Free Essay

Yellowstone Caldera Volcano

In: Science

Submitted By inti
Words 2367
Pages 10
1.0 Abstract:

This report investigates the largest active volcano in the world, the Yellowstone volcano. Volcanic landforms in general are initially described. Then it focuses on how this volcano has formed a caldera, and on the characteristic cauldron-like structure and its composition of basaltic and rhyolitic magma. Each individual landform, such as the Yellowstone Caldera volcano, is formed by specific processes and present distinct interactions with their surrounding environment. This as well as the rarity of it as a landform will be discussed in this report.

2.0 Table of contents:

Title page: ………………………………………………………………...p1
1.0 Abstract: ......................................................................................p2
2.0 Table of contents: ………………………………….……………..…p2
3.0 Introduction: …………………………………………….………..…..p3
4.0 Structure and composition of Yellowstone volcano: ………….…p3-p4
5.0 Yellowstone volcano processes: ……………………………….….p4-p5
6.0 Yellowstone volcano interactions: …………………………….…...p5-p6
7.0 Rate of recurrence of caldera volcanoes as a landform: ……….p6
8.0 Conclusion: …………………………………………………………..p6
9.0 References: …………………………………………………………..p7

3.0 Introduction:

The purpose of this report is to research and present reliable and detailed information on the Yellowstone caldera volcano. Through the examination of a range of published journal articles and internet sites on the topic of volcanic landforms, and more specifically on the Yellowstone caldera volcano, this report describes the Yellowstone caldera landform and goes into detail on four main topics of the volcano. These topics include the structure and composition of the selected volcano, its specific processes as a landform, how it interacts with other landforms or systems, and the rate of recurrence for similar landforms.

Landforms are features on the earth’s surface that are part of the terrain (Evans 2012, p. 95). Some of the main landforms include mountains, cliffs, valleys and craters (Evans 2012, p. 95). However, it is not limited to these a landform can also be defined by a vast range of other earth systems (Evans 2012, p. 95). Some of these features present more than one identity for example: large volcanoes are at the same time considered to be mountains, and other volcanoes can sometimes be islands, on the other hand many mountains and islands aren’t classified as volcanoes (Thouret & Nemeth 2011, p.1). Volcanic processes are quite complicated and diverse this is why they can create numerous landforms and have such a significant effect on the environment around them (Thouret & Nemeth 2011, p.1). Prolonged activity or even a singular volcanic eruption could result in the alteration of surrounding landscape at a local or regional scale (Oppenheimer, Martí & Ernst 2009, p.157). Volcanoes can be formed by interactions that occur between many different earth systems and processes, and changes that occur over time at particular rates (Oppenheimer, Martí & Ernst 2009, p.157). They can be described with reference to their existing features and how they originated, as well as by the way they develop and by the current changes that they may be experiencing (Evans 2012, p. 97). This report will focus on those specific to the Yellowstone caldera volcano.

4.0 Structure and composition of Yellowstone volcano:

Yellowstone volcano is the largest active volcano in the world, thus it has been named a supervolcano and it contains a huge amount of constantly moving molten rock comparable in size to Mount Everest (Lü et al. 2013, p 283). This supervolcano has had three eruptions that have formed calderas over the last 2 million years (Lü et al. 2013, p 283). Firstly, what is a caldera? A caldera is a depression, in an area of volcanic activity, which has a larger diameter than that of the potentially explosive volcanic craters or vents (Acocella 2007, p126). Calderas and volcanic craters can sometimes be confused with one another, the difference is the sizes that they present, a caldera is a depression with diameters that are over 1 kilometre whereas a volcanic crater is a circular depression with diameters that are usually less than 1 kilometre (Acocella 2007, p126). The Yellowstone caldera forms a piston-like structure and is over 60 kilometres in diameter (Lü et al. 2013, p 284).

