Free Essay

Youth Gang

In: Social Issues

Submitted By babyprince
Words 4385
Pages 18
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC VOLUME IN DAVAO CITY
FOR A PERIOD OF FIVE YEARS (2007-2011)

Reyna Lea C. Rosales
Course: Master of Science in Criminology
Research Paper
In
MC 209
Professor: Dr. William A. Revisa

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………..3
II. Discussion
A. Traffic Volume Data Collection…………………………………………………...4
B. Objectives of the Traffic Volume Monitoring Program ……………………..5
C. Uses for Traffic Volume Data …………………………………………………….5
D. Ways of conducting Traffic Survey / Methods of Traffic Volume Study……………………………………………...7
E. Importance of Traffic Volume Study …………………………………………..11
F. GLOBAL …………………………………………………………………………….12
G. NATIONAL ………………………………………………………………………….16
H. LOCAL ………………………………………………………………………………17 Table 1 ……………………………………………………………………………...19
I. Data Analysis ……………………………………………………………………….19

III. Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………...20
References ……………………………………………………………………………..21

I. INTRODUCTION
Traffic volume studies are taken to determine the number of movements and classifications of vehicles in a specific location. This information can help classify significant flow time periods and determine the influence of large vehicles and/or pedestrians. The time period in which these traffic volumes are calculated will vary depending on what data that is being collected and what its purpose is.
Traffic counts are reported as the number of vehicles expected to pass a given location on an average day of the year. This value is called the "annual average daily traffic" or AADT and are represented on traffic count or traffic volume maps. The AADT is based on a short-term traffic count, usually 48 hours, taken at the location. This count is then adjusted for the variation in traffic volume throughout the year and the average number of axles per vehicle.
The measurement of traffic volumes is one of the most basic functions of highway planning and management. Traffic volume counts provide the most commonly employed measure of roadway usage and are needed for the majority of traffic engineering analyses. While a number of traffic volume statistics are used in traffic engineering analyses, two are of primary interest for the design of a statewide traffic monitoring program: annual average daily traffic (AADT) and average daily vehicle distance traveled (DVDT). AADT describes the number of vehicles that traverse a road at a specific point on the road system. DVDT describes the travel usage of an entire segment of roadway. DVDT is computed by multiplying the length of a roadway segment by its AADT. AADT is the primary traffic input to most traffic engineering analyses. DVDT is the primary measure for describing roadway usage for an entire system or network of roads.
II. DISCUSSION
A. Traffic Volume Data Collection
For many years, the traditional approach to the development of annual average daily traffic (AADT) had consisted of three different but complementary types of traffic counts: continuous, control, and coverage (Federal Highway Administration 1970).
Continuous counts are taken 365 days a year at a small number of locations. These counts provide a variety of useful information. Because these counts are most consistent and are maintained at permanent locations, the FHWA summarizes the information in a monthly Travel Volume Trends (TVT) report.
Control or seasonal counts are much more difficult to characterize because different State planning organizations perform these counts differently. These counts are usually taken from two to twelve times a year, for periods of time ranging from 24 hours to two weeks. The main purpose of control counts was to help identify traffic patterns on specific roads in order to help place those roads into seasonal adjustment factor groups. Control counts can also be used to compute highly accurate measures of annual average daily traffic at specific locations, and are very effective in high growth or recreational areas. The 1985 version of the TMG did not utilize control counts for the development of grouping procedures or for AADT estimation.
Coverage counts are short duration counts, ranging from six hours to seven days, distributed throughout the system to provide point-specific information and area-wide coverage. Coverage count programs also vary considerably, as the diverse requirements and constraints faced by State highway agencies have translated into divergent programs. Many States have implemented coverage programs that feature relatively long (2 to 7 days) traffic counts, but where only a part of the State is counted every year. Other States have emphasized complete coverage of the highway systems each year, resulting in a large number of short duration (usually 24 or 48-hour) counts.
B. Objectives of the Traffic Volume Monitoring Program
The traffic monitoring program described in this section was designed to meet the following objectives: * collect data needed by users as efficiently as possible (including both point estimates and summary variables derived from those point estimates) * provide a mechanism for collecting data needed on "short notice" (that is, data that cannot be collected as part of a program planned six months or more in advance) as efficiently as possible, and ensure that these data are still made available to all users * Ensure that all reliable traffic data collected within the State highway agency are made available to users.
C. Uses for Traffic Volume Data
A number of traffic volume statistics are used in traffic engineering analyses. The statewide traffic monitoring program concentrates on the estimation of annual average daily traffic (AADT) and then the computation of average daily vehicle distance traveled (DVDT) from that AADT value. In addition to VDT calculations, AADT is used in a wide variety of analyses such as calculating: * exposure rates as part of safety analyses, * vehicle loadings as part of pavement design, * vehicle use as part of revenue forecasts * Statistics used by the private sector for placement of businesses and services.
AADT is not the only useful traffic volume statistic. Users commonly request a wide variety of other traffic volume statistics, and a good traffic monitoring program should collect, store, and report those additional statistics in order to meet those needs. In particular, whenever possible, traffic monitoring programs should collect (at a minimum) hourly volumes by direction (and lane) since these statistics are commonly used by analysts who must look at operational characteristics of the roadway at different times of the day. Examples of the uses of these lower aggregation volume statistics include: * traffic signal timing * air quality analysis * noise analysis * planning studies * planning of the timing of maintenance activities.
