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Youth Perspective on Sexual and Reproductive Health

In: Social Issues

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កលវិទយល័យភូមិនទភនំេពញ
ROYAL UNIVERSITY OF PHNOM PENH

Youth’s Perspective on Sexual and Reproductive Health
ទស នវិសយរបស់យវវ័យេលើសខភពបន្តពូជ និង សុខភពផ្លូវេភទ




Research Report
In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement
For the Degree of Master of Arts in Social Work

HEAK MORINA

August 2011

កលវិទយល័យភូមនភេពញ
ិ ទ នំ
កលវិទយល័យអុី ៉ ្រស្តី

Royal University of Phnom Penh
In Cooperation with
Ewha Womans University

Youth’s Perspective on Sexual and Reproductive Health
ទស នវិសយរបស់យវវ័យេលើសខភពបន្តពូជ និង សុខភពផ្លូវេភទ




Research Report
In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement
For the Degree of Master of Arts in Social Work

HEAK MORINA

Examination committee:

Dr. Erica Y. Auh (Chairperson)
Dr. Choong Rai Nho
Prof. Kim Sovankiry

August 2011

កលវិទយល័យភូមិនទភនំេពញ
Royal University of Phnom Penh
Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities
Department of Social Work

Youth’s Perspective on Sexual and Reproductive Health
ទស នវិសយរបស់យវវ័យេលើសខភពបន្តពូជ និង សុខភពផ្លូវេភទ




Research Report
In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement
For the Degree of Master of Arts in Social Work

Supervisor Prof. Soon Dool Chung

Sponsored by
EWHA Womans Univerity

August, 2011

កលវិទយល័យភូមិនទភនំេពញ

Royal University of Phnom Penh
Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities
Department of Social Work

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN
Name of program:

Master Program of Social Work
Major in Social Work

Name of Candidate:

Title of thesis:

HEAK Morina

Youth’s Perspective on Sexual and Reproductive Health
ទស នវិសយរបស់យវវ័យេលើសខភពបន្តពូជ និង



សុខភពផ្លវេភទ


This is to certify that the research carried out for the above titled master’s thesis was completed by the above named candidate under my direct supervision. This thesis material has not been used for any other degree. I played the following part in the preparation of the thesis: conceptual and methodological advice, idea organization advice, and thesis format advice. Supervisor:________________________
SOON Dool Chung

Date: August 13, 2011

កលវិទយល័យភូមិនទភនំេពញ
Royal University of Phnom Penh

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN
This is to certify that the thesis that I, HEAK Morina, hereby presented thesis entitled
“Youth’s Perspective on Sexual and Reproductive Health” for the degree of Master of Arts major in Social Work at the Royal University of Phnom Penh is entirely my own work and, furthermore, that it has not been used to fulfill the requirements of any other qualification in whole or in part, at this or any other University or equivalent institution.
No reference to, or quotation from, this document may be made without the written approval of the author.
Signed by candidate: ________________________
HEAK Morina
Date: August 13, 2011

Countersigned by the Supervisor: ___________________________
SOON Dool Chung
Date: August 13, 2011

្របធនបទៈ ទស ន ស័យរបស់យវវ័យេលីសខភពបន្តព ូជ និង សុខភពផ្លូវេភទ


ម ូលន័យសេងខប
សុខភពបន្តពូជែដលមនុស
មនសមតថភពកនុងករបន្តពូជ
ញឹកញប់កំរ ិត

។ េយង

និងជីវ ិតផ្លូវេភទេ

ចមនករេពញចិត្ត

និងមនេសរ ីភពសំេរចចិត្របសិនេបើ
្ត



យសុវតថិភពែដលពួកេគ
េពល

ឫេតើគួរមេភទ


ម ទិនន័យ CSES ឆំ២០០៧ បនបងញថ សមជិកបុរសកនុង្រគួ


្ហ

រមន

សុខភព្របេសើជងសមជិក្រស្តី។ េលើសពីេនះេទេទៀត ្រស្តី្របឈមនឹងបញសុខភពបន្តពូជ ជពិេសស
្ហ
កំឡុងេពលមនៃផទេពះ។ ចំេណះដឹងរបស់យុវវ ័យ ពក់ព័ន្ឋនឹងសុខភពផ្លូវេភទេនមនកំរ ិតេនេឡើយ។
ដូេចនះេហើយេទើបករសិក េនះបនបេងកើតេឡើងេដើមបីែស្វងយល់ពីចំេណះដឹងរបស់យុវវ ៍យ ថេតើ គត់យល់
ដឹងបនកំរ ិត

? េតើគត់មនទស នៈយ៉ ង

ចំេពះសុខភពបន្តពូជ? េដើមបីេធ្វើករបងញឲយកន់ែត
្ហ

ចបស់ពីចំងល់ខងេលើ មនេគលបំណងបួនែដល្រតូវេធ្វើករសិក
យុវវ ័យេលើសុខភពផ្លូវេភទ

ទី២

ែស្វងរកបញែដលយុវវ ័យ្របឈមមុខេលើសុខភពបន្តពូជទំង
្ហ

និង ងគកយ ទី៣ ែស្វងយល់ពីយុវវ ័យថេតើយុវវ ័យេ

ែស្វងយល់ពីវ ិធី

ះ្រ

យចំេពះបញសុខភពបន្តពូជយ៉ ង
្ហ

ម រតី
ទី៤

្រស្តែដលសហគមន៍ ទំងមូលបនេឆ្លើយតបេទនឹងបញសុខភពបន្តពូជ របស់យុវវ ័យ។
្ហ

ករសិក បនេ្រជើសយកភូមិេសរ ីសុខេ
ពិភក ចំនួនពីរ

ទី១ ែស្វងយល់ពីចំេណះដឹងរបស់

ទីមួយជ្រកុមយុវជន

យេ្របើវ ិធី

្រស្តែបបគុណវ ិស័យែដលរួមមន

និងទីពីរជ្រកុមយុវនរ ី។

មនករសំភសន៍ចំេពះជនសំខន់ចំនួន៣រូបែដលរួមមន្របធនភូមិ
ភូមិេដើមបីេធ្វើករបញក់ពីវ ិធី


្រស្តែដលពួកេគបនេ្របើស្រមប់េ

វ ័យ

យបនយ៉ ងដូចេម្តច។

េហើយេតើពួកេគេ

ះ្រ

ះ្រ

្រកុម

កនុងមួយ្រកុមៗមនចំនួន៨នក់។
ចស់ទុំកុនងភូមិ និង ជំនួយករ

យបញសុខភពបន្តពូជរបស់យុវ
្ហ

មយ៉ ងេទៀតក៏មន

ករណសិក មួយែដលយុវវ ័យ


ធប់ជួប្របទះបញកររួមេភទមុនេពេលេរៀបករ។
្ល
្ហ
អនកចូលរួមភគេ្រចើនបនេរៀបកររួចេហើយ។
េកមង។