The Yellowstone caldera is located in the Yellowstone national park in the USA and takes up most of the national park (Lü et al. 2013, p 287). This national park is considered a hot spot, located on top of a high plateau and having a hot mantle plume as support (Lü et al. 2013, p 287). The Yellowstone caldera is composed of both a large rhyolitic system and basaltic system (Lü et al. 2013, p 285). The basaltic magmas are formed at depth from the mantle and the rhyolitic magmas are generated by the melting of the continental crust (Lü et al. 2013, p 285). This creates ponds of gas rich felsic magmas ready to erupt (Lü et al. 2013, p 285).

5.0 Yellowstone volcano processes:

The processes involved in the formation of volcanoes can take millions of years. Many volcanoes form at the constructive or destructive plate boundaries, however some other volcanoes occur in the middle of plates, far from these boundaries (Thouret & Nemeth 2011, p.3). Yellowstone volcano is one of these that don’t occur at a plate boundary. To explain the formation of these types of volcanoes it is believed that inside the earth there are hot spots where hot rocks from near the core rise up through the mantle, melt near the surface and burn through the crust to form volcanoes (Thouret & Nemeth 2011, p.3). In the case of Yellowstone volcano the hot spot created a caldera.

The Yellowstone caldera was formed around 0.64 million years ago and is the youngest in a series of large calderas that were formed by massive eruptions that began around 16 million years ago (Wicks et al. 2006, p72). The processes involved in the formation of the caldera are quite simple. The magma that is located below the volcano provides a partial support for the volcano, particularly through the heat and buoyancy of magma (Wicks et al. 2006, p72). Thus when a large amount of magma is expelled due to an eruption, the support that it provided for the volcano is removed generating a collapse that in turn creates a caldera (Wicks et al. 2006, p72). This process explains how the Yellowstone caldera was formed. Once a caldera is formed by an eruption the volcanic system may have resurgent domes that appear in the caldera due to other smaller eruptions, this is called the caldera cycle (Wicks et al. 2006, p72). Furthermore, a ring fracture is produced by the collapse of the caldera, this area of fractures at the caldera edges then becomes weak zones (Wicks et al. 2006, p72). This means that the collapsed area of the Yellowstone caldera loses the support that was generated by the magma chamber and the crust.

The Yellowstone caldera is composed of a rhyolitic and basaltic system which further explains its formation (Wicks et al. 2006, p72). The mantle plume that is located under Yellowstone formed basaltic magma by partial melting which rose towards the surface melting the continental crust and producing the rhyolitic magma present in the Yellowstone caldera volcano (Wicks et al. 2006, p72). These felsic magmas are located in shallow chambers under Yellowstone and are ready to erupt up the ring fractures (Wicks et al. 2006, p72). The rhyolitic magma chambers are those that get depleted and cause the collapse and formation of calderas, such as the Yellowstone caldera, during caldera forming eruptions (Wicks et al. 2006, p72).

Currently the Yellowstone caldera is experiencing many processes due to the caldera cycle but this happens at a slow rate. The mallard lake dome and the sour creek dome are both resurgent domes that are located in the Yellowstone caldera, this is a clear sign of the caldera cycle being at work (Lü et al. 2013, p 286). An eruption that took place from around 150,000 to 70,000 years ago buried a large portion of Yellowstone caldera under flows of rhyolite lava (Wicks et al. 2006, p72). Since this eruption Yellowstone has been persistent, with high levels of seismic activity, continual occurrences of uplift and subsidence of the caldera, and hydrothermal activities of extreme force (Lü et al. 2013, p 283). In the past, periods of uplift and/or subsidence have been related to a number of different combinations of the following processes. The first process being pressurisation and de-pressurisation of hydrothermal chambers in the caldera, and the second being the way basaltic and rhyolitic magma moves, forms and crystallises (Wicks et al. 2006, p72). In the case of Yellowstone caldera it is more likely that magmatic processes are responsible for the uplift and subsidence experienced (Wicks et al. 2006, p74). The rupturing of a sealed hydrothermal chamber should form increases in the amount of chloride flux at the caldera surface (Wicks et al. 2006, p74). As there is no noticeable chloride flux related to periods of deformation in the caldera, it is most likely due to processes of magmatic source deformation rather than hydrothermal deformation (Wicks et al. 2006, p74). The magmatic source deformation involves the continual movement that occurs within the Yellowstone volcano structure of basalt molten (Wicks et al. 2006, p74). An increased amount of basalt molten into the caldera system from below will result in the inflation, uplift, of the caldera, whereas the decrease of basaltic magma will make for subsidence (Wicks et al. 2006, p74). One of the more important forces acting upon the movement of basaltic magma is its buoyancy and usually vertical gradient (Wicks et al. 2006, p74).