To meet user needs, the highway agency should report, at a minimum, the following statistics: * AADT, * AAWDT, annual average weekday daily traffic (for roads where weekday traffic is more important than weekend traffic) * peak hour volumes * peak period volumes (where the highway agency must also define the duration and timing of the peak period) * truck volumes and/or percentages (see Section 4)
Data users should also be able to easily obtain adjustment factors that apply to traffic counts taken at each location. These include: * day-of-week factors * seasonal adjustment factors * axle correction factors, and * growth factors.
Traffic volume studies are taken to determine the number of movements and classifications of vehicles in a specific location. This information can help classify significant flow time periods and determine the influence of large vehicles and/or pedestrians. The time period in which these traffic volumes are calculated will vary depending on what data that is being collected and what its purpose is. The term traffic volume study can be termed as traffic flow survey or simply the traffic survey. It is defined as the procedure to determine mainly volume of traffic moving on the roads at a particular section during a particular time.
Traffic volume studies determine the number, movements, and classifications of vehicles (and/or bicycles and pedestrians) at specific roadway locations at specific times. Some examples of traffic volume studies include “rush-hour” vehicle counts at intersections, pedestrian counts, average daily traffic, and annual average daily traffic.
D. Ways of conducting Traffic Survey / Methods of Traffic Volume Study
Measuring the amount of traffic in a certain area is very important in determining how much flow can be diverted onto a different street or highway. Cities want to limit the amount of congestion in a given location; such data is needed to perform such arduous tasks. Determining which method, manual or automatic, is analyze by city boards and counsels – the more intensive traffic volume counts the more funds would be required. As time movies forward, more detailed data collection methods will come into fruition and help traffic volume counts become even more precise.
. Following are the means of conducting traffic survey: * By Toll Plaza Ticketing * Registration offices * Statistical Approach * By Interviewing * By Check posts * Modern Global Positioning Systems
Traffic volumes are calculated by manual and automatic operations. Manual counts are characteristically used to collect data for determination of: * vehicle classification * turning movements * path of travel * pedestrian movements * vehicle occupancy
Observers can manually record data using any of three methods. From least to most expensive, they are tally sheets, mechanical counting boards, and electronic counting boards.
Tally sheets are the simplest, least expensive tool for manual data collection. Researches simply record data with tick marks on a pre-prepared form.
Mechanical counting boards consist of board-mounted, mechanical counters, one for each direction of travel. After data have been mechanically collected for an interval, the researcher records the totals on a data sheet. Mechanical boards are convenient for pedestrian, bicycle, vehicle classification, and traffic volume counts.
Electronic counting boards are battery-operated, hand-held devices that are light, compact, and easy to handle compared to tally sheets and mechanical boards. Electronic boards have counting buttons on their faces and an internal clock that automatically separates data by time intervals. Recorded data can be downloaded to a computer.
There are three steps to a manual traffic volume count: 1. Prepare. Determine the type of equipment to use, the field procedures to follow, and the number of observers required.
Label and organize tally sheets. Each sheet should include information about the location, time and date of observation, and weather conditions. 2. Select observer location(s). Observers (data collectors) should be positioned where they have a clear view of traffic and are safely away from the edge of the roadway. 3. Record observations on site.
Automatic counts are characteristically used to collect data for determination of: * vehicle hourly patterns * daily and/or seasonal variations and growth trends * yearly traffic estimates The automatic count method provides resources for acquiring large amounts of traffic data. Automatic counts are typically taken in 1-hour intervals for a 24-hour period - which can extend for a month or year depending how much data is needed. These measures will tell when the peak traffic flows occur. Cars, motorcycles and other small vehicles are classified differently then buses and semi-trucks when these collections are taken.
Automatic counting methods are used to gather large amounts of traffic data over an extended period of time. Counts are generally collected for 1-hour intervals in 24-hour periods. Automatic counting methods are generally used to determine traffic patterns and trends.
The following information can be determined using automatic counts: * hourly traffic patterns * daily or seasonal variations * growth trends * annual traffic estimates
Observers can use portable, permanent automatic counters or videotape.
Portable counters consist of automatic recorders connected to pneumatic road tubes. They are typically used to collect the same kind of data collected in manual counts, but for longer periods, usually 24 hours.
Permanent counters are sometimes built into the pavement and used for long-term counts. The equipment is expensive, and relatively few jurisdictions have access to it.
Videotape. Observers can record count data by videotaping traffic. Traffic volumes can be counted by viewing videotapes recorded with a camera at a collection site. A digital clock in the video image can prove useful in noting time intervals. Videotaping is not a cost-effective option in most situations.
E. Importance of Traffic Volume Study:
Traffic volume studies can help agencies make sound traffic safety–related decisions based on data about critical times of traffic flow, the influence of large vehicles or pedestrians on traffic flow, or trends in traffic volume at particular locations. The number of people needed to collect data depends on the length of the count period, type(s) of data being collected, number of lanes or crosswalks being observed, and traffic volume.
Before a jurisdiction contacts an engineering consulting firm to perform a traffic volume count study, a variety of information may need to be collected. Any information may aid the consulting firm in adequately completing the study. The following is a list of possible information that an engineering consulting firm may request: * issue at hand * historic volume counts * existing zoning * proposed future land use changes * traffic impact statements if available * citizen input * location map * appropriate contact persons * any other relevant information

