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Zappos Organizational Analysis

In: Business and Management

Submitted By sunshinebabe
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Zappos is an online retailer that specializes in footwear and clothing, but sells merchandise ranging from cutlery sets to bedding. Its mission is to have the best selection of merchandise and the best customer service possible. Founded in 1999 by Nicholas Swinmurn, Zappos has transformed from a pipe dream project with headquarters set up in a cramped apartment to a multi-million dollar company that debuted on Fortune Magazine’s list “ The 100 Best Companies to Work for” at number 27, the highest place a company has ever debuted. [10] With headquarters now set up in Henderson, Nevada and a distribution center next door to the UPS world hub in Shepardsville, Kentucky, Zappos has not let this success go to its head but instead has strived to make itself the best company in its field as well as the best company to work for. Behind this unrelenting drive for success is Zappos CEO Tony Hsieh. After investing money into the startup of Shoesite.com, Hsieh became co-chief executive officer beside Swinmurn in 2000. [4] Since then, Hsieh has been focused on creating the perfect work environment that will foster a group of employees that can not only make decisions independently, but also enjoy coming to work. In order to do this, Hsieh created the 10 Core Values of Zappos. [12] This list includes: * Deliver WOW through service * Embrace and drive change * Create fun and a little weirdness * Be adventurous, creative, and open-minded * Pursue growth and learning * Build open and honest relationships with communication * Build a positive team and family spirit * Do more with less * Be passionate and determined * Be humble.
By living up to these values, Zappos has created a very unique and innovative work environment that has shown promising results. Adding to its unique character, the “weirdness” of Zappos doesn’t start on the first day of work; it starts during the interview process. When interviewing for a position at Zappos, it is not uncommon to be asked to take shots of vodka or to be sent through a speed-dating type gauntlet of meet and greets with multiple members of management. [8] While some may view this type of process as risky, and maybe even unprofessional, Hsieh feels that it is beneficial in weeding out applicants that don’t meet the company’s need for employees that will have fun and create a little weirdness. Since the company values individuals who are extroverted, up for a challenge, and open to change, this interviewing process surely rids the applicant pool of individuals who are looking for a traditional office job. In addition to this interviewing approach, Hsieh has created a training process that allows potential employees to view many different aspects of the company before being hired. This four week crash course in all things Zappos teaches potential employees everything from the basics of how the distribution center is operated to how to answer calls in customer service. [10] Throughout this whole process, a standing offer of $2,000 to anyone who would like to quit is present. Though unconventional, this process rids the company of potential employees that are not passionate about working at Zappos. While such a rigorous training process may seem unnecessary, it is important to remember just how much of the Zappos culture is created by its employees. The main reasoning behind this training process is to start converting new hires into employees that fit the corporate culture of the company perfectly through the use of socialization techniques. During their month long training, Zappos employees take courses, such as The History of Zappos and Zappos Culture Class, and participate in team building exercises in order to help familiarize them with the companies norms, customs, and ideologies. This also helps to create a positive disposition in future employees. [12] Though this training boot camp teaches future employees much of what Zappos is about, it doesn’t teach them everything. Through the interactions of day-to-day work and company activities, such as the annual company picnic or one of Zappos’ many office parties, the rest of the socialization process is completed. If this isn’t enough for new hires, Zappos also offers different courses that employees can take to learn more about the company. Because culture is so important to Zappos, it is crucial that employees meet the company’s ideal personality attributes. [12] Employees must be extroverted in order to participate in all the extracurricular events planned during the work day, as well as the weekend, without feeling drained. This also helps foster the family feeling throughout the company because employees are excited to interact with their co-workers. In addition, Zappos employees must be open to change due to the rapid progression of the company. Intuitive people will feel more at home in the company due to the fact that they will be able to apply their creative abilities to solve new issues as they arise. Since the company is growing in leaps and bounds, Zappos is also interested in having employees that are thinkers who will easily be able to make decisions and get their projects done. While thinkers are very important to the company, employees must also show some signs of being a feeler as well. Because so much emphasis is focused on the family feel of Zappos, it is crucial for employees to also be able to show that they are in tune with their co-workers feelings. Since the work environment is so chaotic and ever changing, employees must be perceivers. This is necessary to make sure that the company runs smoothly and that all employees are able to adapt, and even appreciate, the changes that are taking place around them. Because so much emphasis is focused on the perfect personality type at Zappos, diversity seems to be placed on the back burner. Though Zappos states that it embraces diversity, it should be noted that people from different cultural backgrounds, especially those who were not raised in the United States, may find it difficult to fit into the company’s ideal personality type due to the fact that business and social norms in their nation of origin may vary drastically. Judging from pictures and Zappos’ upper management, there is some diversity throughout the company.