6.0 Yellowstone volcano interactions:

The Yellowstone volcano has the capability of creating new or destroying existing landforms, and to disrupt surrounding systems. During eruptions volcanoes can generate a range of variations in the climate (Cole‐Dai 2010, p824). Energy in the climate system determines what the earth’s climate is like (Cole‐Dai 2010, p824). To maintain a stable climate the earth must have an energy steady state in terms of incoming and outgoing radiation, and there must be a balanced circulation of energy between earth systems (Cole‐Dai 2010, p824). When an eruption occurs the volcano will expulse solid and gaseous volcanic emissions, ash clouds that form from the eruption can block sunlight and therefore reduce the amount of solar energy transferred to the earth’s surface (Cole‐Dai 2010, p825). Primarily, the eruption will cause the earth’s reception of solar energy to be reduced, as sulfate aerosols scatter incoming solar radiation (Cole‐Dai 2010, p824). Normally the effect of an eruption on the climate is relatively short lived with a duration limited to a few years following the eruption (Cole‐Dai 2010, p830). However, Yellowstone caldera is a supervolcano and is capable of super eruptions which could result in a long term climate impact, one possible outcome is the starting of glaciation and leading the way to an ice age (Cole‐Dai 2010, p831).

Furthermore, Volcanoes such as Yellowstone caldera can have very diverse interactions with other landforms and systems when active. A volcanic eruption can be very destructive to landforms and systems but it can also create new landforms (Oppenheimer, Martí & Ernst 2009, p157). When lava flows out of the volcanic system it will can accumulate in a particular place and make a landform such as a mountain, also as the lava flows in a particular direction in can destroy extensive flora and fauna (Oppenheimer, Martí & Ernst 2009, p157). Additionally, the seismic nature of the volcano can create valleys and the resulting earthquakes may also cause erosion to other surrounding mountains depending in its magnitude (Lü et al. 2013, p 289).

7.0 Rate of recurrence of caldera volcanoes as a landform:

The frequency of occurrence for caldera volcanoes is not as high as other volcanoes such as shield volcanoes and stratovolcanoes (Cole, Milner & Spinks 2005, p2). A caldera volcano may be fairly rare among the other types of volcanoes, because to form a caldera such as the Yellowstone volcano there needs to be an eruption powerful enough to create a collapse in the volcanic system, and there are not many volcanoes with this capability (Cole, Milner & Spinks 2005, p4). This is why caldera volcanoes tend to be the most powerful and catastrophic volcanoes in the world.

8.0 Conclusion:

This report clearly shows the attributes that make Yellowstone caldera volcano a landform. The Yellowstone volcano presents a cauldron-like structure moulded by specific processes. It can also be seen through this report that the composition of this volcano, basaltic and rhyolitic magma, acts upon the volcanic system in such a way as to eventually cause a collapse that results in the formation of a caldera like the Yellowstone caldera. Additionally, supervolcanoes such as the one selected can have interactions that may impact greatly landforms and systems within its eruptive reach, thus this interaction depends on the level of activity and power of the eruptions. Finally, caldera volcanoes can be seen to be rare due to the powerful processes needed to form one.