Traffic survey is very important to be performed because it can 1. Increase the efficiency and life of roads 2. Reduces traffic volume at a particular section 3. Provide better means for development of infrastructures 4. Provide better means to utilize other roads in case of special events in the city 5. Provide estimate of no vehicles against no of persons

F. GLOBAL
Traffic Volume Trends is a monthly report based on hourly traffic count data reported by the States. These data are collected at approximately 4,000 continuous traffic counting locations nationwide and are used to estimate the percent change in traffic for the current month compared with the same month in the previous year. Estimates are re-adjusted annually to match the vehicle miles of travel from the Highway Performance Monitoring System and are continually updated with additional data.
A traffic counting program is conducted each year by the Statewide Traffic Data Collection section of the Massachusetts Highway Department. The 2009 program involved the systematic collection of traffic data utilizing automatic traffic recorders located on various roadways throughout the state.

The traffic counts compiled in this document are of four types: * Continuous Counts (indicated with an "L" (Loop) in the station number column)
The continuous count program consists of stations which are being counted hourly every day of the year. * Coverage Counts
The coverage count program consists of counts spread across a three year counting cycle. Each traffic count is of a 48 hour duration and is repeated once every three years. * Classification Counts
The classification count program consisted of a total of 212 counts. Each traffic count is of a 48 hour duration. * Special Counts (station number begins with an "S" indicting special count)
All requests for traffic related data come under this program and includes providing traffic data for the Department's pavement, highway and bridge design efforts.
This Includes pavement rehabilitation, construction, maintenance, construction staging and traffic management. Data gathered in support of the Department's program varies from single road tube automatic traffic recorder counts to intersection turning movements for traffic signal design and vehicle type classification for pavement design and environmental analyses (air quality and noise levels).
The data collected in this work program provides the Traffic Data Collection section with the information which allows staff to develop the necessary travel and traffic volume estimates required to satisfy the Department's needs in the areas of highway planning, engineering, construction, maintenance, and the overall administration of highway programs in the state.
Traffic counts
Traffic counts are reported as the number of vehicles expected to pass a given location on an average day of the year. This value is called the "annual average daily traffic" or AADT and are represented on traffic count or traffic volume maps. The AADT is based on a short-term traffic count, usually 48 hours, taken at the location. This count is then adjusted for the variation in traffic volume throughout the year and the average number of axles per vehicle.
The short-term counts are collected over a three-year cycle at nearly 26,000 rural and urban locations throughout the state. Data from 2000 to 2010 are currently included. If counts from other years are used, the year the count was taken will be indicated on the page. This situation may arise if a count could not be taken in the current cycle because of highway construction.
Traffic counts are rounded according to the following scheme: AADT Range | Rounding Scheme | 0 - 999 | Round to the nearest ten | 1,000 – 99,999 | Round to the nearest hundred | 100,000 or more | Round to the nearest thousand |

In all cases, if a value is 0 through 4, it is rounded down; and if the value is 5 through 9, it is rounded up.
The traffic volume maps are arranged in alphabetical order by county and then alphabetically by city within each county. Detail and interstate maps precede the city maps where needed.
The traffic counts taken in most incorporated municipalities with a population under 2,500 are shown on the detail or inset maps. All counties in the state are included. The AADT volumes shown are representative of the year indicated on each map. Any exceptions are noted on the map.
Traffic volumes on Australian toll roads
Another way of looking at this data is to consider rolling year on year traffic growth:

Some observations: * Most roads had a decline in traffic growth during 2008-09 (probably due to the GFC), rebounded in 2010 (except Sydney’s M4, where tolling ceased in 2010), and then growth declined again in 2011 (possibly due to economic slowdown). * Growth has been much faster on non-radial roads. This might reflect the creation of new demand corridors as these roads provided significantly better links to the established road networks. But it also might reflect the low base from which the traffic volumes grow on these road. * Melbourne’s City Link saw dramatic growth in traffic in 2010, rebounding from a period of extensive road works (contributing to a decline in use in 2009). This growth eased off in 2011, perhaps returning to a 3% growth trend(?). The road upgrade appears to have had an impact on train patronage . * Traffic volumes on Sydney’s M2 declined in late 2011 (probably due to major roadworks).
G. NATIONAL
It seems not too long ago when Edsa evoked a sense of national pride because of the 1986 People Power Revolt. But Metro Manila’s main and busiest thoroughfare has become a curse to the hundreds of thousands of people who traverse it every day, with the traffic problem developing from bad to horrible.
The Metro Manila Development Authority, which is assigned to manage the traffic situation in the metropolis, knows only too well the issues that concern the 24-kilometer stretch of road on which pass some 350,000 vehicles daily. MMDA Chair Francis Tolentino is fully aware of the interrelated problems arising from the traffic—pollution, increased fuel cost, wasted hours and squandered economic productivity.
A lot of reasons—or excuses—have been given for the horror that is Edsa. Topping the list is what the MMDA calls volume density: The number of vehicles using the highway is just too much. But why should traffic be so bad even at such times of the day as an hour or two past noon, or even close to midnight? Common sense also dictates that even with too many vehicles, traffic should continuously flow on Edsa because there are hardly any traffic signal lights on it.
A number of proposals to alleviate the traffic problem have been implemented; a few are on the drawing board. MRT 3, for example, was envisioned to drastically reduce the number of vehicles using Edsa, the idea being to lure motorists into leaving their cars at home and taking what was supposed to be an efficient train system. But today, commuters are literally packed like sardines in the coaches, and the traffic on the street below remains terrible. Then there are the U-turn slots and the number coding scheme that bans certain vehicles from Edsa based on the last number of their license plates. Still, the problem is unchanged.
H. LOCAL
Davao City has been experiencing economic development for several years now due to its booming trade industry and its renewed role as educational and commercial center of Mindanao.
Due to rapid urbanization and population growth, mobility problems arise. The economic development of Davao has brought rapid growth on the vehicle volume, resulting in traffic congestion during peak hours along major thoroughfares. This may hinder further development and economic growth of the city.
In 1995, investments had risen to P5.094 billion from P1.382 billion in 1994.
Davao City’s population was 1,066,306 by 1997 and with average annual growth rate of 3.23%. According to the Davao Integrated Development Program (DIDP), the fast urban growth is the primary cause for the daily traffic congestion in the city.

From 1993 to 1997, the annual average rate of increase of motor vehicle registration is 10.98%. Records show that in 1992, 44.27% of the total vehicles registered in Region XI were from Davao City. By 1994, Davao City’s share of the motor vehicles in the region increased to 46.12%. It can be seen that these factors (increase in population, growing tourism industry, rising economy, increase in vehicular ownership, etc.) contributed to the traffic congestion in Davao City. Studies have shown that traffic congestion, if left unabated, will cause the stagnation or even be a negative factor to a region’s development. Furthermore, the increasing congestion, which result in the loss of mobility as well as increase vehicular emissions, reduces the quality of life of residents of Davao. Thus, it is therefore imperative that the local government solves the traffic problem so that Davao will continue in its path of development. However, the financial crisis experienced by the country presents fewer options to the city. It is here that proper transportation system management (TSM) comes to play a major part of the solution.
Traffic environment necessary in order to perform the TRAF model are roadway system topology and geometrics (in link-node diagram form), traffic channelization (left, thru, right, buses, carpools, etc), traffic control devices (stop, yield, signal timing), volume of traffic that enters the roadway system, turning movements, modes of transportation: (car, carpools, trucks, buses, etc), bus system specification (routes, stations and frequency of service).
Based on the the data given by the Land Transportation Office (LTO), Table 1 shows the statistical data on the number of registered motor vehicles registered in Davao City from 2007 to 2011, broken down by type.

Table 1

MOTOR VEHICLE TYPE | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010 | 2011 | Cars | 17,844 | 15,828 | 22,726 | 17,545 | 15,038 | Utility Vehicles | 36,144 | 35,764 | 38,522 | 37,495 | 34,915 | Sports Utility Vehicles | 3,908 | 4,011 | 4,790 | 6,344 | 5,955 | Trucks | 8,785 | 9,460 | 8,562 | 9,422 | 8,551 | Buses | 364 | 290 | 255 | 331 | 276 | Motorcycles/Tricycles | 44,845 | 56,016 | 57,601 | 64,326 | 66,716 | Trailers | 816 | 804 | 727 | 820 | 762 | TOTAL | 112,706 | 122,173 | 133,183 | 136,283 | 132,213 |

