Free Essay

Yarns

In: Other Topics

Submitted By ishajain
Words 1962
Pages 8
Yarns
Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, and rope making.
Thread is a type of yarn intended for sewing by hand or machine. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing. Embroidery threads are yarns specifically designed for hand or machine embroidery.
“A yarn is an assemblage of fibres or filaments having asubstantial length and relatively small cross section, with orwithout twist, being the end product of a spinning andwinding process”

Yarn may be any of the following-

• Number of fibers twisted together
• Number of filaments without twist
• Number of filaments twisted with more/less twist
•Single filament
•One or more strips cut by length of a sheet of material of natural/ synthetic or any polymer

Classification of Yarns

TERMS
Spun yarn is made by twisting or otherwise bonding staple fibres together to make a cohesive thread, or single. Spun yarns may contain a single type of fibre, or be a blend of various types. Combining synthetic fibres (which can have high strength, lustre, and fire retardant qualities) with natural fibres (which have good water absorbency and skin comforting qualities) is very common.
Filament yarn consists of filament fibres (very long continuous fibres) either twisted together or only grouped together. Silk is a natural filament, and synthetic filament yarns are used to produce silk-like effects.
Texturized yarns are made by a process of air texturizing, which combines multiple filament yarns into a yarn with some of the characteristics of spun yarns.
Multifilament Yarn is a filament yarn made from multiple filaments, assembled with or without twist.
Monofilament Yarn consists of only a single continuous filament from man-made source.
Assembled Yarns two or more yarns which are wound side by side on to same package, but without twisting around each other.
Folded or Plied Yarns are yarns made by twisting together. Two or more single (and/or folded) yarns of the same or different types. Ex: 2 Ply (two singles)
Cords or Cabled Yarns are yarns made by twisting together. Two or more ply or folded yarns of the same or different types. Ex: 2,3 Ply Cord

Properties of Spun, Filament and Combination Yarns
100%Spun Yarns: Warmth, Softness, Light Weight Ideal for T-Shirts, Sweaters and Blankets
100%Filament Yarns: Smoother, Finer and Lustrous. Ideal for linings
Combination of spun and filament Yarns: Durable, Easy care, Comfortable, Suitable for more applications.

Structure and Twists of Yarns
S- and Z-twist yarn
Yarns are made up of a number of singles, which are known as plies when grouped together. These singles of yarn are twisted together (plied) in the opposite direction to make a thicker yarn. Depending on the direction of this final twist, the yarn will be known as stwist or ztwist. S-Twist: Spirals run upwardto the left (clock wise) Z-Twist: Spirals run upwardto the right (anti clock wise) Combination of S and Z twist: to produce crepe fabrics.
The purpose of twist is to hold the staple fibers together.
The twist could be used in different ways toembed different qualities to the yarn.
A yarn that is twist balanced will not tend to curl.
The direction of twist is also important for further designing as this can be used well by designers.

Yarn twists parameters:
Amount of twist is designated as TPI –turns per inch, which Affects appearance and durability of the yarns.

Twist factor
The angle of twist is the factor that determines how the yarn will behave. Yarns with a low twist level have a lower angle of twist, and will be relatively soft, bulky yarns. Yarns with higher twist angles will be strong, lean and hard yarns. Over twisted yarns will have very high twist angles; they will be very hard, weaker and snarl easily.

Typical twist factors:
Short staple end use Tex twist factor
Doubling weft 2900-3200
Ring weft 3200-3500
Ring warp 3800-4300
Voile 4900-5300
Crepe 5700-7700
Rotor 3700-4700

Twist Factor
Tan ө = Пd l l= 1/turns per unit length d= /¯yarn tex
Therefore, tan ө = turns per unit length X /¯yarn tex
Turns per unit length = K/ /¯tex
Twist factor = turns per inch / /¯cotton count

Fancy yarns

* Fancy yarns are explorations of the prior said attributes such as * Twist * Bulkiness * Color * Material * Blends and Mixes * Material(conventional/non-conventional)

