Free Essay

Writing Argumentative Essays

In: English and Literature

Submitted By asdasdasd4444
Words 15958
Pages 64
A helpful book for IELTS

Compiled by bavy&adrian
October 2004

Contents
Introduction - please read
Debatable and non-debatable statements
Providing support for debatable statements (or premises)
Using connectives and paragraphs in a larger argumentative text
The main thesis, supporting arguments and conclusion.
Adding information to relevant arguments
Connectives for listing arguments.
Concluding connectives
In fact / Indeed
More practice on using In fact and Indeed
Paragraphs
Showing you are aware of both sides of the issue - a model
Showing you are aware of both sides of the issue - examining the model
The main premise
Paragraph topics
Opposing arguments and supporting arguments
Problematising the opposing arguments
Shifting from opposing arguments to supporting arguments.
More work on showing you are aware of both sides of the issue
Language Summary: ways of showing that you are aware of the opposing opinion
Working out the main premise from a paragraph
Using connectives and problematising phrases in a paragraph
Putting together a paragraph for an argumentative text
Choosing your own premise and writing a paragraph
Converting an informal text into a formal text
Sorting arguments into topics and paragraphs
A longer model argumentative essay
Getting an overview of the model essay
Identifying the main premise, paragraph structure and paragraph topics
The internal organisation of the paragraphs - revision
Including a paragraph that only presents supporting arguments
Writing introductions to argumentative essays
Writing conclusions to argumentative essays
Writing your own argumentative essay - 13 steps to take from start to finish
Appendix 1. Language summary: structure of paragraphs in the body of an argumentative essay

Introduction
Welcome to Writing Argumentative Essays, a unit of curriculum which aims to teach students how to write short argumentative essays of approximately 1000 words.

The unit was prepared for students undertaking the International English Language Testing
System(IELTS) course during my perod of study at Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics
(JXUFE) in Nanchang, China. These students had a CET 6 Certificate (Upper Intermediate).
However, the unit should be useable in any course involving the preparation of first or second language learners for further study at university or IELTS.
The unit assumes that the students have their own argumentative essay topic for the course they are undertaking.
The unit is built around one particular type of argumentative essay. It is important to understand that there are many other ways of structuring argumentative essays than the one proposed in this unit. However, the structure outlined here has proved to be very effective in giving students a clear, accessible and useable model for their own essays. If you are a student who is accessing this curriculum in order to prepare for an assessment task involving the writing of an argumentative essay, you should first check with your teacher / tutor / lecturer to ensure that the structure outlined here is suitable for that task. (You should probably print out the marine park model and show it to the teacher / tutor / lecturer concerned).
If you have any comments or questions about this unit of work please feel free to contact me: tuqiuping@yahoo.com.cn or roytu1982@gmail.com.
This unit of work may be downloaded, printed and used for teaching and learning purposes by students or teachers on the sole condition that the copyright details are not to be removed from the bottom of each page.
Thanks to adrian for hosting these materials from September 2004.

Debatable and non-debatable statements
An argumentative essay is built around a specific statement (or main premise) that is debatable within the field in which you are studying. In other words, at the centre of an argumentative essay is a statement with which your readers may disagree. Your essay will need to support that statement in a manner that convinces your readers of its truth.
To begin this unit of work on argumentative essays we will learn the difference between debatable and non-debatable statements = Statements with which other people might or might not agree . These are sometimes called "arguments", "assertions", "propositions" or "premises".

Debatable statements eg. Solar energy is the best way of meeting Australia's energy needs in the 21st century Non-debatable statements = Statements with which no-one would normally disagree or argue. These are sometimes called "facts". eg. Coal and oil are the main sources of energy in Australia in the 20th century

Task 1
Which of the following statements are debatable and which are non-debatable? If the statement is debatable, put a tick in the box next to the word "debatable". If the statement is non-debatable, put a tick in the box next to the word "non-debatable". You will need to print out the page.
1.

Computers and automation increase unemployment debatable non-debatable

2.

Smoking is harmful to people's health debatable non-debatable

3.

Plants produce oxygen that the world needs to sustain life

debatable

non-debatable
4.

Australia has some of the most venomous snakes in the world

debatable non-debatable 5.

A good education is necessary for a successful and happy life debatable non-debatable

Check your answer here

Answer to Task 1: Debatable and non-debatable statements
1.

Computers and automation increase unemployment debatable non-debatable

2.

Smoking is harmful to people's health debatable non-debatable

3.

Plants produce oxygen that the world needs to sustain life

debatable non-debatable 4.

Australia has some of the most venomous snakes in the world debatable non-debatable

5.

A good education is necessary for a successful and happy life debatable non-debatable

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Task 2
Now write a debatable and a non-debatable statement about each of the following topics:
1. Alcohol
2. Television
3. Public transport
4. The Australian education system
5. The Prime Minister
Click here to see some possible answers to this task.

Possible answers to Task 2
Non-debatable
Alcohol

Debatable

Alcohol can be legally sold to adults over the age Drinking alcohol is always bad for your heath of 18 in Victoria

Television

Televison broadcasting began in Australia in Pay (or cable) television will become more
1956.
popular than free-to-air televsion in the next 10 years. Public Transport

Trains, trams and buses are all forms of public Public transport is more economically efficient transport. than private car transport.

The Australian education system

There are three main levels in the Australian The Australian education system provides the education system: primary, secondary and tertiary highest quality education in the Asia-Pacific region. The Prime Minister

The Prime Minister is elected by a vote of all the The Prime Minister should be directly elected by members of the House of Representatives all the citizens of Australia.

The words and phrases that are in italics all tell you that these are debatable statements.
These words show that the writer is not stating facts but is giving opinions or making speculations. Providing support for debatable statements (or premises)
You now know that debatable statements are not statements of fact but are statements or premises with which other people may or may not agree. When you are writing an argumentative essay your aim is to make your readers agree with your debatable statements or premises. You need to convince your readers of the value or truth of your premises. But by themselves, they are not convincing - they need support.

In this section you will learn how to provide supporting statements for your premises

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(We will use the term "premise" from now on for any debatable statement or assertion in your argumentative essay). You will also learn how to use connectives to link these statements to each other and to the premise.

Example 1
Marijuana should be legalised

Premise:
Supporting statement 1:

It is less harmful to people's health than alcohol.

Supporting statement 2:

A very large percentage of the population uses it.

Both supporting statements provide information that helps prove or support the premise. We can use connectives to link these statements together:

Example 2
Marijuana should be legalised

Premise:

Supporting statement 1: Firstly, it is less harmful to people's health than alcohol.
Supporting statement 2: In addition, a very large percentage of the population uses it.
Firstly tells the reader that this is the first supporting statement. (There are no ther formal connectives that can be used in this place. It is, however, accceptable to have no connective here)

In addition tells the reader that this is an extra supporting statement. Other connectives that you could use here are Furthermore, Moreover and Secondly.

Task 1
The following premises (P) have one supporting statement (SS1). Rewrite them adding a second supporting statement (SS2). Also use connectives for the first and second supporting statements
Immigration
(P)

A strong immigration program is necessary in Australia

(SS1)

The population is too small for sustained economic growth

(SS2)
Smoking
(P)

Smoking should be banned in restaurants and pubs.

(SS1)

It will help people to give up this unhealthy habit.

(SS2)

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Freeways
(P)

The government should build more freeways instead of public transport.

(SS1)

It keeps traffic off residential streets.

(SS2)
Public Transport
(P)

The government should build more public transport instead of freeways.

(SS1)

It provides cheap transport to people who can't afford cars.

(SS2)

After you have completed this task, check here for suggested or possible answers.

Providing support for debatable statements: answer to task
Immigration
A strong immigration program is necessary in Australia. Firstly, the population is too small for sustained economic growth. Moreover, immigrants bring in new skills that can help the country develop.
Smoking
Smoking should be banned in restaurants and pubs. Firstly, it will help people to give up this unhealthy habit.
Secondly, non-smoking patrons of these establishments should be able to breathe fresh air.
Freeways
The government should build more freeways instead of public transport. Firstly, it keeps traffic off residential streets. In addition, it increases the speed of journeys across town, especially for trucks.
Public Transport
The government should build more public transport instead of freeways. Firstly, it provides cheap transport to people who can't afford cars. Furthermore, it is better for the environment because it produces less air pollution.

Using connectives and paragraphs in a larger argumentative text
In this section you will learn how to organise supporting statements or arguments in a paragraph. You will learn that it is important to use connectives to list your arguments and to signal the relations between them.

Read the following text carefully
Childcare
The government should provide more financial assistance to parents who use childcare. Childcare centres may assist children in their early development. They give children an opportunity to mix with other children and to develop social skills at an early age. Parents and children need to spend some time apart. Children become less dependent on their parents and parents themselves are less stressed and more effective care-givers when there are periods of separation. Parents who cannot go to work because they don't have access to childcare facilities cannot contribute to the national economy. They are not able to utilise their productive skills and do not pay income tax.
Government support for childcare services assists individual families and is important for the economic well-being

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of the whole nation.

