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Working Students

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A. PANIMULA Ang edukasyon ay isang pundasyon ng mabuting pamumuhay. Ito ay naglalayon ng pagkatuto ng isang katauhan. Sinasabi din na ito ay isang proseso ng pagkuha ng kalaaman kaya naman ito ay nagdudulot ng benepisyo sa ating mental, pisikal, emosyonal at maging sa ating espiritwal. Pinapabuti nito ang bawat aspekto ng ating buhay sa pamamagitan ng pagkakaroon ng mga kaalaman sa lahat ng bagay. Sumakatuwid, napakahalaga ng edukasyon sa bawat mamamayan ngunit maraming estudyante sa kolehiyo at hayskul ang hindi nabibigyan ng pagkakataon na makapag-aral. Ayon nga sa UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), “Ang edukasyon ay isang prinsipyo ng karapatang pantao at ito ay isa ring pagsasanay sa iba pang karapatang pantao na nagtataguyod ng indibidwal na kalayaan, nagbibigay kalakasan at nagbubunga ng paglago. Subalit milyong mga kabataan maging mga matatanda ang hindi napapagkalooban nito dala ng kahirapan sa buhay.” Bunga nito, ang mga pursigidong mag-aaral na may pangarap na makapagtapos ng pag-aaral ngunit sa kakapusan ng kuwalta ay hindi sila nabibigyan ng pagkakataon, pumapasok na lamang sa pagtatrabaho. Naaapektuhan nga ba ng kanilang pagbabanat ng buto ang kanilang pagganap sa paaralan?
Ang pagtatrabaho habang nag-aaral ay makapagdudulot din ng tagumpay kung sa kanilang pagtatrabaho ay matututunan nila ang pagiging masipag, matiyaga at magkakaroon sila ng ‘time management skills’. Sa kabilang dako naman, maaari din itong makapagpalubha ng kanilang sitwasyon sa kanilang pag-aaral dahil maaari silang magkaroon ng mababang marka dahilan ng kakulangan sa oras sa paggawa ng mga takdang aralin, pagrerebyuw atbp. At pagod buhat ng magdamagang paggawa.
Ang pagtatrabaho habang nag-aaral ay napakabigat na pasanin para sa mga estudyante. Ang atensyon ng mga mag-aaral na nagtatrabaho ay nahahati. Maaari silang bumigay sa bigat ng kanilang dinadala –maaari nilang bitawan ang kanilang pag-aaral o ang kanilang pagtatrabaho. Malaki din ang masamang epekto nito sa kanilang pag-iisip, dahil bukod sa mga gawaing pampaaralan ang laman ng kanilang utak nadadagdagan ito ng mga problema sa trabaho at pagbabadyet. Maging sa pisikal mayroon din itong masamang naidudulot sapagkat kadalasan ang mga ‘working students’ ay nakakaranas ng pagkahapo, pagkabalisa at sila ay madalas na nanlulupaypay.

B. LAYUNIN NG PAG-AARAL

Ang layunin ng aming pag-aaral o pananaliksik batay sa aming napiling paksa ay ang mga sumusunod:

1. Makapagbigay ng sapat na impormasyong nauukol sa manggagawang mag-aaral.

2. Maimulat ang mga mambabasa sa mga epekto, adbentahe at disadbentahe ng pagiging isang manggagawang mag-aaral

3. Malaman ang mga nagiging epekto ng pagiging ‘working student’ sa kanilang pag-aaral.
4. Alamin kung ang mga manggagawang mag-aaral ba ay nakaeksperyensa ng kahirapan sa pagtatrabaho.
5. Tukuyin kung paano nila napagsasabay ang trabaho at eskwela.

C. PAGLALAHAD NG SULIRANIN

a. Ang pag-aaral na ito ay naglalayon na masagot ang mga tanong ukol sa pagiging working student particular sa mag-aaral sa kolehiyo.