Varieties

* Boucle * Loop * Gimp * Nep * Chenille * Corkscrew * Core spun

Types and characteristics of yarns

1. Single yarns 2. Ply or folded yarns 3. Doubled yarns or compound yarns 4. Cabled yarns or cords 5. Textured yarns: Stretch yarns, Bulk yarns 6. Novelty yarns: * Slub yarns * Flake yarns * Spiral yarns * Ratine yarns * Boucle, Loop or Curl yarns * Nub, Knop, Knot or Spot yarns * Chinelle yarns

Physical properties and performance characteristics of different yarn types:

Yarn type General yarn properties

Continuous filament yarns Excellent uniformity Excellent strength
Natural Can be very fine
Non-synthetic Fair handle
Synthetic Poor covering power

High bulk yarns Light weight Staple Good covering power
Continuous filament Good loftiness and fulln

Stretch yarns High stetchability
Continuous filament Good handle Covering power
Special end use: * Tyre cord Purely functional * Rubber Designed to satisfy a specific- * Core yarn set of conditions * Cabled * Split film yarn

Novelty yarns: Excellent decorative features * Fancy yarns * Metallic

Colour
Yarn comes in many colors. Yarn may be used undyed, or may be coloured with natural or artificial dyes. Most yarns have a single uniform hue, but there is also a wide selection of variegated yarns: * Heathered or tweed: yarn with flecks of different coloured fiber * Ombre: variegated yarn with light and dark shades of a single hue * Multicolored: variegated yarn with two or more distinct hues (a "parrot colourway" might have green, yellow and red) * Self-striping: yarn dyed with lengths of color that will automatically create stripes in a knitted or crocheted object * Marled: yarn made from strands of different-colored yarn twisted together, sometimes in closely related hues

Measurement
A comparison of yarn weights (thicknesses): the top skein is aran weight, suitable for knitting a thick sweater or hat. The manufacturer's recommended knitting gauge appears on the label: 8 to 10 stitches per inch using size 4.5 to 5.1 mm needles. The bottom skein is sock weight, specifically for knitting socks. Recommended gauge: 5 to 7 stitches per inch, using size 3.6 to 4.2 mm needles. These yarns are manufactured in Japan and have variegated colours in a random-dyed pattern.

Spool of all-purpose sewing thread, close-up shows texture of 2ply, Ztwist, mercerized cotton with polyester core.

