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Youth Gang

In: Social Issues

Submitted By babyprince
Words 4385
Pages 18

Reyna Lea C. Rosales
Course: Master of Science in Criminology
Research Paper
MC 209
Professor: Dr. William A. Revisa


I. Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………..3
II. Discussion
A. Traffic Volume Data Collection…………………………………………………...4
B. Objectives of the Traffic Volume Monitoring Program ……………………..5
C. Uses for Traffic Volume Data …………………………………………………….5
D. Ways of conducting Traffic Survey / Methods of Traffic Volume Study……………………………………………...7
E. Importance of Traffic Volume Study …………………………………………..11
F. GLOBAL …………………………………………………………………………….12
G. NATIONAL ………………………………………………………………………….16
H. LOCAL ………………………………………………………………………………17 Table 1 ……………………………………………………………………………...19
I. Data Analysis ……………………………………………………………………….19

III. Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………...20
References ……………………………………………………………………………..21

Traffic volume studies are taken to determine the number of movements and classifications of vehicles in a specific location. This information can help classify significant flow time periods and determine the influence of large vehicles and/or pedestrians. The time period in which these traffic volumes are calculated will vary depending on what data that is being collected and what its purpose is.
Traffic counts are reported as the number of vehicles expected to pass a given location on an average day of the year. This value is called the "annual average daily traffic" or AADT and are represented on traffic count or traffic volume maps. The AADT is based on a short-term traffic count, usually 48 hours, taken at the location. This count is then adjusted for the variation in traffic volume throughout the year and the average number of axles per vehicle.
The measurement of traffic volumes is one of the most basic functions of highway planning and management. Traffic volume counts provide the most commonly employed measure of roadway usage and are needed for the majority of traffic engineering analyses. While a number of traffic volume statistics are used in traffic engineering analyses, two are of primary interest for the design of a statewide traffic monitoring program: annual average daily traffic (AADT) and average daily vehicle distance traveled (DVDT). AADT describes the number of vehicles that traverse a road at a specific point on the road system. DVDT describes the travel usage of an entire segment of roadway. DVDT is computed by multiplying the length of a roadway segment by its AADT. AADT is the primary traffic input to most traffic engineering analyses. DVDT is the primary measure for describing roadway usage for an entire system or network of roads.
A. Traffic Volume Data Collection
For many years, the traditional approach to the development of annual average daily traffic (AADT) had consisted of three different but complementary types of traffic counts: continuous, control, and coverage (Federal Highway Administration 1970).
Continuous counts are taken 365 days a year at a small number of locations. These counts provide a variety of useful information. Because these counts are most consistent and are maintained at permanent locations, the FHWA summarizes the information in a monthly Travel Volume Trends (TVT) report.
Control or seasonal counts are much more difficult to characterize because different State planning organizations perform these counts differently. These counts are usually taken from two to twelve times a year, for periods of time ranging from 24 hours to two weeks. The main purpose of control counts was to help identify traffic patterns on specific roads in order to help place those roads into seasonal adjustment factor groups. Control counts can also be used to compute highly accurate measures of annual average daily traffic at specific locations, and are very effective in high growth or recreational areas. The 1985 version of the TMG did not utilize control counts for the development of grouping procedures or for AADT estimation.
Coverage counts are short duration counts, ranging from six hours to seven days, distributed throughout the system to provide point-specific information and area-wide coverage. Coverage count programs also vary considerably, as the diverse requirements and constraints faced by State highway agencies have translated into divergent programs. Many States have implemented coverage programs that feature relatively long (2 to 7 days) traffic counts, but where only a part of the State is counted every year. Other States have emphasized complete coverage of the highway systems each year, resulting in a large number of short duration (usually 24 or 48-hour) counts.
B. Objectives of the Traffic Volume Monitoring Program
The traffic monitoring program described in this section was designed to meet the following objectives: * collect data needed by users as efficiently as possible (including both point estimates and summary variables derived from those point estimates) * provide a mechanism for collecting data needed on "short notice" (that is, data that cannot be collected as part of a program planned six months or more in advance) as efficiently as possible, and ensure that these data are still made available to all users * Ensure that all reliable traffic data collected within the State highway agency are made available to users.
C. Uses for Traffic Volume Data
A number of traffic volume statistics are used in traffic engineering analyses. The statewide traffic monitoring program concentrates on the estimation of annual average daily traffic (AADT) and then the computation of average daily vehicle distance traveled (DVDT) from that AADT value. In addition to VDT calculations, AADT is used in a wide variety of analyses such as calculating: * exposure rates as part of safety analyses, * vehicle loadings as part of pavement design, * vehicle use as part of revenue forecasts * Statistics used by the private sector for placement of businesses and services.
AADT is not the only useful traffic volume statistic. Users commonly request a wide variety of other traffic volume statistics, and a good traffic monitoring program should collect, store, and report those additional statistics in order to meet those needs. In particular, whenever possible, traffic monitoring programs should collect (at a minimum) hourly volumes by direction (and lane) since these statistics are commonly used by analysts who must look at operational characteristics of the roadway at different times of the day. Examples of the uses of these lower aggregation volume statistics include: * traffic signal timing * air quality analysis * noise analysis * planning studies * planning of the timing of maintenance activities.