យុេរៀបករជមធយមរបស់ពួកេគគឺ១៧ឆំ


ពីេរៀបករបនមួយឆំ។


ភគេ្រចើ នៃនយុវវ ័យកនុងភូមិបនេរៀបករទំងេនវ ័យ

យុវវ ័យបនដឹងថទីកែន្លង

េហើយពួកេគភគេ្រចើនបនស្រមលកូនេ្រកយ
ែដលពួកេគ

យុវនរ ីដឹងពីព័ត៌មនៃនករស្រមលកូនបនេ្រចើនជយុវជន។

ចទទួលេស ស្រមលកូនបន។

េទះជយ៉ ង

ក៏េ

យក៏មនយុវនរ ី

មួយចំនួនធប់មនបទពិេ
្ល


ធន៍កុងកររ ំលូតកូន។ កនុងចំេនមពួកេគ មនមួយចំនួនបនទិញថំចិនេលប


្ហ
្រស្តី្រតូវចំណយពី១០
េទ១៥ដុ ្ល
យខ្លួនឯងកំឡុងេពលយុវជនមិនបនដឹ ងពីបញេនះេនះេទ។

ស្រមប់ថំចិន េហើយមនសមុគ


ម ញបនប់ពីេ្របើរច។ ករណសិក មួយ ែដលយុវនរ ីមក់ធប់រមេភទមុន




្ល


េពលេរៀបករ ក៏បនបញក់ផងែដរកនុង អតថបទ។


ព័ត៌មនែដលពក់ព័ន្ឋនឹងចំេណះដឹងរបស់យុវវ ័យេលើសុខភពបន្តពូជ និងសុខភពផ្លូវេភទ ដូចជ

ករស្រមលកូន កររ ំលូតកូន ករឆ្លងជំងឺកមេ គ និងេអដស៍ ែផនករ្រគួ
ជធកនុងតំបន់េ្របើស្រមប់ែស្វងរកបញ

្ហ

េនះ។

និងេ

ះ្រ

យបញទំងេនះ្រតូវ
្ហ

រ និងវ ិធី

្រស្តែដល

បនពិភក កនុងអតថបទ

i

Title: Youth’s Perspective on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Abstract
Reproductive health therefore implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. According to CSES data in 2007, the data shown that male member in the households were in better health than female member. In addition, women face on high risk with reproductive health, especially during she get pregnant. The knowledge of youth in sexual health is still limited, the study was designed understand how much youth know about sexual reproductive health? And what are their perspectives on sexual health? To clarify the above mentioned, four objectives were be set:

1/ To

understand the knowledge of youth on sexual health. 2/ To find out the problem youth face on sexual health on mental and physical view. 3/ To understand how youth deal with sexual health problem. 4/ To understand the strategy of community as a whole to answer on sexual health problem of youth.
The study was conducted in Serey Sokha village by using qualitative method with 2 focus group discussion: one male group and one female group. There were 8 persons in each group. There were three key informants who were village head and elder in the village, and village head’s assistant to clarify the strategy they use to solve sexual health problem among youth and how to deal with that problem; one case study of youth who got experience in pre-marital sex.
Most of participants are married. Most of youth in the village married in younger age. They married in average age of 17 years old. Most of them gave birth after they were married in one year after. Youth knew where they could access delivery service. Female youth knew about delivery information better than male youth. However, some of female participants have had experience to get abortion. Among them, some bought Chinese pill to take by their own while male youth know nothing about abortion. Female had to pay around 10 to 15 USD to get Chinese pill. And, some got complication after abortion. One case study about bad experience of pre-marital sex of female youth also showed the article.
The information about knowledge of youth on sexual and reproductive health such as birth delivery, abortion, STI and HIV/AIDS, family planning, and the strategy that local authority use to find out the problem and deal with those problem were discuss in the article. ii

Supervisor’s research supervision statement

Royal University of Phnom Penh
A completed, signed and dated copy of this form must be bound into the thesis

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN
Name of program: Master of Arts in Social Work Program

Name of candidate: HEAK MORINA

Title of research report: “Youth’s Perspective on Sexual and Reproductive Health”

This is to certify that the research carried out for the above titled master’s research report was completed by the above named candidate under my direct supervision. This research material has not been used for any other degree. I played the following part in the preparation of the research report:

Supervisor (Sign)
Date:

iii

Candidate’s statement
Royal University of Phnom Penh

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN
This is to certify that the research report that I, Heak Morina, hereby present entitled
“Youth’s Perspective on Sexual and Reproductive Health” for the degree of Master of
Arts in Social Work at the Royal University of Phnom Penh in cooperation with Ewha
Womans University is entirely my own work and, furthermore, that it has not been used to fulfill the requirements of any other qualification in whole or in part, at this or any other
University or equivalent institution.

No reference to, or quotation from, this document may be made without the written approval of the author.

Signed by: Heak Morina
Date: August 2011
Countersigned by the Chief Supervisor

Date:

iv

Acknowledgements
I would like to pay my gratitude to my beloved family (my parents, and all of my sisters) who always help and support me during my study and until I am graduate.
I would give a warmly thanks to my friend, Seang Pisey who always provide both mental and idealistic support from the beginning until the end of my study.
Special thanks to my supervisor SOON Dool Chung who is strongly support, advice, and guide me to design this study from the beginning until the end of the reporting.
I would like to pay deepest thank to Serey Sokha village head who strongly support to my field work study, provide the information to me, and permit me to conduct the study in the village.
Many thanks to elders, village head’s assistant, and people in Serey Sokha village who provided valuable information and made our study’s team feel warm during conducting the information in village.

