Free Essay


In: Business and Management

Submitted By zaheerali12
Words 399
Pages 2
What is Ethical Issue ?
A problem or situation that requires a person or organization to choose between alternatives that must be as right (ethical) or wrong (unethical).

History of Nike:
. Start with 2 man trying to make good shoes
. In 1964 Phil Knight and University of Oregon Track coach Billy found Blue Ribbon later name as Nike.
. Nike Sport good in Japan and US. market.
. In 1978 Nike become the world largest seller for Ethical goods.
ETHICAL Problems:
1) Role of Government:
The role of the government also plays a major role in these challenges that are faced by Nike. As we know that government laws and regulations are differ from country to country and this makes manufacturing of products very difficult challenge for the international companies like Nike.
2) Ethical Responsibility:

The management of Nike should understand that why ethical responsibility is needed within the company because it is the organization’s management to make decisions and take actions that will grow and interest of the society and as well the organization.
3) Nike Labor issue in Pakistan:
Nike has been accused of using child labour in the production of its soccer balls in Pakistan
. GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) and WTO (World Trade Organization) member nations, like the United States, against the importation of goods made by Children.
Child labor exists in Sialkot both in the export sector and the domestic sector. This fact has been well documented and reported by the international media for several years because In Pakistan it is clearly documented that child labor is against the law.
4) Nike fail to address cooperate social responsibility early on:
. do not care about social responsibility
.they use easiest way to achieved it's goals of the company
. Fail to communicate with Top management
5) How it all started - Consumer awareness:
When the June, 1996 issue of Life magazine carried an article about child labor in Pakistan, Nike knew that it was in trouble. In this matter all activists across Canada and the United States were standing in front of Nike outlets,
6) Health and Safety Problems in Vietnam: Back Ground:
The five Nike factories in Vietnam, owned by Korean and Taiwanese subcontractors, employed over 35,000people,

Included young women, who left village to earn better wages.

Many health and safety standards in Vietnam are ignored by Nike factories like wages problem working condition .

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...Sindhi was born at Sialkot. Khawaja Muhammad Safdar a former Acting President of Pakistan and Chairman of the Majlis-e-Shoora also hails from Sialkot. Khawaja Muhammad Asif, The former Speaker of the National Assembly, and Acting President, Chaudhry Amir Hussain, the Interior Minister Rehman Malik and Mirza Shahid Saleem Baig Deputy Inspector General of Prisons Punjab also hail from Sialkot. The Pakistani (Lollywood) actor Waheed Murad, Indian (Bollywood) actors Rajendra Kumar and A. K. Hangal were also born at Sialkot.Ghulam Ali, the Ghazal singer and Ustad Allah Rakha, the famous Sarangi Nawaz, are also from Sialkot. Sialkot is the home city of many players of the Pakistan National Cricket Team. Ijaz Butt, (Chairman Pakistan Cricket Board), Zaheer Abbas, Ijaz Ahmed, Shoaib Malik,Mansoor Amjad, Zahid Fazal, Abdur Rehman, and Jawaid Iqbal (Hong Kong National Cricket player) were all born at Sialkot. The captains and players of the Pakistani National Hockey team including Shahnaz Sheikh, Manzoor Hussain Jr., Nasir Ali, Asif Bajwa, (Secretary of Pakistan Hockey Federation), Tariq Sheikh, Zahid Sheikh, Muhammad Waqas Sharif, Mahmood Hussain, Maqsood Hussain, Munir Bhattiand Kamran Ashraf also hail from this city. Senate Chairman Mr.Farooq Hamid Naek originally belongs to a family from Sialkot and settled in Karachi. All these people have really transformed the life of their following generation by giving them inspiration to make their name by doing something innovative the......

