Free Essay

World War 1

In: Historical Events

Submitted By eddie4876
Words 637
Pages 3
American contributions to the Second Battle of the Marne and to the fighting in the months leading up to the German surrender. 1. Analyze the role of American soldiers in the Second Battle of the Marne, and in subsequent engagements with the Germans. 2. Discuss the weapons used in WWI, such as bayonets, flamethrowers, machine guns, pistols, mustard gas, rifles, tanks and trench mortars. 3. Discuss the soldier’s experience, such as fighting in the trenches, boredom, lice, rats, food, common injuries, and battlefield engagement.

The Second Battle of the Marne marked the turning of the tide in World War I. It began with the last German offensive of the conflict and was quickly followed by the first allied offensive victory of 1918. The American Expeditionary Force with over 250,000 men fighting under overall French command played key roles both in the initial defense and the later advances. In the Second Battle of Marne with 30,000 killed and wounded, the United States started suffering casualties on the enormous scale usually associated with the battles of the Great War.
In what began as the last major German offensive of the First World War, the Second Battle of the Marne developed into a significant Allied victory. After it became clear that the Germans had not only failed in their aim to win the war in this offensive, but had in fact lost ground, a number of German commanders, including Crown Prince Wilhelm, believed the war was lost. the war could best be won by an attack in Flanders. To that end he determined to lure Allied forces from Belgium to the Marne in a huge diversionary attack, preparatory to a renewed offensive further north.
The second Marne offensive was launched on the back of an earlier push towards Paris which recaptured the Chemin des Dames ridge en route, a formidable position held by the Germans in 1914 and lost, at great cost to the French, during the 1917 Nivelle Offensive.
On the day of the offensive's launch, on 15 July, 23 German divisions of the First and Third Armies, under Mudra and Einem, attacked the French Fourth Army (commanded by Gouraud) to the east of Reims, while a further 17 divisions of the Seventh Army, under Boehm, assisted by the new Ninth Army under Eben, attacked the French Sixth Army (Degoutte) in the west.
However the offensive to the west of Reims was more successful, breaking through the French Sixth Army and crossing the Marne at Dormans. Boehm, with the aid of six divisions, established a bridgehead nine miles in length and four in depth before the French Ninth Army, commanded by De Mitry and supported by British, American and Italian troops, halted his advance on 17 July.
With the Germans having ultimately failed in their efforts to break through, Ferdinand Foch, the Allied Supreme Commander, authorised a counter-offensive on 18 July, launching 24 divisions of the French army alone, in addition to U.S., British and Italian troops and some 350 tanks.
His aim was to eliminate the large German salient among the French lines. In this he was entirely successful. Mangin's French Tenth Army, and Degoutte's Sixth Army led the attack, advancing five miles on the first day alone. Berthelot's French Fifth Army and Eben's Ninth Army meanwhile launched subsidiary attacks in the west.
On 20 July the Germans ordered a retreat; by 3 August they were back where they had started at the launch of the great spring 1918 offensive: at the Aisne-Vesle rivers. The Allied counter-offensive was finally halted on 6 August by the now solidly entrenched Germans.
As a consequence of the disastrous result in the Marne, Ludendorff's planned Flanders offensive was initially postponed, and then entirely cancelled. No further large-scale attempt to win the war was undertaken.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

World War 1

...About World War I "Total War I: The Great War" by John Bourne The First World War was truly ‘the Great War’. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war......