To meet user needs, the highway agency should report, at a minimum, the following statistics: * AADT, * AAWDT, annual average weekday daily traffic (for roads where weekday traffic is more important than weekend traffic) * peak hour volumes * peak period volumes (where the highway agency must also define the duration and timing of the peak period) * truck volumes and/or percentages (see Section 4)
Data users should also be able to easily obtain adjustment factors that apply to traffic counts taken at each location. These include: * day-of-week factors * seasonal adjustment factors * axle correction factors, and * growth factors.
Traffic volume studies are taken to determine the number of movements and classifications of vehicles in a specific location. This information can help classify significant flow time periods and determine the influence of large vehicles and/or pedestrians. The time period in which these traffic volumes are calculated will vary depending on what data that is being collected and what its purpose is. The term traffic volume study can be termed as traffic flow survey or simply the traffic survey. It is defined as the procedure to determine mainly volume of traffic moving on the roads at a particular section during a particular time.
Traffic volume studies determine the number, movements, and classifications of vehicles (and/or bicycles and pedestrians) at specific roadway locations at specific times. Some examples of traffic volume studies include “rush-hour” vehicle counts at intersections, pedestrian counts, average daily traffic, and annual average daily traffic.
D. Ways of conducting Traffic Survey / Methods of Traffic Volume Study
Measuring the amount of traffic in a certain area is very important in determining how much flow can be diverted onto a different street or highway. Cities want to limit the amount of congestion in a given location; such data is needed to perform such arduous tasks. Determining which method, manual or automatic, is analyze by city boards and counsels – the more intensive traffic volume counts the more funds would be required. As time movies forward, more detailed data collection methods will come into fruition and help traffic volume counts become even more precise.
. Following are the means of conducting traffic survey: * By Toll Plaza Ticketing * Registration offices * Statistical Approach * By Interviewing * By Check posts * Modern Global Positioning Systems
Traffic volumes are calculated by manual and automatic operations. Manual counts are characteristically used to collect data for determination of: * vehicle classification * turning movements * path of travel * pedestrian movements * vehicle occupancy
Observers can manually record data using any of three methods. From least to most expensive, they are tally sheets, mechanical counting boards, and electronic counting boards.
Tally sheets are the simplest, least expensive tool for manual data collection. Researches simply record data with tick marks on a pre-prepared form.
Mechanical counting boards consist of board-mounted, mechanical counters, one for each direction of travel. After data have been mechanically collected for an interval, the researcher records the totals on a data sheet. Mechanical boards are convenient for pedestrian, bicycle, vehicle classification, and traffic volume counts.
Electronic counting boards are battery-operated, hand-held devices that are light, compact, and easy to handle compared to tally sheets and mechanical boards. Electronic boards have counting buttons on their faces and an internal clock that automatically separates data by time intervals. Recorded data can be downloaded to a computer.
There are three steps to a manual traffic volume count: 1. Prepare. Determine the type of equipment to use, the field procedures to follow, and the number of observers required.
Label and organize tally sheets. Each sheet should include information about the location, time and date of observation, and weather conditions. 2. Select observer location(s). Observers (data collectors) should be positioned where they have a clear view of traffic and are safely away from the edge of the roadway. 3. Record observations on site.
Automatic counts are characteristically used to collect data for determination of: * vehicle hourly patterns * daily and/or seasonal variations and growth trends * yearly traffic estimates The automatic count method provides resources for acquiring large amounts of traffic data. Automatic counts are typically taken in 1-hour intervals for a 24-hour period - which can extend for a month or year depending how much data is needed. These measures will tell when the peak traffic flows occur. Cars, motorcycles and other small vehicles are classified differently then buses and semi-trucks when these collections are taken.
Automatic counting methods are used to gather large amounts of traffic data over an extended period of time. Counts are generally collected for 1-hour intervals in 24-hour periods. Automatic counting methods are generally used to determine traffic patterns and trends.
The following information can be determined using automatic counts: * hourly traffic patterns * daily or seasonal variations * growth trends * annual traffic estimates
Observers can use portable, permanent automatic counters or videotape.
Portable counters consist of automatic recorders connected to pneumatic road tubes. They are typically used to collect the same kind of data collected in manual counts, but for longer periods, usually 24 hours.
Permanent counters are sometimes built into the pavement and used for long-term counts. The equipment is expensive, and relatively few jurisdictions have access to it.
Videotape. Observers can record count data by videotaping traffic. Traffic volumes can be counted by viewing videotapes recorded with a camera at a collection site. A digital clock in the video image can prove useful in noting time intervals. Videotaping is not a cost-effective option in most situations.
E. Importance of Traffic Volume Study:
Traffic volume studies can help agencies make sound traffic safety–related decisions based on data about critical times of traffic flow, the influence of large vehicles or pedestrians on traffic flow, or trends in traffic volume at particular locations. The number of people needed to collect data depends on the length of the count period, type(s) of data being collected, number of lanes or crosswalks being observed, and traffic volume.
Before a jurisdiction contacts an engineering consulting firm to perform a traffic volume count study, a variety of information may need to be collected. Any information may aid the consulting firm in adequately completing the study. The following is a list of possible information that an engineering consulting firm may request: * issue at hand * historic volume counts * existing zoning * proposed future land use changes * traffic impact statements if available * citizen input * location map * appropriate contact persons * any other relevant information