Words: 1794 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Financial Management Db1

...organizations, there are some advantages and disadvantages to them (Zaheer, N.D). The advantages to a sole proprietorship are as follows. They are easy to set up. Decisions are made by one person, since there is only one owner who has control. The income is taxed only once as personal income. One disadvantage is that the owner has unlimited liability for the obligations of the organization. It can also be difficult to raise financial capital for the organization (Zaheer, N.D). Similar to sole proprietorships, partnerships are easy to set up and the income is only taxed once. With partnerships, you have access to more financial capital than a proprietorship. There is also specialization, more skills will be available. A disadvantage would be that there may be disagreements between partners which can generate a lot of issues when it comes to making decisions. There is also unlimited liability for partners. There may be legal issues when a partner leaves the organization (Zaheer, N.D). An advantage for a corporation would be that there is a limited liability for the obligation of the firm. You have access to large financial capital by selling stocks and bonds. You can hire and replace personnel whenever necessary. One disadvantage would be that there is a double taxation of the income on the profits of the corporation and the profit which is received as income. Owners also have minimal say in management decisions (Zaheer, N.D). The main goal of a financial manager is to......

Words: 425 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...improvement in alliance performance justifies this effort, which in turn depends on the type of uncertainty faced. Strategic alliances blur firm boundaries and create mutual dependence between previously independent firms (McEvily, Perrone, & Zaheer, 2003). A distinctive characteristic of strategic alliances is that partners have to deal not only with the uncertainty in their environment but also with the uncertainty arising from each other’s behavior (Harrigan, 1985). Because of partners’ dependence on each other, previous research has emphasized the importance of relational factors for the smooth functioning of strategic alliances (Powell, 1990). Although various relational mechanisms and norms have been studied, including for instance norms of solidarity and flexibility (Poppo & Zenger, 2002: 712), none has received more attention than trust (Gambetta, 1988; Mayer, Davis, & Schoorman, 1995; McEvily et al., 2003; Sako, 1991; Zaheer, McEvily, & Perrone, 1998; Zand, 1972). Accordingly, a great deal of research in this tradition has identified interorganizational trust as a key factor contributing to alliance success, the general view being that trust has a positive effect on alliance performance (e.g., Dyer & Chu, 2003; Mohr & Spekman, 1994; Zaheer et al., 1998). The existence of trust between alliance partners cannot be taken for granted, however; partners may not only have to cultivate trust intentionally (Parkhe, 1998; Sako, 1991), but may also incur substantial real......

Words: 16326 - Pages: 66

Free Essay

Attrabution Theory

...relationship between the individual and another one (Eberly, Holley, Johnson & Mitchell, 2011). This causal attribution means that there was no communication between the salesperson and his manager, so he did not know that there was another product competing with their product in markets or maybe the manager did not know the needs of the salesperson in transportation like a van. The failure to achieve the monthly target is a result of bad communication and interaction with his senior. Hence, relational attribution differ from internal and external causes in the role they play in achieving development in organization as both partner in the relationship have to be responsible for the situation. (Ren, H & Gray, B. 2009, ; Dirks, K. T., Lewicki, R. J & Zaheer, A. 2009 cited in Eberly, Holley, Johnson & Mitchell, 2011). This shared responsibility signifies that the salesperson is responsible, as well, for the outcome of the situation as he must have informed his boss that he needed a van to reach customers...

Words: 399 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mncs and Csr

...Accepted: 7 September 2011 Online publication date: 3 November 2011 INTRODUCTION An important issue that foreign affiliates of multinational enterprises (MNEs) face in host countries is liability of foreignness (LOF) (Mezias, 2002; Nachum, 2003; Zaheer, 1995). For instance, host-country stakeholders often lack information about a foreign affiliate, and may use stereotypes or impose different criteria compared with a host-country firm, with negative consequences for the foreign affiliate (Eden & Miller, 2004; Kostova & Zaheer, 1999). Empirical evidence suggests that LOF indeed plagues foreign affiliates, and can significantly hamper their survivability and performance in host countries (Mezias, 2002; Zaheer & Mosakowski, 1997). The typical coping mechanism for LOF that has been studied in the international business literature is a market-based strategy, such as changing the mode of entry or avoiding asset-specific investments in the host country (Eden & Miller, 2004; Kostova & Multinationals, CSR and distance Joanna Tochman Campbell et al. 85 Zaheer, 1999; Xu & Shenkar, 2002). Scholars have also theorized that foreign firms may engage in isomorphic behavior, such as adopting the strategies of local firms, to overcome LOF (Zaheer, 1995; Miller & Eden, 2006). In this paper, we examine a different coping mechanism: “good faith” social contributions to the host country in the form of corporate social responsibility (CSR). MNE–state relations can be transformed from......