As you can tell, passionate employees are the driving force behind Zappos and this is evident in everything the company does. Although it set up using horizontal differentiation, which has workgroups within departments broken up into branches who answer to the CEO, Zappos gives employees the leniency to make low-level decisions, such as how much time to spend helping a customer on the phone or how to approach a potential vendor, without getting them approved by a supervisor first. A great example of this is when a customer called to ask for help returning a pair of boots that she had ordered for her recently deceased husband. Instead of taking the easy route and e-mailing the women return labels, the representative contacted the US post office in the woman’s area and arranged for them to personally pick up the boots so they could be repackaged and returned in addition to sending the woman a bouquet of flowers as condolences for her loss. All of this was done without checking with a supervisor and was charged to Zappos. [8] Because of kind gestures like this, 75% of Zappos business is from returning customers. By allowing employees to make decisions on their own, Zappos has given them a sense of autonomy which seems to play a huge part in this organization. Unlike many other large companies, Zappos does not have a large array of employment perks, such as high salaries, on-site child care, or tuition reimbursement, but this does not stop them from hiring, and retaining, employees that are not only willing to work, but also happy to do it. [10] While this lack of benefits may seem like it could be a large source of stress for employees, efforts are made to make sure the opposite is true. Employees are offered different perks such as on-site workout rooms, assistance programs, and wellness services among other things that help to keep spirits high. Innovative ideas, such as visits from celebrities, kooky wellness campaigns, elaborate parades featuring zombie elves, and live entertainment, also keep work interesting and stress levels down. In addition to a sense of autonomy, employees are driven by how much fun they have while they are at work. [1][6][11] Managers are required to spend 10-20% of their time just goofing off with their employees. In addition, all employees, even Hsieh, are encouraged to spend time together outside of work. Spending so much time together having fun makes going to work more like going to hang out with friends and because of this, employees are happy to be there, regardless of how much they make or what benefits they receive. By making work seem like an extension of the employee’s home life, Zappos motivates its employees to do the best they can without enticing them with huge bonuses or other monetary rewards in addition to reinforcing the company’s culture. While it may seem like the decision to have such a unique corporate environment may just be Hsieh’s way of rebelling against business norms, a closer looks proves that these decisions are much more calculated than what first meets the eye. Throughout the organization, it is very apparent that Hsieh has applied Maslow’s need hierarchy to the fullest extent. [3] While most physiological needs can be met at home, the work environment at Zappos easily fulfills every need that employees require to lead a happy life. Because Zappos is extremely transparent, sending out companywide e-mails and posting virtually everything to their blog, employees are very aware of what is happening in the company at all times. Paired with a healthcare plan that covers 100% of health expenses and all normal expenses associated with vision and dentistry, employees feel secure in their positions. [12] In addition to feeling secure, employees have fun at work and enjoy socializing with co-workers both inside and outside the office. Each month, companywide outings are planned to make sure that employees are able to have some time to just hang out and bond with co-workers outside of the work place. In addition to great events meant to bring employees together, Zappos has enacted a Make a Wish-type program focused on helping out one another internally. This program allows employees to make a wish ranging from attending a concert or meeting a celebrity to having a baking buddy to make a batch of brownies with. These wishes can be viewed, and granted, by anyone in the organization. [6] In one case, an employee went as far as to completely furnish the house of another employee who was going through a hard time and was unable to do so. This woman had never met the person to whom she was granting the wish but through her actions, she was not only able to bring her fellow employee to tears with her selflessness, but she was also able to meet someone in the organization who she otherwise would not have met and become friends. With such a strong sense of family it comes to no surprise that employees are content and feel a strong sense of belongingness and love. In addition, these gestures, ranging from small favors to life changing events, give employees a sense of hope which is quickly diminishing in a country that has a tendency to focus on the negative events surrounding us. The effect of Zappos on its employees doesn’t stop there. Throughout the year, Zappos employees come up with brilliant ideas on how to help out their community, the country, and even the world and then put these ideas into action. For example, Zappos employees recently spent some time putting together Easter goodie bags for children suffering from cancer and sent them to the Nevada Childhood Cancer Foundation to be distributed. [6] While this small act may not seem to matter