1. Anu-ano ang mga epekto ng pagiging working student sa mga aspetong ito:

1.1 Pamilya
1.2 Kaisipan
1.3 Emosyon

2. Anu-ano ang mga epekto ng pagiging working student sa pagganap nila sa paaralan:

2.1 Mabuti
2.2 Masama

3. Paano nakatutulong ang pagtatrabaho nila sa kanilang pag-aaral?

4. Anu-ano ang mga benepisyong nakukuha ng mga working students sa kanilang pagtatrabaho?

5. Paano nakatutulong ang pagtatrabaho nila sa sariling pangangailangan?

D. BALANGKAS TEORETIKAL

Sa ganitong usapin, malaki ang naitulong ng mga pag-aaral ni Abraham Maslow ukol sa Hierarchy of Needs at motivation at work. Ayon sa kanyang motivation theory, sinisikap ng tao na paunlarin ang kanyang sarili. Walang katapusan ang kanyang mga pagnanais dahil kung matumbasan man ang isang kagustuhan, nakararanas siya ng satispaksyon ngunit sa maiksing panahon lamang. Bago maarok ang potensyal ng tao, ay may iba't ibang pangangailangan na kailangang mapunan. Dito pumapasok ang kanyang pag-aaral sa hierarchy of needs. Bago pa masunod ang motibasyon, kailangan munang mapunan ang mga pinakapayak na kailangan. Sa unang antas, nariyan ang mga physiological needs o ang mga bagay upang mabuhay. Ito ay ang mga pagkain, damit at tahanan. Ito ay ang mga pisikal na pangangailagan ng pisikal na pangangatawan. Ito ang mga palaging pinupunan ng mga mangagawa, estudyante man o hindi. Para sa marami, ang bawat oras ng pagtatrabaho ay katumbas ng mga pagkaing ihahain sa hapag. Para sa aking sabjek, mahalaga para sa kanyang mapunan ang mga pangangailangang ito ngunit hindi lamang para sa kanya kundi maging para sa kanyang pamilya. Simula nang lumaki ang kanyang sweldo ay iniako na niya ang pagbili ng buwanang groceries. Kadikit ng pangangailangang ito ay ang motibo niyang maipagpatuloy ang suporta sa mga magulang.
Sunod sa pangunahing pangangailangan ay ang seguridad. Gusto ng taong manirahan sa payapang lugar upang matiyak ang seguridad ng kanyang sarili at pamilya. Bumibili ng mga gamot at health plans. Para sa sabjek, mahalaga ang seguridad sa kalusugan lalo pa’t para ito sa kanyang mga magulang. Ang seguridad na ito ay isang benepisyong mula sa kompanya. Natatakot siya sa pagkaputol ng benepisyong ito, kasabay ng kanyang pagreresign. Ayon kay Maslow, ang susunod na pangangailangan ay ang pagtanggap ng lipunan at ang makapagbigay ng pagmamahal. Sinasabing lumilitaw ang pangangailangan na ito matapos mapunan ang unang dalawang pangangailangan. Kahit pa sabihing hindi dapat nagpapasuway sa opinyon ng ibang tao, alam natin na mahalaga pa rin at maluwag sa kalooban kung tanggap tayo ng kinabibilangang lipunan.

Para sa sabjek, tila natatakpan ang kawalan niya ng diploma ng pagtatrabaho sa isang magandang kumpanya. Importante rin para sa kanya ang pang-unawa ng ina at ito ang unang-unang manghihinayang sa kanyang pag-alis sa kumpanya. Sa kasalukuyan, hindi pinag-uukulan ng panahon ng sabjek ang pangangailangan na makapagmahal. Sa dami ng kanyang mga ginagawa at alalahanin, ang pagmamahal na ibinibigay at natatanggap mulasa pamilya at mga kaibigan ay sapat na. Ang sunod na pangangailangang binanggit ni Maslow ay ang pangangailangan ng kompyansa sa sarili at paggalang ng iba. Ang mga pangangailangang ito ay nakaangkla sa pangangailangang maging tanggap. Ayon kay Maslow, ang pagbuo ng kumpiyansa ay kinabibilangan ng kagustuhang magkaroon ng tiwala sa kakayanan, maging mahusay sa napiling larangan at magkaroon ng kalayaan sa napiling gawain. Sinabi rin ng sikolohista na namamalayan ng isang tao ang ganitong pangangailangan kung natugunan na ang mga pangunahing pangangailangan. Para sasabjek, siya ay nasa ganitong estado at ito ang itinuturing niyang pinakamahalaga sa listahan ng mga pangangailangan.

Bilang isang mananaliksik, nakita ko ang hirap na maaaring pagdaanan ng mga estudyanteng sabay na nagtatrabaho dahil, tao din sila na maraming mga pangangailangan sa buhay, sa totoo lang ay mas marami pa nga ang kailangan nila dahil kapos sila sa pantustos. Ipinakita ng teorya ni Maslow ang mga pangangailangang ito.

E. PARADIGMA NG PAG-AARAL

PINAGBATAYAN PROSESO KINALABASAN

1. Bakit ikaw ay nagtatrabaho habang nag-aaral?

• Magsagawa ng isang sarbey ukol sa paksa

• Pagtatala ng mga resulta sa nagawang sarbey.