Words: 17534 - Pages: 71

Free Essay


...Defeat Is More Illuminating For Green Shirts Shoaib Zaheer No comments A few months back, Pakistan had given Lankan Tigers a mauling in bilateral series. Pakistan under the astute and composed leadership of Misbah-ul-Haq entered the Asia Cup as favorites to win the tournament given their triumph in the previous outing at Bangla shores. The Asia Cup tournament will vindicate the green shirts about possible Achilles heel brewing under the curtains. One appreciates the team mammoth effort against Bangladesh and shocking India to go through to the Finals. Throughout the tournament there were areas of concern for the team in view of global trophy success in 2015 held in Australia. First, Shahid Afridi did play well in terms of batting by pulling off the amazing heist against India and decimating Bengalis to achieve a gigantic score. Shahid Afridi is one of the most iconic cricketers the country has produced but there must be a serious concern about fitness since he has become more prone to injuries. The all-rounder has not set world alight with his bowling since few years. It is imperative for the team management to manage the work load of stalwart in order to be in full throttle in the global tournament. Umer Gul one of the most reliable spearheads powers started to wane since he has looked off-color and has bowled poorly to add worries for the coach and selectors. The fast bowler might be out of favor any time soon in near future. The third big worry for the Pakistan......

Words: 327 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Should We Use Fake Identities in Social Media

...identities in a short period and the result goes viral on the net. Therefore, would you rather show your true identity and live happily or create a fake identity, be happy for a short period of time, get exposed and live a miserable life. It is so much more meaningful and thoughtful of our self when we do not forget who we are and be an example of a positive person for everyone. We only gain respect and love from it, which is nobler than being disgraced once our fake identity is exposed. Identity creates us and gives us recognition based on how we positively influence the life of others. Other than that, it turns out that between 42.25 million and 50.70 million of accounts on Facebook are actually fake according to ZDNet (Zaheer, 2010). In my opinion, the fake accounts are conquered by teenagers and adults (age range 20-24) as these groups of people are quite active in Facebook. There are some factors that lead these people to have fake identities as their phony account. Some factors would be, to find a love partner, to prank on schoolmates or friends, to use Facebook as a bully platform and so on. These create troubles for teenagers due to their “adventurous” attitude and attention-seeking mind. Since these groups of people find it so fun and exciting, they intentionally forget the consequences that might affect themselves and the people surrounding. The impact can be emotionally, psychologically and much to worst physically too. A friend of mine shared with......

Words: 1597 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Ginny's Restaurant: an Intro to Capital Investment Decision

...Corporate Finance II Lecture 04 Shama-e Zaheer Risk and Return Risk is the variability of returns from any asset. The greater the risk, the greater the required return from the asset. Therefore, in order to find the required return from any asset we need to know its risk and match that risk to another asset (or portfolio of assets) with a known return and use that as the opportunity cost of capital for the risky asset. Required Return, or, ri = Risk-free Rate (RFR) + Risk Premium (RP) Measuring Risk Calculate the standard deviation of returns to measure the variability, hence the risk of an asset. Possible Return Probability of Occurrence (Project A) Probability of Occurrence (Project B) -0.1 0.05 0.01 -0.02 0.1 0.03 0.04 0.2 0.16 0.09 0.3 0.6 0.14 0.2 0.16 0.2 0.1 0.03 0.28 0.05 0.01 Returns could also take continuous values, in which case, a normal distribution of returns may be assumed and probabilities associated with range of values may be calculated. To compare the riskiness of alternatives of different expected returns, use Coefficient of Variation instead of standard deviation. Inv A Inv B Expected Return, R 0.08 0.24 Standard Deviation, σ 0.06 0.08 Coefficient of Variation, σ/R 0.75 0.33 Investors are generally risk-averse. Therefore, they would need to be compensated for risk through risk premia. But remember that diversification reduces risk. Therefore, investors have to be compensated for the risk they cannot......