Yarn quantities are usually measured by weight in ounces or grams. In the United States, Canada and Europe, balls of yarn for handcrafts are sold by weight.
Common sizes include 25 g, 50 g, and 100 g skeins. Some companies also primarily measure in ounces with common sizes being three-ounce, four-ounce, six-ounce, and eight-ounce skeins. These measurements are taken at a standard temperature and humidity, because yarn can absorb moisture from the air. The actual length of the yarn contained in a ball or skein can vary due to the inherent heaviness of the fibre and the thickness of the strand; for instance, a 50 g skein of lace weight mohair may contain several hundred meters, while a 50 g skein of bulky wool may contain only 60 meters.
There are several thicknesses of yarn, also referred to as weight. This is not to be confused with the measurement and/or weight listed above. The Craft Yarn Council of America is making an effort to promote a standardized industry system for measuring this, numbering the weights from 1 (finest) to 6 (heaviest). Some of the names for the various weights of yarn from finest to thickest are called lace, fingering, sport, double-knit (or DK), worsted, aran (or heavy worsted), bulky, and super-bulky
A more precise measurement of yarn weight, often used by weavers, is wraps per inch (WPI). The yarn is wrapped snugly around a ruler and the number of wraps that fit in an inch are counted.
Labels on yarn for handicrafts often include information on gauge, known in the UK as tension, which is a measurement of how many stitches and rows are produced per inch or per cm on a specified size of knitting needle or crochet hook. The proposed standardization uses a four-by-four inch/ten-by-ten cm knitted or crocheted square, with the resultant number of stitches across and rows high made by the suggested tools on the label to determine the gauge.
Yarn Count
Textile yarns are measured in various units, such as: the denier and Tex (linear mass density of fibres), super S (fineness of wool fiber), worsted count, woolen count, cotton count (or Number English Ne), Number metric (Nm) and yield (the inverse of denier and tex). Yarn is spun thread used for knitting, weaving, or sewing. Thread is a long, thin strand of cotton, nylon, or other fibers used in sewing or weaving. Both yarn and thread are measured in terms of cotton count and yarn density.
Cotton count
Cotton count is another measure of linear density. It is the number of hanks (840 yd. or 770 m) of skein material that weigh 1 pound (0.45 kg). Under this system, the higher the number, the finer the yarn. In the United States cotton counts between 1 and 20 are referred to as coarse counts. A regular single-knit T-shirt can be between 20 and 40 count; fine bed sheets are usually in the range of 40 to 80 count. The number is now widely used in the staple fiber industry.
Yarn length
L/m = 1693 × lm/Nec × m/kg, where l/m is the yarn length in meters, lm/Nec is the English cotton count and m/kg is the yarn weight in kilograms.
English cotton count (Nec) is an indirect counting system, that is, the higher the number the finer the yarn.
Thread: a length of 54 inches (1.4 m) (the circumference of a warp beam)
Bundle: usually 10 pounds (4.5 kg)
Lea: a length of 80 threads or 120 yards (110 m)
Denier: this is an alternative method. It is defined as a number that is equivalent to the weight in grams of 9000 m of a single yarn. 15 denier is finer than 30 denier.
Tex: is the weight in grams of 1 km of yarn.
To convert denier to cotton count: lm/Nec = 5315ρ/den, where lm/Nec is the cotton count and ρ/den is the density in denier.
To convert tex to cotton count: lm/Nec = 590.5ρ/tex, where lm/Nec is the cotton count and ρ/tex is the density in tex.
1 Tex = 19 den
Thread
Thread is a cotton yarn measure, equal to 54 inches (1.4 m).

Yarn density conversion Approximate yarn measurement comparison | Denier | m/g | Tex | Worsted | Cotton | Woolen (run) | Linen (lea) | 50 | 180 | 5.6 | 160 | 106 | 56 | 298 | 75 | 120 | 8.3 | 106 | 72 | 37 | 198 | 100 | 90 | 11.1 | 80 | 53 | 28 | 149 | 150 | 60 | 16.6 | 53 | 35 | 19 | 99 | 200 | 45 | 22.2 | 40 | 27 | 14 | 74 | 300 | 30 | 33.4 | 27 | 18 | 9.3 | 50 | 400 | 22.5 | 44.4 | 20 | 13 | 7.0 | 37 | 500 | 18 | 55.5 | 16 | 11 | 5.6 | 30 | 700 | 12.9 | 77.7 | 11.4 | 7.6 | 4.0 | 2 | 1000 | 9 | 111 | 8.0 | 5.3 | 2.8 | 15 | 1500 | 6 | 166 | 5.3 | 3.5 | 1.9 | 10 | 2000 | 4.5 | 222 | 4.0 | 2.7 | 1.4 | 7 |

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Textile

...11/28/2015 Chapter 1 Swatch # 1 – Denim [pic] Denim is durable twill woven with colored (usually blue) warp and white filling threads; it is also woven in colored stripes. The name is said to have originated in French serge de Nimes. The word comes from the name of a sturdy fabric called serge.  Denim was originally called serge de Nimes, it was then soon shortened to Denim. Denim is yard-dyed and mill-finished and is usually all-cotton, although considerable quantities are of a cotton-synthetic fiber mixture. Decades of use in the clothing industry, especially in manufacture of overalls and trousers were worn for heavy labour such as construction workers and electrical workers. Denim has demonstrated denim’s durability. This quality also made denim serviceable for leisurewear in the late 20th Century. Denim is a rugged cotton twill textile, in which the weft passes under two or more warp fibers. This produces the familiar diagonal ribbing identifiable on the reverse of the fabric, which distinguishes denim from cotton duck. It is a twill-weave woven fabric that uses different colors for the warp and weft. One color is predominant on the fabric surface. Because of this twill weave, it means the fabric is very strong. I believe Denim is the most amazing fabric out there it’s versatile, it’s tough, its durable,, its easy to work with, its fashionable, its warm I mean I can go one with how great denim is. I mean everyone owns denim. Once......

