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Working with Leading People

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Submitted By hanwin
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Chapter I
Background History of Local Non-Governmental Organizations in Myanmar Education Sector

A non-governmental organization is an organization that is neither a part of government nor a conventional for profit business. NGOs, sometimes called civil societies are organized on community, national and international levels to serve specific social and political purposes, and are cooperate rather than commercial, in nature.
In Myanmar the non-profits that work on behalf of others are called local NGOs to distinguish them from both the mass organizations created by the government and from the international NGOs.Local NGOs as organizations that work in a disinterested manner, not for the direct benefit of the organization’s leaders and staff but to improve the lives of others.
The development –oriented NGOs are not new and have existed for centuries. However, NGO was not in general currency before the UN was formed. When 132 international NGOs decided to co-operate with each other in 1910, they did so under the label, the Union of International Associations. It was found that NGOs emerged with the objective for implementing to humanitarian and development during World War I and World War II.
The International Committee of the Red Cross was the earliest non-governmental organization which was founded in 1863 in the aftermath of Crimean War and followed by Save the Children Fund in 1917, Oxford Committee for Famine Relief (now Oxfam) in1942, CARE in 1945.
NGOs gradually work both independently and alongside bilateral aid agencies from developed countries, private-sector infrastructure operators, self-help associations, and local governments. In fact NGOs are one group of players who are active in the efforts of international development and increasing the welfare of poor people in poor countries. It can be seen that there are now many NGO/INGOs which are implementing social welfare and charity-type such as agriculture, health, education, environmental concerns and disaster response in developing countries.
It’s fair to group the NGOs into three categories; the first would be local NGOs operating inside the country with registration with government, and secondly international NGOs or INGOs operating through Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) with the government. And finally government controlled organizations which aims are to promote government’s policy goals. Usually set up by ordinary citizens, NGOs may be funded by governments, foundations, business or private persons. Certain local organizations have been established by the non-government organizations to add efforts by the government organizations to carry out political, economic and social activities of the Union of Myanmar aiming to join hands with the people. Thus it has been found that civil society Organizations including NGOs could play an increasingly important role in addressing the basic needs and rights of people in Myanmar. The study explores the existence and significance of Civil Societies mainly in five different periods, prior to colonial period, during colonial period (1885-1948), post-independence period (1948-1962), Burma Socialist Programme Party period (1962-1988) and State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) and State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) period (1988-2010). Going back centuries to the era of the Bagan and Post-Bagan dynasties, civil societies probably existed in some form. Most villages organized social events and welfare initiatives around the Buddhist temple. Monks led these events and initiatives, and a local organization in most villages was formed to support the temple and related activities. While the more organized religious organizations took responsibilities in organizing funeral services, fundraising ceremonies for natural disaster affected populations projects to help the sick and poor, the less organized or ad-hoc voluntary groupings were seen to help organizing public meetings that put plans such as widening roads, building bridges and fortifications. These types of activities in the form of ad-hoc or in a more organized way have been prevalent in pre-colonial Myanmar societies. Thus, it can be assume that civil societies had been existed in ancient times. Christianity brought in by the first American Baptist Missionary in 1813 also had a considerably impact on organization life and collective social welfare of the people, especially for the ethnic Kachin and Chin who have the largest Christians population in the country. In 1857 the Kayin Baptist Home Mission Churches Associations, was created. And in 1865 the Baptist Churches in Myanmar organized themselves in the Burma Baptist Convention (BBC). These were the first of NGOs of its kind to be set up in Myanmar. One of their main objectives was to spread the gospel of Jesus Christ but what they have been doing since their inception is also humanitarian, social and development work.
During colonial period (1885-1948), the British government imposed and enforced many restrictions for the purpose of political and military control. Although controlling the population and limiting freedoms was a regular practice during the Myanmar monarchy, the British were more effective in institutionalizing control and limitations of freedoms. These restrictions (limiting freedom of association, speech, movement and other rights) hampered the growth of civil society sector. At the same time there was a contradictory trend. As educated urban Burmese growing up during the colonial administration were exposed to the practices of forming modern organizations and became more familiar with these practices, they showed a desire to create their own organizations for their own purposes, sometimes as a direct challenge to colonial control. For example, Young Men’s Buddhist Association (YMBA) the first modern, non-Christian NGO was formed by a group of Western educated middle class. They used a similar structure to Western Christian organisations and modelled it after the YMCA. Its official goals were: “adherence to the Five Precepts, education, economic, social reform, the encouragement of art and literature.” The origins of modern civil society were partially rooted in colonial resistance. It can be said that YMBA is Local Non- governmental organization during colonial period because it was a non-profit and non-governmental organization and they used its funding from public donation.
In the post-independence period (1948-1962), civil society organizations began to multiply in urban areas. Many Trade Unions, professional associations were formed in the 1950s. NGOs were apparently forming at a faster rate than at any other time in the country’s history. But in 1961, U Nu’s government passed the State Religion Bill in a joint session of parliament, making Buddhism the State Religion. This made other religious organizations difficult to function in their charity and other welfare activities that had been vital to their own population.
