Premium Essay

Young Research

In: Other Topics

Submitted By alsutton1
Words 12321
Pages 50
Persuasion and Resistance: Race and the Death Penalty in America
Mark Peffley Jon Hurwitz
University of Kentucky University of Pittsburgh

Although there exists a large and well-documented “race gap” between whites and blacks in their support for the death penalty, we know relatively little about the nature of these differences and how the races respond to various arguments against the penalty. To explore such differences, we embedded an experiment in a national survey in which respondents are randomly assigned to one of several argument conditions. We find that African Americans are more responsive to argument frames that are both racial (i.e., the death penalty is unfair because most of the people who are executed are black) and nonracial (i.e., too many innocent people are being executed) than are whites, who are highly resistant to persuasion and, in the case of the racial argument, actually become more supportive of the death penalty upon learning that it discriminates against blacks. These interracial differences in response to the framing of arguments against the death penalty can be explained, in part, by the degree to which people attribute the causes of black criminality to either dispositional or systemic forces (i.e., the racial biases of the criminal justice system).

he conventional wisdom on public opinion toward the death penalty in the United States, as summarized nicely by Ellsworth and Gross, is that people “feel strongly about the death penalty, know little about it, and feel no need to know more” (1994, 19). As a consequence of these feelings, the authors argue, attitudes tend to be relatively crystallized and, therefore, unresponsive to question phrasing or arguments that are contrary to an individual’s belief. We must wonder, then, why views of the death penalty vary so dramatically over time and across contexts. Gallup surveys document a...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Research with Children and Young People

...Research with Children and Young People | Paper Critique This essay will outline and evaluate the role of ‘Listening to Children’ (Walker, Crawford, & Taylor, 2008) in the current paper and reflect on other relevant research on the ‘voices’ of children and young people. Firstly it will discuss the methods which can be used to write a literature review, leading on to critiquing the research contained in the journal article. When beginning a literature review it is important to identify the methodological assumptions and research strategies that have been adopted for constructing the research (Hart, 1998). Methodology is a system of methods used to collect data and provides a starting point for choosing an approach made up of theories, ideas, concepts and definitions of the topic (Hart, 1998). There are two ways in which data can be collected – quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative research involves summarising data using statistical numbers. The researcher knows in advance what he/she is looking for and all aspects of the study are carefully designed before the data is collected. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models and theories which are hypothesised prior to the research being conducted. The qualitative approach to data collection involves research being collected via the use of primarily narrative or verbal methods; observations, interviews, and document analysis (Lodico, Spaulding, & Voegtle, 2010). It is......

Words: 2284 - Pages: 10

Free Essay


...…. Over the past 10 years there has been a growing interest in the significance of physical activity in young peoples lives and organisations such as SPARC, local gyms, sports councils, local sports trusts and our own schools have been prominent in sending messages to young people what they deem to be physical activity ideals. In our school there has been a lot of debate around issues, such as, which activities are supported the most and why, are the stereotypes surrounding certain physical activities and who are the decision makers in our school when it comes to issues related to physical activity opportunities. This critical discussion seeks to explore the varied roles of physical activity in young peoples lives and how these role are significant. It will examine the influences and assumptions surrounding the debate. The World Health Organisation defines physical activity as “Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that define movement”. It is important to be aware that physical activity is not just sport. In a lot of research I found about how young people participate in physical activity I was annoyed to see the surveys focused a lot on sport and therefore did not take into account that young people might be active through other physical activities. For example, the Stay and Play study suggests that 70% of kids drop out of sport between 13-17 years, 62%indicate they are highly likely to drop out of sport and 50% don’t do any sport. However, whose......

Words: 1751 - Pages: 8

Free Essay


...APPRECIATION One young academically excellent person went to apply for a managerial position in a big company. He passed the first interview the director called for the last interview and made a lasting decision. The director discovered from the CV that the youth's academic achievements were excellent all the way, from the secondary school until the postgraduate research, never had a year when he did not score. The director asked, "Did you obtain any scholarships in school?" the youth answered "none" The director asked, "Was it your father who paid for your school fees?" The youth answered, "My father passed away when I was one year old, it was my mother who paid for my school fees. The director asked "Where did your mother work?" The youth answered, "My mother worked as clothes cleaner. The director requested the youth to show his hands. The youth showed a pair of hands that were smooth and perfect. The director asked," Have you ever helped your mother wash the clothes before?" The youth answered, "Never, my mother always wanted me to study and read more books. Furthermore, my mother can wash clothes faster than me. The director said, "I have a request. When you go back today, go and clean your mother's hands, and then see me tomorrow morning. The youth felt that his chance of landing the job was high. When he went back, he happily requested his mother to let him clean her hands. His mother felt strange, happy but with mixed feelings, she showed her hands to the kid. The......