Words: 2714 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Current State of Textile Industries in Bangladesh

...Current State of Textile Industries in Bangladesh Introduction: The textile and clothing sector is the largest manufacturing activity in Bangladesh. It provides direct employment to about than 5 million people, which accounts for 45 per cent of all industrial employment in the country. The sector contributes 10 per cent of the country’s GDP, 40 per cent of industrial value addition, and 78 per cent of export earnings. Major readymade garments exported by Bangladesh are knitted and woven shirts and blouses, trousers, skirts, shorts, jackets, sweaters and sportswear, and other fashion apparel. In the Table below provides a profile of Bangladesh’s textile and clothing sector. The sector can broadly be divided into primary textile sector (PTS) and export-oriented readymade garment (RMG) making sector. The PTS comprises spinning, weaving, and specialized textile units, traditional handloom sector and knitting and dyeing subsectors. Currently, there are now 350 spinning mills, 400 weaving firms, 310 dyeing and finishing units, and 4,500 garment factories. |Sub-sector |Number of units |Installed machine capacity |Production capacity |Employment | | | | | | | |Textile spinning |350 7.5 million |spindles ......

Words: 6682 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Excel

...Introduction Noblewood Textiles, Inc., with Noblewood Textiles, San Pietro, California, as its sole outlet, was founded October 19, 1993 by Selina Martinez and Mariela Pimuela. Company Philosophy The goal of Noblewood Textiles is to supply unusual fabrics and fibers to sewers, knitters, weavers and fabric artists. Since 2003, the company has also included sewing patterns and quilting books in its retail listings. Goal The Noblewood Textiles philosophy is summarized in two words: fine quality. This philosophy is demonstrated by a clean, attractive, well-organized salesroom, a large inventory of textiles and supplies, and knowledgeable, enthusiastic employees. Through this quality service, Noblewood Textiles maintains a loyal clientele, benefits from volume sales, and continues to give customers the finest prices possible. Noblewood Textiles has become one of the largest and finest textile outlets in the San Diego area. Our goal is to become one of the finest textile retailers in California. Organization Noblewood Textiles Retail Sales, Inc. consists of a Board of Directors, store management, and store personnel. Board of Directors The main purpose of the board is to provide policy and direction to Noblewood Textiles. The board of directors is made up of the following: Chief Executive Officer Edward Reeder Financial Officer Peter Jarrado Associate Member Mariela Pimuela Associate Member Henry Kirstborne Associate Member Caroline J. Sampson Associate......

Words: 699 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Hhhh

...cottage / small-scale sector. The various sectors that are a part of the textile value chain. Most of the spinning industry operates in an organized manner with in-house weaving, dyeing and finishing facilities. Weaving comprises of small and medium sized entities. The processing sector, consists of dyeing, printing and finishing sub-sectors. in this context, only a part of this sector is operating in an organized state, able to process large quantities while the rest of the units operate as small and medium sized units. The printing segment dominates the overall processing industry followed by textile dyeing and fabric bleaching and now some installation of digital printing technologies. Dr. Noor Ahmed Memon highlights machinery imports, yarn production and export statistics for the interest of our readers. | The spinning industry is comprised of 440 textile units (50 composite units and 390 spinning units) with 11.4 million spindles and 0.135 million rotors in operation with capacity utilization of 89% and 60% respectively, during the year 2011-12. Import of textile spinning machines and parts decreased from Rs 5.28 billion in 2010-11 to Rs 4.23 billion in 2011-12, thus showing decline of 75% due to the a decrease in textile exports and output capacity in view of law and order situation and severe energy crisis. Import of textile spinning parts are given in Table 1. Table 2:  Import of Textile Spinning Machines and......