During this period, many myoneh athin (‘township associations’) were formed. These are local organisations created to provide welfare for members in their respective townships. They include financial support for students to study and for people of old age, donations for funeral services for those who cannot afford it, and various religious activities, including facilitation of meditation courses and donation to monks and monasteries. All activities are financed by donations from members. The Shwe Gyin Myoneh Athin, for instance, formed by residents of Shwe Gyin Township in Bago Division, was established in 1925. The size and strength of these township organisations varies greatly, depending on the size, location and wealth of the township. Because of these Myoneh Athin were non-government and non-profit organization, they are assumed as non-government organization during post independence period.
During Burma Socialist Program Party period (1962-1988), civil society was drastically changed. The military regime quickly imposed restrictions on many individual freedoms, and civil society organizations found themselves threatened. Local NGOs retreatened into a shell for several decades in order to survive. Some forms of Civil Society, such as Labor Union and people’s movements, were virtually wiped out. Independent organizations, such as the Burma Writers Association and the Burma Journalists Association, were replaced with a government controlled association while others such as the National Workers Association and Peasant Associations were put under the leadership of military leaders. Under the State Law and Order Restoration Council and State Peace Development Council in 1988-2010 the government lessened some of the central controls on the economy and made attempts to encourage or tolerate foreign investment and foreign organizations to enter the country. A few international NGOs trickled into Myanmar in the early 1990s, and a larger flow entered in the late 1990s and first few years after 2000. Also some of the severe restrictions in society appeared to soften somewhat, participatory forms of community organization appeared to be more tolerated, and local and international NGOs, were allowed to work at community level. During this period, NGOs were also allowed increased access to sensitive border areas and parts of the country where they could not previously work. The numerous ceasefire agreements signed between the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) and armed ethic group during the 1990s also contributed to increasing access for NGOs around the country. One of the causes of the NGO appear in Myanmar was that international sanctions imposed upon Myanmar after 1990. International sanctions were constrained levels of foreign aid. Some INGOs and donors desired to donate for Myanmar citizens in every branch of economy, education, health, natural disaster and environments. INGOs and some UN agencies are in partnering with LNGOs implementing their programs and projects and this opportunity has given the Myanmar NGOs to become more developed and experienced. Building the capacity of local civil society is an important goal for donars and INGOs, but a disenfranchised society makes this a difficult task. INGOs must find better ways of mitigating power asymmetries between themselves and local NGOs, and of investing in grassroots capacity building even when funding cycles are short-term. As Myanmar opens up, there has been a welcome response from the international community, as donors and international organizations have sought to increase their presence in country and assist with the democracy-building process. As part of this process, attention is at least being paid to the dire state of education provision in Myanmar. Another cause was that Cyclone Nargis hid hard in Myanmar in 2008. After Myanmar was hid hard by Cyclone Nargis, the number of civil society groups participated in social welfare activities in mostly in Ayeyarwaddy region. After that time, civil societies in Myanmar has multiplied and taken many forms, including local NGOs (LNGOs).Additional civil society actors include government backed NGOs, professional organizations, the Buddhist monastic community and other religious communities. In the past five years, political shifts in Myanmar have created some openings for civil society efforts. The Saffron Revolution (2007) and the home grown response to Cyclone Nargis, have demonstrated an emergent. Since Cyclone Nargis, the humanitarian space has opened up significantly. Despite questions about the legitimacy of the November 2010 elections and the continuing influence of the military, changes to the constitution and political structures may after potential for incremental reform. There is some evidence that Western governments are responding to these changes. For example, the United State and United Kingdom have recently increased development funding for programs inside Myanmar. United Nations agencies had a mission or goal for strengthening civil society in Myanmar. UN agencies provided to NGOs, were training, information, network and advocacy. Other types of support included funding and material provision, institutional development and support for raising funds from other donors. In terms of the government agencies with which NGOs interacted most frequently, nearly one-third of the NGOs mentioned the Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement as the government agency most closely related with their work, while 25% named the Ministry of Religion. One of the causes of the NGO appear in Myanmar is the poverty. It is experienced in the different parts of the country. Since Myanmar is developing country, economic and social conditions are declined. Because of the poverty striken in Myanmar, the government cannot fulfill the economic and social difficult of the people. 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...Consumer credit - regulated and exempt agreements December 2008 OFT140 IMPORTANT - PLEASE NOTE This document reflects the position prior to the 2010 changes implementing the Consumer Credit Directive. Those changes apply from 1 February 2011, or earlier if a firm opts to comply with the new rules at an earlier stage. The latest position is set out in OFT140A - 'Consumer credit - regulated and exempt agreements' (November 2010), which is available on the OFT website at: www.oft.gov.uk/shared_oft/business_leaflets/consumer_credit/oft140a.pdf. Office of Fair Trading November 2010 © Crown copyright 2008 This publication (excluding the OFT logo) may be reproduced free of charge in any format or medium provided that it is reproduced accurately and not used in a misleading context. The material must be acknowledged as crown copyright and the title of the publication specified. CONTENTS Chapter 1 Introduction 2 Regulated agreements 3 Exempt agreements Page 1 2 6 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION This guidance note provides a brief overview of regulated and exempt agreements under the Consumer Credit Act 1974 (the Act). The Act was amended by the Consumer Credit Act 2006 both to bring certain previously exempt agreements into the category of regulated agreements, by removing the upper financial limit beyond which an agreement was not subject to regulation, and to provide for new exemptions, with effect from 6 April 2008. A further exemption, relating to buy-to-let......