Traffic survey is very important to be performed because it can 1. Increase the efficiency and life of roads 2. Reduces traffic volume at a particular section 3. Provide better means for development of infrastructures 4. Provide better means to utilize other roads in case of special events in the city 5. Provide estimate of no vehicles against no of persons

Traffic Volume Trends is a monthly report based on hourly traffic count data reported by the States. These data are collected at approximately 4,000 continuous traffic counting locations nationwide and are used to estimate the percent change in traffic for the current month compared with the same month in the previous year. Estimates are re-adjusted annually to match the vehicle miles of travel from the Highway Performance Monitoring System and are continually updated with additional data.
A traffic counting program is conducted each year by the Statewide Traffic Data Collection section of the Massachusetts Highway Department. The 2009 program involved the systematic collection of traffic data utilizing automatic traffic recorders located on various roadways throughout the state.

The traffic counts compiled in this document are of four types: * Continuous Counts (indicated with an "L" (Loop) in the station number column)
The continuous count program consists of stations which are being counted hourly every day of the year. * Coverage Counts
The coverage count program consists of counts spread across a three year counting cycle. Each traffic count is of a 48 hour duration and is repeated once every three years. * Classification Counts
The classification count program consisted of a total of 212 counts. Each traffic count is of a 48 hour duration. * Special Counts (station number begins with an "S" indicting special count)
All requests for traffic related data come under this program and includes providing traffic data for the Department's pavement, highway and bridge design efforts.
This Includes pavement rehabilitation, construction, maintenance, construction staging and traffic management. Data gathered in support of the Department's program varies from single road tube automatic traffic recorder counts to intersection turning movements for traffic signal design and vehicle type classification for pavement design and environmental analyses (air quality and noise levels).
The data collected in this work program provides the Traffic Data Collection section with the information which allows staff to develop the necessary travel and traffic volume estimates required to satisfy the Department's needs in the areas of highway planning, engineering, construction, maintenance, and the overall administration of highway programs in the state.
Traffic counts
Traffic counts are reported as the number of vehicles expected to pass a given location on an average day of the year. This value is called the "annual average daily traffic" or AADT and are represented on traffic count or traffic volume maps. The AADT is based on a short-term traffic count, usually 48 hours, taken at the location. This count is then adjusted for the variation in traffic volume throughout the year and the average number of axles per vehicle.
The short-term counts are collected over a three-year cycle at nearly 26,000 rural and urban locations throughout the state. Data from 2000 to 2010 are currently included. If counts from other years are used, the year the count was taken will be indicated on the page. This situation may arise if a count could not be taken in the current cycle because of highway construction.
Traffic counts are rounded according to the following scheme: AADT Range | Rounding Scheme | 0 - 999 | Round to the nearest ten | 1,000 – 99,999 | Round to the nearest hundred | 100,000 or more | Round to the nearest thousand |