Task 1: The main thesis, supporting arguments and conclusion.
This text consists of 1 main thesis, 3 supporting arguments and 1 conclusion.
Print this page out and use a highlighter or pen to answer the following questions:
a. What is the main thesis?
Circle or highlight the main thesis. Then write "main thesis' in the margin next to it.
b. What are the three supporting arguments?
Circle or highlight each of the three supporting arguments. Then write "argument 1", "argument 2" and
"argument 3" next to each one. (Note: each of these consists of more than one sentence)
c. What is the conclusion?
Circle or highlight the conclusion and write "conclusion" in the margin next to it

Check your answers here

Answer to Task 1

Task 2: Adding information to relevant arguments
The following three sentences each add further information to the three supporting arguments.
Your task is to add the sentences to the text. You will first need to work out which of the three supporting arguments they relate to.
a. Recent studies indicate that the parent-child relationship can be improved by the use of high-quality childcare facilities. b. A whole range of learning occurs in childcare centres.
c. Non-working parents can become a drain on the tax system through dependent spouse and other rebates.

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Check your answers here

Answer to Task 2
Childcare
The government should provide more financial assistance to parents who use childcare. Childcare centres may assist children in their early development. They give children an opportunity to mix with other children and to develop social skills at an early age. A whole range of learning occurs in childcare centres. Parents and children need to spend some time apart. Children become less dependent on their parents and parents themselves are less stressed and more effective care-givers when there are periods of separation. Recent studies indicate that the parent-child relationship can be improved by the use of high-quality childcare facilities. Parents who cannot go to work because they don't have access to childcare facilities cannot contribute to the national economy. They are not able to utilise their productive skills and do not pay income tax. Non-working parents can become a drain on the tax system through dependent spouse and other rebates.. Government support for childcare services assists individual families and is important for the economic well-being of the whole nation.

Note: there is more than one correct answer to this task. You are correct if you have placed each sentence inside the supporting argument that it relates to as outlined below. (However sentence C can only really go at the end of supporting argument 3 after
"income tax" is mentioned)

a. Recent studies indicate that the parent-child relationship can be improved by the use of high-quality childcare Argument facilities. 2
b. A whole range of learning occurs in childcare centres.

Argument
1

c. Non-working parents can become a drain on the tax system through dependent spouse and other rebates.

Argument
3

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Task 3: Connectives for listing arguments.
You have seen that we can use different connectives to list the supporting arguments in the text. These listing connectives are:
Firstly

This can be used for the first supporting argument

Secondly
Furthermore These can be used for any further supporting arguments (except, of course, for "Secondly" which can only be used for the second)
Moreover
In addition
Finally

This can be used for the last supporting argument. Note: this is not a concluding connective and also you can use "Furthermore", "Moreover" or "In addition" for the last argument if you wish

Mark the beginning of the three supporting arguments with connectives from the above list
Check your answer here

Answer to Task 3
Childcare
The government should provide more financial assistance to parents who use childcare. Firstly, childcare centres may assist children in their early development. They give children an opportunity to mix with other children and to develop social skills at an early age. A whole range of learning occurs in childcare centres. Moreover, parents and children need to spend some time apart. Children become less dependent on their parents and parents themselves are less stressed and more effective care-givers when there are periods of separation. Recent studies indicate that the parent-child relationship can be improved by the use of high-quality childcare facilities. In addition, parents who cannot go to work because they don't have access to childcare facilities cannot contribute to the national economy. They are not able to utilise their productive skills and do not pay income tax. Non-working parents can become a drain on the tax system through dependent spouse and other rebates. Government support for childcare services assists individual families and is important for the economic well-being of the whole nation.

Task 4: Concluding connectives
Three common concluding connectives are:
In
conclusion
In
summary

These all carry roughly the same meaning. They should be used to indicate that you are making final statements that cover all the supporting arguments in a very general way

Thus

Mark the conclusion of your argument with a concluding connective.
Check your answer here

Answer to Task 4

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Childcare
The government should provide more financial assistance to parents who use childcare. Firstly, childcare centres may assist children in their early development. They give children an opportunity to mix with other children and to develop social skills at an early age. A whole range of learning occurs in childcare centres. Moreover, parents and children need to spend some time apart. Children become less dependent on their parents and parents themselves are less stressed and more effective care-givers when there are periods of separation. Recent studies indicate that the parent-child relationship can be improved by the use of high-quality childcare facilities. In addition, parents who cannot go to work because they don't have access to childcare facilities cannot contribute to the national economy. They are not able to utilise their productive skills and do not pay income tax. Non-working parents can become a drain on the tax system through dependent spouse and other rebates. In conclusion, government support for childcare services assists individual families and is important for the economic well-being of the whole nation.

Task 5: In fact / Indeed
These connectives have almost the same meaning and both can be used in the following situations:
1. To connect a more detailed statement with a preceding general statement
Example: Today is very warm. In fact (or Indeed) it is 35 degrees Celsius

2. To connect a statement which is more factual and exact with a preceding statement that is more debatable and general Example: The internet is very popular in Australia. Indeed (or In fact), Australia has the highest proportion of
Internet users per head of population of any country in the world.

Find three places in the text where you could use "In fact" or "Indeed".
Check your answers here.

Answer to Task 5
This is not the only correct answer but it is the best correct answer. It is usually better to leave a sentence beginning with "In fact" or "Indeed" until the end of the argument because then the argument finishes with stronger and more factually-based information. Childcare
The government should provide more financial assistance to parents who use childcare. Firstly, childcare centres may assist children in their early development. They give children an opportunity to mix with other children and to develop social skills at an early age. Indeed, a whole range of learning occurs in childcare centres. Moreover, parents and children need to spend some time apart. Children become less dependent on their parents and parents themselves are less stressed and more effective care-givers when there are periods of separation. In fact, recent studies indicate that the parent-child relationship can be improved by the use of high-quality childcare facilities. In addition, parents who cannot go to work because they don't have access to childcare facilities cannot contribute to the national economy. They are not able to utilise their productive skills and do not pay income tax. In fact, non-working parents can become a drain on the tax system through dependent spouse and other rebates. In

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conclusion, government support for childcare services assists individual families and is important for the economic well-being of the whole nation.

For more practice on using "In fact" and "Indeed", click here.

In fact / Indeed
Task
Find the correct specific/detailed statement in the second column (a-h) to match the general statements in the first column (1-8).
Join the matching pairs with "In fact" or "Indeed"
General Statement

Specific / Detailed Statement

1.

Many people think Melbourne is a very good city to live in.

a.

They suffer much higher rates of disease and infant mortality and much lower rates of life expectancy than other Australians

2.

Unemployment in Australia remains a very big social problem

b.

It holds power federally and in five of the six states.

3.

Australia has a very poor record in providing for the health needs of Aboriginal people.

c.

It accounts for a very high number of hospital admissions and creates a burden on our health care system.

4.

Smoking is a very serious health problem in
Australia.

d.

It was the busiest port in the world at the time.

5.

The Liberal Party today is a very successful political party.

e.

In the early 1990's an international panel judged it to be the world's most livable city.

6.

Having a balanced diet is considered to be very important for a person's health

f.

It has one of the highest rates of unemployment in the country

7.

Unemployment in Footscray is a very big problem g.

It is arguably the single most important factor in determining good health.

8.

In the middle of the nineteenth century the port of Melbourne was very busy

h.

It is probably the biggest single problem facing Australian society today Check your answers here

In fact / Indeed - Answers
Remember that "In fact" and "Indeed" can be used in the same place. So each of the sentences below could use either connective. 1. Many people think Melbourne is a very good city to live in. Indeed, in the early 1990's an international panel judged it to be the world's most livable city.

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2. Unemployment in Australia remains a very big social problem. In fact, it is probably the biggest single problem facing Australian society today.
3. Australia has a very poor record in providing for the health needs of Aboriginal people. Indeed, they suffer much higher rates of disease and infant mortality and much lower rates of life expectancy than other
Australians.
4. Smoking is a very serious health problem in Australia. In fact, it accounts for a very high number of hospital admissions and creates a burden on our health care system.
5. The Liberal Party today is a very successful political party. Indeed, it holds government federally and in five of the six states.
6. Having a balanced diet is considered to be very important for a person's health. In fact, it is arguably the single most important factor in determining good health.
7. Unemployment in Footscray is a very big problem. Indeed, it has one of the highest rates of unemployment in the country.
8. In the middle of the nineteenth century the port of Melbourne was very busy. In fact, it was the busiest port in the world at the time.

Task 6 Paragraphs
The structure of the text is now well marked by connectives so that the reader can clearly identify the main thesis, supporting arguments and conclusions.
You can also use paragraphs to mark the structure of the text so that it is even more clear and easy to read.
Mark the places in the text where you would start a new paragraph with a large (NP) which stands for "new paragraph"
Then check your answer here.

Answer to Task 6

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Then finally write out a final draft of the text on childcare. It should look like this.

The Final Draft of the Childcare Argumentative Text
This is the complete text with paragraphs. All connectives are in italics and colour.
Childcare
The government should provide more financial assistance to parents who use childcare.

Firstly, childcare centres may assist children in their early development. They give children an opportunity to mix with other children and to develop social skills at an early age. Indeed, a whole range of learning occurs in childcare centres.