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...to use recruitment, selection and retention procedures 1.1 prepare documentation to select and recruit a new member of staff 1.2 assess the impact of legal, regulatory and ethical considerations to the recruitment and selection process 1.3 take part in the selection process 1.4 evaluate own contribution to the selection process LO2 Understand the styles and impact of leadership 2.1 explain the skills and attributes needed for leadership 2.2 explain the difference between leadership and management 2.3 compare leadership styles for different situations 2.4 explain ways to motivate staff to achieve objectives LO3 Be able to work effectively in a team 3.1 assess the benefits of team working in an organization 3.2 demonstrate working in a team as a leader and member towards specific goals, dealing with any conflict or difficult situations 3.3 review the effectiveness of the team in achieving the goals LO4 Be able to assess the work and development needs of individuals 4.1 explain the factors involved in planning the monitoring and assessment of work performance 4.2 plan and deliver the assessment of the development needs of individuals 4.3 evaluate the success of the assessment process CONCLUSION Introduction LO1 Be able to use recruitment, selection and retention procedures 1.1 prepare documentation to select and recruit a new member of staff 1.2 assess the impact of legal, regulatory and ethical considerations to the......

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...There are two powerful tools our government and the Federal Reserve use to steer our economy in the right direction: fiscal and monetary policy. When used correctly, they can have similar results in both stimulating our economy and slowing it down when it heats up. The ongoing debate is which one is more effective in the long and short run. Fiscal policy is when our government uses its spending and taxing powers to have an impact on the economy. The combination and interaction of government expenditures and revenue collection is a delicate balance that requires good timing and a little bit of luck to get it right. The direct and indirect effects of fiscal policy can influence personal spending, capital expenditure, exchange rates, deficit levels and even interest rates, which are usually associated with monetary policy. Fiscal Policy - the Keynesian School  Fiscal policy is often linked with Keynesianism, which derives its name from British economistJohn Maynard Keynes. His major work, "The General Theory Of Employment, Interest And Money," influenced new theories about how the economy works, and is still studied today. He developed most of his theories during the Great Depression and Keynesian theories have been used and misused over time, as they are a popular and are specifically applied to mitigate economic downturns. In a nutshell, Keynesian economic theories are based on the belief that proactive actions from our government are the only way to steer the economy.......

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