MASW student,

Heak Morina

v

CONTENTS

Title

Page

Abstract

i

Candidates Statement

ii

Certificate of Authorship/Originality

iii

Acknowledgements

iv

Contents

v

Chapter I
Introduction

1

1.1.Background of the study

1

1.2.Statement of the problem

2

1.3.Objective of the study

2

1.4.Significance of the study

2

1.5.Scope and limitation of the study

3

Chapter II
Literature Review

4

2.1 Definition of Reproductive health

4

2.2 Marriage age of youth in Cambodia

5

2.3 Reproductive health in Cambodia

5

2.4 Knowledge of young people on reproductive health issue

6

2.4.1 Knowledge on Abortion

6

2.4.2 STI and HIV/AID

7

2.5 Contraceptive method

7

2.6 Issue of reproductive health

7

Chapter III
Research Methodology

9

3.1 Research Design and Unit of Analysis

9

3.1.1 Subject

9

3.1.2 Data Collection

9

a.

Focus Group Discussion

9

b.

Key Informant Interview

9

c.

Case Study

9 vi 3.1.3 Data analysis

10

Chapter IV
Discussion of Result
4.1 Demographic information

11

4.1.1

Age of youth in community

11

4.1.2

Education of youth

11

4.1.3

Socio-Economic Status in community

11

4.1.4

Marital status of youth

11

4.2 Knowledge on Sexual health of male and female youth
4.2.1 Sexual health of female youth

12
12

4.2.2.1 Birth Delivery

12

4.2.2.2 Abortion

12

4.2.2.3 STI, HIV/AIDS Infection

13

4.2.2.3.1 Knowledge on STI infection

13

4.2.2.3.2 Knowledge on HIV/AIDS Infection

14

4.2.2.4 STD and HIV/AIDS Prevention

14

4.2.3 Sexual health of male youth

14

4.2.3.1 Birth Delivery

14

4.2.3.2 Abortion

14

4.2.3.3 STI, HIV/AIDS Infection

14

4.2.3.3.1 STI Infection

14

4.2.3.3.2 HIV/AIDS Infection

15

4.2.3.4 STD and HIV/AIDS Prevention
4.3 Attitude toward sexuality treatment (treatment dimension) and family planning
(preventive dimension)

15
15

4.3.1

Attitude of female youth on service providing

15

4.3.2

Attitude of male youth on service providing

15

4.3.3

Family Planning

15

4.4 Finding from Key Informant Interview: Internal Strategy to cope with sexual health problem of youth

16

4.4.1 Local Authority

16

4.4.2 Elder in the village

17

4.5 Perspective of youth on sexual reproductive health

17

vii

Chapter V
Conclusion and Recommendations

18

5.1 Conclusion

18

5.2 Recommendations

18

Reference

20

Appendix I: Question Guide

21

Appendix II: Photo

23

viii

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Both male and female youth role important to responsible for reproductive health care.
According to Policy (2003) found that the median age at first marriage among Cambodian women is
22.5 and among men at 24.2. Median ages for marriage are slightly higher for both women and men in urban areas compared with rural areas, with that for females being 23.6 and that for males 26.6.
Women face high risk on health issue than men. According to CSES data in 2007, the data shown that male member in the households were in better health than female member. In addition, women face on high risk with reproductive health, especially about family planning and during she get pregnant. However, there are not many of them know exactly how to care their reproductive health especially about family planning, and limit the number of children. According to DHS in 2000, one in three Cambodian pregnancies is either unwanted or mistimed. Hence, women also face on risk of unintended pregnancy in case they do not use any contraceptive method. Beside, the data from
CDHS in 2000 and 2005 showed the same number of fertility women, 472 deaths/100,000 live births. These all the result female youth got in case they have low knowledge and less attention on reproductive health.
According to World Health Organization (2005-2011), reproductive health is a state of completed physical, mental, and social well-being that is related to reproductive functions and processes. Reproductive health therefore implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. Implicit in this last condition are the rights of men and women to be informed and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of family planning of their choice, as well as other methods of their choice for regulation of fertility which are not against the law, and the right of access to appropriate health care services that will enable women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth and provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant.
Pregnancy at a young age puts the mother and child at higher risk of serious health consequences. In developing countries, maternal mortality in girls under 18 years of age is estimated to be two to five times higher than in women between 18 and 25 (Briefing notes on selected adolescent health issues,
Geneva, WHO, 2001). Promoting young people’s sexual and reproductive health thus means ensuring their physical and emotional well-being and protecting them from: unintended and unwanted pregnancy; abortion; STI, HIV/AIDS, and reproductive tract infections (RTI); maternal mortality; infertility; and all forms of sexual violence and exploitation (Reproductive health briefing cards. New York, Family Care International, 2005). Moreover, UNFPA Cambodia (2006) showed
1

that the reproductive health situations are: High child and maternal mortality rates, limited resources for health and reproductive health services, poorly skilled and inadequately motivated public health staff, poor health practices and health-seeking behavior resulting in high health care expenditure, continuing ill health, debt and increased poverty, shortage, and mal-distribution of midwives, traditional birth attendants less knowledgeable about danger signs than trained providers, and overconfident in dealing with problems, high levels of unsafe abortion, limited access to comprehensive reproductive health services, particularly for young people and the poor.
Therefore, if there is lacking information or limited resources for health and reproductive health among youth, it can be lead them to face with many problems as rising above.
The result of this study will be the guide of work which informs the information of sexual reproductive health of youth that prevent them from any risks of unsafe sexual reproductive health.
1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Reproductive health is one of top topic in Cambodia and it is on Millennium development goal. The culture in Cambodia is against premarital sex. However, the survey from Ministry of
Health (2006) report that most of sexually active young people were out of school and 2% of youth age 11-18 years old were have sex. In this case, how much youth know about sexual reproductive health? And what are their perspectives on sexual health?
To clarify the above mentioned, there are four questions were used: 1/ how do youth understand about sexual health? 2/Do youth face any sexual problem? 3/How do youth deal with those problems? 4/ How do community deal with sexuality problem of youth?

1.3 OBJECTVIE OF THE STUDY
The study aimed to understand the perception of youth on reproductive health. To make sure the study was followed the aim; the study was conducted through five objectives:
1. To understand the knowledge of youth on sexual health
2. To find out the problem youth face on sexual health on mental and physical view
3. To understand how youth deal with sexual health problem
4. To understand the strategy of community as a whole answer on sexual health problem of youth 1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study tends to remind youth on caring sexual health. Youth can consider the source of information they can find out about sexual health care. Encourage them to be brave talk about sexual health with their partner, friends, and others tend to ask help from them when they needed. Hence, community as a whole can find out the root of problem of sexual health of youth and know the
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strategy to help youth. This study is also the guide for the academic purpose for other students or any researchers who tend to conduct in similar field.