Moreover, parents and children need to spend some time apart. Children become less dependent on their parents and parents themselves are less stressed and more effective care-givers when there are periods of separation. In fact, recent studies indicate that the parent-child relationship can be improved by the use of high-quality childcare facilities.

In addition, parents who cannot go to work because they don't have access to childcare facilities cannot contribute to the national economy. They are not able to utilise their productive skills and do not pay income tax. In fact, non-working parents can become a drain on the tax system through dependent spouse and other rebates.

In conclusion, government support for childcare services assists individual families and is important for the economic well-being of the whole nation.

Showing you are aware of both sides of the issue

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Read the following text carefully then answer the questions about it on the next page. You should also print a number of copies of the text in order to complete the tasks on the next page.

(Apologies for the slow loading of this page. It is presented as a number of inline images to ensure that the text is formatted the same here as in the answers to the tasks which follow.)

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Showing you are aware of both sides of the issue - questions
The text you have just studied on the previous page is an expanded version of the argumentative text on childcare that you studied in the previous section. It still has the same number of paragraphs but the paragraphs are all longer
(except for the conclusion). Make sure you print a few copies of the text out before you complete the following tasks - you'll be writing on them when you complete the tasks.

If you need to return to the original copy of the text click here.

Task 1: The Main Premise
First we will look at paragraph 1: the introduction. In the previous version of this text paragraph 1 was made up of only one sentence. This sentence was the main premise. Now the paragraph is much longer but the main premise is still only one sentence. What is the main premise? Draw a circle around it and write Main Premise in the margin next to it
Check your answer here

Answer to Task 1: The Main Premise

Task 2: Paragraph Topics
Paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 all cover different topics related to the issue of childcare. Describe the topic of each paragraph in four words or less and write the description in the margin next to each paragraph (The topic of paragraph 2 is: Effects on early learning)
Check your answer here

Answer to Task 2: Paragraph Topics
These are only possible topic descriptions for each paragraph. If you have used words with the same or similar meanings you

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are still correct.

Task 3: Opposing Arguments and Supporting Arguments
Paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 don't just contain arguments that support the main premise. They also contain arguments that oppose the main premise. It is important to include opposing arguments to show your reader that

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1. you have considered both sides of the argument; and
2. you are able to anticipate and criticise any opposing arguments before they are even stated.

Draw a circle around the opposing arguments in paragraphs 2, 3 and 4. (They are in blocks of
1-3 sentences at the beginning of each paragraph). Then write "opposing arguments" in the margin next to each.
Check your answer here

Answer to Task 3: Opposing Arguments and Supporting Arguments

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Task 4: Problematising the Opposing Arguments
Its important that the reader knows that when you write opposing arguments you do not agree with them. You have to make it very clear that you are presenting these arguments only to show that you understand the issue from both sides, that you have anticipated the opposing arguments and wish to criticise them.
In order to signal this you need to use special phrases to problematise the opposing statements.
(To problematise something means to make it seem like a problem, to make it seem untrue). We can problematise arguments by making them appear to be debatable opinions and not facts (see
Debatable and non-debatable statements earlier in this unit) A common way to do this is to explicitly mark the statement as an argument.

Example (sentence 1, paragraph 2)
It has been argued that children who attend childcare centres at an early age miss out on important early learning that occurs in parent-child interaction.
By including the phrase "It has been argued that" in the above statement the writer is problematising the statement below:
Children who attend childcare centres at an early age miss out on important early learning that occurs in parent-child interaction.
When there is no problematising phrase, the statement appears non-debatable.The writer is presenting it as a fact.

Find the other problematising phrases in paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 of the text. They will all be in the areas of the paragraphs where the opposing arguments are located (i.e. in the first part of each paragraph). Draw a circle around them.
Check you answer here.

Answer to Task 4: Problematising the Opposing Arguments
The problematising phrases are all circled below

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You can find more problematising phrases on the next page

Task 5: Shifting from Opposing Arguments to Supporting Arguments.
You can also signal the difference between opposing and supporting arguments by clearly marking

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the point in each paragraph where you shift from one to the other. You can use contrasting connectives to mark this point. The most common of these contrasting connectives is "However".
Find the point in each of paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 where the writer shifts from opposing arguments to supporting arguments. Draw a circle around the contrasting connective used to mark the point in each paragraph.
Check you answer here.

Answer to Task 5: Shifting from Opposing Arguments to
Supporting Arguments
The contrasting connectives which mark the shifts from opposing arguments to supporting arguments are all circled below:

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Showing you are aware of both sides of the issue 2
On this page you will practice writing pairs of sentences that show your position (or premise) and the opposing position on a number of issues. Before you go on you may want to go back to the pevious page and read about the importance of showing that you are aware of the opposing position when writing argumentative texts.

Example
It could be argued that computers create unemployment. However, computers actually create many new forms of employment that never existed before.
The first sentence of the example shows the following:
1. The writer is aware of the opposing opinion:

...computers create unemployment

2. The writer is problematising that opinion:

It could be argued that ....

The second sentence of the example shows the following:
1. It contrasts the writer's opinion with the However, computers actually create many new opposing opinion: forms of employment that never existed before

Language Summary: other ways of showing that you are aware of the opposing opinion
1. When you can think of the opposing opinion but you have not seen it written anywhere: may be

argued asserted It could be

contended

that...................... However,................

maintained claimed might be said 2. When you have seen the opposing opinion written in another text: argued asserted
It has been

contended

that...................... However,................

maintained claimed said
It

is

argued asserted that...................... However,................

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contended maintained claimed said Task
There are 6 issues listed below. Your task is to write a pair of sentences similar to the sentence in the model about each of the issues. The first sentence should present and problematise the opposing opinion on this issue. The second sentence shoould present your opinion (or premise) on this issue, Dont forget to link the two sentences with the contrasting connective, However.
Use the language summary above to help you and try different ways of showing you are aware of the opposing opinion.
1. Banning smoking in restaurants

2. Banning all guns

3. Making Australia a republic

4. Decreasing immigration levels in Australia

5. Having the Grand Prix at Albert Park

6. Reintroducing capital punishment

Check your answer here.

Answer to Task
The sentences below are possible answers to this task. They are presented to help you write your own sentences on these issues. The writer's premises are in the second sentences. In each of the first sentences the writer is problematising the opposing position or opinion.

1. Banning smoking in restaurants
It could be asserted that smokers should be free to smoke in restaurants as they wish. However, by banning smoking in all public places we can help people to give up this extremely unhealthy habit.
2. Banning all guns
It has been argued that people have a legal right to own guns in our society. However, unlike the United States, there is no law in Australia that guarantees any right to own firearms.
3. Making Australia a republic
It is claimed that changing to a republic would make Australia a more democratic country. However, the constitutional system that we have at the moment has functioned very well to ensure democracy for nearly 100 years and it is very risky to change it.
4. Decreasing immigration levels.
It has been maintained that there are not enough employment opportunities in Australia to sustain high immigration levels. However, research into this issue has found that immigrants create new forms of employment

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through the businesses they establish.
5. Having the Grand Prix at Albert Park.
It is contended that the people of Melbourne are very unhappy with the government's decision to stage the Grand
Prix at Albert Park. However, recent opinion polls show that the vast majority of the population is not concerned with this issue at all and is happy to have the Grand Prix anywhere in Melbourne.
6. Reintroducing capital punishment
It could be said that reintroducing capital punishment will deter people from committing serious crimes of violence. However, overseas experience indicates that the level of violent crime is not reduced by the threat of the death penalty.

Working out the main premise from a paragraph
On this page you will learn that exactly the same arguments can be used in essays that have opposite premises. But the arguments must be marked differently. Arguments that support the writer's main premise are presented as facts or as non-debatable statements. Arguments that oppose the writer's main premise will be marked with problematising phrases so that they appear debatable and possibly untrue.

The paragraphs are not complete texts. They are paragraphs from larger essays on the issue of whether Australia should become a republic. Therefore the main premise of each is not explicitly stated. It would be explicictly stated in the introduction to the essays from which the paragraphs were extracted.
The topic of the paragraphs is how the issue of the republic is related to the questions of immigration and national identity. They both describe the same arguments but have opposite premises.

Task
Read each passage carefully. Choose the correct main premise for each passage. (Remember to look carefully for statements with problematising phrases and for the connective "However" which marks the shift from the opposing arguments to the arguments which support the writer's main premise. It would be a good idea to print the page out and circle these phrases and connectives). Paragraph 1
Jacobsen (1992) argues that Australia does not need a republic to build a sense of national identity because we already have one. It is claimed that three quarters of our population is still Anglo-Celtic. According to this argument, if people want to migrate here they have to accept Australia's traditions and its way of life.
Other countries, so this argument goes, do not feel that they have to change their constitution just because they accept immigrants from different cultures. However, as Smith (1993) explains, Australia must develop

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a new cultural identity to reflect its diverse and multicultural population. Australia is no longer a nation of
British and Irish people. Its citizens come from a huge variety of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds.
It is claimed that if Australia was a republic it would give our migrants a stronger sense of belonging.
Moreover, we would not be turning our back on our Anglo-centred past if we became a republic because we could still stay on as a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.