much, it gives employees a sense of purpose and makes them feel as if they are making a difference in the world even if it’s just for one person. Motivation throughout Zappos doesn’t stop there. Since motivation prevents future problems associated with employee happiness and increases productivity, Zappos has come up with some fun and innovative ways to allow employees to be in charge of their own future. Employees are able to participate in an optional merit system that is very similar to Boy Scout badges. [3] Through this system, employees are able to work towards raises as quickly, or as slowly, as they please. Though this may seem like a minor change from a traditional system in which employees are given raises in intervals based on their time with the company, it has shown drastic improvements in company morale and productivity. In addition the merit system, employees are also able to work through a system call pipeline positioning. This leadership system lays down courses in which employees can follow to achieve promotions throughout the organization and allows low-level employees to move into management positions over the span of a few years. Because of this, most of the people that Zappos hires are for low-level jobs. In addition, this helps to ensure that the core values of Zappos are deeply engrained in their top-level management positions. [3] Philanthropy at Zappos doesn’t stop at the end of the work day. Throughout the year, employees are able to do volunteer work for any organization of their choosing and Zappos will compensate them for up to 40 hours of their time. [12] While this may seem like an unnecessary expense, corporate social responsibility is extremely important to Zappos and they pride themselves in giving back to the community. For example, Zappos employees will soon be strapping on their high heels and putting on their best Derby-style hats and walking a mile at their Kentucky location in support of the Best Buddies Kentucky organization’s High Heels and Hats fundraiser that helps support people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. [6] In addition to this fundraiser, Zappos has had a hand in putting together Christmas packages for the less fortunate, raising money for the Livestrong foundation, sponsoring security bins in airports, and creating a green movement through the use of reusable water bottles at its Kentucky location. Though some of these activities may not seem related, combined they can show us just how dedicated Zappos is to giving back to not only the United States but to society in general. In addition to its philanthropic activities, Zappos also helps society by being extremely transparent. [3] In a time when corporate giants are becoming more and more deceitful and untrustworthy in the eyes of the public, Zappos has made it their mission to be as open as possible, not only their employees and business partners, but with anyone who is willing to take the time to read their blog postings or follow their Twitter account. By magnifying the inner workings of their company instead of discretely burying them, Zappos allows its stakeholders to have a realistic view of the company. Because of this, Zappos has not encountered any ethical challenges. Since Zappos has been so successful using its unique culture, it comes to no surprise that many wonder how it manages to keep from getting lost in the chaos. Through the use of the aforementioned motivational techniques and proper socialization, as well as closely monitoring new hires for the ideal personality type, many problems that would be found within most large companies, such as power struggles and goal conflicts, are non-existent or minimal. [3] In addition to squashing potential problems, the motivational techniques used throughout Zappos allow its employees to administer their own rewards through the use of the merit system or pipeline positioning. Because of this, management doesn’t have to spend much time trying to motivate their department and can instead focus on the task at hand. While this takes some of the hardship out of management, they still have to critique and correct the work of their subordinates which is one of their hardest jobs since the company has such a close family feel to it. [12] To make this a little easier, Zappos strives to have open and clear communication throughout the organization at all times. This allows employees to know if they are putting in enough effort and should help them gauge where they stand in regards to performance. In addition, employees are judged on how well they adhere to Zappos 10 core values. [3] Since employees are supposed to apply these values throughout their life, this is one area of the performance appraisal in which they should excel. In addition to reviewing employee performance, managers must also have some control over their subordinates. Since Zappos focuses so much on making work fun, managers do not have to use much power to stay in control. Employees are happy to be at work and consider their managers to be their friends. In addition, the job of the manager at Zappos is to enable their team to succeed through their role as servant-leaders, which means that instead of directing their subordinates, managers are called upon by them to aid them in ways that will benefit their team and company as a whole. [12] Because of this, employees are much more inclined to do what is asked of them and in a timely manner. Since employees are given so much room to do as they please, it comes to no surprise that they are involved in much of the decision making process. Many small decisions, such as how to help a customer or what vendors to