Words: 360 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Mc Ds

...Zaheer Notes Share Analysis * Right then, on the screen is a graph showing the share prices at different points during the last 5 years. * As you can see, share prices peaked during 2011 and 2012. * Now we can translate this graph into some ratios to look what it actually shows * So, the earnings per share figure has continued to grow since 2011 * However we need to look at the price to earnings ratio to fully understand what’s going on. * In 2011 there was a big increase in the price to earnings ratio * Share prices were high, and the demand had increased * But why? Investors were expecting a big growth in earnings in the future Geographical Segments/SBU’s * McDonalds segmentation focuses closely on its franchises and its McCafe brand. * Now, well all know about that cliché where Americans are known for their love for massive burgers right? So let’s look at what the actual numbers say about this... * The US has the largest fast food market in the world, estimated of produced $191billion * So how are McDonalds performing in the states compared to the rest of the world * First of all, as mentioned earlier more than 80% of McDonalds restaurants are franchises * So, because of the limited time we have today, I will be focuses on the revenues of franchised restaurants rather than the company owned ones. * If we take a look at the bar chart on the screen, almost half of the sales are coming from America, followed by......

Words: 381 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Case Study of Game Theory--- Supply Chain

...========= Approved by: ________________ S. M. Salman GM Gloves Division 11th October 2005 Approval for Meta Aramid Fibre: Description Supplier Qty Amount (USD) ___________________________________________________________________ Meta Aramid Fibre Yantai Spandex Co. Ltd. 150kgs 2700 Natural White Staple Fibre N-602 1.5d 38mm length --------------- TOTAL USD 2700 ========= Proposed by: ______________ Shabbir Zahid Reviewed by: ____________ Aamir Zaheer Approved by: ________________ S. M. Salman GM Gloves Division 17th October 2005 Approval for NYLON 66 Yarn 100/34/4: Description Supplier Qty Amount (USD) ___________________________________________________________________ NYLON 66 Yarn 100/34/4 Fulgar Spa 35 231 Colour: Navy Blue --------------- TOTAL USD 231 ========= Noted: To perform production trails from the new source Fulgar Spa. Proposed by: ______________ Shabbir Zahid Reviewed by: ____________ Francis......

Words: 11614 - Pages: 47

Free Essay

Is It an End of an Era

...Is it an end of an era? Only three players from India's 2011 World Cup team eleven will be part of the next World Cup. The selectors have included old war horses, who carried the responsibility of Indian cricket for more than ten years. These include Virender Sehwag, Gautam Gambhir, Yuvraj Singh, Harbhajan Singh and Zaheer Khan. The selectors have picked 30 people they feel can help India win its third world cup. The notable performances of these people included Sehwag's 175 in the 2011 tournament opener which set the cup for India, Yuvraj's all-round performance, Zaheer's 21 all important wickets and Gambhir's 97 in the final. Though we are going to miss these legends a lot, this is definitely not unfair in any regards. It's not unfair to drop players who have been out or in and out of the ODI squad for more than a year, haven't performed enough for a national recall and are competing with much younger legs. For a layman person, the squad may seem empty enough for consolation places, however at the same time it would have been harsh to not offer hope to young, deserving men like Kedar Jadhav, Kuldeep Yadav, Sanju Samson and Dhawal Kulkarni. They are expected to serve Indian cricket for the next decade. While nothing can be taken away from the left-out’s contribution to Indian cricket, the selectors decision makes complete sense. Let’s analyze the performance of these stalwarts in last few years.  Sehwag, 36 hasn’t played an ODI in last two years. His last notable......

Words: 691 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Corporate Strategy

...Path Repositioning Trajectory Engaging External Constituencies Cost & Reputation Risk Reduction Legitimacy Managing Today’s Business Social and Financial Performance A Multiple Bottom-Line Perspective Strategy-making process Complexity and MNE legitimacy Environmental complexity • Regulatory/cognitive/normative domains • Number and variety in countries • Institional distance Organizational complexity • External and internal legitimacy • Geocentric/polycentric/ethnocentric orientation Complexity of legitimation process • • • • • Liability of foreigness Visibility and size of MNE Legitimacy of local firms Legitimacy of other parts of MNE Legitimacy of classes of organisations Kostova and Zaheer, 1999 ...