What is the author's main premise?

.

Australia should become a republic

Australia should remain a constitutional monarchy

Paragraph 2
Smith (1993) asserts that Australia must develop a new cultural identity to reflect its diverse and multicultural population. According to this argument, Australia is no longer a nation of British and
Irish people. Its citizens come from a huge variety of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds. It is claimed that if Australia was a republic it would give our migrants a stronger sense of belonging. This position goes on to argue that we would not be turning our back on our Anglo-centred past if we became a republic because we could still stay on as a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.
However, as Jacobsen (1992) states, Australia does not need a republic to build a sense of national identity because we already have one. Moreover, three quarters of our population is still Anglo-Celtic.
Furthermore, if people want to migrate here they have to accept Australia's traditions and its way of life. In addition, other countries do not feel that they have to change their constitution just because they accept immigrants from different cultures.

What is the author's main premise?

.

Australia should become a republic
Australia should remain a constitutional monarchy

Check your answers here

Answer to Task: Working out the main premise from a paragraph
Paragraph 1
The main premise of paragraph 1 is: Australia should become a republic.
You can see this from the text below. All the phrases which oppose Australia becoming a republic contain problematising phrases (circled in blue), making them appear debatable and possibly untrue. They are followed by a set of statements that are presented as non-debatable or as facts and which argue for Australia becoming a republic. The connective "However" (circled in red) separates the two sets of statements.

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Note: the phrase "as Smith explains" presents Smith's statement as non-debatable or as a fact.
Therefore, it is not a problematising phrase. This phrase is used to present another witer's argument supporting your main premise which you have found in another published text during your research of the essay topic. We will look at this phrase further on in this unit.

Paragraph 2
The main premise of paragraph 2 is: Australia should remain a constitutional monarchy.
You can see this from the text below. All the phrases which support Australia becoming a republic contain problematising phrases (circled in blue), making them appear debatable and possibly untrue. They are followed by a set of statements that are presented as non-debatable or as facts and which argue for Australia remaining a constitutional monarchy. The connective "However" (circled in red) separates the two sets of statements.
Note: the phrase "as Jacobsen states" presents Smith's statement as non-debatable or as a fact.
Therefore, it is not a problematising phrase. This phrase is used to present another witer's argument supporting your main premise which you have found in another published text during your research of the essay topic. We will look at this phrase further on in this unit.

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Using connectives and problematizing phrases in a paragraph
On this page you will practise using connectives and problematising phrases in a paragraph. The paragraph is not a complete text; it is one paragraph from a longer argumentative essay on the issue of whether Austalia should become a republic.The topic of the paragraph is the significance of the republic issue for Australia's international and trade relations.

Task
The problematising phrases and connectives have been taken out of the paragraph. They are listed below the text. Select the correct connective or problematising phrase for each of these places in the text. You should print the page and write on the printout. The Republican Debate Writers main premise: Australia should remain a constitutional

monarchy
Paragraph topic: Significance for international and trade relations.

Thomas Kenneally, the head of the Australian Republican Movement, _______
_______________________ if we break our ties with the British monarchy we will be respected by other independent countries in the world community (The Age, 24.5.93).
Our dependence on our former colonial rulers, _____________________ _____________, makes us seem immature to the rest of the world. _________ ___________________ this is especially important in our relations with countries in our own region of the world, the Asia-Pacific region. This is the fastest developing economic region in the world at the present time. _____________________________, if Australia is to share in the economic success of the region, it must be accepted by the other countries in the region, most of which cut their ties with their colonial rulers a long time ago (Time
Australia, April 12, 1993). _______________________________, as Mr Lee, the former
Singapore government minister, said in a recent interview, our Asian neighbours are interested in trade (The Bulletin, 19.6.93). They are not concerned with whether we become a republic or not. _____________________________, there are at least three powerful economic powers in the region which have monarchies: Thailand, Malaysia and
Japan. ______________________________, Australia's future as a trading nation in Asia will depend more on building a strong production and marketing base in this country than changing to a republic.
1. moreover
2. however

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3. argues that
4. it is claimed that
5. furthermore
6. so this argument goes
7. according to this position
Check your answer here

Answer to Using connectives and problematising phrases in a paragraph The Republican Debate
Writers main premise: Australia should remain a constitutional monarchy
Paragraph topic: Significance for international and trade relations.

Note :"According to this position" and "It is claimed that" could be reversed and the answer would still be correct.

Putting together a paragraph for an argumentative text
On this page you will practise building a paragraph for an argumentative text. The text is about whether fees should be charged for university courses.

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Task 1: Dividing the sentences into opposing and supporting arguments
The sentences below all make up a paragraph from an argumentative essay on the topic of whether the government should charge fees for university courses. Divide the sentences into two groups:
Group 1:

those sentences which support the writer's main premise

Group 2:

those sentences which oppose the writer's main premise

Charging fees for university courses
Writers main premise: Students should have to pay fees for university courses
1. Furthermore, there is money to fund more places for students so that in the future we will not have the shortage of places we had in the past.
2. It is asserted that the skills that students learn at university are important for the future social and economic development of our nation.
3. However, as John Dawkins (1988:1) explains the government is able to invest the money it gets back into the higher education system so that overall quality is improved.
4. Joan Sprat (1989:13) argues that the government should provide free university education because such education benefits the whole community.
5. Moreover, it is unreasonable to expect taxpayers to pay for students' education when those students get well-paid professional jobs after they graduate.
6. According to this argument, when students are forced to pay for their education themselves fewer of them will enrol in higher education courses.
7. Therefore,so this argument goes the government should invest money in education as it does with other vital resources. Check your answer here

Answer to Task 1: Dividing the sentences into opposing and supporting arguments
Writers main premise: Students should have to pay fees for university courses
Opposing arguments

Supporting arguments

She asserts that the skills that students learn at university Furthermore, there is money to fund more places for students so are important for the future social and economic that in the future we will not have the shortage of places we had in the past. development of our nation
Joan Sprat (1989:13) argues that the government should provide free university education because such education benefits the whole community.

However, as John Dawkins (1988:1) explains the government is able to invest the money it gets back into the higher education system so that overall quality is improved

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According to this argument, when students are forced to pay for their education themselves fewer of them will Moreover, it is unreasonable to expect taxpayers to pay for enrol in higher education courses. students' education when those students get well-paid professional jobs after they graduate.
Therefore, so this argument goes, the government should invest money in education as it does with other vital resources Task 2: Building a paragraph
Now write a paragraph arguing for the premise that students should have to pay fees for university courses using all the sentences from your two groups,
Check your answer here

Answer to Task 2:
University Fees
Main premise: Students should have to pay fees for university courses
Joan Sprat (1989:13) argues that the government should provide free university education because such education benefits the whole community. She asserts that the skills that students learn at university are important for the future social and economic development of our nation. Therefore, so this argument goes, the government should invest money in education as it does with other vital resources. According to this argument, when students are forced to pay for their education themselves fewer of them will enrol in higher education courses. However, as
John Dawkins (1988:1) explains the government is able to invest the money it gets back into the higher education system so that overall quality is improved. Furthermore, there is money to fund more places for students so that in the future we will not have the shortage of places we had in the past. Moreover, it is unreasonable to expect taxpayers to pay for students' education when those students get well-paid professional jobs after they graduate.

Choosing your own premise and writing a paragraph
On this page you will be given a number of arguments on the issue: Should smoking rooms be set up in workplaces to allow people to smoke indoors? None of the arguments will have any problematising phrases or connectives in them. You will have to choose your own premise and build a paragraph that argues for the premise you have chosen. You will have to add problematising phrases and connectives to distinguish between arguments that support the premise you chave chosen and arguments that oppose it

Task 1: Dividing the arguments into "For" and "Against"
Should smoking rooms be set up in workplaces to allow smokers to smoke indoors? There is a list of arguments below which are for and against the issue. Decide whether each statement is for smoking rooms or against smoking rooms. Print out the page and put an "F" in the box

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next to each argument that is for smoking rooms and put an "A" in the box next to each argument that is against smoking rooms.
The arguments:

Setting aside rooms for smokers does not mean that the harmful effects of smoking are limited to smokers alone (Rugby, 1989).
Banning smoking in all public places is another example of the way the government uses health and safety issues as a cover for introducing increasingly tight control over people's lives
Most public buildings are air conditioned and this means that any harmful tobacco smoke that is produced in one room will spread to other rooms through the air conditioning system.
Because we rightfully have a universal health insurance system in this country, the costs of treating tobacco-related illnesses are shared by all the community, smokers and non-smokers alike.
These illnesses create a terrible and expensive burden on our health system.
Forbidding smokers from pursuing their habit in public places is an infringement of their democratic rights and is discriminatory (Jane Black, the spokesperson for Smokers for a Democratic Society, The Age 18.6.93). .
Public buildings are places where all members of the community should have equal access. They increase the overall cost of medical services and use up scarce medical resources. People should be free to do what they like so long as it does not harm other citizens.