work with, are made directly by the employees in that department. In addition, many large decisions that will have a profound effect on the company are not made solely by upper management. Instead, Hsieh sends out companywide e-mails about potential changes that might take place and asks for feedback from Zappos’ employees. If Hsieh receives mostly positive feedback, he makes the change, if not, things remain the same. This may seem backwards but employees are supposed to embrace and drive change and if they can see a positive effect from a change then they are excited and willing to put in the extra work it will require. While most decisions are made in this fashion, some decisions require more effort and resources. For example, when Amazon acquired Zappos recently, Hsieh was not able to tell the vast majority of the employees due to the fact that it would violate certain SEC laws since Amazon stock is publicly traded. [3] In this case, Zappos worked alongside advising firms in order to make sure that the decision was the right thing to do for the company. Some of the firms that Zappos works with are Morgan Stanley, Fenwick and West, and PricewaterhouseCoopers. [3] In the end, employees were just as excited about the decision because they have a deep trust for Hsieh and know that the future of Zappos is his main priority and that because of this, he is looking out for their best interests. Since so much of Zappos efforts are focused on creating an ideal culture and family feel, it comes to no surprise that the company uses a team approach for many of its projects and departments. Throughout the organization, teamwork is supported through the dedication of managers and their ability to serve the teams that they lead. [3] By choosing to approach the workload of Zappos in this way, the power and abilities of employees are not confined to each individual but instead are combined throughout the entire team, allowing for a greater wealth of knowledge and ability. This approach not only makes work more fun due to the fact that employees are closely working with friends, but also allows the company to get more accomplished. Overall, employees are dedicated to making Zappos the best company possible through collaboration. This goes a long way in preventing goal conflict between different departments and in fact, helps foster the family feel that is so important to the culture and livelihood of the company. One of the main reasons that the culture at Zappos is so successful is its use of power throughout the organization. While there is a great degree of expert power throughout the organization, it is used to help the company instead of as a tool for leverage. By choosing to share all of its resources, Zappos enables itself to be the best company possible. This also helps create a family feel because if the marketing department needs help with an issue from finance, it will feel comfortable knowing that they will help them as much as possible. In addition to expert power, referent power is also very apparent throughout Zappos. Employees focus heavily on their relationships with one another and because of this, there is respect and a mutual desire to help one another. Because of this, employees are easily influenced by referent power and as a result, things tend to run more smoothly. Instead of begrudgingly accepting an assignment in fear of being reprimanded, employees are excited to take on new projects because their leaders are so passionate about what they are doing. This in turn inspires employees to strive to be the best that they can be in hopes of one day becoming leaders themselves. While there is legitimate power throughout the organization, it is rarely called upon. Since employees are influenced by referent power, the legitimate power is seen more as a formality. Much of the power displayed in teams mimics the interpersonal power throughout Zappos. Since the company has such a high degree of centrality, employees are more than willing to help one another out and use all of their abilities to help the company as a whole. [3] Though this approach helps to foster the family feel that is so important to Zappos, it may at times hamper their efforts by allowing employees to sometimes get too caught up in socializing. When this happens, managers are able to easily step in and refocus the group’s efforts on the task at hand by using their legitimate power. Because employees have such a good grasp of the company’s values and a definite lack of a large ego, they are able to see that their managers are not doing this as punishment. Since this approach to power is very ethical, employees are inspired to do more instead of being disheartened by unfair circumstances throughout the organization. As the saying goes, you attract more flies with honey than vinegar. With such a high degree of mutual respect throughout the company, it comes to no surprise that Zappos CEO Tony Hsieh enables employees through a large dose of referent power himself. Hsieh is a very unique leader whose leadership model is to lead by example. Hsieh lives, eats, and breathes the 10 core values of Zappos. [6] He attends as many social gathering in the organization as possible and even throws pajama parties at his house for employees to attend. In addition, he is very approachable and answers employee e-mails himself whenever possible. Hsieh does not see employees as tool to be used to achieve Zappos’ goals, but instead as people who he can influence in ways that will allow them to be better individuals not only in the company, but in society as a whole. One way in which Hsieh does this is through a company library. Hsieh has put