I. Data Analysis
From 2007 to 2011 the type of motor vehicle which has the highest number of registered was the motorcycles/tricycles where 66,716 are the highest number on the year 2011, followed on the year 2010 (64,326), 2009 (57,601), 2008 (56,016) and 2007 (44,845). Next higher are the utility vehicles where on the year 2009 has the highest number of registered with 38,522 then on the year 2010 (37,495), 2007 (36,144), 2008 (35,764) and on the year 2011 (34,915). Cars has the highest number of registered on the year 2009 with 22,726 followed on 2007 (17,844), 2010 (17,545), 2008 (15,828) and 2011 (15,038). On the year 2008, trucks has the highest number of registered with 9,460 then on 2010 (9,422), 2007 (8,785), 2009 (8,562), 2011 (8,551). The total number of 6,344 on 2010 is the highest number of registered sports utility vehicles next is on the year 2011 (5,955), 2009 (4,790), 2008 (4,011) and on 2007 (3,908). Trailers reached the number of 820 on the year 2010 as its highest number then on year 2007 (816), 2008 (804), 2011 (762) and 2009 (727). And buses are the type of motor vehicle which has the lowest number of register where on the year 2007 got the highest number of 364 followed on 2010 (331), 2008 (290), 2011 (276) and on 2009 (255). The highest total number of registered motor vehicle for a period of five years (2007-2011) was on the year 2010 with a total of 136,283 and on the year 2007 as the lowest with a total of only 112,706.

III. Conclusion The above data and information shows that people are more comfortable and like using or driving the motorcycles/tricycles which also considered as more accessible type of transportation now a days and also for their living. That the higher the number of registered motor vehicle, the higher the possibility or risk towards traffic congestion or traffic accident

References

Assessment of the current transportation system (n.d.). Retrieved on July 23, 2012 from www.easts.info/2003proceedings/papers/0979.pdf
Edsa's traffic (2011). Retrieved on July 24, 2012 from Inquirer.net (blog)
Elona, J. M. (2012).Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved on July 23, 2012 from INQUIRER.net
Heavy traffic in Metro Manila major roads (2012). Retrieved on July 24, 2012 from Inquirer.net
LADOT traffic volume counts (n. d.). Retrieved on July 24, 2012 from ladot.lacity.org/tf_Traffic_volume_counts.html Land Transportation Office (LTO), Regional Office No. XI
Traffic data collection methods you can count on (n. d.). Retrieved on July 23, 2012 from www.intrans.iastate.edu/ltap/tech_news/2004/.../data_collection.htm
Traffic volumes on Australian toll roads (2012). Retrieved on July 23, 2012 from chartingtransport.com/2012/.../
Traffic Volume Counts (n. d.). Retrieved on July 2, 2012 from www.ctre.iastate.edu/pubs/traffichandbook/3trafficcounts.pdf
Traffic Volume Counts (n. d.). Retrieved on July 23, 2012 from www.mhd.state.ma.us/default.asp?pgid=content/traffic01&sid..
Traffic Volume Study - Definition, Method of TVS & Its Importance (n. d.) Retrieved on July 23, 2012 from www.enggpedia.com
Traffic Volume Study (n. d.). Retrieved on July 23, 2012 from www.scribd.com/arman_zaman/d/44282039

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TRAFFIC VOLUME
IN DAVAO CITY FOR A PERIOD OF FIVE YEARS (2007-1011)
(MC 209)

Submitted by:
Reyna Lea C. Rosales

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Gangs and Youth

...HOW TO PREVENT LOOSING OUR YOUTH TO GANGS To prevent youth from being involved in gangs or gang-related activities more states should implement programs similar to A&E’s “Beyond Scared Straight” to let kids see what the consequences of their actions could lead to. Gangs and crimes are increasing each year that it’s no wonder why kids fall susceptible to them. There are currently about 400,000 youth gang members and about 600,000 adult gang members in the United States. Out of all the youth gang members 360,000 of them are boys and 32,000 of them are girls. A lot of youths that join gangs end up committing crimes which land them in juvenile detention, according to research 15% of youth females and 85% of youth males are incarcerated in juvenile detention. Gangs also often lead to death and in 1994, 24% of youth deaths were gang-related and I’m sure the number has tripled by now. Some kids are born into gangs because it runs in their family and others choose to join but no good ever comes from them. Youths are easy targets for gang members to recruit for many reasons. Children aren’t very mature and do not yet fully understand the consequences of joining a gang so their easy to convince. Children also don’t know that gangs can be very difficult to get out of and sometimes the only way out is death. Some gangs let females get out if they become pregnant but the other options are to get jumped out. Children also see gangs as a way to make easy money to buy those things......