9.0 References:

Acocella, V. 2007, "Understanding caldera structure and development: An overview of analogue models compared to natural calderas", Earth Science Reviews, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 125-160.
Cole, J.W., Milner, D.M. & Spinks, K.D. 2005, "Calderas and caldera structures: a review", Earth Science Reviews, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 1-26.
Cole‐Dai, J. 2010, "Volcanoes and climate", Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 824-839.
Evans, I.S. 2012, "Geomorphometry and landform mapping: What is a landform?", Geomorphology, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 94-106.
Lü, Y., Ni, S., Xie, J., Xia, Y., Zeng, X. & Liu, B. 2013, "Crustal S-wave velocity structure of the Yellowstone region using a seismic ambient noise method", Earthquake Science, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 283-291.
Oppenheimer, C., J, G G J Martí & Ernst 2009, "Volcanoes and the Environment", Geological Magazine, vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 157.
Thouret, J. & NÉmeth, K. 2011, "Special Issue on volcano Geomorphology ‘Landforms, processes and hazards’: Introduction", Geomorphology, vol136, no. 1, pp. 1-5.
Wicks, C.W., Thatcher, W., Dzurisin, D. & Svarc, J. 2006, "Uplift, thermal unrest and magma intrusion at Yellowstone caldera", Nature, vol. 440, no. 7080, pp. 72-75.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Yellowstone Supervolcano

...THE YELLOWSTONE SUPER EVENT Approximately, every 600,000 years the Yellowstone Caldera explodes changing the face of the North American continent. It has been 640,000 years since the last event and geologists say that it is not a matter of if, but when. Recently a number of earthquakes and extreme occurrences in the Yellowstone area and what is called the Ring of Fire suggest that Yellowstone might be coming active. For instance, according to the Huffington Post, July 11th, 2014, “A popular road through Yellowstone National Park was shut down on Thursday, when the asphalt started to melt.” (1) According to park spokesman, Dan Hottle, this was caused by “extreme thermal heat”, which is fairly normal for the geyser-prone Yellowstone, but the melting of roads is not. Said Hottle, “It basically turned the asphalt into soup. It turned the ground into oatmeal.” (2) Let us for a minute suspend the notion that Yellowstone could blow tomorrow. We still have the words of geologists saying that it will, if not in the foreseeable future. So, it WILL blow, we just don’t really know when, and when it does it will have devastating results. Politically, we could see rise out of the chaos and probable civil unrest of such an event, an authoritarian regime that could make Stalin’s pale in comparison. Although immediate devastation could be limited to a 60 mile radius, the devastation to crops and animals from volcanic ash would put an awful burden on our food......

Words: 389 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Volcanoes

...the net for some information. Email me if you are having any problems... so 3 volcanoes: 1) Réunion is an island in the Indian Ocean, to the east of Madagascar. 2) Yellowstone- Not everyone is familiar with Yellowstone, but it is a volcanic region known for geysers (jets of hot water/steam) in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho (USA). A gorgeous National Park to visit. 3) Olympus Mons on Mars. All of these volcanoes have similarities and differences. As with any analysis of volcanism, it generally comes down to crustal chemistry and the sources of the magma that erupts. Compare the volcanoes using these questions. Perhaps make up a table... a) How did these volcanoes form? Plate tectonics? Plume? How do we know? Reunion | •This was formed from a mantle hot spot. •3 calderas formed 250,000, 65000, and 5000 years ago by slumping of the volcano. | Yellowstone | It all started with a hot spot beneath Yellowstone. Approximately, 600 thousand years ago the hot spot released hot magma towards the surface and pushing the earth’s crust upwards thus creating a large chamber which was filled with magma. Cracks formed over time due to the large pressure inside the dome and a huge eruption expelled magma, emptying the top part of the chamber. Earth’s crust collapsed and formed a caldera. Magma kept flowing into the caldera for the next 500 thousand years. | Olympus Mons | Olympus mons formed by hot spot plume. - no tectonic plate movement Unlike earth with tectonic movement......