Words: 7684 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

World War 1

...Wyatt Rodriguez 9/30/15 1st period World War One Causes Various events took place in Europe, assassination, betrayal, alliances, and territorial disputes. Each of these events taking shape towards a war that would unite the world in a single fight. With the traits of nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and alliances being the motivators in the world wide war. Throughout time there have always been alliances, with different races forming together for single causes. Hence Rudyard Kipling’s quote in 1905 “Oh East is East, and West is West… But there is neither East nor West, Border, nor Breed, nor Birth, when two strong men stand face to face, tho’ they come from the ends of earth!” There was no exception in World War one, when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia went to defend against the Austrians’ with Serbia. With Russia in the fight, Germany declared war upon Russia, eventually leading France into the war against Germany and Austria-Hungary. With Germanys’ attack on Belgium, it provoked the British and included them as well into the nationwide war. Japan later joined as well on the Allies side, and with the sinking of the Lusitania the United States, Britain, and Italy went into the war fully. Imperialism was already enforced before the war, with most of Europe looking to take certain points within Asia and Africa. These points proved advantages and disadvantages to some of the warring countries. When the war was ready to commence the controlled......

Words: 704 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

World War 1

...Causes and Effects of World War 1 World War 1 also known a the First World War or the War to End all Wars, was a world conflict lasting from 1914 to 1919 with the fighting lasting until1918. The war was fought by the Allies on one side, and the Central Powers on the other. No previous conflict had mobilised so many soldiers or involved so many in the field of battle. By its end, the war had become the second bloodiest conflict in recorded history. More than 9 million people died on the battlefield, and nearly that many more on the home fronts because of food shortages, genocide and ground combat. To set the stage for World War 1, many countries had agreed to alliances between the years of 1879 and 1914. First, Germany and Austria-Hungary made an alliance designed to protect themselves from Russia in 1879, then Austria-Hungary with Serbia and Germany, Britain with Russia and Russia with France. So by the time World War 1 started most of the European countries were sworn to fight for each-other and as a result, all of them had to take part in the war. As a consequence of imperialism, countries were becoming increasingly effective in acquiring materials, processing them, and selling them as goods. For this reason, many countries, especially in Europe need more land from which they can gain resources. Another aspect causing World War 1-militarism. Due to the earlier mentioned alliances, European countries felt that they need better military and battlefield, as a......

Words: 314 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

World War 1

...World War 1 was called “The Great War”, “The war to end all wars”, and “The first modern war”. It had many causes and a few repercussions and I will describe them in detail. The most widely known reason for the start of World War1 was the assassination of the Arch Duke Ferdinad of Austria-Hungary in the Serbian capital of Sarajevo. The ArchDuke was there to talk to the Serbian leaders about peace in the Balkan Peninsula. After a Serbian was arrested for the assassination Austria-Hungary pulled out of the peace talks and declared war on Serbia. Germany who was allied with Austria-Hungary also declared war on Serbia. Russia who was allied with Serbia had to declare war on Germany and Austria-Hungary. When Germany invaded France and Belgium, Great Britain declared war on Germany. World War 1 had begun. As the German Chancellor, Bethmann-Hollweg said, “Once the dice are cast nothing can stop them.” Indeed once the dice were cast on World War 1 nothing stopped them until 22 million people had died. Besides the assassination of the archduke there were four other reasons for the start of WW1. 1. Militarism- the building of large armies. All the nations in Europe at that time were engaged in what today could only be called an arms race. As soon as one nation built a new weapon, all the others followed suit. 2. Alliance System- The building of alliances to strengthen the borders of a country. In theses alliances if one country went to war all the other......

Words: 450 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

World War 1

...After World War I Germany was in great need of change and wanted something new as well. Hitler gained the attention I believe because of the fear and how bad things were after the war and the people believed it had to be better than what they had. Hitler was the guy that offered this by making himself sound good. The Nazi party I feel supported Hitler because of the picture he painted. The text book states “He would gain power not by force but by exploiting the instruments of democracy; elections and party politics. He would use apparently legal means to destroy Weimar Republic and impose a dictatorship.” Another reason I believe Hitler was successful was his crime and punishment acts. The Great Depression in 1929 was just another reason for Hitler’s Radicalism. The text book states “Hitler promised all things to all groups, avoided debates, provided simple explanations for Germany’s misfortunes, and insisted that only Nazis could established domestic order, promised economic prosperity, and restore Germany’s position as an international power.” Hitler convinced the Germans that the Jews were not a good thing and brought the country down because of their position. The text book states “The Jew is the anti-man, the creature of another God.” The three things that stuck out to me as Fascism as I was reading the article would have to be one the power and continuing Nationalist which I believe this because Hitler was a Nationalist because it really gave no one an option but......