Words: 990 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Youth Gangs

...Crouch Marsha Decker English 112’ October 11, 2013 Youth Gangs Today in America we hear a lot about gangs. There are gangs everywhere but the ones we hear about the most are the ones associated with the youth. I am going to be evaluating John Gerhardt’s Youth Gangs: An American Epidemic. By reading the article I already agree with what he has to say. It is about learning about gangs and how most of them are affiliated with races. If one wants to know how they operated then we must know that race can determine what each gang is and the beliefs in each gang. Some of what I picked up from reading the article is that they live in the environment of wanting respect and money relying on gangs and illegal activity to get them there. The three points I am going to evaluate will be guns, drugs and violence and how they are related with the youth gangs in the American society today. Gerhardt mentions “In American society, a crime epidemic is being carried by young adolescent teenagers, with the results usually being fatal” (32). I personally agree with these three things that Gerhardt has mentioned and that they can become super life changing, even fatal. How they can damage your life and put you places you do not want to be. How they influence one and how it could be the deciding factor in joining or being a part of a gang. In America a lot of people have guns, whether it be for hunting or just for the protection of their home. In gangs, a lot of the members carry guns just......

Words: 1365 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Youth and Gangs

...Why Do Urban Youth Join gangs? There is no universal agreed upon definition of a gang. According to the national institute of justice the federal definition is “An association of three or more individuals whose members collectively identify themselves by adopting a group identity, which they use to create an atmosphere of fear or intimidation, frequently by employing one or more of the following: a common name, slogan, identifying sign, symbol, tattoo or other physical marking, style or color of clothing, hairstyle, hand sign or graffiti.” The purpose of a gang is to engage in criminal activity and which uses violence or intimidation to further its criminal objectives. Gangs come in all different types, there are multiple types of gangs; for example motorcycle gangs, prison gangs, hate groups, adult organized crime groups, terrorist organizations and other types of security threat groups. The reasons people tend to join gangs are lack of jobs, poverty, domestic violence, and lack of education. The most common age for youth to join a gang is between 13 and 15. Youth join gangs for various reasons; money, sense of support and belonging, peer status, and a sense of protection are seemingly provided by the gang. Youth in gangs are more likely to abuse drugs, engage in high risk sexual behaviors, and experience long term health and social consequences. The reason that today’s youth join gangs is because of environmental factors, early academic failure and lack of school......

Words: 2068 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Youth Gangs

...Describing Gang Membership: An Examination of Youth Gangs Kiara C. Ross Georgia Gwinnett College Introduction Numerous studies have been conducted on the subject of youth in gangs and the many characteristics of a member or a nonmember. In this paper I will discuss what is considered a member of a youth gang, a nonmember and anything else in between. I have read three articles and I will compare and contrast each of their findings in detail. Article 1 The first article that I will be discussing was an in depth study done on youth in Canada. This article focused on “the frequency and stability of gang membership, family characteristics, concurrent behaviors, friendships, and school attitudes of stable and unstable gang members and non-gang members in childhood and early adolescence” (Craig, Vitaro, Gagnon, and Timblay, 2002 pg. 53). It also “examined the stability of belonging to a gang in early adolescence, the behavior profiles, family characteristics, and friendships of non-gang and gang members” (Craig et al. 2002 pg. 53). Craig et al. explained that there were three models that were used to understand the “relationship between gang membership and delinquency” which were the selection model, the social facilitation model, and the enhancement model. According to Craig et al.: A selection model is consistent with social control theory and the propensity theory of crime. According to this model, gangs recruit individuals who are already delinquent or have a......

Words: 2766 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Youth Involvement In Gangs

...The main idea of this source is to present five new studies being conducted on youth gangs. A broader developmental perspective, underscoring the need for ongoing inquiry linking the heretofore separate literature on youth gangs and antisocial peer influences from criminology and developmental science (201). Gangs have been present in America for decades. All through only in recent years are local and national observation studies showing gangs growing at an increasingly rapid rate. This section discusses the full range of youth involvement in gangs, from their entry to the significant amounts of activities that occur during their involvement to their disengagement. Understanding the complexity as to why youth join gangs is very critical and...

Words: 424 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Youth Gangs In Canada

...The term “Youth Gang” has evolved to become a common term in the generation we live in. It is a term that is covered in most media outlets on an almost daily basis. In order to fully understand the weight of the influence of youth gangs in our communities, we must make an attempt to look at how various scholars define it. There seems to be no clear-cut definition for the term “youth gang” because different communities have their own perception on what they refer to as a “youth gang”. Various researchers agree that defining, recognizing and identifying youth gangs is perplexed by inappropriate labelling of youth social groups by outsiders (Mathews, 1993; Gordon, 2000; Church Council on Justice and Corrections, 1995). There is also insufficient...