1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study was conducted in Kampong Cham province by purposive. The study was conducted by using qualitative method with 2 focus group discussion: one male group and one female group. There were 8 persons in each group. There were three key informants who were village head and elder in the village, and village head’s assistant to clarify the strategy they use to solve sexual health problem among youth and how to deal with that problem; one case study of youth who got experience in pre-marital sex.
The study was conducted in two months: one and one month of collecting data from books at library and internet.

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CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Definition of Reproductive health
According to WHO, health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system at all stages of life.
There are many definitions of Reproductive Health from different organization:
From WHO: Reproductive Health implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so.
UNFPA: Reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes.
The imbalances in marital status in the age brackets of 40 to 44 and 45 to 49 years, males are
96.7 percent and 96.9 percent have spouses while female are much lower, 78.4 percent and 73.2 percent, respectively. For the age 50 or older, 88.8 percent of male have spouses, compared to only
53.2 percent of females (U.S. Central Intelligence Agency [2002], Nao Sato [2006:2]). However, among 13.1 million people in Cambodia, there are 2.4 million adolescents in Cambodia. In rural areas, there are 85 percent of population are young. They are in active age, there are nearly 20 percent of the population is 15 to 24 years old, NIS [2001]. In addition, there are 8.2 percent of women ages 15 to 19 years old have become mothers or are currently pregnant with their first child.
The women become a mother in young age. While women become a mother, they have less knowledge about reproductive health, and how to become a safe mother especially the way of delivering. According to Policy project [2003], the majority of births were delivered at home, 89 percent. The traditional birth attendants assisted birth with 66 percent, 28 percent delivered by trained midwives, and 4 percent delivered by doctors or nurses. And the other had no outside assistance. Through this, the data also shows that about 2000 Cambodian women die each year of childbirth-related causes. The most important direct causes of maternal deaths are hemorrhage, obstructed labor, hypertension, and sepsis.
Reproductive health issue is set in Millennium Development Goal in Cambodia. As a country of developing, Cambodian’s government corporate with both local and international agencies as
Local Non-Government Organization (LNGOs) and International Non-Government Organization
(INGOs) to improve on health sector as reproductive health. Reproductive Health is one of big concern for the government need to solve. After PolPot regime, the imbalance numbers of men and women in society is remained. The educational system starts to be strength; however, the priority of
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participation among family member are boy because girl still follow the role important in family rather than in society. The member in family encourage boy to study even it is formal, informal or non-formal education. Through this, girls have low general knowledge include health, role, and right.
Most of women who face high risk in reproductive health is the women who become a mother. In rural areas, in Cambodia, even women have one or two children already, but they still have less knowledge about reproductive health. Moreover, the decision making of women in the family also low. According to NIS[2001], “only 37 percent of women make decisions about their own health care, and the other 52.5 percent make decisions jointly with their husbands”.
Nowadays, there are many organizations who work on health issue relates to reproductive health such as family planning, and maternal and child health such as WHO, UNFPA, UNDP, Care,
KHANA, RACHA, RHAC, Health Unlimited and so on. These agencies try to promote about reproductive health care through different images to the community.
2.2 Marriage age of youth in Cambodia
In 2003 by Policy found that Cambodia has a young primarily rural (85%) population. More than one-half of the population of 13.1 million is younger than 20, and nearly 20 percent of the population is 15–24 years old. Cambodia has younger age of married than other countries; it means youth in Cambodia married in younger age than other countries.
Policy found there is approximately 2.4 million adolescent live in Cambodia, and the size of this age group will increase rapidly over the next 15 years, peaking a 3.8 million in 2015. By 2020, it is estimated that approximately 3.55 million youth will be living in Cambodia (Appendix 2).They found it the knowledge of reproductive health and issues such as birth spacing shown to be lower for adolescent group. They did not have good knowledge on menstruating and first pregnancy sign.
Policy found within marriage, women experience a considerable lack of autonomy. They rarely have the final say on any marital decision making except about daily household purchases. Only 37 percent of women make decisions about their own health care; 52.5 percent make such decisions jointly with their husbands.
2.3 Reproductive Health in Cambodia
MOH (2006), “Cambodia has made considerable progress over the last decade, but continuing challenges include high maternal, neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality rates, low rates of delivery by skilled personnel, high unmet need for contraceptive services, high levels of anaemia in women of reproductive age, and high STI and HIV transmission. Reproductive and sexual health is fundamental to individuals, couples, families, and the socioeconomic development of the country. Thus in 1994, the government created the National Reproductive Health Programme
(NRHP) to meet Cambodia’s reproductive health needs. The NRHP implements the reproductive
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health policies and strategies of the Kingdom of Cambodia, contributing toward achieving the
Health Sector Strategic Plan, the National Strategic Development Plan, The ICPD Programme of
Action, and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The NRHP mission is to contribute to the improved wellbeing of the Cambodian people through (i) better reproductive health nationwide, (ii) increased gender equity, and (iii) a more sustainable balance between population, resources, and socio-economic development.”
Table 1: Number of pregnancy outcomes in thousand from 2000-2020
.Pregnancy Outcomes (000’s)
2000
2005
2010
Total Pregnancies
203
327
342
Births
113
197
205
Abortions
59
81
86
Miscarriages
31
49
51
Source of table: Policy (2003) p.25

2015
369
221
92
55

2020
368
226
86
55

2.4 Knowledge of young people on reproductive health issue
Cambodia people tend to get married in younger age than their neighbor country. According to National of Institute of Public Health in 1999, young Cambodia people got married in mean age
18.8 years old.
It is considered unusual to remain unmarried much beyond the age of 24 in rural Cambodian society and there is much social and economic pressure applied to ensure that young people get married as soon as possible. During pregnancy, women can get Antenatal Care (ANC) in public facility as they have skilled and trained mid-wives. More, Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA) also alliance is an initiative to increase skilled birth attendance and referral through collaboration between midwives and TBAs. It includes training selected midwives in lifesaving skills and breastfeeding counseling, building maternity houses in remote locations, and encouraging TBAs to refer pregnant women to health centers, assist midwives with deliveries, and educate women in the community.
Even government gained policies on reproductive health, they still face problem.
2.4.1 Knowledge on Abortion
Unwanted pregnant is a big issue for women. The choice that most of women decide to deal with this problem is end the pregnancy. Since November 1997, abortion law was set, but there are not many Cambodian knew about this law. Until now, most of Cambodian does not want to say about abortion because it is immoral in Buddhist strictures. However, if a young woman wants an abortion; they found the solution was end pregnancy and the fee was found in case study of factory workers by CARE (1999) is 20 USD for one month of gestation and 10 USD three months of gestation. 6