Check your answer here

Answer to Task 1: Dividing the arguments into "For" and
"Against"
Setting aside rooms for smokers does not mean that the harmful effects of smoking are limited to smokers alone (Rugby, 1989).
Banning smoking in all public places is another example of the way the government uses health and safety issues as a cover for introducing increasigly tight over people's lives
Most public buildings are air conditioned and this means that any harmful tobacco smoke that is produced in one room will spread to other rooms through the air conditioning system.
Because we rightfully have a universal health insurance system in this country, the costs of treating tobacco-related illnesses are shared by all the community, smokers and non-smokers alike.

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These illnesses create a terrible and expensive burden on our health system.
Forbidding smokers from pursuing their habit in public places is an infringement of their democratic rights and is discriminatory (Jane Black, the spokesperson for Smokers for a Democratic Society, The Age 18.6.93). .
Public buildings are places where all members of the community should have equal access. They increase the overall cost of medical services and use up scarce medical resources. People should be free to do what they like so long as it does not harm other citizens.

Task 2: Choosing a premise and writing a paragraph to support that premise
Now that you have divided the arguments into those that are for smoking rooms and those that are against smoking rooms, you are ready to start writing a paragraph. The first thing you have to do is decide what is your main premise. Will your paragraph argue for smoking rooms or against smoking rooms?
After you have decided on your main premise you are ready to start writing your paragraph.
Remember to:
1. Show both sides of the issue by including the arguments that oppose your main premise. You might want to go back and look at the work we did earlier in this unit on showing both sides of the issue.
2. Use problematising phrases to mark those arguments that do not support your main premise to make them appear debatable or possibly untrue. You might want to go back and look at the work we studied on using problematising phrases and the language summary for problematising phrases that we studied earlier in this unit. 3. Clearly the mark the place in the paragraph where you change from opposing arguments to supporting arguments with a "but-type" connective e.g. "however", "on the other hand" etc. You might want to go back and look at the work we did on shifting from opposing arguments to supporting arguments that we studied earlier in this unit.
4. Use listing connectives, such as "firstly", "in addition", "moreover", "furthermore", "finally", to list all the arguments that support your main premise. You might want to go back and look at the work we did earlier in this unit on connectives for listing arguments.
Note: For a general language summary of all the above 4 points go here
You might also wish to go back and look at some of the complete paragraphs we have studied earlier in this unit: a.

Childcare

b.

The republic

c.

Another paragraph on the republic

d.

University fees

Check your answer here

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Answer to Task 2: Choosing a premise and writing a paragraph to support that premise
There are, of course, a number of ways you could order the arguments in your answer. You are correct if you:
a. have placed the arguments that oppose your main premise in the first half of your paragraph
b. have used problematising phrases to mark the opposing statements as debatable and possibly untrue
c. have used a contrasting connective, such as "However", to mark where you are shifting from arguments that oppose your main premise to arguments that support your main premise
d. have used listing connectives, such as "Moreover", "Furthermore", and "In addition" to list the arguments that support your main premise.

Below are possible paragraphs for each of the two main premises:
Premise 1:

Smoking rooms should be set up in workplaces to allow people to smoke indoors.

It has been argued that setting aside rooms for smokers does not mean that the harmful effects of smoking are limited to smokers alone (Rugby, 1989). This position contends that most public buildings are air conditioned and this means that any harmful tobacco smoke that is produced in one room will spread to other rooms through the air conditioning system. It is also claimed that because we rightfully have a universal health insurance system in this country, the costs of treating tobacco-related illnesses are shared by all the community, smokers and non-smokers alike. These illnesses, so this argument goes, create a terrible and expensive burden on our health system. It is maintained that they increase the overall cost of medical services and use up scarce medical resources. However, as Jane Black, the spokesperson for Smokers for a Democratic Society, explains forbidding smokers from pursuing their habit in public places is an infringement of their democratic rights and is discriminatory.(The Age 18.6.93).
Moreover, banning smoking in all public places is another example of the way the government uses health and safety issues as a cover for introducing increasingly tight control over people's lives. Furthermore, public buildings are places where all members of the community should have equal access. In addition, people should be free to do what they like so long as it does not harm other citizens.

Premise 2:

Smoking rooms should not be set up in workplaces to allow people to smoke indoors.

Jane Black, the spokesperson for Smokers for a Democratic Society, asserts that forbidding smokers from pursuing their habit in public places is an infringement of their democratic rights and is discriminatory (The Age
18.6.93). This position goes on to argue that banning smoking in all public places is another example of the way the government uses health and safety issues as a cover for introducing increasingly tight control over people's lives. Public buildings, so this argument goes, are places where all members of the community should have equal access. It is claimed that people should be free to do what they like so long as it does not harm other citizens.
However, as Rugby (1989) states, setting aside rooms for smokers does not mean that the harmful effects of smoking are limited to smokers alone. Public buildings are air conditioned and this means that any harmful tobacco smoke that is produced in one room will spread to other rooms through the air conditioning system.
Moreover, because we rightfully have a universal health insurance system in this country, the costs of treating tobacco-related illnesses are shared by all the community, smokers and non-smokers alike. These illnesses create a terrible and expensive burden on our health system. They increase the overall cost of medical services and use up scarce medical resources.

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Note: Not many listing connectives were used in the second half of the premise 2 text because there are only two arguments but each argument is made up of more than one sentence - listing conectives are used for listing arguments, not for listing sentences

Converting an informal text into a formal text
On this page you will be given a text about the issue of whether the government should introduce tighter controls on the ownership of guns. The text is written in an informal style. When we are speaking about these issues we usually use an informal style like the one below. So the text contains the type of language we use in spoken debates or discussions. However, we have seen in this unit of study that argumetative essays use a much more formal academic style. You will be asked to rewrite the text in this formal academic style.

Task: Changing an informal argumentative text into a formal argumentative paragraph
The following text is written in an informal tone. Rewrite it in a more formal tone
Main premise: The government should introduce tighter gun controls
Jack Spring thinks that everyone should have the right to own a gun but I don't agree with him. People like him think that the government is infringing our democratic rights when it restricts gun ownership. They think that most people who own guns are responsible citizens who keep the guns for sport and recreation. They also think that the police are unable to stop violent crime and we need guns to protect ourselves. But I think he's wrong. I agree with
Josephine Bluff who thinks that guns increase the amount of violent crime in the community. I also think that human life is worth more than sporting shooters right to go shooting on the weekend. And I also think that many of the guns that are kept around the house end being used in violent domestic disputes or teenage suicides.

Check your answer here

Answer to Task 1: Changing an informal argumentative text into a formal argumentative paragraph
There are, of course, a number of ways you could order the arguments in your answer. You are correct if you:
a. have placed the arguments that oppose the main premise in the first half of your paragraph
b. have used problematising phrases to mark the opposing statements as debatable and possibly untrue
c. have used a contrasting connective, such as "However", to mark where you are shifting from arguments that oppose your main premise to arguments that support your main premise
d. have used listing connectives, such as "Moreover", "Furthermore", and "In addition" to list the arguments that support your main premise.

The following is one suggested translation of the informal text into a formal paragraph:

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Main premise: The government should introduce tighter gun controls
Jack Spring maintains that everyone should have the right to own a gun. This position asserts that the government is infringing our democratic rights when it restricts gun ownership. Most people who own guns, so this argument goes, are responsible citizens who keep the guns for sport and recreation. It is further contended that the police are unable to stop violent crime and we need guns to protect ourselves. However, as Josephine Bluff states, guns increase the amount of violent crime in the community. Moreover, human life is worth more than sporting shooters right to go shooting on the weekend. In addition, many of the guns that are kept around the house end being used in violent domestic disputes or teenage suicides.

Sorting arguments into topics and paragraphs
On this page you will start working on a longer text made up of 3 paragraphs. These paragraphs will be pargraphs
2, 3 and 4 from an argumentative essay on the issue: Should marine mammals be kept in captivity in marine parks?. Marine mammals are warm-blooded sea animals such as whales, dolphins and seals. Marine parks are places where these animals are kept in pools and perform in shows for the public to see. An example of a marine park in Australia is "Seaworld" on the Gold Coast in Queensland.

Earlier in this unit we saw that each paragraph in an argumentative essay discusses a different topic related to the issue of the essay. Therefore, you need to sort your arguments into different topics when you preparing to write your essay. On this page you will practice sorting arguments into topics.

Task 1: Identifying the topic of a paragraph
Below are the beginning sections of three paragraphs on the issue, Should marine mammals be kept in captivity in marine parks? Because they are the beginnings of the paragraphs they each present and problematise opposing arguments on the issue. Describe the topic of each paragraph in four words or less and write the description in the margin next to each paragraph. (You will need to print the page out - the blank lines are there for you to write on in Task 3 below).
Before you complete this task you might want to look back at the work on describing paragraph topics that you completed earlier in this unit.

d not keep marine mammals in captivity

lphin parks provide the only opportunity for much of the public to see marine mammals (Smith, 1992). Most Australians, so this argument go se animals.
It
is further claimed that marine parks allow the average
Australian
to appr ......................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................
........................................................................................................
........................................................................................................
........................................................................................................

irector of the Cairns Marine Science Institute, contends that we need marine parks for scientific research (The Age, ledge of marine mammals comes from studies which were undertaken at marine parks. The knowledge which is obtained at

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e useful for planning for the conservation of marine mammal
.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................

of the Marine Park Owners Association that marine parks attract a lot of foreign tourists (The Sun-Herald 12.4.93). tourists spend a lot of money, increasing our foreign exchange earnings and assisting our national balance of
.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................