• Pag-interpret ng mga resulta
• Ayon sa aming sarbey:
a. Sila ang bumubuhay sa kanilang pamilya.
b. Dahil sila ay may kakulangang pampinansyal
c. Para magkaroon ng karagdagang panggastos
2. Anu-ano ang eksperyensa mo bilang mangagawang mag-aaral sa aspektong emosyonal, sosyal, pisikal, mental at espiritwal?

a. Napapalawak nito ang kaisipan sapagkat nakakatulong ito upang matutuhan ang lahat ng bagay,
b. Nagiging mapagmhal sa kapwa
c. Lumalakas ang resistensya
d. Lalong pinatibay ang pananampalatay sa Diyos, sa pamamagitan ng mga pagsubok sa buhay.
e. Madalas na pagkalito at nahahabag sa sitwasyon sa buhay.

3. Anu-ano ang epekto ng pagiging manggagawang mag-aaral sa pagganap mo sa iyong Pag-aaral
a. Nababawas ang oras para sa gawaing pampaaralan
b. Naapektuhan ang mga marka.
c. Mas nagiging pursigido sa pag-aaral

F. KAHALAGAHAN NG PAG-AARAL Sinasabi na ang edukasyon ay isang makapangyarihang sandata upang itaguyod ang mundo tungo sa pagbabago –Nelson Mandela
Isinasaad sa 1987 Konstitusyon ng Republika ng Pilipinas na dapat pangalagaan at itaguyod ng Estado ang karapatan ng lahat ng mga mamamayan sa mahusay na edukasyon sa lahat ng antas at dapat magsagawa ng angkop na mga hakbang upang matamo ng lahat ng gayong edukasyon.

Ang mga mananaliksik ay nagsagawa ng pag-aaral na nakapokus sa pagiging manggagawang mag-aaral sa pamamagitan ng pag-aaral na ito umaasa ang may akda na may kabuluhang makapagdudulot ito sa mga sumusunod:
Mag-aaral – ang pag-aaral na ito ay naglalayong maiparating sa mga mag-aaral ang kahalagahan ng pag-aaral kahit salat sa buhay ay kailangang ipagpatuloy ito upang maabot ang mga pangarap at magtagumpay sa buhay.
Magulang – makatutulong ang pag-aaral na ito upang maipahayag ang mga responsibilidad ng magulang sa kanilang mga anak at naglalayon din itong ipaalam ang kanilang tungkuling ukol sa pag-aaral ng kanilang mga anak.
Guro – nais ipabatid ng pananaliksik na ito na dapat bigyan ng sapat na konsiderasyon ang mga manggagawang mag-aaral.
Gobyerno – nais ipabatid ng pag-aaral na ito sa mga kinauukulan na dapat mabigyang pansin ang pangangailangan ng mga estudyante sa kanilang pag-aaral.
Sa pinagtatrabahuhan – naglalayon ang pananaliksik na ito na magbigay kaalaman sa mga pinagtatrabahuhan ng mga manggagawang mag-aaral ang hirap na nararanasan ng mga ‘working students’ sa kanilang pag-aaral at pagtatrabaho.
Sa mga mambabasa – maibabahagi ng pag-aaral na ito sa mga mambabasa ang mga naidudulot sa pagganap ng mga ‘working students’ sa kanilang paaralan.

G. SAKLAW AT LIMITASYON NG PAG-AARAL

Ang sakop ng pag-aaral ay iba’t ibang pamamaraan ng pagkontrol ng pagkahapo ng mag-aaral sa unang taon ng Manila Cenral University sa kolehiyo ng Medical Technology. Gumamit ang mga mananaliksik ng isang talatanungan upang makapangalap ng datos.

Limang mag-aaral ng City of Malabon University na may kursong Bachelor of Science in Secondary Education major in English ang sumagot ng talatanungan. Inabot ng tatlong araw ang pangangalap ng mga impormasyon sa mga ito. Binibigyang pansin lamang ng pag-aaral na ito ang mga epekto ng pagiging manggagawang mag-aaral sa kanilang pagganap sa paaralan.

H. KAHULUGAN NG MGA KATAWAGAN

Ipinapakita dito ang mga kahulugan ng mga salitang ginamit sa pananaliksik.Makatutulong ito upang higit na maunawaan ng mga mambabasa ang nilalaman ng pag_aaral.