Words: 1741 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Why Youths Joins Gangs

...Joining youth gangs as consisting of both pulls and pushes. Pulls pertain to the attractiveness of the gang. Gang membership can enhance prestige or status among friends. Gangs provide other attractive opportunities such as the chance for excitement by selling drugs and making money, they see personal advantages to gang membership. Social, economic, and cultural forces push many adolescents in the direction of gangs. Protection from other gangs and perceived general well-being are key factors. Feeling marginal, adolescents join gangs for social relationships that give them a sense of identity. For some youth, gangs provide a way of solving social adjustment problems, particularly the trials and tribulations of adolescence. A few are virtually born into gangs as a result of neighborhood traditions and their parents' earlier gang participation or involvement in criminal activity. The most important community risk factor is growing up in neighborhoods in which the level of social integration is low. Among family variables, poverty, absence of biological parents, low parental attachment to the child and low parental supervision all increase the probability of gang membership. Three school variables are very significant risk factors: low expectations for success in school, low student commitment to school, and low attachment to teachers. Along with school factors, peers have a very strong impact on gang membership. Important individual risk factors are low self-esteem, numerous......

Words: 467 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Why Do Youths Join Gangs

...Why Youths Join Gangs and How to Prevent it from Happening Reaver J Childers Liberty University CJUS 310-B02 Professor Godwin Abstract Have you ever been watching the news and heard the news reporter say, “A young man was shot and killed outside of a corner store. It has been reported that he was a part of a known gang, referred to as the Crips. He was shot by a rivalry gang member.” Do you ever wonder what provokes a juvenile to want to join a gang? There are a lot of parents who ask this question after hearing about someone else’s child or their own child becoming a part of something so horrible. There are so many parents in the world who are losing their children to gangs. The gangs are coming into the communities and praying on what is considered to be the “weak ones.” The “weak-ones” are the ones who seems to be lacking something in their lives, and the only way they know how to fill that void or to get what they are looking for is by joining a gang. The gang gives them status, love, trust, attention, and most of all, it gives them an opportunity to have all the things that they think are important. They find all that they are missing without thinking about the consequences of being affiliated with such groups. This isn’t new to our society; youth gangs have been around for more than 150 years. The youth gangs have grown larger and bolder since the beginning of their time. This paper will discuss why so many youths join......

Words: 2925 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Risk Factors Associated with Youth Gang Involvement

...that have a common name or common identifying sign or symbol, form an allegiance for a common purpose and engage in unlawful or criminal activity (Hess 2010). In the United States there are large number of Filipino gang membership around the Southern California region (SoCal) and generally the entire West Coast region. Due to their Hispanic culture they are more assimilated with other Latino gangs. There are thousands of Filipino gang members which mostly center around the California region, Chicago, New York, and Miami. They represent a diverse array of backgrounds and affiliations with some being with the Bloods, Crips, Sureños, Norteños, Peoples, and Folks.  A number of gangs in the Philippines are known to be active around the nation, the majority being centered in Manila with locations in and around the general Metro Manila region. One of the most infamous areas in the City is Tondo, Manila. Tondo is known to be the "Hub" of Gangs in the region, with the majority of street gangs being located in this district. Apart from a very large number of local street gangs, there are a number of organized gangs among the Philippines (Yahoo Phil.). In general, there are gangs located in the Philippines that deal in organized crime and follow a general hierarchy. These gangs can be linked to certain families or...

Words: 2546 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

The Seeds of Discouragement

...explain how the response from professionals to problem behaviour can become a contributing factor to a child’s sense of futility, through discussing positive and negative theories of behaviour. The second objective of this essay is to examine the concept of “learned irresponsibility” and to understand how youth cultures are able to contribute to such learned helplessness and rebellion through things like social exclusion and street gangs. Next, nearing the end of this essay I will offer my opinion as to how the child and youth care worker should approach the young person differently during the assessment as to avoid the young person becoming discouraged during the transaction. Before the conclusion I shall offer my self reflection as well as sharing the impact that this topic of “the seeds of discouragement” has had on me. Climates of Futility The climates of futility refers to those environments which may cause young people to experience feelings of deficiencies and that are able to contribute to their fears of failure. The negative transactions between the young person and others within these hostile environments can become “an ecological hazard in the lives of youth at risk” (Brendtro, Brokenleg and Van Bockern 2002, p. 8). There are a number of factors that can lead to climates of futility, one such important factor to investigate is that of...

Words: 1992 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

The Responsiblity Project

...others. The film “Our World” from the website was based on R&B singer John Legend and how he has taken his success and his name to provide a better education for youth. Bringing a quality education to each child is very important. John Legend speaks on the importance of education as well as how each child should receive the equivalent amount of education. John Legend also includes, we as parents should not blame the system for not working. Taking time out and looking at our community needs will provide our kids with programs and resources that will ensure kids are receiving the proper education. John Legend was successful not by chance, but with meeting the right people as well as having an education. External social pressures are no more than peer pressure, but more suffered and caused by society to encourage and conform attitude changes in values and behavior for the good of society. Social pressure can change a brilliant and charming idea into a hopeless and dry one. However, the influences external social pressures have on organizational ethics can influence corporations to consider actions and behavior they may not otherwise take into account. For example, kids living in a low-income environment with no direction will more likely follow in a direction of gangs in violent because of their environment. For some youth there is no choice, but we can’t expect for our kids to be better than we were if we do not make change. These issues are important to the......