Words: 342 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

World War 1

...The Great World History Debate: “Were German Militarism and Diplomacy Responsible for World War I?” Name Course Date The World War I, among other significant historical events, is the most deliberated event of the 20th century. Indeed, it is accredited to changing the course of the world's history giving it a new dimension to ponder on for the next centuries. Rise of communism, one of the world's most controversial ideologies, was linked to the catastrophic episode. Nonetheless, powerful empires like Austria, Turkey, Russia and Germany saw their rise and fall in communism. In addition, the war resulted to the most number of deaths and annihilation compared to other cataclysmic events in history. In the light of these horrendous outcomes, an undying curiosity arose among renowned historians and researchers in search for answers as to who was the protagonist of the war. The underlying question has been whether Germany was solely responsible for World War I given their military strength and diplomatic prowess. Notorious Professor V.R. Berghahn and Professor Samuel R. Williamson clash in a battle of wit in attempts to shed clear lights on Germany as the cause of World War I. Professor V.R. Berghahn believes that there is great depth of literature that evidences the role of Germany in the heinous unfolding. These evidences, both military and diplomatic certify the German empire as the main protagonist of the First World War (1914-1918). On the other hand, Professor Samuel......

Words: 1467 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

World War 1

...World War I (WWI or WW1 or World War One), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. More than 9 million combatants and 7 million civilians died as a result of the war, a casualty rate exacerbated by the belligerents' technological and industrial sophistication, and tactical stalemate. It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, paving the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved.[5] The war drew in all the world's economic great powers,[6] which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom, France and the Russian Empire) and the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. Although Italy had also been a member of the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary, it did not join the Central Powers, as Austria-Hungary had taken the offensive against the terms of the alliance.[7] These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war: Italy, Japan and the United States joined the Allies, and the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria the Central Powers. Ultimately, more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history.[8][9] The immediate trigger for war was the 28 June 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by...

Words: 661 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

World War 1

...World War I World War one was a outrageous war that hurt a lot of innocent people. And the following reasons are why I think that the U.S should have not gone to war. I think the U.S should not go to war because I honestly think that there was no reason for America to interfere. Should the United States have entered the war? The first reason why i think the U.S should not go to war is because wars cost a lot of money. A lot of money was needed to provide the weapons,transportation,and the basic needs for the soldiers. This money didn't come cheap, people got taxed and war bond got developed. One positive side about this was that more jobs have gotten open to help make weapons. My second reason why the united states should have not go to war is because it was not there war to fight. The war was between Germany and Great Britain. Germany had attacked britain, and the americans died on the lusitania. The United States were trade partners with Great Britain and Germany didn't like it because the united states were helping out Great Britain with supplies. But sooner or later this lead germany attacking U.S ships that were sent.After they attacked the ships the u.s had no choice but to declare war. Although the u.s were weak britain could easily have defended itself without any american help whatsoever. Another reason why is because we just might have declared an embargo against the shipping from the american ports of any of the merchandise to either one of these governments that...

Words: 285 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

World War 1

...World War I was a down moment for America, a time when an isolationist nation involved itself in world affairs and began the rise to the economic and military power that America is today. After keeping out of the conflict that had been ravaging Europe for nearly three years, President Woodrow Wilson took America to war only months after winning an election on the slogan "He Kept us Out of War." Claiming that American intervention was needed to “make the world safe for democracy,” Wilson sent over two million men to Europe, of who over 100,000 would never return. World War I marked the end of the old order in Europe. The United States was not a nation ready for war in 1914. With a small army and a pitiful navy, the U.S. was no match for either side in the great conflagration in Flanders' Fields. As the war continued, however, German use of submarines to sink neutral shipping—including, most famously, the sinking of the Lusitania in 1915 with the death of almost 1,200 people, 128 of them Americans—brought American public opinion to the Allied side. Constant British propaganda efforts, culminating in the Zimmermann Telegram of February 1917, coupled with the German resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare and drew America into the war. Wilson quickly developed an ideological goal of freedom and democracy, and committed the people of the United States to fight for these principles. When America entered the war in April 1917, nearly three years of horrific slaughter had......