Words: 913 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


... | |The issue of youth unemployment in the UK: | |Marketing research study, aiming to identify the main contributing points | | | | | | | |November, 2011 | Table of Contents List of illustrations 3 Executive summary 4 Key findings 4 Introduction 5 Background 5 Research Objectives 7 Method 8 Definition of population 8 Sample Size 8 Sampling technique 8 Data collection method 8 Questionnaire design 8 Findings………………………………………………………………………………..9 Trends 9 Education and Age 9 Age and Work experience 9 Thoughts on Apprenticeships 10 Factors 10 Lack of youth support 10 Lack of job opportunities 11 Young people lacking required job skills 12 Stereotype of young people 12 Youth interest in job prospects 13 Youths from one-parent families 13 Lack of role models 14 Ability to depend on welfare system 14 Negative......

Words: 3236 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Failure to Launch

...Discuss at least 2 reasons research is suggesting for young adults still living at home. This new phenomenon—young adults still living in their parent's home well into their late 20's to early 30's—is proposed to be a result of many different reasons. Spend some time reading what experts suggest about this trend and address at least 2 reasons suggested. Recent research has shown that more young adults are moving back home with their parents. This has been the case in the past and now it’s no different. There are several reasons for why young adults have returned home after leaving. In a presentation by Dr. Brooks she clearly states that children failure to launch because the lack of social and emotional development which causes them to dependent on their parents to help meet their needs (2014). According to Dunn (2012), as the economy struggles, it becomes more difficult for young people to gain their independence. According to Fry (2013), the rise in young adults living with their parents has to do with a combination of economic, educational and cultural factors. There are several reasons why young adults remain at home or return home after leaving. Dr. Brooks states that young adults having trouble leaving home because of developmental issue. She continues to talk about the author Tim Elmore that talked about artificial intelligence and how the developments of many children are affected by technology (Brooks, 2014). Dr. Brooks said the reason why young adults in their......

Words: 650 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Ipa General Questions

...framework. 1. Read the research questions and context. 2. Write down on a separate piece of paper your assumptions about the topic. So for example what do you think about young unemployed people; how hard do you think they search for jobs; what are your experiences of being unemployed? 3. Then read the transcript a few times. 4. Use a separate piece of paper to write down some ideas that reading the transcript has generated for you. 5. Highlight some codes (using highlighters / underlining the text / writing the code on a post-it note. 6. Codes are interesting pieces of text ‘phrases’ or even single words in the transcript. 7. Remember the focus is answering the research questions in some way and that these questions were formed before the data was collected 8. If you feel confident try to gather together some of the codes together to form themes (see lecture notes for an example). For the portfolio you will need to provide the written-on transcript and a list of codes and the 2 separate pieces of text you have written (2 & 4) derived from your ideas generated from your reading of the transcript. Research questions: What are young people’s experiences of unemployment? What is job seeking like for young people? What aspirations do young people have of employment? How can we develop better ways of supporting young people while they are unemployed? Some context: The interview is being held a centre where young people aged from 18-24......

Words: 344 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Youth Violence and Youth Deaths by Guns way. Trying to understand why children kill has come to be a disturbing process. It seems that the youth of today have far more resources, and avenues to obtain a gun than the youth of the past. A study was conducted by Author Richard Tremblay, and some of his findings suggested that “Longitudinal studies of large samples of children from infancy to adulthood indicate that the peak age for physical aggression is between the end of the second and the end of the fourth year after birth. Fortunately, because of their size, physical aggression from two-year-olds does not constitute a major threat to the public in general.” (Richard Tremblay, 2007). Many youths have been subjected to harsh and in some cases life altering abuse as a young child. Being raised in a physical and mentally abused environment a child has raised the questions about just what type of affects this takes on the child(ren), and adults. There are so many factors that can contribute to why that a child is being abused. These problems can stem from poor living conditions, low income family, and...