together a library of books that he has found insightful and beneficial to personal growth. While this library started out as a list of recommended books, Zappos now has an area in their lobby that is stocked with selected books for both employees and visitors to read and even take. Hsieh is also a strong believer in happiness psychology and applies it throughout the entire company. [3] He feels that for most people, their main goal in life is to be happy and by creating an environment that allows this to happen, he is allowing Zappos to be the best it can be. Because of his positive effect on the company, Zappos employees fall just short of idolizing Hsieh. Since Hsieh is so dedicated to the use of the 10 core values throughout Zappos, it is easy to tell that they are not only enacted but also espoused. It may seem like Zappos is all fun and games, but by having such a laid back approach to business, it allows itself to be vulnerable in a few places throughout the organization. One such issue is differing opinions between employees. Zappos focuses heavily on driving change and having innovative thinking. New ideas spring up constantly and because of this, not all can be implemented. While this has not happened in the past, differing opinions on which ideas to pursue could create hurt feelings within different groups of employees. Zappos values open and honest relationships based around open communication and building a positive family and because of this, employees should be able to talk freely between themselves not only about their ideas but also about how they feel if they feel like they weren’t treated fairly. By taking this approach, employees are able to not only get their feeling out, but also walk away from the experience knowing that while there might have been a small altercation, the overall conflict was beneficial to the company. The close screening of potential employees also helps keep this issue to a minimum. [12] One of the most interesting things about Zappos is how it has been set up to embrace change and be driven by it instead of fearing it. While there is no formal strategy for managing change, embracing change is one of the organization’s 10 core values and is expected of Zappos employees. [3]Because business at Zappos is focused around internet sales, this is extremely important. Technology is changing at a rapid pace and if the company were to try to postpone changes in their operations it would quickly become obsolete in comparison to its competition. Since Zappos embraces change, it comes to no surprise that their culture is changeable and is in fact, changing every year. One way to gauge this is through reading the Zappos corporate culture books. Every year, employees are asked to briefly write about what the culture in the organization means to them and how they feel about it. Their responses, whether good or bad, are then compiled without editing into a book that is available throughout the company and even to the general public. Through their responses, Zappos is able to make corrections in the culture when necessary as well as improve on different aspects of the company. By continuously changing their culture, Zappos allows itself to be the perfect fit for current employees and as a result, enables itself to be as efficient as possible. [12] While much of the company’s efforts are focused on creating an ideal corporate culture and keeping employees happy, Zappos also focuses heavily on customer service. In a company that spends next to nothing on marketing, the way in which customers are treated can be either extremely helpful or almost toxic. The main way in which Zappos confronts this issue is through its organizational structure. By having a centrally located warehouse in Shepardsville, KY that is conveniently situated next to the UPS world hub, Zappos is able to process and ship orders out within hours, and sometimes even minutes, of receiving them. [3] Because of this, customers generally receive their packages in one business day which has a profound and lasting effect and as a result, they tell their friends. Through this word of mouth, Zappos is not only able to retain first time customers but also increase their customer base. Since Zappos spends next to nothing on marketing, this is crucial for the company to continue to grow its customer base.
While Zappos may be the leader in its field, it does have some challenges ahead of it. One of the main challenges, and opportunities, facing Zappos is change in technology. Since Zappos relies solely on online sales, small changes to technology surrounding online retail can have a huge effect on the company and forgetting this for one second could prove to be disastrous. For example, if online retailers began using smartphone applications as their medium for business transactions and Zappos didn’t follow suit, they would soon see decreases in their sales. One of the challenges associated with changes in technology is the increase in competition. When Zappos was created, it had a niche in the market that was largely ignored by many other companies. Since the widespread of the internet, similar companies, such as dsw.com, endless.com, and onlineshoes.com, have sprouted up overnight and many offer the same perks, such as free returns and overnight shipping, as Zappos. Because of this, it is crucial for Zappos to have customer service that is matched by no other company and to build lasting relationships with these customers. In addition to technology, external factors such as a recession or changing views on being “green” will have a negative impact on this company. Because Zappos is an online retailer, it has to