Words: 879 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

World War 1

...June 28th 1914 of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria triggered the “War to end all wars.” Assassinated by a Serbian nationalist, this event was a cry out for Serbian independence. What the world didn’t know at the time was of a secret alliance between Germany and Austria Hungry. The assassination of the Archduke became a perfect opportunity for Germany to go to war. Serbia asked Russia to help in their cause and join them in the fight against Austria Hungry and Germany. By July 30th of that year Russia begins mobilizing their army. Though Russia had at this time largest land army in the world it was poorly led. Tzar Nicholas the leader of Russia portrayed himself as a week leader. He was running the country into the ground. He was a passive leader and didn’t have the strength to make the right decisions at the right time. Russia had a huge disparity between the rich and the poor. The Great War had many causes both short and long term. In Europe in the early 1900’s the major powers were England, France, Germany Russia, and Austria Hungry. All these countries shared a common trait that for thousands of years has brought many empires to the ground, their egos. Each of these countries has an extreme sense of nationalism and imperialism that thrives on the glory of the battle. England in this time had stretched its empire all over the globe. Germany had one of the strongest armies in the world. France believed in “élan”, which was a sense of feeling or being......

Words: 1134 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

World War 1

...The United State would have not entered World War II if Italy, Japan and Germany had stopped after their early conquests. The people of America did not want to play any role in the European war. The great oceans, on both sides of the American continent made them feel safe. It was not until the first bombs fell on the island of Hawaiian that the great debate if the United State should be involved in world war two that came to an end. Just a few numbers of Americans had been to Japan. On December 7 President Roosevelt addressed the Congress asking for the support for the war against the Empire of Japan. Later on, Germany declared war on the United State.using the Selective Service System, over ten million men were recruited in the army. The US used a number of series of battles in the Pacific to defeat Japan. Some of these battles series included the Battle of Iwo Jima, Okinawa and the battle of Midway.General MacArthur who was an American General using a tactic called island hoping. This was a process of capturing island after island which eventually weakened the Japanese. Both the United State and Japan sffered loss of life and heavy casualties. The Japanese were willing to fight to death and this raised a lot of questions on what was going to happen when the U.S finally attacks the main land. This led to a decision by the U.S to drop an atomic bomb. In August 6, 1945, the Japanese surrendered after an atomic bomb was droped in Hiroshima. This was the greatest mistake......

Words: 1500 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

World War 1

...World War One The first world war began in the year 1914. There are several factors believed to have triggered the war. The assassination of the Austrian archduke and his wife immediately triggered the war. He was assassinated by the Bosnian Gavrilo Princip an irredentist serb on 28th June 1914. The world war began on august the same year. This event just triggered the war. The actual factors leading to the war are complicated. Some of this factors are: Mutual defence alliances. Throughout Europe countries made alliances. The alliance in countries was to give each other help if needed. Thus if, a country is attacked, the allied countries were supposed to protect them. The alliances that existed before the world war are like Russia and Serbia, germany and Austria-Hungary, Russia and France, Britain , France and Belgium finally Japan and Britain. Austria-Hungary first declared on the Serbians. Russia defended the Serbians. When the Germans saw the Russians getting ready for the war, they declared war on them. France then come in against Germans and Austria-Hungary. Britain was pulled into the war when Germany attacked France through Belgium. Japan then entered the war.later the united states and Italy joined their allied countries. Imperialism is believed to have also caused the war. The british empire by 1900 had taken over five continents. France also had a large control over Africa. Countries needed new markets with the rise of industrialization. The...