Words: 1462 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Multigenerational Workforce in Difference Industries

... Abstract The multigenerational diversity in workforces in different industries is getting larger in the last decade. Not only there are a major shifting of young workforce to professional industries and non-professional industries, but there is a growing in size of elder workforce in the most popular industries. This fact is creating many changes and challenges in communication between different generations at work. Keywords: multigenerational workforce, business communication Definition According to Department for Professional Employees, the young workforce is defined as people aged 20 through 34 who are working at the moment. On the other hand, the elder workforce is the people aged above 35 who are working. In 2013, young people were estimated to be twenty-seven percent of the professional workforce. Research On a macro scale, according to Bureau of Labor Statistics, in 2013, the total number of young workers in all industries was 49 million people out of 144 million employees in the U.S, which is 34 percent of the total workforce. The total number of elder workers in all industries was 95 million people out of 144 million employees in the U..S, which takes 64 percent of the total workforce. The amount of elder workers was nearly double the amount of young workers. Young workers with less education than associated degree are moving to lower-paying retail and food service jobs. On the other hand, the ones with higher education......

Words: 1540 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...Whippersnappers Introduction When we think of college students, no longer is the image a young fresh face, straight out of high school. These days, college students can be in their late twenties to their mid nineties. So is it safe to generalize and say that college students know less about current news affairs than their parents? It was surprising to find that there were studies that show that younger adults do not care as much about the news as older adults do. In another study, they go to compare how the news habits between the years 1995 and 2006 have changed in people aged 18-29 and older than 65. Analysis In 2007, a report titled Young People and News was published at the John F. Kennedy School of Business at Harvard. Put together by the Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy, the study was based off of a survey of 1800 teens selected at random. They selected their respondents-a person supplying information for a survey or questionnaire-randomly and the interviews happened over the phone. The study Comparison of Demographics For Media in 1995,2006 consisted of two surveys done in 1995 and 2006 with 1,006 people in 1995 and 1,010 people in 2006 (Patterson, 2007). They selected their respondents by phone exchange after selecting a zip code at random. If no one would answer the first call, they would add one to the number and keep on adding until someone picked up. Once that occurred, they would select their interviewee by......

Words: 902 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The Young Geneation and Technology

...hime the shool project and refused to pay now The Effect of Technology on the Young Generation Name University In today`s world, the development of the younger generation is greatly affected by digitization. Technology changes the experience of childhood not only socially but also in both economical and cultural aspects. Technology has the greatest influence on the world today, and we are constantly surrounded by it and life will almost be impossible without it (Davies, 2010). In the below summary, I have outlined briefly how the media has changed the lives of the young generation: The article basically outlines the social, economic and cultural changes that have come about due to digitization. The media is so much engrossed in our lives that it would be impossible for our young generation to survive in its absence. The internet, video and television dictate the morals, cultures and characters the young pick up as they grow up. There are some economic aspects of change brought about by the digital age. In today’s era, Children seem to be staying younger longer. This creates financial dependence which is worsened by the stagnating youth labor market and consequently leading to delayed entrance into adulthood. In addition, there has been tremendous rise in the spending power. The main concern here is not only on the money young people spend but their influence on family decision concerning expenditure and how......

Words: 1384 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

The Seeds of Discouragement

...Considering the seeds of discouragement when assessing young people. Introduction In order to consider and analyse the seeds of discouragement when assessing young people, this essay will examine and discuss a number of factors that relate to the discouragement felt by young people which can leave them with unmet needs. The first objective of this essay is to describe what can lead to “climates of futility” by examining negative expectations and professional pessimism. The essay will then go on to explain how the response from professionals to problem behaviour can become a contributing factor to a child’s sense of futility, through discussing positive and negative theories of behaviour. The second objective of this essay is to examine the concept of “learned irresponsibility” and to understand how youth cultures are able to contribute to such learned helplessness and rebellion through things like social exclusion and street gangs. Next, nearing the end of this essay I will offer my opinion as to how the child and youth care worker should approach the young person differently during the assessment as to avoid the young person becoming discouraged during the transaction. Before the conclusion I shall offer my self reflection as well as sharing the impact that this topic of “the seeds of discouragement” has had on me. Climates of Futility The climates of futility refers to those environments which may cause young people to experience feelings of deficiencies and......