Words: 858 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

What Sup Yo!

...Vic Camp Natural Disasters Study Guide — Extinctions, Impacts, and Volcano science What are tektites? * Natural glass rocks formed by impact of small meteorites on Earth’s surfaceWhat is Iridium? * Rare element in Earth’s crust, but high concentrations of some meteoritesWhat is shocked quartz? * Could only be produced with a strong impact on Earth; found commonly in relation to known meteorite impact sitesIn what way are tektites, Iridium, and shocked quartz related to the K/T extinction event? * In what way are the Deccan and Siberian flood basalt provinces related to mass extinction events? * Which of these is related to the Permian extinction (the greatest mass extinction event of all time)? * Siberian Flood basalt: Permian extinction (95% died). . . which is related to the K/T extinction? * Deccan Flood basalt: K.T. extinction (70% died)What is the anti-podal hypothesis? * The idea that pairs of opposite hot spots may result from the impact of a large meteorWhat geologic time unit (Eon, Era, Period, Epoch) represents the greatest expanse of geologic time? * Eon (An indefinitely long period of time)What is the Era of Ancient Life called? * Paleozoic Era (Age of invertebrates) -  543 m.y.a. . . . the Era of Middle Life? * Mesozoic Era (Age of dinosaurs) - 251 m.y.a.. . . the Era of Recent Life? * Cenozoic Era (Age of mammals) - 65 m.y.a.. . . the age of the Dinosaurs? * Era of Middle Life. . . the age of Mammals? * Era of Recent LifeKnow...

Words: 1260 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Volcanoes

...7A volcano is a geological landform usually generated by the eruption through a vent in a planet's surface of magma, molten rock welling up from the planet's interior. Volcanoes of various types are found on other planets and their moons as well as on earth. Roughly defined, a volcano consists of a magma chamber, pipes and vents. The magma chamber is where magma from deep within the planet pools, while pipes are channels that lead to surface vents, openings in the volcano's surface through which lava is ejected during an eruption. Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. A mid-oceanic ridge, for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has examples of volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. By contrast, volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching and thinning of the Earth's crust (called "non-hotspot intraplate volcanism"), such as in the African Rift Valley, the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field and the Rio Grande Rift in North America and the European Rhine Graben with its Eifel volcanoes. Volcanoes can be caused by mantle plumes. These so-called hotspots, for example at Hawaii, can occur far from plate boundaries. Hotspot volcanoes are also found elsewhere in the solar system, especially on rocky planets and......

Words: 1577 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Volcanic Activity at Yellowstone

...Yellowstone is a national park covering 3,468 square miles in Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana and it is elevated 8,000 feet from the ground on a plateau. But is there still present volcanic hazard in Yellowstone? The park is covered with over 10,000 geysers, hot springs, mud pots, and travertine terraces, perhaps caused by a ?hot spot? that it overlies. A violent history suggests equally as devastating future volcanic activity, underground forces are causing the landscape to change and geysers to become more active. The real question is, if a super volcanic explosion took place, would human life exist as we know it ever again? The history of volcanic activity at Yellowstone starts with its first eruption at Huckleberry Ridge 2.1 million years ago, the leftovers reached as far as Iowa and central Texas. Then 800,000 years later, another eruption took place in Mesa Falls creating Henry Fork Caldera near Park, Montana. The last eruption took place 630,000 years ago, called the Lava Creek eruption, spewing 240 cubic miles of debris, and spreading as far as Louisiana and California. Hidden underneath the park, powerful volcanic, magnetic, and hydrothermal forces are reforming the land. Several earthquakes, uplifting, and subsidence of the landscape proves that these powers exist. Recent studies have caused scientists to think that Yellowstone could be growing larger as flowing molten rock builds up below the ground. In a period of 10 years, the volcano has risen 5 inches, not a......