Words: 647 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

World War 1

...Essay on Battle of Bulge The Battle of Bulge was fought between central and the allied powers for four months. The battle started on December 16th 1944 and ended on April 16th 1944. This battle was also known as ‘Hitler’s desperate gamble’, as Hitler attempted to use Battle of Bulge to turn the tide of World War II. The battle of Bulge, which was a major offensive campaign by Nazis, was launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in Belgium, down to Ettelbruck in the middle of Luxembourg and then finally reaching France. It extended on an eighty-mile front. There are various reasons of why the battle was fought at this specific location. Firstly, it was the shortest route to reach Paris by land. Secondly, the winter weather was in Hitler’s favor. Low cloud and fog would not allow attacks by ‘the superior air force’ of the allies. Another reason is that the “tank busting Typhoons of the RAF or Mustang fighters from the USAAF could not be used against the German tanks”. Battle of Bulge was connected to the larger war as it was a last chance that Adolf Hitler had to push back the allied forces. This is why many people call battle of Bulge as ‘Hitler’s desperate gamble’. Germany directed an ambitious counteroffensive with the objective of capturing Antwerp and splitting the American and British armies in the area. It would then deprive the Allies of a badly needed seaport on the Meuse River. Germany also wanted to negotiate peace by force. To fulfill...

Words: 578 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Causes of World War 1

...Top 5 Causes of World War 1 By Martin Kelly World War 1 is actually much more complicated than a simple list of causes. While there was a chain of events that directly led to the fighting, the actual root causes are much deeper and part of continued debate and discussion. This list is an overview of the most popular reasons that are cited as the root causes of World War 1. 1. Mutual Defense Alliances Over time, countries throughout Europe made mutual defense agreements that would pull them into battle. Thus, if one country was attacked, allied countries were bound to defend them. Before World War 1, the following alliances existed: Russia and Serbia Germany and Austria-Hungary France and Russia Britain and France and Belgium Japan and Britain Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia got involved to defend Serbia. Germany seeing Russia mobilizing, declared war on Russia. France was then drawn in against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Germany attacked France through Belgium pulling Britain into war. Then Japan entered the war. Later, Italy and the United States would enter on the side of the allies. Ads Download Free Mobile Apps mobogenie.com Download Mobile Apps, Games, Themes For Free From Mobogenie. Download ! Best Job Interview Plan careerconfidential.com/30_60_90 Don't Go WithOut a Interview Plan So You Get The Offer! Read More. Used car for sale Nigeria www.carxus.com Thousands of cars for sale by local Nigeria sellers and car dealers 2. Imperialism Imperialism is......

Words: 592 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

World War 1, a Summary

...World War 1 “World War I: Total War” Europe since pre-Roman times has been marked by conflict. Warring tribes often did battle in small skirmishes and hand-to-hand combat. But as the civilizations grew and technology improved the battles became larger and much more intense. With the Industrial revolution, warfare would change forever. This can be best seen in World War One. The “war to end all wars” gradually escalated to a global conflict, dragging the super powers into a four year struggle. World War One brought many new and horrible inventions to the participants both at the front, as well as at home. There are many reasons why World War I was so much different than all the past conflicts. For one thing, it was the first time in almost one hundred years that all the major super powers were fighting. Not since Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo, had England, France, Germany (Prussia at the time of Napoleon), and Russia been fighting at the same time. This in turn made it a global conflict. With all the over sea possessions of these countries, fighting was inevitable in their colonies. This was another first for World War I. Another huge aspect that made this war the first truly “modern” war, has to do with the Industrial Revolution. This revolution did change the nature of battle. No longer was war considered to be one-on-one. With the improvement of the gun and invention of the machine gun, almost anybody could become capable of killing many enemy soldiers. Industrialization...

Words: 1506 - Pages: 7