Words: 319 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...(Bansal and Clelland, 2004). Environmental legitimacy can, therefore, be seen as a form of normative legitimacy granted by society. Environmental performance expectations are value-laden, making this form of legitimacy very culture-specific. However, it is especially difficult for multinational corporations to gain environmental legitimacy. Due to their size, scope and capacity to disrupt (or improve) the many natural environments in which they operate. MNCs’ environmental performance often receives greater scrutiny than does that of their domestic competitors, whether this attention is deserved or not (Christmann and Taylor, 2001). They face a liability of foreignness when operating in a market other than their home (Hymer, 1976; Zaheer, 1995; Zaheer and Mosakowski, 1997). And, they are often characterized as being environmentally unfriendly (Zyglidopoulos, 2002) seekers of pollution havens (Hart, 1995; King and Shaver, 2001). Researchers have suggested that firms must communicate their concern for the natural environment to their stakeholders in order to gain environmental legitimacy (Milne and Patten, 2002; O’Donovan, 2002; Wilmshurst and Frost, 2000). For an MNC, environmental communication “can convey information regarding changes to its products or processes that demonstrate its commitment to the natural environment” in order to manage the legitimacy impressions of external stakeholders (Bansal and Clelland, 2004: 96). Firms have communicated environmental concern by......

Words: 1245 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Organizational Trust

...could be defined as “difference in knowledge, power and culture of actors”. than ever, yet they have little chance to commit themselves gradually to the relationship or experiment the values and goals of the other. Due to great risks the ability to build trust is crucial, yet because of the high volatility and short shadow-of-the future especially challenging. Building trust Trust is seen as a necessary antecedent for cooperation (Axelrod 1984) and leading to constructive and cooperative behavior vital for long-term relationships (Barney 1981, Morgan and Hunt 1994). Trust is vital for both innovative work within the organization in e.g. project teams (Jones and George 1998) and between organizations e.g. strategic alliances (Doz 1999, Zaheer et al. 1998) and R & D partnerships (Dodgson 1993). In this paper trust is defined as "actor's expectation of the other party's competence, goodwill and behavior". It is believed that in business context both competence and goodwill levels are needed for trust to develop (Blomqvist 1997). The relevant competence (technical capabilities, skills and knowhow) is a necessary antecedent and base for trust in professional relationships of business context. Especially so in the technology partnership where potential partners are assumed to have technological knowledge and competencies. Signs of goodwill (moral responsibility and positive intentions toward the other) are also necessary for the trusting party to be able to accept a potentially......

Words: 7325 - Pages: 30

Free Essay

Team Management

...(II) outside India between 2000 and 2005 than all Indian captains had done between 1980 and 2000. He led India to victory over Australia in the 2001 Border-Gavaskar trophy— a feat considered one of the greatest in the Indian cricket history. Ganguly was aggressive by nature and that made team more aggressive and strong. He was the first-ever Indian captain who created a confidence in the team to win overseas. It was under his captaincy that India started winning matches outside India, and he emerged as India's most successful ODI and Test captain. Ganguly was fondly called Maharaj by his teammates. He has to his credit the feat of having nurtured a number of young players, like Virendra Sehwag, Harbhajan Singh, Yuvraj Singh, M.S. Dhoni, Zaheer Khan and Mohd. Kaif. The core of Ganguly’s philosophy as captain was not to allow the youngsters to flounder, and this led to a self respect movement in the team. He worked wonders for his juniors and injected his self-confidence in the team, which was missing earlier. Ganguiy's youngsters, knowing they had his unstinted support, rallied behind him. He stood as a bulwark against the slings and arrows of selectors' fancies. Confidence was the name of the game— Ganguly had enough of it himself to distribute it among teammates as he was performing well as batsman and captain. As Ganguly built his team, he injected it with a large dose of self-belief. In 2005, India was at the peak of confidence and the team was high on team......

Words: 1677 - Pages: 7