Check your answer here

Answer to Task 1:
These are only possible topic descriptions for each paragraph. If you have used words with the same or similar meanings you are still correct.

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Task 2: Sorting the supporting arguments into topics
Below is a list of arguments that support the writer's main premise. Later (in Task 3) you will add them to the essay above. However, first they need to be sorted into the different topics that are covered by each paragraph so that you know which paragraph they can be added to. The following abbreviations represent the different topics you identified in Task 1:
= Public access to animals

= Scientific research

= Economic Benefits from tourism
Sort the following supporting arguments into the three topics by writing the correct abreviation in the boxes:
Arguments that support the author's main premise
However, as Smith states, dolphins, whales and seals can be be viewed in the wild at a number of places on the Australian coast.
Moreover, dolphin and whale biology changes in marine park conditions.
Furthermore, we should be promoting our beautiful natural environment to tourists and not the ugly concrete marine park venues.
Tourists come here to see our native wildlife in its natural environment and not to see it in cages and cement pools.
In addition, marine mammals in dolphin parks are trained and this means that their patterns of social behaviour are changed.
In fact, there are more places where they can be seen in the wild than places where they can be seen in captivity. In addition, places where there are wild marine mammals do not charge an exorbitant entry fee - they are free. Surveys of overseas tourists show that they come here for a variety of other reasons and not to visit places like Seaworld (The Age, Good Weekend 16.8.93).
Therefore research undertaken at marine parks is generally not reliable.
However, foreign tourists would still come to Australia if the parks were closed down.
They can usually see animals in those conditions in their own countries.
However, as Jones (1991) explains, park research is only useful for understanding captive animals and is not useful for learning about animals in the wild.
Their diets are different, they have significantly lower life spans and they are more prone to disease.
Moreover, most Australians would have to travel less to get to these locations than they would to get to the marine parks on the Gold Coast.

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Check your answer here

Answer to Task 2: Sorting the supporting arguments into topics
Arguments that support the author's main premise
However, as Smith states, dolphins, whales and seals can be be viewed in the wild at a number of places on the Australian coast.
Moreover, dolphin and whale biology changes in marine park conditions.

Furthermore, we should be promoting our beautiful natural environment to tourists and not the ugly concrete marine park venues.
Tourists come here to see our native wildlife in its natural environment and not to see it in cages and cement pools.
In addition, marine mammals in dolphin parks are trained and this means that their patterns of social behaviour are changed.
In fact, there are more places where they can be seen in the wild than places where they can be seen in captivity. In addition, places where there are wild marine mammals do not charge an exorbitant entry fee - they are free. Surveys of overseas tourists show that they come here for a variety of other reasons and not to visit places like Seaworld (The Age, Good Weekend 16.8.93).
Therefore research undertaken at marine parks is generally not reliable.
However, foreign tourists would still come to Australia if the parks were closed down.
They can usually see animals in those conditions in their own countries.
However, as Jones (1991) explains, park research is only useful for understanding captive animals and is not useful for learning about animals in the wild.
Their diets are different, they have significantly lower life spans and they are more prone to disease.
Moreover, most Australians would have to travel less to get to these locations than they would to get to the marine parks on the Gold Coast.

Task 3: Adding the supporting arguments to the paragraphs
Now the supporting arguments are sorted into the same topics as the pargraphs in the text in
Task 1. You are ready to add them to the text. Add them to the text now. (If you haven't yet printed out this page do so now).
You will need to pay careful attention to the connectives in each of the supporting statements to complete this task correctly. You might want to look back at the pages that you studied earlier in this unit on:

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1.

Listing connectives: Moreover, In addition etc.

2.

In fact and Indeed

3.

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However

Check your answer here.

Answer to Task 3: Adding the supporting arguments to the paragraphs Main Premise: We should not keep marine mammals in captivity
It has been argued that dolphin parks provide the only opportunity for much of the public to see marine mammals
(Smith, 1992). Most Australians, so this argument goes, live in cities and never get to see these animals. It is further claimed that marine parks allow the average Australian to appreciate our marine wildlife. However, as
Smith states, dolphins, whales and seals can be be viewed in the wild at a number of places on the Australian coast. In fact, there are more places where they can be seen in the wild than places where they can be seen in captivity. Moreover, most Australians would have to travel less to get to these locations than they would to get to the marine parks on the Gold Coast. In addition, places where there are wild marine mammals do not charge an exorbitant entry fee - they are free.
Dr Alison Lane, the director of the Cairns Marine Science Institute, contends that we need marine parks for scientific research (The Age, 19.2.93). She argues that much of our knowledge of marine mammals comes from studies which were undertaken at marine parks. The knowledge which is obtained at marine parks, so this argument goes, can be useful for planning for the conservation of marine mammal species. However, as Jones
(1991) explains, park research is only useful for understanding captive animals and is not useful for learning about animals in the wild. Moreover, dolphin and whale biology changes in marine park conditions. Their diets are different, they have significantly lower life spans and they are more prone to disease. In addition, marine mammals in dolphin parks are trained and this means that their patterns of social behaviour are changed.
Therefore research undertaken at marine parks is generally not reliable.
It is the contention of the Marine Park Owners Association that marine parks attract a lot of foreign tourists (The
Sun-Herald 12.4.93). This position goes on to assert that these tourists spend a lot of money, increasing our foreign exchange earnings and assisting our national balance of payments. However, foreign tourists would still come to
Australia if the parks were closed down. Surveys of overseas tourists show that they come here for a variety of other reasons and not to visit places like Seaworld (The Age, Good Weekend 16.8.93). Tourists come here to see our native wildlife in its natural environment and not to see it in cages and cement pools. They can usually see animals in those conditions in their own countries. Furthermore, we should be promoting our beautiful natural environment to tourists and not the ugly concrete marine park venues.

A model argumentative essay
This page contains a longer, complete argumentative essay. The issue covered by the essay is Should marine mammals be kept in captivity in marine parks?This essay can be a model for your own argumentative essay that you need to complete for the course that you are studying. But before you can use it as a model you will need to study it carefully.

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However, when you read the essay you will see that you have already studied a lot of the the language and paragraph structures that are used in it earlier in this unit.
Also, you have already seen the full text of paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 of this essay on the previous page.All these language features that you have studied are written in colour and in italics. So a lot of your work is already done.
Read the essay carefully and then go on to the next page where you will be asked to answer some questions about it.

Marine Parks
The issue of whether we should allow marine parks to stay open has been widely debated in our community recently. It is an important issue because it concerns fundamental moral and economic questions about the way we use our native wildlife. A variety of different arguments have been put forward about this issue. This essay will consider arguments for having marine parks and point to some of the problems with these views. It will then put forward reasons for the introduction of laws which prohibit these unnecessary and cruel institutions.

It has been argued that dolphin parks provide the only opportunity for much of the public to see marine mammals (Smith, 1992). Most Australians, so this argument goes, live in cities and never get to see these animals. It is claimed that marine parks allow the average Australian to appreciate our marine wildlife. However, as Smith states, dolphins, whales and seals can be viewed in the wild at a number of places on the Australian coast. In fact, there are more places where they can be seen in the wild than places where they can be seen in captivity. Moreover, most Australians would have to travel less to get to these locations than they would to get to the marine parks on the Gold Coast. In addition, places where there are wild marine mammals do not charge an exorbitant entry fee - they are free.
Dr Alison Lane, the director of the Cairns Marine Science Institute, contends that we need marine parks for scientific research (The Age, 19.2.93). She argues that much of our knowledge of marine mammals comes from studies which were undertaken at marine parks. The knowledge which is obtained at marine parks, so this argument goes, can be useful for planning for the conservation of marine mammal species. However, as
Jones (1991) explains, park research is only useful for understanding captive animals and is not useful for learning about animals in the wild. Dolphin and whale biology changes in marine park conditions. Their diets are different, they have significantly lower life spans and they are more prone to disease. In addition, marine mammals in dolphin parks are trained and this means that their patterns of social behaviour are changed. Therefore research undertaken at marine parks is generally not reliable.

It is the contention of the Marine Park Owners Association that marine parks attract a lot of foreign tourists (The Sun-Herald 12.4.93). This position goes on to assert that these tourists spend a lot of money, increasing our foreign exchange earnings and assisting our national balance of payments. However, foreign tourists would still come to Australia if the parks were closed down. Indeed, surveys of overseas tourists show that they come here for a variety of other reasons and not to visit places like

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Seaworld (The Age, Good Weekend 16.8.93). Tourists come here to see our native wildlife in its natural environment and not to see it in cages and cement pools. They can see animals in those condition in their own countries Furthermore, we should be promoting our beautiful natural environment to tourists and not the ugly concrete marine park venues. Dolphin parks are unnecessary and cruel. The dolphins and whales in these parks are kept in very small, cramped ponds, whereas in the wild they are used to roaming long distances across the seas. Furthermore, the concrete walls of the pools interfere with the animals' sonar systems of communication. In addition, keeping them in pools is a terrible restriction of the freedom of fellow creatures who may have very high levels of intelligence and a sophisticated language ability. Moreover, there are many documented cases of marine mammals helping humans who are in danger at sea or helping fisherman with their work.