Words: 1152 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Export

...FASHION EXPORT MERCHANDISING National Institute of Fashion Technology, DELHI M.F.M Semester 2 EXPORT INDUSTRY OF INDIA Submitted to – Ms Jasmine Dixit Submitted by – Kranti Wadmare Meghna Kumar Rahul Kumar Rounak Siraj Parul Dang EXPORT INDUSTRY OF INDIA Exports from India amounted to US$317.5 billion during 2014, up 44.1% since 2010. India’s top 10 exports accounted for 60.5% of the overall value of its global shipments. Based on statistics from the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook Database, India’s total Gross Domestic Product amounted to $7.376 trillion in 2014. Therefore, exports accounted for about 4.3% of total Indian economic output. Given India’s population of 1.252 billion people, its total $317.5 billion in 2014 exports translates to roughly $254 for every resident in that country. India’s unemployment rate was 4.1% in 2014. Sectors 1. Primary: Agriculture and mining (CIL , National mineral development corporation) 2. Secondary: Industry (Tata motors, Sun pharma industries, Indian Oil Corporation) * Petroleum products and chemicals * Pharmaceuticals * Engineering * Gems and jewellery * Textile * Mining 3. Tertiary: Services (Oracle TCS,Infosys) * Energy and Power * Infrastructure * Retail * Tourism * Banking and finance * Aviation * Information technology COMPOSITION OF EXPORTS Commodity......

Words: 3274 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Textile Dictionary

...® To the best of our knowledge, the information contained herein is accurate. However, neither Celanese Acetate LLC nor any of its divisions or affiliates can accept liability of any kind for the accuracy or completeness thereof. Final determination of the suitability of any information or material for the use contemplated, or its manner of use, and whether the suggested use infringes any patents is the sole responsibility of the user. ©2001. Copyright Celanese Acetate LLC. All Rights Reserved. Information about this book can be obtained from your Celanese Acetate sales or technical service representative or by contacting: 1-800-222-5543 Celanese Acetate Three Park Avenue New York, NY 10016 phone: 212-251-8050 fax: 212-251-8037 or Celanese Acetate 2300 Archdale Drive Charlotte, NC 28210 phone: 704-554-3843 fax: 704-554-3851 © 2001, Celanese Acetate LLC Foreword ______________________________________________________ This Complete Textile Glossary is intended to be a convenient reference for textile terminology. Although it covers all types of textile terms broadly, its special emphasis is on manufactured fibers - what they are, how they are made, and how they are used. The first two editions of this dictionary were published under the title Man-Made Fiber and Textile Dictionary by the former Celanese Corporation to provide a source for employees. A third edition of the dictionary, with expanded listings and illustrations, was offered in response to......

Words: 22490 - Pages: 90

Free Essay

Me and the Bean

...Mollie Flowers: Magic Loop Step 1 Loop the yarn once (or a couple of times) around your finger Step 5 Pull the short length of yarn and the stitches will start to curl – pull it tight Step 2 Put your hook through the loop, bring through the long yarn length, then pull through yarn again (This does not count as a stitch) Single crochet around the loop Step 6 Slip stitch into the first single crochet to create a firm circle Step 3 Step 7 Cut yarn and pull through stitch Step 4 Single crochet around the loop, until you have five stitches on the loop Step 8 5 4 6 1 2 3 Although you have 5 stitches the casting off splits a stitch in two, so the 5 stitches gives you six finished stitches Tutorial by Brigitte Read Blog: http/www.littlegreen.typepad.com/romansock/ Report a problem: brigitte.read@gmail.com Mollie Flowers: The Flower (1) Step 1 Crochet into the first stitch Step 5 Insert the hook through the first stitch and draw a second loop through (4 loops on hook) Step 9 Insert the hook through the first stitch and draw a forth loop through (8 loops on hook) Step 2 Chain 3 stitches Step 6 Wrap the yarn over (5 loops on hook) The wrapped over yarn creates the extra loop on hook Step 10 Wrap the yarn over (9 loops on hook) The wrapped over yarn creates the extra loop on hook Step 3 Insert the hook into the first stitch, wrap the yarn over hook, draw a loop through (the length of the 3 chain) (2 loops on......