In all cases, if a value is 0 through 4, it is rounded down; and if the value is 5 through 9, it is rounded up.
The traffic volume maps are arranged in alphabetical order by county and then alphabetically by city within each county. Detail and interstate maps precede the city maps where needed.
The traffic counts taken in most incorporated municipalities with a population under 2,500 are shown on the detail or inset maps. All counties in the state are included. The AADT volumes shown are representative of the year indicated on each map. Any exceptions are noted on the map.
Traffic volumes on Australian toll roads
Another way of looking at this data is to consider rolling year on year traffic growth:

Some observations: * Most roads had a decline in traffic growth during 2008-09 (probably due to the GFC), rebounded in 2010 (except Sydney’s M4, where tolling ceased in 2010), and then growth declined again in 2011 (possibly due to economic slowdown). * Growth has been much faster on non-radial roads. This might reflect the creation of new demand corridors as these roads provided significantly better links to the established road networks. But it also might reflect the low base from which the traffic volumes grow on these road. * Melbourne’s City Link saw dramatic growth in traffic in 2010, rebounding from a period of extensive road works (contributing to a decline in use in 2009). This growth eased off in 2011, perhaps returning to a 3% growth trend(?). The road upgrade appears to have had an impact on train patronage . * Traffic volumes on Sydney’s M2 declined in late 2011 (probably due to major roadworks).
It seems not too long ago when Edsa evoked a sense of national pride because of the 1986 People Power Revolt. But Metro Manila’s main and busiest thoroughfare has become a curse to the hundreds of thousands of people who traverse it every day, with the traffic problem developing from bad to horrible.
The Metro Manila Development Authority, which is assigned to manage the traffic situation in the metropolis, knows only too well the issues that concern the 24-kilometer stretch of road on which pass some 350,000 vehicles daily. MMDA Chair Francis Tolentino is fully aware of the interrelated problems arising from the traffic—pollution, increased fuel cost, wasted hours and squandered economic productivity.
A lot of reasons—or excuses—have been given for the horror that is Edsa. Topping the list is what the MMDA calls volume density: The number of vehicles using the highway is just too much. But why should traffic be so bad even at such times of the day as an hour or two past noon, or even close to midnight? Common sense also dictates that even with too many vehicles, traffic should continuously flow on Edsa because there are hardly any traffic signal lights on it.
A number of proposals to alleviate the traffic problem have been implemented; a few are on the drawing board. MRT 3, for example, was envisioned to drastically reduce the number of vehicles using Edsa, the idea being to lure motorists into leaving their cars at home and taking what was supposed to be an efficient train system. But today, commuters are literally packed like sardines in the coaches, and the traffic on the street below remains terrible. Then there are the U-turn slots and the number coding scheme that bans certain vehicles from Edsa based on the last number of their license plates. Still, the problem is unchanged.
Davao City has been experiencing economic development for several years now due to its booming trade industry and its renewed role as educational and commercial center of Mindanao.
Due to rapid urbanization and population growth, mobility problems arise. The economic development of Davao has brought rapid growth on the vehicle volume, resulting in traffic congestion during peak hours along major thoroughfares. This may hinder further development and economic growth of the city.
In 1995, investments had risen to P5.094 billion from P1.382 billion in 1994.
Davao City’s population was 1,066,306 by 1997 and with average annual growth rate of 3.23%. According to the Davao Integrated Development Program (DIDP), the fast urban growth is the primary cause for the daily traffic congestion in the city.

