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Ottoman lands * Selim III was overthrown and European powers began looking for ways to take the lands. * Geopolitics is the interest of taking lands because of its strategic positioning, geopolitics played an important role in Ottoman lands * Powers were very interested in Ottoman lands since it would control the Mediterranean and Atlantic sea trade. Merchants had to go through these lands. * The discovery of oil in Persia and Arabian Peninsula created more tension around this area
Russia and Crimean War * Russia wanted to gain the Ottoman lands because of its grain exports * Russian czars would launch a war on the Ottomans to gain the Black Sea territory * The wars were fought on a peninsula and was called the Crimean War * Fearing that Russia would gain the Black Sea lands, France and Britain joined the ottoman side * The combined forces defeated the Russians * Even after winning the war against Russia, the Ottomans continued to lose territory. * The Russians had helped the Slavic people who were rebelling against the Ottomans at the time * Ottomans lost Romania, Montenegro, Cyprus, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Bulgaria.
Geopolitics lands create problems again * Great Britain and Russia fight over Muslim Lands * Great Game was the war over India, which were currently Britain’s most profitable colonies. * Russia wanted to gain India’s’ wealth but the British had successfully defended. * After successfully defending, the British actually tried to spread its empire into Afghanistan. * Afghanistan was familiar with powers trying to invade the kingdom. Great Britain retreated after decades.
Egypt makes reforms * Seeing how powerful other nations were Egypt had to adapt. * Egypt made political and social reforms * Military and economic reforms followed. * Ottoman had sent Muhammad Ali to govern Egypt but Muhammad Ali broke away * Muhammad Ali fought battles in order to gain Syria and Arabia. * Muhammad Ali made several reforms in military and in the economy. * He directed his lands to grow cash crops which brought Egypt into the international marketplace * Continuing his grandfathers’ reforms, Isma’il supported the construction of Suez Canal. * Suez canal was a waterway that connected the Red Sea and the Mediterranean *

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