2.4.2 STI and HIV/AID
The most commonly known symptom found by Laddaporn Ampornsuwanna, et al (2000) from young people who is mostly in youth age was burning and itching, and some other symptom is vaginal discharge. Young people considered commercial sex workers and men who patronised commercial sex workers as the most likely to become infected with STDs. Young women were more likely to identify males visiting commercial sex workers as the main source for contacting STDs.
Male are more likely be aware than female. Some young Cambodian can list the name of STD as syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid, and genital warts.
2.5 Contraceptive method
Young people in Cambodia believed that if they participated in sexual activities on a regular basis pregnancy would be more likely to result than if they did not practice family planning methods.
Most sexually active young people were out of school youth, and only a third of those who were sexually active reported always using condoms.
However, they should be careful when using such methods as these could negatively impact on their health. The study of Laddaporn Ampornsuwanna, et al (2000) found less young people use contraceptive method included condom is a favorite method, injectable, pills, IUDs and traditional method which were not defined. Some other methods were found such as sterilization, and withdrawal. The CARE survey of garment workers found that over 85 per cent of respondents had heard about HIV/AIDS (Sprechmann, 1999:17-21). A higher percentage of male than female workers and those with good literacy skills had heard about the virus. The study of Laddaporn Ampornsuwanna, et al (2000) found the most influential source of information was mass media (95.3%), friends
(39.8%), public health workers (32.4%), posters/leaflets (22.1%), relatives (19.5%) and teachers
(8.5%). The most risky form of transmission was recognised to be sexual intercourse with paid sex workers. Over two-thirds (67%) of young garment workers knew that HIV/AIDS could be transmitted through the sharing of needles and another 40 per cent through infected blood transfusions. And, some others noted that mothers could transmit the virus to their babies, either prior to birth, or through breast feeding.
Condom used is popular method to prevent STI and HIV/AIDS.

2.6 Issue of reproductive health
The reproductive health is a big issue. The government in each country made policy tends to reduce the issue. Some women have many children that make the mother becomes unhealthy. The ministry of health and some other agencies consider about the method to reduce this problem. Family planning methods are methods to introduce women on delaying the space of birth. There are many
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methods such as daily pill, monthly pill, male condom, female condom, injection, IUD, inplant, and the traditional method include calendar, withdrawal, and sterilization.
Global data from UNFPA(2004) shows that at least 200 million women want to use safe and effective family planning methods, but are unable to do so because they lack access to information and services or the support of their husbands and communities. And more than 50 million of the 190 million women who become pregnant each year have abortions. Many of these are clandestine and performed under unsafe conditions. About 19 million of the estimated 45 million induced abortions performed annually are unsafe (done by untrained people in less-than-hygienic circumstances). The women face high risk. Nearly 70,000 women die as a result, representing 13 per cent of pregnancyrelated deaths.
‘The need for voluntary family planning is growing fast, and it is estimated that the
'unmet need' will grow by 40 per cent during the next 15 years. But even though it is an economically sound investment, family planning has been losing ground as an international development priority. Funding is decreasing, and the gap between the need and the available resources is growing.’
The data in Cambodia show some women go to ask for any assistant for abortion. In
Cambodia, women are admitted to get abortion in the past five years. There are 41 percent get abortions in health facility. 27 percent in a public medical facility, 23 percent in theirs home, and 7 percent taking place in other homes; and the most common abortion methods were dilation, curettage and vacuum aspiration. Even abortion law in Cambodia prior since 1997, but both provider and clients do not know exactly until 2007. Moreover, there are still unsafe abortions are performed.

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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design and Unit of Analysis
3.1.1 Subject
The study was conducted in Serey Sokha village, Krek commune, Ponheakrek district,
Kampong Cham province by purposive. The sample represents the knowledge of youth and their practice on sexual health reproductive in the village as well. The study used semi-structured interviewing with focus group discussion, key informant, and case study. For focus group discussion, there are eight participants in each group which was sixteen participants in total, 8 males and 8 females. Three key persons as an elder in community, a village head, and an assistant of village head.
A case study was selected from woman who face problem in reproductive health and would like shared her experience.

3.1.2 Data Collection
a. Focus Group Discussion
There were 2 Focus Group Discussions; one male group and one female group tend to compare the knowledge of these two groups. There are 8 members in the groups which were chosen by village head and they were from 15-24 years old. The participants were recruited by quota sampling which selected only youth and age from 15 to 24 years old, and live in Serey Sokha village.
Focus group discussion was design to get information about knowledge of sexual health, defined the problem of sexual health they face.
b. Key Informant Interview
Key informant was conducted with three persons in the village: one elder, one village head, and one village head’s assistant. For key persons were purposely interviewed village head, village head assistant and an elder in the village who were policy maker and has power in the community.
The strategy of educating knowledge of sexual health to youth and problem the youth face in the village was ask with these key persons.
c. Case Study
There was a case study was selected specific persons who face problem on reproductive health and they volunteered to share their own experiences with this study. A case study was set by writing the background of a female youth who had pre-marital sex and the problem she face during that time. Experience sharing was written.

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3.1.3 Data analysis
The data selected from FGD were analyzed by qualitative data analysis method, specifically content analysis using Microsoft Excel program. They were entered to Ms. Excel, highlight and count the probability of answer of respondents. The study was written in quotation into Ms. Word and Ms. Excel program. Case study was transcript in Ms. Word and described the background of respondent along the information of sexual health. Observation was described the result from observation in Ms. Word.

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CHAPTER IV
DISCUSSION OF RESULT
4.1 Demographic information
Serey Sokha village is located in Krek commune, Ponheakrek district, Kampong Cham province which is North-East of Cambodia. Serey Sokha village has 245 families. It is land for rice field and plantation. This village has enough water for their plantation which they got from channel.
There is one health center is located in the commune which is eight kilometer from the village.

4.1.1 Age of youth in community
Youth in Serey Sokha village mostly ages from fifteen to eighteen years old. 60 percents were youth, 40 percents among this percentage were female. Compare between male and female, there were younger male youth than female.
4.1.2 Education of youth
Most of participants were studied in secondary school. Male youth as higher education compared to female, finish secondary school while female did not. The study found that most of participants who studied in secondary school age from fifteen to seventeen years old. The study of
Laddaporn Ampornsuwanna, et al (2000) found similar; most young women are less educational than young man.

