keywords Working Capital, Liquidity, Profitability, Market ratios, Inventory I. Introduction Global slowdown that severely affected several countries had its invariable effect on Indian Industrial production as also on other important sectors of Indian Economy. The Cement Industry, which......

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