In conclusion, these parks should be closed, or at the very least, no new animals should be captured for marine parks in the future. Our society is no longer prepared to tolerate unnecessary cruelty to animals for science and entertainment. If we continue with our past crimes against these creatures we will be remembered as cruel and inhuman by the generations of the future.
Bibliography
The Age, 19.2.93
The Age Good Weekend, 16.8.93
Jones, G. (1991). The Myths about Animal Research in Marine Parks. InScientific
Australian. Vol 12, No 3.
Smith, H. (1992). Marine Parks: Good for Business, Good for Australia. In Leisure
Business Review. Vol 24, No. 4
The Sun-Herald, 12.4.93

Getting an overview of the model essay
On this page you will look closely at the overall structure of the model essay on the previous page so that you can use the same or a similar structure in the essay you need to complete for your course. (You should print the page out and write your answers on the printout.)

Task 1: Identifying the main premise, paragraph structure and paragraph topics
Answer the following questions about the model essay.
1. How many paragraphs are in the text?
............................................................................
2. What is the topic of each paragraph. If it is an introduction or a conclusion, just write introduction or conclusion. (Further on in this unit we will look study how to structure introductions and conclusions.)

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............................................................................
. .............................................................................
.............................................................................
.............................................................................
.............................................................................
.............................................................................
.............................................................................
3. What is the writer's main premise?
.............................................................................
.............................................................................
.............................................................................
4. In what paragraphs does the writer place his/her main premise?
.............................................................................

Check your answer here..

Answer to Task 1: Identifying the main premise, paragraph structure and paragraph topics

Task 2: The internal organisation of the paragraphs - revision
Paragraphs 2, 3 and 4 all contain opposing arguments and supporting arguments. The opposing arguments are problematised and the supporting arguments are presented as non-debatable. You have already studied this structure in detail earlier in this unit but we will revise it again here by looking at just one of these paragraphs: the second paragrph. Answer the following questions about paragraph 2:

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1. Does paragraph 2 begin with statements that support or oppose the writer's main premise?
............................................................................
.............................................................................
2. How many opposing arguments does the writer present in this paragraph?
.............................................................................
3. What problematising phrases does the writer use to make these opposing statements appear debatable and possibly untrue?
............................................................................
. .............................................................................
.............................................................................
.............................................................................
.............................................................................
.............................................................................
.............................................................................
4. What connective does the writer use to tell the reader that s/he is shifting from opposing arguments to supporting arguments?
.............................................................................
5. How many arguments does the writer present in this paragraph that support his/her main premise?
.............................................................................
6. What connectives does the writer use to list the supporting arguments in this paragraph?
............................................................................
. .............................................................................
.............................................................................
.............................................................................
.............................................................................
.............................................................................
.............................................................................

Check your answer here.

Answer to Task 2: The internal organisation of the paragraphs - revision

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Task 3: A paragraph that only presents supporting arguments
Note: Paragraph 5 of the model is very different from paragraphs 2, 3 and 4. The writer begins the paragraph by restating the main premise - "Dolphin parks are unnecessary and cruel." Then the writer only presents arguments that support the main premise. There are no opposing arguments. This is because the writer has already dismissed the opposing arguments in earlier paragraphs and is now attempting to convince the reader that the main premise is the best and most correct position on the issue. When you are writing your own essay for your course include one or more paragraphs which only contain supporting arguments after you have dealt with all the opposing arguments. Answer the following questions about paragraph 5:
1. How many different supporting arguments does the writer present in this paragraph?
............................................................................
2. What connectives does the writer use to list these arguments?
............................................................................
. .............................................................................
.............................................................................
.............................................................................
.............................................................................
.............................................................................
.............................................................................

Check your answer here.

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Writing introductions to argumentative essays
You now know how to write the body of an argumentative essay. In the next two sections of this unit you will learn how to write an introduction and a conclusion.

Introductions are very important. The introduction gives the reader his/her first impression of the text. The first impression that you are aiming to give the reader is of a high-quality argumentative text written in a professional, academic style.

Lets look again at the introduction from the model essay on Marine Parks:
The issue of whether we should allow marine parks to stay open has been widely debated in our community recently. It is an important issue because it concerns fundamental moral and economic questions about the way we use our native wildlife. A variety of different arguments have been put forward about this issue. This essay will consider arguments for having marine parks and point to some of the problems with these views. It will then put forward reasons for the introduction of laws which prohibit these unnecessary and cruel institutions.

Task 1: The four parts of an introduction
A simple introduction to an argumentative assignment has four parts. Read the following description of the parts. Then circle the sentences in the introduction above which cover each part and write the number for each part in the margin next to it, e.g. for the first part draw a circle around the sentence(s) that introduce(s) the topic and write "1" in the margin next to it.
1. Introduces the topic
2. States why the topic is important
3. States that there is a difference of opinion about this topic
4. Describes how the assignment will be structured and clearly states the writer's main premise

Check your answer here

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Answer to Task 1: The four parts of an introduction

The four parts of an introduction:
1. Introduces the topic
2. States why the topic is important
3. States that there is a difference of opinion about this topic
4. Describes how the assignment will be structured and clearly states the writer's main premise

Task 2: Ordering sentences in an introduction
Now put the following sentences into the correct order. They make up the introduction to an argumentative essay about the issue of whether Australia should become a republic.
a. As a result, the issue is a very controversial one and has attracted a lot of debate.
b. It will then put forward a number of reasons why Australia should change to a republican form of government.
c. The question of whether we maintain the monarchy is not merely a legal detail but is intrinsically linked to the way we perceive ourselves as a distinct nation of people with its own identity and culture.
d. Since the time of federation, Australia has been a constitutional monarchy with the Queen of the United
Kingdom as its head of state.
e. This essay will consider some of the arguments for maintaining the monarch as head of state and will outline some of the problems with this position.
f. However, today many Australians are questioning whether this form of government is still relevant or appropriate and are suggesting that we move towards the establishment of a republic.

Check your answer here

Answer to Task 2: Ordering sentences in an introduction
Since the time of federation, Australia has been a constitutional monarchy with the Queen of the United Kingdom as its head of state. However, today many Australians are questioning whether this form of government is still relevant or appropriate and are suggesting that we move towards the establishment of a republic. The question of whether we maintain the monarchy is not merely a legal detail but is intrinsically linked to the way we perceive ourselves as a distinct nation of people with its own identity and culture. As a result, the issue is a very controversial one and has attracted a lot of debate. This essay will consider some of the arguments for maintaining the monarch as head of state and will outline some of the problems with this position. It will then put forward a number of reasons why Australia should change to a republican form of government.

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Task 3: The four parts of an introduction (again)
Print out the answer to task 2. Then circle the sentences which cover each of the four parts of argumentative essay introductions and write the number for each part in the margin next to it, just as you did for the introduction to the marine parks essay in Task 1.
Check your answer here

Answer to Task 3: The four parts of an introduction (again)

The four parts of an introduction:
1. Introduces the topic
2. States why the topic is important
3. States that there is a difference of opinion about this topic
4. Describes how the assignment will be structured and clearly states the writer's main premise

Writing conclusions to argumentative essays
Conclusions are just as important as introductions. The conclusion closes the essay and tries to close the issue. The aim is to convince the reader that your essay has covered all the most important arguments about the issue and that your main premise is the best position on the issue. You should not present any new arguments in your conclusion.

Many students find it difficult to write a conclusion. By this time they may have done so much work on the body of the essay that they just want to finish the essay off as quickly as possible and so they write a rushed and badly written conclusion.
But the conclusion is the last part of the essay that your reader will see. Spend some time on carefully writing the conclsuion so that you give your reader a good final impression of your essay.

Lets look again at the conclusion from the model essay on Marine Parks:

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In conclusion, these parks should be closed, or at the very least, no new animals should be captured for marine parks in the future. Our society is no longer prepared to tolerate unnecessary cruelty to animals for science and entertainment. If we continue with our past crimes against these creatures we will be remembered as cruel and inhuman by the generations of the future.

Task 1: The three parts of a conclusion
A simple introduction to an argumentative assignment has three parts. Read the following description of the parts. Then circle the sentences in the conclusion above which cover each part and write the number for each part in the margin next to it, e.g. for the first part draw a circle around the sentence(s) that restate(s) the main premise and write "1" in the margin next to it.
The three parts to a conclusion:
1. Restates the main premise
2. Presents one or two general sentences which accurately summarise your arguments which support the main premise
3. Provides a general warning of the consequences of not following the premise that you put forward and/or a general statement of how the community will benefit from following that premise

Check your answer here

Answer to Task 1: The three parts of a conclusion

The three parts to a conclusion:
1. Restates the main premise
2. Presents one or two general sentences which accurately summarise your arguments which support the main premise
3. Provides a general warning of the consequences of not following the premise that you put forward and/or a general statement of how the community will benefit from following that premise

Task 2: Ordering sentences in a conclusion
Now put the following sentences into the correct order. They make up the conclusion to another argumentative essay. The main premise of this essay is that the government should spend more money on childcare places for the children of parents who study or work.