Words: 467 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Yellowstone River

...Yellowstone National Park was named after the Yellowstone River. Native Americans called the river “Mi tsi a da zi,” which meant “Rock Yellow River,” and was translated by French fur trappers to “Yellow Rock” or “Yellow Stone,” hence the name Yellowstone. John Coltzer was one of the first people to have explored the Yellowstone area. Coltzer was from the Lewis and Clark expedition and he walked alone through this area in 1807 while in search of furs. Since 1827, though, Yellowstone has been a national park and it was actually the World’s First National Park. Yellowstone is also a World Heritage Site and a Biosphere Reserve Site. Yellowstone would not have been possible, though, without the act that was passed on March 1st, 1872 by Congress that set aside land for the first national park. The Yellowstone National Park is located 96% in Wyoming, 3% in Montana and 1% in Idaho. The Park has 5 entrances, 466 miles of roads (310 miles paved), 950 miles of trails, and 287 campsites. The entire park is 3,472 square miles and is 2,221,766 acres. The highest point in the park is Eagle Peak at 11,358 feet above sea level and the lowest point is Reese Creek at 5,282 feet above sea level. Yellowstone has many geological features, such as fumaroles. Fumaroles are vents that emit steam mixed with other volcanic gasses. Some fumaroles in Yellowstone include the Black Growler Steam Vent and the Norris Geyser Basin. Hot springs are also another feature in Yellowstone. The park......

Words: 647 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Hello

...- A lava plateau is a flat, wide surface (plateau) that is formed when lava comes out of the ground and spreads out very quickly. The layers of lava can build up over time to form a lava plateau. Here are general properties of lava plateaus: * They are very large areas of basaltic lava with a layered structure. * Lava makes the plateau bigger, and higher, with each eruption. * They tend to be flat. * Ocean ridge eruptions make large plains on the sea floor. * The lava of these plateaus are thin and runny. * These plateaus take millions of years to form. Shield volcano - Shield volcanoes form like any volcanoes. They’re spots on the Earth where magma from inside the Earth has reached the surface, and becomes lava, ash and volcanic gasses. Over the course of many eruptions, a volcano builds up layer by layer until the magma chamber underneath it goes empty and the volcano goes dormant. Shield volcanoes are some of the largest volcanoes in the world. For example, Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa on the big island of Hawaii are examples of shield volcanoes. Acid/dome volcanoes – Acid lava is much thicker than lava which flows from shield volcanoes. Dome volcanoes have much steeper sides than shield volcanoes. This is because the lava is thick and sticky. It cannot flow very far before it cools and hardens. An example is Puy de Dome in the Auvergne region of France which last erupted over 1 million years ago. Ash and cinder cones - They have a bowl shaped......

Words: 1080 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Thermophilic Bacteria

...Thermophilic Bacteria of Yellowstone National Park CEE:5154 Environmental Microbiology Research Paper University of Iowa Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering December 14, 2015 Bruce McWilliams Amid the vast, sparsely populated regions of Northwest Wyoming, lies one of the most diverse and extraordinary ecosystems in the world, Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone is one of the world's foremost sites for the study and appreciation of the evolutionary history of the earth. The park has a globally unparalleled assemblage of surficial geothermal activity, thousands of hot springs, mudpots, fumaroles, and more than half of the world’s active geysers (NPS, 2013). Yellowstone is located on top of the Yellowstone Caldera, which is a volcanic hot spot where hot, molten rock from the earth’s mantle rises toward the surface. Volcanic activity from the Caldera produces geothermal activity on the park’s surface that has drawn more than 3 million visitors to the park since 2000 (NPS, 2015). Geysers, hot springs, and mudpots are extremely toxic due to high concentrations of sulfuric acid (sulfate concentrations measure up to 925 ppm near vents) and, temperatures measuring over 100oC. Many have recorded inhabitable pH levels ranging from 2 to 9.8 (Rowe/Founder/Morey, 1973). While these colorful and wondrous hot springs may appear stagnant and devoid of life to the common park visitor, they are actually a complex, intricate habitat teeming with a diverse array...