From 1993 to 1997, the annual average rate of increase of motor vehicle registration is 10.98%. Records show that in 1992, 44.27% of the total vehicles registered in Region XI were from Davao City. By 1994, Davao City’s share of the motor vehicles in the region increased to 46.12%. It can be seen that these factors (increase in population, growing tourism industry, rising economy, increase in vehicular ownership, etc.) contributed to the traffic congestion in Davao City. Studies have shown that traffic congestion, if left unabated, will cause the stagnation or even be a negative factor to a region’s development. Furthermore, the increasing congestion, which result in the loss of mobility as well as increase vehicular emissions, reduces the quality of life of residents of Davao. Thus, it is therefore imperative that the local government solves the traffic problem so that Davao will continue in its path of development. However, the financial crisis experienced by the country presents fewer options to the city. It is here that proper transportation system management (TSM) comes to play a major part of the solution.
Traffic environment necessary in order to perform the TRAF model are roadway system topology and geometrics (in link-node diagram form), traffic channelization (left, thru, right, buses, carpools, etc), traffic control devices (stop, yield, signal timing), volume of traffic that enters the roadway system, turning movements, modes of transportation: (car, carpools, trucks, buses, etc), bus system specification (routes, stations and frequency of service).
Based on the the data given by the Land Transportation Office (LTO), Table 1 shows the statistical data on the number of registered motor vehicles registered in Davao City from 2007 to 2011, broken down by type.

Table 1

MOTOR VEHICLE TYPE | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010 | 2011 | Cars | 17,844 | 15,828 | 22,726 | 17,545 | 15,038 | Utility Vehicles | 36,144 | 35,764 | 38,522 | 37,495 | 34,915 | Sports Utility Vehicles | 3,908 | 4,011 | 4,790 | 6,344 | 5,955 | Trucks | 8,785 | 9,460 | 8,562 | 9,422 | 8,551 | Buses | 364 | 290 | 255 | 331 | 276 | Motorcycles/Tricycles | 44,845 | 56,016 | 57,601 | 64,326 | 66,716 | Trailers | 816 | 804 | 727 | 820 | 762 | TOTAL | 112,706 | 122,173 | 133,183 | 136,283 | 132,213 |

I. Data Analysis
From 2007 to 2011 the type of motor vehicle which has the highest number of registered was the motorcycles/tricycles where 66,716 are the highest number on the year 2011, followed on the year 2010 (64,326), 2009 (57,601), 2008 (56,016) and 2007 (44,845). Next higher are the utility vehicles where on the year 2009 has the highest number of registered with 38,522 then on the year 2010 (37,495), 2007 (36,144), 2008 (35,764) and on the year 2011 (34,915). Cars has the highest number of registered on the year 2009 with 22,726 followed on 2007 (17,844), 2010 (17,545), 2008 (15,828) and 2011 (15,038). On the year 2008, trucks has the highest number of registered with 9,460 then on 2010 (9,422), 2007 (8,785), 2009 (8,562), 2011 (8,551). The total number of 6,344 on 2010 is the highest number of registered sports utility vehicles next is on the year 2011 (5,955), 2009 (4,790), 2008 (4,011) and on 2007 (3,908). Trailers reached the number of 820 on the year 2010 as its highest number then on year 2007 (816), 2008 (804), 2011 (762) and 2009 (727). And buses are the type of motor vehicle which has the lowest number of register where on the year 2007 got the highest number of 364 followed on 2010 (331), 2008 (290), 2011 (276) and on 2009 (255). The highest total number of registered motor vehicle for a period of five years (2007-2011) was on the year 2010 with a total of 136,283 and on the year 2007 as the lowest with a total of only 112,706.

III. Conclusion The above data and information shows that people are more comfortable and like using or driving the motorcycles/tricycles which also considered as more accessible type of transportation now a days and also for their living. That the higher the number of registered motor vehicle, the higher the possibility or risk towards traffic congestion or traffic accident


Assessment of the current transportation system (n.d.). Retrieved on July 23, 2012 from
Edsa's traffic (2011). Retrieved on July 24, 2012 from (blog)
Elona, J. M. (2012).Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved on July 23, 2012 from
Heavy traffic in Metro Manila major roads (2012). Retrieved on July 24, 2012 from
LADOT traffic volume counts (n. d.). Retrieved on July 24, 2012 from Land Transportation Office (LTO), Regional Office No. XI
Traffic data collection methods you can count on (n. d.). Retrieved on July 23, 2012 from
Traffic volumes on Australian toll roads (2012). Retrieved on July 23, 2012 from
Traffic Volume Counts (n. d.). Retrieved on July 2, 2012 from
Traffic Volume Counts (n. d.). Retrieved on July 23, 2012 from
Traffic Volume Study - Definition, Method of TVS & Its Importance (n. d.) Retrieved on July 23, 2012 from
Traffic Volume Study (n. d.). Retrieved on July 23, 2012 from

(MC 209)

Submitted by:
Reyna Lea C. Rosales

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