Words: 727 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Square Textile

...Acknowledgement The internship opportunity I had with SQUARE TEXTILES was a great chance for learning and professional development. Therefore, I consider myself as a very lucky individual as I was provided with an opportunity to be a part of it. I am also grateful for having a chance to meet so many wonderful people and professionals who led me though this internship period. Bearing in mind previous I am using this opportunity to express my deepest gratitude and special thanks to the MD of [Company name] who in spite of being extraordinarily busy with her/his duties, took time out to hear, guide and keep me on the correct path and allowing me to carry out my project at their esteemed organization and extending during the training. I express my deepest thanks to [Name Surname], [Position in the Company] for taking part in useful decision & giving necessary advices and guidance and arranged all facilities to make life easier. I choose this moment to acknowledge his/her contribution gratefully. It is my radiant sentiment to place on record my best regards, deepest sense of gratitude to Mr. /Ms. [Name Surname], [Position in the Company], Mr./Ms. [Name Surname], [Position in the Company], Mr./Ms. [Name Surname], [Position in the Company] and Mr./Ms. [Name Surname], [Position in the Company] for their careful and precious guidance which were extremely valuable for my study both theoretically and practically. I perceive as this opportunity as a big milestone in my career...

Words: 4338 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Nishat Mills

...increase the efficiency of NML. In this report I have given a very brief review of what I have seen during our internship I have mentioned all these as I have made an internship as according to the schedule. I also mentioned about the Textile industry in Pakistan and vision of its industry. Then I have done a detailed SWOT analysis as well as PEST Analysis. Then I have discussed about my learning in the whole internship that is all about the Textile Terminologies and process of the productions. I have made it possible to write each and every thing that I have learnt there. I have all my practical efforts in the form of this manuscript that's the asset for my future career. Vision  To transform the company into a modern and dynamic yarn, cloth and processed cloth and finished product manufacturing company with highly...

Words: 9757 - Pages: 40

Free Essay

Accounting

...Principles of Management Term Paper ON “The History of Textile Industry in Bangladesh” Submitted to: MD. Rehan Masoom Course: Principles of Management Course code: MNG1203 Submitted by: Atqiya Mahila Trisha; ID-121113006 Syeda Tasneem Humayra; ID-121113008 Rajoshi Jahangir (Rajoshi); ID-121113007 Sirajum Munira; ID-121113001 Sec: A History of Textile industry in Bangladesh Introduction While agriculture for domestic consumption is Bangladesh’s largest employment sector, the money gained from exporting textiles is the single greatest source of economic growth in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Textile Industry has a long history of many centuries and has been seen as the part of an economy of undivided India and later on of Pakistan. It was only after the liberation of Bangladesh that the Textile Industry had to be considered independently to meet the needs of the large population. Until 1990s the Textile Industry was basically meeting the local needs. Following the increase in the export of readymade garment industry, the textile industry started catering to the export market in the 1990s. The Government Policy in Bangladesh always favored the backward linkage industry. However, the most dynamic policy was the announcement of Textile policy in 1992-1994 when textile was declared as a Thrust Sector and an alternative cash assistance of 25% given to garments exported using local fabric to compensate for the benefit/advantage and subsidies given by other......

Words: 5928 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Analysis

...[pic] [pic] |Financial Ratios |2009 |2010 | |PROFITABILITY RATIOS | | | |Gross Profit Margin |-1 |0.161151 | |Operating Profit Margin |0.086927267 |0.083948 | |Pre Tax Profit |0.012214535 |0.035971 | |Net Profit Margin |0.005767821 |0.024254 | |ACTIVITY RATIOS | | | |Short Term Activity Ratios: | | ......