Words: 3211 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Natural Disasters Essay

...actually penetrate the inner core? A. Primary waves B. Secondary waves C. Raleigh waves D. Both A and B E. Love waves 2. Based on historical data, only location to have experienced a M5 (moment scale) or greater within 300 km: A. Montreal, QC B. Vancouver, BC C. Sydney, NS D. None of the above have experienced such a large earthquake E. All of the above have experienced an M5 or greater 3. This is not monitored in order to predict volcanic eruptions: A. temperature of steam B. animal reactions C. changes in the shape of the volcano D. earthquake patterns E. CO2 and radon gas 4. Few, if any, masonry structures remain standing; bridges are destroyed; large fissures open in ground; landslides are common. A. III B. VIII C. XI D. XIII E. none of the above 5. Generally, this would be the more explosive event: A. ocean island shield eruption B. volcanic arc eruption C. caldera event D. none of the above (they all generally all the same) 6. Generally, this...

Words: 2309 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Natural Science

...1. What are the elements that compose the Earth and give the percentage composition of each? The earth as a whole consists of the following elements and percentages: * * Iron – 32% * Oxygen – 30% * Silicon – 15% * Magnesium – 14% * Sulfur – 3% * Nickel – 2% * Calcium – 2% * Aluminium – 1% * Sodium – 3 (percent by weight) * Potassium – 2.5 (percent by weight) 2. What is mineral? Describe the six physical and two chemical properties used to identify minerals. Minerals are substances formed naturally in the Earth.  They have a definite chemical composition and structure. Physical: The physical characteristics of minerals include traits that are use to identify and describe mineral species. * Cleavage is tendency of a crystalline mineral to break in certain directions yielding more or less smooth planar surfaces. These planes of lowest bond energy have minimum value of cohesion. An amorphous body of course has no cleavage. * Parting is obtained when the mineral is subjected to external force. The mineral breaks along planes of structural weakness. The weakness may result from pressure and twinning. Parting resembles cleavage. * Hardness. It is mineral's "scratchability". It is related to the attraction force between atoms. The degree of hardness is determined by observing comparatively the relative ease or difficulty with which one mineral is scratched by another, or by a finger nail, file or knife. *......

Words: 2114 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Review of 2012 Movie

...Introduction The following summary report will review the events that took place in a movie called “2012” that was released in the year 2009. The report will provide a review of the plot but it will primarily break it down into the main scientific information the writers choose to include and the validity of their claims. It will also provide the geological landmarks that were used throughout the film. The creators of the film took advantage of some very high-quality special effects to dramatize what it might be like if the Earth was to come to an abrupt end. The plot of the movie choose to focus in on the propaganda and conspiracies that many people actually believed to be true about the winter solstice of the year 2012. These conspirators believed that on December 21, 2012 the world as we know it would come to an end. Obviously now in the year 2013 we know that we have successfully survived this “catastrophic” event and it is safe to say these claims had/have no scientific merit behind them. The people who believed these claims prior to the date they feared so much thought that all the planets in our solar system would align, and that this planetary alignment would set forth a series of events that would result in the end of the world. They also concluded that a Mayan calendar would also be ending on this same date. If only the people who bought into these claims took the time to research their validity they would have been able to learn that planetary alignment of all......