Words: 1992 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Op Ed

...Keepers of your Urban Youth: Opportunities to meet the needs of Low-Income Youth Communities Alison Lazarus If you've ever happen to attend or stumbled upon a youth recital of any sort, you know that this is where all things grand begin. Give young people an opportunity to showcase their talents, and they will welcome their creativity as they showcase their hard earned work. Studies show that when the youth engage in out- of-school programs, it enables them to embark on their imagination, build skills, learn cooperation, confidence, persistence, empathy for others, as well as create social bonds that are lifelong. Journal of Adolescent Health declares that about 14 million children and adolescents regularly spend after-school time without adult supervision, with approximately 4 million of these being 13- and 14-year-olds. Research has shown that unsupervised out-of-school time is associated with various negative youth outcomes such as diminished academic and behavioral functioning and involvement in risky behaviors, including criminal behavior and substance use. And still, low income communities face numerous barriers to access meaningful afterschool programs. After all, the out-of-school alternative private lessons are often not of fordable for many parents in low income communities. To add insult to injury, the public schools have removed a substantial number of arts program from its curriculum, leaving many urban youths disengaged with the community.......

Words: 969 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Classicism, Positiveism Adn Social Construction

...Justice System and how my role contributes to their declared objectives. Finally I will conclude by indicating the effectiveness of the Youth Justice System. Discussion In 1996 a report was published by the Audit Commission titled Misspent Youth: Young People and Crime. An investigation was performed as there were concerns about the way the youth justice system was operating; the system was found to be “Inefficient” and “ineffective” in addressing youth crime. To create a solution to the recognised problems brought to light from Misspent Youth, a White Paper titled No More Excuses was proposed in 1997. Following the recommendations submitted by No more Excuses, this paper provided the groundwork for the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 Crime and Disorder Act 1998 stipulated that ‘It shall be the principle aim of the youth justice system to prevent offending by children and young persons’ Section 37(1). The act brought about a number of provisions, such as creation of the Youth justice Board (YJB). The YJB was established to observe and supervise the Youth Justice System for England and Wales, to focus on prevention of offending and reoffending for adolescents and to recognise and commission prosperous evidenced based research in effective practice. The Crime and Disorder Act 1998 gave a mandate ‘to co-ordinate the provision of youth justice...

Words: 1176 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...Theories CJS/240 Sunday Septemeber11th, 2011 Individual Theories There are so many reason why young people commit crimes in today’s society whereas others strive to excel. Many of these reasons tend to vary depending on the home that the youth grew up in or around, or even how smart or challenged the youth is, however; all of these factors are caused by different settings , and consequences or punishments need to be put into place to keep the youth from becoming a criminal. Just because a youth has grown up in poor situations or circumstances there is no reason for the youth to become a criminal because of their history. There are so many theories that are put into place to fit each reason or excuse that a young person gives as to why a crime or criminal act is attempted or committed. According to the routine activities theory a young person will commit a crime if they know that the opportunity is there. A teen might be aware that there is a home that is easy to get into because there are not police officers around, and it would be a way for them to obtain some cash since they are broke and need to come up with money quick. The idea of this theory is that since a teenager realizes that his or her needs fit the opportunity that has become available to them that they will commit the crime. I seriously believe that this theory has completely forgot that just because a young person does not have a lot of supervision, and could have some poor initial morals, that they see......

Words: 946 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Muscle Binds

...other pleasures except sport and it occasions more health and social problems than it seems. Being an expensive short-lasting fashion, exercises make people forget about everything except their beauty, even their own death does not matter anymore. They train the bodies but neglect the minds. According to the author it’s better to be a couch potato but not a self-righteous young person with rippling muscles. The title of the article reflects the contents of the article in full measure: one is bound to train not to have cellulite, one is bound to train to follow the fashion, one is bound to train to come to term with oneself, and finally, one is bound to train to be healthy. As the article is written in ironic way it is quite easy to read but the real sense is caught only by the end. It makes the reader understand that he/she is either a silly “hunk” or a lazy “potato”. The passage is written in a very chatty informal publicistic style to draw reader’s attention, to persuade them to get the author’s point of view and to entertain them. It is chosen for the target audience who consists of young people. The title ‘Muscle binds’ contains an oxymoron as the word ‘muscle’ has a positive connotation and is associated with health and the word ‘binds’ is negatively connotated, its meaning is ‘tightened’. At the very beginning the readers swallow the bait that makes it easier to convince them of the truth of the author’s words. The vocabulary is emotionally coloured......

Words: 534 - Pages: 3