Words: 1697 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Assignment Resource for Hrm

...complete this report. Then I would like to express my cordial thanks to our respective course instructor ……………………………….for giving me this opportunity to make a report on such an important topic which is essential for better understand of HRM scenario for successful companies. This opportunity will help me in future at a grater extent. I would like to express special thanks to my classmate and family members for their support at the time of preparing this report. EXECUTIVE  SUMMARY Square Textile Ltd. started its operation in 1997. It was enlisted in Dhaka Stock Exchange & Chittagong Stock Exchange in 2002. The business lines of Square Textile Ltd. are manufacturing and marketing of yarn. Its factory is located in Gazipur , Dhaka. The manufactures 100% Cotton Ring Span Yarn or Hosiery , 100% Cotton OE Rotor For Hosiery and Knit Fabrics for 100% export oriented readymade Garments Industry. The strategic Goals and Objectives of the Company are to strive hard to optimize profit though conduction and transparent business operations and to create more competitive in the internal and external market. In home, customer of Square Textile Limited are export oriented readymade Garments Industry. The Company also exports its products to the market of Europe & USA . The export sells increased by 19% in 2003 over the previous year. Competition level is increasing both in local and abroad market . Competition will be more stiff after 2005 when multifiber agreement will be......

Words: 1218 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Internship Report on Mba (Hrm)

...Internship Report on Nishat Textile Mills | | |[pic][pic] | |Internship report | |On | |  | |  | |[pic] | |  | |  ...

Words: 10212 - Pages: 41

Free Essay

Working Capital Management in Textile Industries

...1. INTRODUCTION * The project focuses on the importance of financial analysis for the company as financial Statements are useful as they provide information that allows investors and creditors to make better decisions. However, because of selective reporting of economic events as well as non-comparable accounting methods and estimates, financial statements are only an approximation of reality. In addition, because of the tendency to delay accounting recognition, financial statements also tend to lag reality. * A primary objective of financial analysis is to determine comparable risk and return of companies and their securities. Financial statements include the * Balance Sheet * Income Statement * Cash Flow Statement * The financial statements are interrelated and are used and analysed together. Methods of financial statement analysis are divided into two general categories, internal analysis and comparative or external analysis. * Internal analysis uses figures from the financial statements of any one date or period to gain an understanding of the customer. Comparative analysis is used to determine trends when two or more successive sets of figures are reviewed, or is used to evaluate the company's financial statement against industry standards. * These methods are used separately or in combination. They are part of the tools that enable experienced credit professionals to reach a credit decision. Financial......

Words: 13940 - Pages: 56

Free Essay

Fashion

...drinking milk. But now, they can benefit from milk by not drinking it but wearing it. Yes, in the form of milk fabrics made from milk yarns. It’s quite amazing and sounds nice, isn't it? The Eco- Friendly Milk Yarn Milk Yarn is made from milk protein fibers. To make it, milk is first dewatered, i.e. all the water content is taken out from it and then it is skimmed. New bio-engineering technique is then applied to make a protein spinning fluid. This fluid is suitable for wet spinning process through which the final high-grade textile fiber is made. While spinning, a solvent is used by most of the manufacturers and micro-zinc ion is embedded in the fiber which gives it the characteristics of being bacteriostatic and durable. It combines the advantages of both, natural as well as synthetic fibers. Milk protein fiber is a kind of fresh fiber that has very healthy functions. It contains eighteen amino-acids, which are beneficial to human health. It can be spun alone or with cashmere, silk, spun silk, cotton, wool, ramie and other fibers to make fabrics. The fabrics made of these fibers nourish and take care of skin in a very efficient manner by keeping away allergies and even wrinkles. The fabrics made from milk yarn are primarily used in manufacturing kidswear, top-grade underwear, shirts, T shirts, loungewear, etc. Characteristics of Milk Yarn The milk yarn has got many properties that are enough to make it one of the most sought after fabrics of the future. - The natural......

Words: 445 - Pages: 2