4.1.3 Socio-Economic Status in community
Most of people in the community were famer. While some were sellers, factory workers, and government staffs. In addition, most of youth in Serey Sokha village were female who famers were, some were students, and some other was factory sellers. Most of participants is married and studied in secondary school, while most of male participants had higher level of education than female.

4.1.4 Marital Status of youth
Most of participants are married. Most of youth in the village married in younger age. They married in average age of 17 years old. Male youth tended to married older than female youth in age of 20 years old in average compared to female youth was 15 years old. According to Laddaporn
Ampornsuwanna, et al (2000) also found that Cambodia Youth tended to marry at a much younger age than other youth in neighbor country. National Institute of Public Health in 1999 also shown that the mean age of marriage of youth is 18.8 years. Female tended to marry in age before 20 years old while male is age before 24 years old.

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4.2 Knowledge on Sexual health of male and female youth
Most of participants did not have much knowledge of sexual health formal education. Most of them knew the information of sexual health from NGOs, their parents and elder in village.
4.2.2 Sexual health of female youth
Most of female participants got first pregnant in age of 18 years old in average. Most of them gave birth after they were married in one year after. Most of the reason was they wanted to have children in young age and their children can assist them when they get old. Some reason was they heard that it was not good to apply family planning method before they have children.
4.2.2.1 Birth Delivery
Most of female participants got pregnant three times. Among those, most of them were educated on antenatal care, delivery, and postpartum care from their parents and elders in the village.
Some were educated from village health volunteer, and some others were educated from health provider. 4.2.2.2 Abortion
Some of female participants have had experience to get abortion. Among them, some bought
Chinese pill to take by their own. Some others assisted from Traditional Birth Attendance (TBA).
Even Cambodia has abortion law (November 1997), however women still have less knowledge of safe abortion. According to MOH (2006) unsafe abortion remains one of the most common causes of maternal death (20-29%). The awareness of female youth in the village is still low on safe abortion even it is the way to treat them safe from fertility. Comprehensive Abortion Care(CAC) method is strengthened by Options, Cambodia since 2008. This includes pre-abortion counselling, abortion procedures, post-abortion counselling, and family planning.
Furthermore, few of them knew some female youth in the village had pre-marital sex. Thus found unsafe abortion service from their friends. They felt surprise when they heard the question about safe abortion. They did not have any ideas about safe abortion service. They needed to spend much money to unsafe abortion service.
According to village head’s assistant claimed that “Young women did not discuss with other beside their peer about they want to get abortion. They mostly went to pharmacy and bough Chinese pill to abort them self. It is really danger but they did not know what else they can do. Beside, they spent from $10 to $15 for that pill. It is really expensive.” The study of Laddaporn Ampornsuwanna, et al (2000) found that women factory workers spent $20 to $60 to get abortion. However,
Laddaporn did not explain it was the price of safe or unsafe abortion.

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A female youth in village shown her case study as had a pre-marital sex and got abortion once:
Case study 1: Women got unsafe abortion
Kolab (is a nick name from the study) is 21 years old. She is a seller. She stops study when she was 19 years old in grade 10. She was a second child in family. She went to work in a garment factory in Phnom Penh after she stops studying immediately for one year. There, she met a boy who worked in the same factory. She felt in love with him and start to get relationship with him. Sonly, they started to have deeper relationship. They live together after one month of relationship. One month later, she got pregnant and their relationship was break. The man escaped and she did not know how to deal with that. She went back her hometown. She discussed with her close friend in the village. Her friend accompanied her to buy Chinese pill in pharmacy. She was bleeding strongly after she took that pill. Her parents were worried about her, and brought her to health center. After her parents knew the story, they blamed her much. She felt hopeless then she came back to Phnom Penh again.
There, she went to Reproductive Health Association of Cambodia (RHAC) to counseling on sexual health. After that, she was happy that she knew how to care her health, especially sexual health, and she could face with her parents. After living in Phnom Penh as garment factory worker for one year, she came back to her home town and changed her work as a seller. The study of Laddaporn Ampornsuwanna, et al (2000) noted two main reasons which engaged to abortion: “First, young Cambodian males are not very supportive of their female lovers who give birth outside of marriage, although to arrange a marriage for a pregnant young woman is not that difficult in Cambodia, depending of course on the socio-economic background of the woman and her partner. Second it is legal to seek an abortion in Cambodia despite Buddhist strictures about abortion being immoral. Cambodian society appears to be quite pragmatic in this respect.” In case they had sex in younger age, they face higher risk of many problems in their life. Other health issue will come to them if they did not aware anything about sexual health.

4.2.2.3 STI, HIV/AIDS Infection
4.2.2.3.1 Knowledge on STI infection
The study found most of female respondents did not aware deeply on STI infection. They mostly could not list only two name of STI, vaginal discharge and syphilis. The similar result was found in Kratie province by Laddaporn Ampornsuwanna, et al (2000), young people had low knowledge on STI, about one-fifth of them. They found, there were not many people knew syphilis.
However, the study of Laddaporn found there were less young people could list the name of vaginal discharge as a kind of STI.
Most of female participants knew that itch and pain in the vagina is a symptom of vaginal discharge. Some other knew swell on the vagina or penis was a symptom of syphilis. Similarly, the study of Laddaporn Ampornsuwanna, et al (2000) found that fever inability to urinate, swollen glands and penile discharge were not known as the symptom of STD.
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4.2.2.3.2 Knowledge on HIV/AIDS Infection
The study found that there were many female youth knew about HIV/AIDS symptom rather than STI. They knew HIV/AIDS can transmit from one person to another through blood, and semen touching. Most of them knew the way to transmit were: sharing needles to inject drugs, having sex with HIV/AIDS person without condom, breastfeeding to the child. The study of MOH in 2003 found that the primary and secondary means of HIV transmission as being from husband to wife and mother to child. The relevant causes were gender inequality, poverty, and social marginalization. The transmission could be formed by coughing and sneezing, mosquito bites, casual contact with infected people, and sharing of spoons, glasses or plates were found in study of Laddaporn Ampornsuwanna, et al (2000). The similar cases were found in the study that some of female youth shared coughing, wearing same clothes, and using same toilet were the transmitted the disease.

4.2.2.4 STD and HIV/AIDS Prevention
Most of female youth in the village knew that STI and HIV/AIDS could be prevented by did not have sex with the people who had that kind of disease. Some other knew they used condom to prevent from STI and HIV/AIDS. Some provided that did not use same needles to injection could be avoid the transmission. The study of Laddaporn Ampornsuwanna, et al (2000) found that 73percent said condom use would prevent transmission and 60 percent believed faithfulness to one sexual partner. Using condom, avoiding sexual intercourse with commercial sex workers, monogamy and abstinence from sexual intercourse were also mentioned to prevent STI infection.