Mangagawang Mag-aaral. Mga taong sabay na nag-aaral at nag-tatrabaho.
Ekonomiya. Binubuo ng mga sistemang ekonomiko ng isang bansa o ibang area: ang trabaho, puhunan, at mga pinagkukunang lupain at ang pagmamanupaktura,produksiyon, pangangalakal, distribusyon, at konsumpsiyon ng mga kalakal at serbisyo ng areang ito.
Kuwalta. Ang salapi o pera ay kahit anong pangkalakalang bagay o kaparaanan, na maaring sa anyo ng papel, barya o sinsilyo, bono, utang o kredito atbp. Ito ay nagpapanatili ng halaga ng bagay o serbisyong nauugnay o nailaan para rito. Ang halaga ng pera (sa kaniyang iba't ibang kaparaanan) ay tumataas at bumamaba.
Gobyerno. Isang organisasyon na may kapangyarihan na gumawa at magpatupad ng batas sa isang nasasakupangteritoryo. Ito rin ay may kapangyarihan na magbigay ng mga pangangailangan ng mga mamamayan ng nasasakupang teritoryo.

Trabaho. Ang gawain, gampanin, otungkulin na isinasagawa o isinasakatuparan ng isang tao upang makatanggap ng kapalit na salapi, gana, o suweldo. Tinatawag ang taong naghahanapbuhay bilang manggagawa, empleyado, o trabahador.
Seguridad. Katayuan ng pagiging nasagip mula sa kapahamakan o kaya kasamaan.
Emosyon. Ang pakiramdam ng isang tao na hindi nagagawa ng pisikal kundi ng mental at sikolohikal na gawain na makikita sa kilos, gawa, o ang ugali ng isang indibidwal. Iba iba ang emosyon na mararamdaman sa buhay tulad ng saya, lungkot, pagsisisi, pag-galit, tuwa at iba pa. Lahat ng tao ay may emosyon, maaring manhid ang isang tao na minsan makaramdam kung siya ay hindi mapag-bigay at mapagpatawad. Maari ring ang emosyon ng isang tao ay dulot ng pag-ibig opagmamahal.
Pamilya. Ang pamilya ay lipon ng dalawa o higit pa sa dalawang tao na magkaugnay sa dugo, sa bisa ng sakramento ng kasal o sa pamamagitan ng pag-aampon o paninirahan sa isang tirahan. Mahalaga ang pananatili ng pamilya dahil ito ang tumutugon sa maraming pangangailangan tulad ng pangangalaga sa mga batang kasapi nito. Ito ay binubuo ng ama, ina at mga anak.
Kaisipan. Paksa tungkol sa napakalabis na pag-teoriya, pagsubok at seryosong pagdadahilan na nangyayari sa pilosopiya(pinag-aaralan sa ilalim ng pamuhatan na pilosopiya ng pag-iisip), sikolohiya, at relihiyon (kung saan sa teolohiya, kadalasang kinukunsidera na nasa tabi ito ng mga iba pang kaugnay na palagay katulad ng kaluluwa at espiritu). Iniisip ng iba na kasing kahulugan ito ng utak.
Paaralan. Isang pook kung saan nag-aaral ang isang mag-aaral. Halimbawa nito ang elementarya at sekundarya.
Adbentahe. Mga bagay kung saan tayo ay nakikinabang.
Disadbentahe. Mga bagay kung saan tayo ay hindi nakikinabang.
Edukasyon. Kinabibilangan ng pagtuturo at pag-aaral ng isang kasanayan, at saka ilang bagay na hindi masyadong nadadama ngunit higit na malalim: ang pagbahagi ng kaalaman, mabuting paghusga at karunungan. Isa sa mga pangunahing layunin ng edukasyon ang ipahayag ang kultura sa mga susunod na salinlahi.
Guro. Isang tao na nagbibigay ng edukasyon para sa mga mag-aaral. Ang gampanin ng guro ay kadalasang pormal at umiiral, na isinasagawa sa isang paaralan o ibang lugar ng edukasyong pormal.
Konstitusyon. Isang pangkat ng mga prinsipyong saligan o pundamental o nailunsad at naitatag na mga pamarisan na pinagbabatayan o inaalinsunuran kung paano pinamamahalaan ang isang estado o iba pang organisasyon.
Pagkahapo. Pakiramdam kung saan ikaw ay pagod na pagod.
Pagkabalisa. Pakiramdam na kung saan ikaw ay nalulungkot.
Nanlulupaypay. Pakiramdan kung saan ikaw ay pagod na pagod
Potensyal. Ibig sabihin nito ay ang kakayahan ng isang tao sa paggawa ng isang bagay.
Motibo. Isang bagay na inaasam ng isang tao na makuha sa isang tao, bagay o kaya naman ay sa mga pangyayari sa kanilang buhay.

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A Young and Hard Working Student Is Looking for a Part Time Job!

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Factors Affecting the Academic Performance of Working Students in Hotel & Restaurant Management

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