Words: 432 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

The Streets Are Not a Home for Youth

...The Streets are not A Home for Youth Carlton Crayton English 147 August 31, 2015 University of Phoenix The Streets are not A Home for Youth The United States of America; the "Land of Milk and Honey," also known throughout the world as a place of prosperity. While this may be true for some, there is a significant percentage of the American population who lives in poverty. There are many who are so impoverished that they do not even have a place to call home. While homelessness has always existed in America, never before has this nation seen such a high percentage of its youth population living on the streets. Even though Young people often become homeless due to family conflict and substance abuse, youth is at a higher risk for homelessness than adults ("Starry Children At Heart Ministries, Inc.", 2015). In order to reduce the number of homeless youth, society needs to address the high rates of substance abuse, mental illness, and sexual trauma that is experienced by today's young adults. Substance abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs are prevalent amongst homeless youth. Many, young adolescent young people who became or on the verge of becoming homeless, were brought up in households where drug and alcohol were being used on a regular basis by parents or guardians. Domestic violence and some form of abuse within the home was present. Therefore, prompted the youthful pre-adult youth, encountering a horrible and traumatic adolescence.......

Words: 850 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Youth Violence

...Causes of Youth Violence Latoya Cook CM107-23 March 8, 2013 I. Introduction II. Peer pressure A. What is peer pressure? B. How to stop peer pressure? III. Parental Violence A. Involving more extra curriculum activities B. Parent and families making a difference IV. Bully and Victim A. Statistic of being bullied B. What is being bullied? V. Conclusion Learning about Youth Violence Youth violence is a serious issue in today’s world. Youth violence is on the rise throughout the world. These violent acts are being done daily in schools around the world. Numerous factors are involved when it comes to youth violence. The top three reasons are peer pressure, parental violence, and being bullied and victimized. Youth peer pressure is one of the most frequently referred to forms of negative and positive peer pressure. It is particularly common because most young people spend large amounts of time in fixed groups (school and subgroups within them) regardless of their opinion of those groups. Peer pressure can be beneficial depending on the teen friends. While it is true that teens start spending more time with their friends and are influenced by these peers through peer pressure, parents need to remember one simple truth: your teen will never forget the values you have given him.......

Words: 950 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Effectiveness of Website

...TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………... 3 II. EFFECTIVENESS OF WEBSITE ……………………………………............ 3 III. THE FOUR P’S OF MARKETING ………………………………………….. 4 IV. CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………… 7 REFERENCES...................................................................................................................................8 The Foundation for Athletes Helping Kids, Inc. I. Introduction With concern for the well-being of our country's youth and the problems that affect them, there was a need to develop a program that emphasized the importance of education, staying in school, as well as abstinence of drugs, alcohol and gang violence. The Foundation for Athletes Helping Kids, Inc. was formed by Don Edwards along with 15 NFL alumni in 1986. It is through their successful implementation of free football clinics for high school youths, charitable contributions and substantial fundraising efforts that their goal for becoming National is not just a dream but reality. II. Effectiveness of Website The Foundation for Athletes Helping Kids, Inc. website is http://athleteshelpingkids.org. This website is an attribute to their mission, accomplishments and marketing strategy in that it is very informative. It draws a picture of what they are doing and how it affects the young adults they are helping. It shows the importance of giving back and putting forward in our future generations. A. Over the past 15...

Words: 1311 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Male Juveniles

...of offending by females increased disproportionately, youth began entering the juvenile justice system at younger ages, and gang involvement became more prevalent. Recommendations for improving the juvenile justice system must take these changes into account. To establish a context for consideration of the future of the juvenile justice system, the workshop began with a presentation 1 of analyses of trends in juvenile arrests. The increase in juvenile arrests during the past decade driven by arrests for violent crimes -- raises concerns in light of the projected 30-percent increase in the number of 15- to 16-year-olds by 2010. While the juvenile arrest rate for property crimes remained stable during the late 1980's and early 1990's, the number of juvenile arrests for violent crimes was 67 percent greater than in 1986. Nonetheless, a relatively small percentage of juveniles are arrested for violent crimes. In 1995, the rate was 500 per 100,000, or less than one-half of 1 percent of the juvenile population. Moreover, the juvenile arrest rate for murder declined in 1994 and 1995. In 1994, 82 percent of all counties in the United States did not have even one juvenile charged with murder. Increases in juvenile crime since the mid-1980's reflect several trends in this country: shifts in the economy, the decline in the extended family and increase in single parenthood, access to more lethal weapons, and the growing role of gangs. Projected trends likely to affect juvenile crime......

Words: 4117 - Pages: 17