4.2.3 Sexual health of male youth
4.2.3.1 Birth Delivery
Most of male youth mentioned they would assist their wife in case they needed. Mean that they followed from what their wife suggest them to do such as brought their wife to do Antenatal
Care (ANC) at health center, and bought the medicine for their wife. Some shared they would not allow their wife to work hard and carried heavy thing.
4.2.3.2 Abortion
Male youth had less knowledge on abortion than female. Most of male youth did not know any safe abortion service. Most of them did not want their wife get abortion.

4.2.3.3 STI, HIV/AIDS Infection
4.2.3.3.1 STI Infection
Male youth knew about STI, HIV/AIDS infection than women. Most of male youth knew
STI was: Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Syphilis, Vaginal Discharge. However, they could not divide symptom clearly of each disease. They knew the symptom of STI were watery from the penis, pain
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in abdomen, rush on the penis. According to study of Laddaporn Ampornsuwanna, et al (2000) found young man had better knowledge on STI than young woman. They knew STI would be transmitted trough spread during vaginal, anal or oral sex with someone who has those diseases.
4.2.3.3.2 HIV/AIDS Infection
Both male and female youth had the same knowledge on HIV/AIDS transmission. All of them knew that HIV/AIDS was transmitted from one to another through blood, and semen. More, they knew HIV/AIDS.
4.2.3.4 STD and HIV/AIDS Prevention
According to Laddaporn Ampornsuwanna, et al (2000) found that young male were agreed to practice some method to avoid transmission from HIV/AIDS such as non-sharing of syringes, personal hygiene, condom use, stay away from people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), avoidance of intercourse with commercial sex workers and respect Cambodian moral. Cambodian culture was providing opportunity for males talk about sexist in the public than females.

4.3 Attitude toward sexuality treatment (treatment dimension) and family planning
(preventive dimension)
4.3.1 Attitude of female youth on service providing
Most of respondents, both male and female youth, knew they can ask about delivery from health center. In addition, they knew they could find abortion information from TBA, elder, pharmacy and private clinic. STI and HIV/AIDS information from public facility as health center, referral hospital, and hospital with public service provider as doctor, nurse, and midwife.
4.3.2 Attitude of male youth on service providing
Most of male youth mentioned that they would bring their wife to public facility to do ANC, delivery, and postpartum. Most of them brought their wife two times to get those services, compared to female youth thought that they went to health center at least three times for ANC. However, the study did not found any abortion among FGD respondents.
4.3.3 Family Planning
Most of respondents knew family planning methods were daily pill, injectables, condom, implant, and Intra Uterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD or known as IUD). Most of female respondents knew female sterilization was of the family planning method while male youth knew nothing. According to village head, he said most of youth in his village went to pharmacy to bough contraceptive method as daily pill was a popular method for everyone.
In the study, most of single male youth claimed that they used condom with their partner as sex workers and withdrawal with their girl friends. For married male youth said they used nothing with their wife because their wife took daily pill; and some other used injectables.
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Most of them went to pharmacy to get those methods, and some mentioned they went to health center. Most of female youth preferred go to pharmacy rather than went to public facility to get contraceptive method, while male youth preferred to go to health center.
Most of respondents said they spend 0.5 USD for daily pill, and 5 USD for injectables, and
0.125 USD for condom.
Most of respondents said they used contraceptive method to delay birth spacing, save money, have time to take care their children, and prevent from STI, HIV/AIDS (condom used). Laddaporn
Ampornsuwanna, et al (2000) also shown that young people decided to use contraceptive method tended to avoid pregnancy. If was more confident for pre-marital sex between male and female youth to guarantee pregnancy.
4.4 Finding from Key Informant Interview: Internal Strategy to cope with sexual health problem of youth
4.4.1 Local Authority
The knowledge of youth in the community on sexual health is still low there are several strategies that local authority tried to deal with that problem.
Village head said that “we have contacted to health center to provide sexual health care information every month during meeting in the commune. We also encourage woman to get ANC, and delivery at public facility at least health center where is located in our region. We always educate about sexual health issue to people in our village every time we have meeting and our village assistant who responsible for this case. I sent her to get training and women in village, especially female youth preferred to ask her rather than me.”

Diagram 1: Reproductive Health Information Diagram in Village
Power Shared
Village Head

Reproductive
Health

Meeting

Village Head’s
Assistant

Training

4.4.2 Elder in the village
Beside, elders in village were one of important key person to provide knowledge on youth.
Still, most of respondents trusted on their elders, they always asked them first before they ask other

16

in the village. According to village assistant claimed that “Before they come to me, they ask the elder in the village first. It does not mean they did not trust me, but they thought elders got many experiences and they could share for basically information likes pregnancy care. And, they come to me to ask where should they go to get delivery, how much they can save for delivery service.”
Hence, the elder who was a key person provided health message to the community.
According to an elder in the village said that “young people come to ask me about their health, especially delivery care. I told them to care as what we had experiences from our older generation. I told them for pregnancy checking (Antenatal Care), you should go to health center because they have modern instrument.” Even the elders in the village had based on traditional health care, they still encourage female youth go to health center.

4.5 Perspective of youth on sexual reproductive health
According to village head said that most of male youth thought they were not happy to hear their female relatives or wife talk about reproductive health or sex. “They thought Khmer woman,
Cambodian woman, should not talk about sex because it was not acceptable in Khmer culture” village head. In contrast, they though women should join any meeting about reproductive health. On the other hands, most of youth in community thought they could find reproductive health care service in health center and RHAC clinic.
“They, youth, said they can find service in health center near by our village, or some could find service in RHAC clinic.” “I thought they had good knowledge on where they could find service.” village head.
“Many awareness from RHAC in our village and I saw many youth came and joined. They were very interested on reproductive health topic. I thought not many elders in village accept this idea because of our culture, it is not polite topic to take in public place” elder in village stated.
Even there were some complicated in the village on this topic at the first time, however, there were now much better and most of youth in community dared to discuss about reproductive health with elder in community.