Words: 1813 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Tectonic Hazards

...Option 1 – Tectonic Activity and Hazards What are tectonic hazards and what causes them? 1. Introduction Tectonic hazards have to be distinguished from tectonic events. Hazards tend to refer to those events or items that pose a threat to humans and their lifestyle. Therefore, a tectonic hazard is one which involves tectonic processes being hazardous to humans. In the first part of my essay I will be explaining exactly what is meant by tectonic processes and will be referring to the relatively new concept of Plate Tectonics which, although being presented as a theory in 1912 by Alfred Wegener, was not actually taken as the standard model until the late 1960’s and even then was being criticized by many learned scholars into the 1980’s. I will then explain what the main types of hazards are in tectonics, namely volcanoes (openings in the earth crust from which material from below the earth’s surface can be ejected) and earthquakes (movement in the earth’s crust that causes shaking of the ground above). However, there are many more hazards that can be associated with these two, namely tsunamis and from volcanoes, pyroclastic flows, lahars and volcanic gases. What causes these hazards should be explained in my explanation of plate tectonics. Throughout my assignment, I will be using many examples of tectonic hazards from around the globe, but will be focusing on certain case studies to try and explain exactly what causes tectonic hazards. I will be using the San Andreas......

Words: 2225 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Career

...Winter2012 SCIE114 Group Module 1 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 2 Questions Module 1 Questions Module 1 Essay Questions Question Why small particles weather faster than large ones: Why is silica the major component of magma?: Why clay doesn't weather Which type of magma is primarily associated with high viscosities? Which type of basaltic lava flow has its surface covered with sharp-edged, angular blocks and rubble? Which type of basaltic lava flow has a fairly smooth, unfragmented, ropy surface? Which the following denotes the positively charged particles in an atom's nucleus? Which sedimentary rock listed below has a......

Words: 4036 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Earth Science

...Study Guide: Final Exam Concentrate your studies in the following areas. Questions for the Final Exam will come principally from this material. Lutgens and Tarbuck Textbook: Earthquakes and Structures (Chapter 6) * Know the definition of an earthquake (pg. 190). --ground shaking caused by the sudden and rapid movement of one block of rock slipping past another along fractures in Earth’s crust called faults * Know the difference between the focus and epicenter of an earthquake. Which is located at the source of the earthquake? Which is located on the surface of the earth directly above the source? --Focus=Earthquakes tend to occur along preexisting faults where internal stresses have caused the crustal rocks to rupture or break into two or more units. The location where slippage begins is called the hypocenter, or focus. --Epicenter=The point on Earth’s surface directly above the hypocenter * Understand the concept of elastic rebound. What is it? How are earthquakes produced via elastic rebound? * --Elastic rebound=At some point, the stress along the fault overcomes the frictional resistance, and slip initiates. Slippage allows the deformed ( bent) rock to “ snap back” to its original, stress- free, shape; a series of earthquake waves radiate as it slides. Reid termed the “ spring-ing back” elastic rebound because the rock behaves ­elastically, much like a stretched rubber band does when it is released. * Know the three basic types of seismic......

Words: 12176 - Pages: 49

Free Essay

Myths and Facts

...2012 – The Facts Hi there, Thank you for making the effort to become more informed about 2012! The 2012 meme is huge. Hundreds of books have been written, numerous documentaries have been made, and of course there was a blockbuster movie. Unfortunately the facts have been deeply buried, and virtually every piece of information you come across is speculation and trickery, disguised as fact. The aim of this article is to ignore all the extreme speculations and fabrications, and just present the known facts. Plus I’ll throw in some of the more plausible scenarios, to help you understand what might soon be upon us. Everything that follows is either accepted fact, or will be denoted as being disputable or an opinion. Regards, Robert Bast - Melbourne, Australia, 2010 The Long Count Calendar The ancient Mayans had roughly 20 calendars, all of which were short in duration, with the cycles equating to astronomical phenomena, or were intended to relate to history repeating over and over again via prophecy. Except for the Long Count calendar. The Long Count is the Mayan equivalent of our calendar, in that it assigns unique dates over a long period of time. A short numerical description (like 12/6/1976 in our calendar) pinpoints a place in time. Unlike our calendar, which starts with the birth of Christ and heads towards infinity in two directions, the Long Count has a definite beginning and a definite end. The start date of the Long Count calendar rarely gets a......

Words: 6233 - Pages: 25