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a. If we fail to meet our obligations in this area, we will be sacrificing our present and future well-being merely in order to appease out-dated notions of family life and to achieve short-term financial savings.
b. In conclusion, it is essential that we support the nation's parents and children by funding more childcare places.
c. Only in this way can we provide the valuable learning environments that young Australians need while, at the same time, utilising the skills of all productive members of our society.
d. The entire national community will then be enriched economically, socially and culturally.

Check your answer here

Answer to Task 2: Ordering sentences in a conclusion
In conclusion, it is essential that we support the nation's parents and children by funding more childcare places.
Only in this way can we provide the valuable learning environments that young Australians need while, at the same time, utilising the skills of all productive members of our society. The entire national community will then be enriched economically, socially and culturally. If we fail to meet our obligations in this area, we will be sacrificing our present and future well-being merely in order to appease out-dated notions of family life and to achieve short-term financial savings.

Task 3: The three parts of a conclusion (again)
Print out the answer to task 2. Then circle the sentences which cover each of the three parts of argumentative essay conclusions and write the number for each part in the margin next to it, just as you did for the conclusion to the marine parks essay in Task 1.
Check your answer here

Answer to Task 1: The three parts of a conclusion (again)

The three parts to a conclusion:
1. Restates the main premise
2. Presents one or two general sentences which accurately summarise your arguments which support the main premise
3. Provides a general warning of the consequences of not following the premise that you put forward and/or a general statement of how the community will benefit from following that premise

Writing your own argumentative essay

You should now be ready to write your own argumentative essay. This page sets out a procedure for preparing and writing your essay. There are 13 steps in this procedure. If you follow all the steps closely you should be able to complete your essay.

This procedure assumes that you already have an issue which you were given by your teacher, tutor or lecturer to write about and that you have completed reading all the articles and books that you need to read about your issue.

1. Go over all the reading material again.
2. Identify the main topics covered by the arguments that you have read about your issue when preparing for your essay. This is so that you have a list of different topics for your paragarphs such as the topics in the essays on marine parks and childcare . You might also want to go back and look at the page on sorting arguments into topics and paragraphs.
3. Now use the topics that you have identified in step 2 as your group headings for organising your research notes
(the notes from your reading):
a. Go over the reading material again and look for the main arguments that concern each of these topics b. Divide these arguments into those that are for your issue and those that are against your issue in a table like the one below. Remember to: i keep your notes brief ii do not write the argument down word for word. Paraphrase it or use note form. This way you will avoid plagiarism when you come to write the actual essay.
Example table for your notes:

Topic: health arguments about <your issue >
Arguments for <your issue >

Arguments against <your issue >

4. Make a decision about what your main premise will be.
5. Look back at the paragraph structure for the model essays on marine parks (here and here) and childcare .
6. Now draft a detailed plan for your essay. In this plan note down the information that you will put in each paragraph. Remember, just use note form - not complete sentences (Otherwise your plan will be nearly as big as your essay!)
7. Begin writing a draft of the body of the body of your essay. Before you start this step you should:
a. Look again at the model essays about marine parks and childcare.
b. Go back and look at the work we did earlier in this unit on showing both sides of the issue.
c. Look again at the work we studied on using problematising phrases for opposing arguments and the language summary for problematising phrases.

d. Go back and look at the work we did on using contrasting connectives to shift from opposing arguments to supporting arguments.
e. Look again at the work we did earlier in this unit on connectives for listing supporting arguments.
e. Go back and look at the work we did earlier in this unit on using "In fact" and "Indeed". to link general and specific sentences that deal with the same argument.
f. Print out a copy of the language summary for paragraph structures in the body of an essay and use it to help you write your pargarphs.
You might also wish to go back and look at some of the complete paragraphs we have studied earlier in this unit:
a.

Childcare

b.

The republic

c.

Another paragraph on the republic

d.

University fees

e.

Guns

8. When you have written a draft of the body of your text check the following things:
a. do your paragraphs present arguments which oppose your main premise as debatable and possibly not true?
b. do your paragraphs present arguments which support your main premise as non-debatable or as facts? c. have you clearly marked the place where you shift from the opposing arguments to the supporting arguments with a contrasting connective (such as "however")?
d. Have you used connectives, pronouns and referencing words (such as "this" or "these" to make your paragraph cohesive?
9. Draft your introduction. You might want to go back and look carefully at the introduction to the essay on marine parks and the model introduction about republicanism.
10. Draft your conclusion. You might want to go back and look carefully at the conclusion to the essay on marine parks and the model conclusion about childcare.
11. Check your draft introduction and conclusion against the models. Redraft if necessary.
12. Now that you have a complete draft of your essay check it again for the following things:
a. Does it conform with the model texts?
b. Does it provide strong support for your main premise?
c. Can you make the text more cohesive?
d. Are your verbs correct?
e. Is every sentence a complete sentence - does it have a subject and a verb?
f. Is your spelling correct? (Use the spelling checker on your word processing programme and also read for spelling errors that the spelling checker doesn't pick up)
g. Is your punctuation correct?
h. Have you plagiarised? If you have plagiarised, rewrite that part of your text or indicate that you have copied from another text by using quotation marks and citing the source of the text eg.
(Mansell, 1993)
13.

Check the final draft and write a cover sheet.

Congratulations .....now you've finished your argumentative essay!

Appendix 1
Language summary: structure of paragraphs in the body of an argumentative essay

X

=

another writer on this issue

Y

=

a premise

who you are citing

Stage

Language to use at this stage

1. Give the most general statement about the opposing position on this topic. Attach a problematising phrase to the statement to make it appear debatable and possibly untrue.

asserts contends X

that....

maintains argues claims

has been is contended

could be

maintained

might be

argued

may be

It

asserted

claimed

that....

assertion
It is the

contention

of X that ....

argument claim assertions

in support of in favour of

One of the

supporting contentions for opposing arguments against Y is that....

One objection to Y is that ...

A common
A frequently heard

2. Expand or develop that opposing position. Attach a problematising phrase to each further opposing argument to make it appear debatable and possibly untrue.

argued also claimed asserted It is

that ....

maintained further contended said .... so this argument goes .....

argue contend This position goes on to further

claim

that ....

maintain assert 3. Signal that you are shifting to arguments that support your main premise ...

... and begin with a general supporting argument on the topic of the paragraph drawn (preferably) from an authoritative published source

However, .....

explains
... as X

states

....

shows

4. Expand and develop the arguments on this paragraph topic that support your main premise

Moreover,
In addtion,
Furthermore,

......

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...We write: Essays Research Papers Coursework Thesis Dissertations Term Papers UK Essays # Count of pages: Number of words: Choose your academic level: Term: Discount Code (optional): Discount: 0% Price: $0 Official PayPal Seal website security Types of Essays A big problem that most students and new essay writers run into is “How to write an essay.” usually roughly all essays follow a common structure of writing which comprises of an introduction, the body, and the conclusion. Once the writers are lucid about the technique of writing an essay and how to write an essay outline, the next step that they face up to is how to move toward a particular research paper topic. And what type of writing works best? Students often complain about a certain type of essay they have been assigned with. It seems to them that writing within essay type boundaries doesn’t allow them to think out the box, limits their potential. But writing a paper without any directions could be even more confusing than the class assignment you got. Do not think about the limitations as of the prison walls, but as of the walls in your room where you feel free to paint murals or change nothing whatsoever, simply being in control of it, being yourself. Tweet Quick Navigation through the Types of Essays Page Basic Types: Narrative, Descriptive and Persuasive How Can We Help Personal Essays Argumentation Essays Information Essays Analysis......

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...great deal of work required, in writing. Throughout my lifetime, I have been required to write numerous essays and papers for various subjects, all requiring different styles and techniques. Before immersing myself in the writing process I would try and think of whom I am writing to and what I am writing about. I always assumed I was writing for the audience of my teacher. Writing an argumentative research paper is something I had yet to accomplish in my college career, not only was it thought provoking, this paper also challenged me in numerous ways, such as, understanding who I should be directing my thoughts towards throughout the essay, as well as the simple steps of organizing my thoughts...

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...through two outside of class essays, which required two completely different styles of writing. Another key element that has helped to illustrate the writing process for the two essays in my portfolio was the use of reading various types of literature. This included but was not limited to, editorials, newspaper articles, books, and specific disciplines of research in course related fields. These two essays essentially reshaped my ability to write for specific audiences...

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...Moves That Matter in Academic Writing, Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein provide templates designed to be easy to use and to help generate good writing habits for beginning arugmengive writers. Specifically, Graff and Birkenstein argue that the types of writing templates they offer are sophisticated thinking and writing templates, in which take a lot of practice, and use in order to master. As the authors themselves put it, “the immediate goal of this book is to help you become a better writer, at a deeper level it invites you to become a certain type of person: a critical, intelligent thinker who instead of sitting passively on the sidelines, can participate in the debates and conservation of our world in an active and empowered way.” Although some people disagree with the ways...

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