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CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Conclusion

The knowledge of Youth in Serey Sokha village on reproductive health was still limited.
Most of information about reproductive health that youth knew was about birth deliver. They knew they can access information on reproductive health in health center, private clinic, pharmacy, and
TBA. Thus, they could receive service in health center for ANC, and delivery. Female youth knew about delivery information better than male youth. In addition, youth knew if they had unintended pregnancy, they would ended their pregnancy in health center and private clinic. However, male youth knew nothing about abortion. In contrast, youth still had less knowledge on STI and
HIV/AIDS; female youth knew less information about STI and HIV/AIDS rather than male youth.
Youth in that village could recognize the sign of STI and HIV/AIDS, and they knew where they could find treatment place as state facility (high quote). Youth knew they could avoid unwanted pregnancy by using contraceptive method such as condom, daily pill, injectables, and withdrawal.
They got his information from provider in state hospital, elders in village, village head’s assistants, and friends (peer).
Most of female youth in the village faced similar problem, they could not decide which proper contraceptive method they should use was. Some youth did not find a proper place they could get information about reproductive health. Moreover, between husband and wife did not talk clearly about sexual health as most of male youth, husband, did not clear about abortion information and did not participate in decision to do abortion. Most of youth suggested advice from elders in village to get any detail information where they should deal with these problems. However, they still had less solution on dealing with the problem they face. Through these problems, there were some strategies from local authority to deal such improving knowledge of youth in the community by educating in the meeting in village. More, the elders in village role important to guide youth to go to the right place that they got those information.
5.2 Recommendations
The study was limited on knowledge, attitude toward treatment, and practice of youth on sexual health and treatment. The study did not separate between single and married youth on sexual reproductive health. However, next study should be study separately between single and married youth on reproductive and sexual health issue because it was important to know the differentiation between these two groups and find out the issue of youth face differently between single and married group. 18

The study found awareness meeting was a good solution to educate youth on their health care, so there are some recommendations to local authority on solving on reproductive health:
-

Local authority should have connection with NGOs to educate youth in the community on reproductive sexual health as delivery, abortion, and STI.

-

Local authority should establish a village health volunteer that the members should be elders in the village.

Elder in the community also role important to educate youth, so the elders should be train on sexual health and encourage them to continue guide youth to get information in right place as state facility However, every awareness meeting in the village should be invite health center staff to educate about sexual health care at least one per trimester.
Youth themselves should go to health provider to get right information about sexual and reproductive health rather than go to other inappropriate places.

19

REFERENCES
1. Source from the book
Graham Fordham.(2003). Adolescent Reproductive health in Cambodia. Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Laddaporn Ampornsuwanna, et al. (2000). Case study, Cambodia: communication and advocacy strategies adolescent reproductive and sexual health. Bangkok: UNESCO PROAP
Naomi Walston. (2005). Challenges and Opportunities for Male Involvement in Reproductive
Health in Cambodia. Phnom Penh
Ministry of Health (2006). National Strategy for Reproductive and Sexual Health in Cambodia
2006
2010. Phnom Penh
Policy (2003). Adolescent and Youth reproductive health in Cambodia. Cambodia
2. Source from internet
UNFPA.(2004). Reproductive Health for Communities in Crisis. Retrieved January 26, 2010 from http://www.unfpa.org/rights/motherhood.htm UNFPA.(2004). Reproductive Health and Family Planning. Retrieved January 25, 2010 from http://www.unfpa.org/swp/2004/english/ch6/index.htm UNFPA.(2004). Maternal Health. Retrieved January 25, 2010 from http://www.unfpa.org/rh/planning.htm UNFPA.(2004). Supporting the Constellation of Reproductive Rights. Retrieved January 25, 2010 from http://www.unfpa.org/rights/rh.htm
UN (1985). Youth and the United Nation. Retrieve from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unyin/qanda.htm on 25 March 2011.
28, 2011.
UNFPA Cambodia (2006). Cambodia at the glance. Retrieve from http://www.un.org.kh/unfpa/_about/briefing_kit.htm#reproductive on March 28, 2011.
World Health Organization (2005-2011). Reproductive health. Retrieve from http://www.wpro.who.int/health_topics/reproductive_health/general_info.htm on 28 March
WHO.(2009). Reproductive health. Retrieved January 25, 2010 from http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/en/ 20

APPENDIX I
Question Guide
Reproductive Health
(2FGDs, Male and Female Group:8 persons in each group)
I.

General information
Sex
Age
Education
Occupation
Marital Status

II.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Information about STI/HIV/AIDS
How long have you get married?
How many children do you have?
Have you heard about STI? HIV/AIDS?
Have you joined any sexual health awareness?
Where can you get information about sexual health?
Do you know any sign of sexual problem?
Was this information new or did you hear about this before?

III.
Contraception
8. What type of information did you hear about on contraception that you did not know before?
9. What (other) method of contraception do you know?
10. Where do you get that information?
11. Have you ever use birth spacing method?
12. Where did you get it?
13. What are your experiences?
14. Any comment/suggestion?

Question guide to Village Head
Reproductive Health
(IDI)
1. Age, job background, education, secondary job?
2. Are there any problems of reproductive health (STI, HIV/AIDS, Contraception, where they get birth delivery, abortion?) among youth in his village? list the problem: which one is main problem? 3. How much youth in your village know about reproductive health (STI, HIV/AIDS,
Contraception, where they get birth delivery, abortion?)?
4. Where do they get information (STI, HIV/AIDS, Contraception, where they get birth delivery, abortion?) from?
5. How do you deal with that problem? (Policy? Strategy?)
6. Have they asked you for advice? If so, what advice did you provide them?
7. Do you have any connection with other organization to disseminate on reproductive health in your community? If so, which organization? What information?
If no, do you have any plan to do that?
8. Comment or Suggestion?

21

Question guide to Elder & Village Assistant
Reproductive Health
(IDI)
1. Age, sex, education, occupation, job background(for Village Assistant)
2. Are there any problems of reproductive health (STI, HIV/AIDS, Contraception, where they get birth delivery, abortion?) among youth in his village? list the problem: which one is main problem? 3. How much youth in your village know about reproductive health (STI, HIV/AIDS,
Contraception, where they get birth delivery, abortion?)?
4. Where do they get information (STI, HIV/AIDS, Contraception, where they get birth delivery, abortion?) from?
5. How do you deal with that problem? (Policy? Strategy?)
6. Have they asked you for advice? If so, what advice did you provide them?
7. Have you ever learn about reproductive health? If so, where did you learn from?
8. Comment or Suggestion?

22

APPENDIX II

Photo 1: Focus group discussion with female and male youth in community
There were eight participants in each group who provided data on sexual reproductive health in the community 23

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