ship all of its merchandise to customers which has a negative impact on the environment. Many potential customers may decide to shop locally instead of purchasing from Zappos because they feel it will have a less negative impact. While there is no evidence that Zappos has begun looking for alternatives to this issue, it is one that may attract more attention in the future, both internally and externally. In addition, because of the excellent customer service and special customer treatment, such as free shipping and returns, prices have a tendency to be higher than those of competitors. During times when spending money is low, customers may choose an online vendor or local store that is less expensive. Though this has not happened, it may be wise for Zappos to take this into consideration while making plans for the coming years. In addition, Zappos is currently a national business. Though it has plans to expand into Canada, Zappos is limiting the amount of potential customers it has by not continuing to expand into Europe and Asia. [12]
While changes in technology create challenges for Zappos, they also create opportunities. Zappos has multiple blogs, a twitter account, and a Facebook page dedicated to updating the public continuously of new products, ideas, changes in the company, and even fun things that employees are doing at work. By implementing technology in such a way, Zappos doesn’t allow itself to be forgotten and instead, is always catching the attention of new individuals who could be potential customers. One example of this is Zappos use of stickybits, an application used by smartphones that allows users to scan the barcode of a product and unlock special discounts and free merchandise from participating companies. [2] By using different media sources like smartphone applications and twitter accounts, Zappos is able to create the illusion of a transparent company, which makes customers, and employees, feel as if they know everything that is going on inside headquarters. For example, when Zappos recently had to lay-off a substantial number of employees, Hsieh posted it on many of Zappos media outlets. By communicating in such a non-defensive way, he made it clear that the company’s intentions were not to shock employees with the changes, but to keep them informed and make the process as painless as possible. [8] In addition to utilizing technology to reach millions of potential customers, Zappos has benefited from implementing Kiva robots at their distribution center. While the distribution centers strategic location next the UPS world hub allows it to process and ship orders at an unprecedented rate, the Kiva robots have allowed Zappos to cut processing times down to almost nothing. In some cases, the robots can have an order completed and ready to ship in eight minutes. [7] By continuing to change alongside technology, Zappos has positioned itself in a way that will allow it to continue to be a leader in its field of completion.
While technology plays a vital role in the growth of Zappos, it is also a key tool throughout the internal operations of the company. Much of the communication throughout Zappos, both with employees and vendors, is done through the use of e-mail. By choosing this form of communication, Zappos is able to respond to any issue that may arise in a timely manner. In addition to e-mail, Zappos employs the use of telephone correspondence, as well as live chat, for its customer service. This allows the company to be available 24/7 and adds a great deal of value in the eyes of its customers. [3] Overall, Zappos is a unique and innovative company that has a corporate culture that is anything but traditional. Culture is the driving force behind this organization and is a factor in everything it does. Employees are happy to be part of an organization that appreciates them and allows them to be themselves. Zappos is dedicated to delivering customer service that is outstanding and often goes above and beyond what is expected. Fostering a corporate environment that is laid back and easygoing, Zappos values fun in the work place and has created a place where its employees do in fact enjoy coming and spending time. Never one to stop, Zappos continues to think beyond what has already been done and instead aspires to become an even better company. Zappos was recently named number six on Fortune Magazine’s “The 100 Best Companies to Work for” list. Don’t expect that to stop them though, they’re already thinking their next big idea. [4]

Works Cited

1. F, Darren. "Rabbit! Visits Zappos HQ!" Web log post. Zappos Family Blog. Zappos, 11 Jan. 2011. Web. 1 Mar. 2011. <http://blogs.zappos.com/rabbit>.

2. F, Darren. "Scan with Stickybits!" Web log post. Zappos Family Blog. Zappos, 2 Dec. 2010. Web. 25 Jan. 2011. <http://blogs.zappos.com/stickybits>.

3. Hsieh, Tony. Delivering Happiness: a Path to Profits, Passion, and Purpose. New York: Grand Central Pub, 2011. Print.

4. "In The Beginning - Let There Be Shoes | About.zappos.com." Home | About.zappos.com. 1999. Web. 01 Feb. 2011. <http://about.zappos.com/zappos-story/in-the-beginning-let-there-be-shoes>.

5. Kahr, Graham. "Zappos.com Named #6 On Fortune Magazine's 100 Best Companies To Work For." Web log post. Zappos Family Blog. Zappos, 20 Jan. 2011. Web. 1 Mar. 2011. <http://blogs.zappos.com/100bestcompaniestoworkfor2011>.

6. Lawson, Lisanna. "Peak Season Entertainment." Web log post. Zappos Family Blog. Zappos, 20 Dec. 2010. Web. 1 Mar. 2011. <http://blogs.zappos.com/blogs/zappos-family/2010/12/20/peak-season-entertainment>.

7. McCuddy, Michael K. Zappos.com: Are Culture and Technology the Super Highway to the Future? Case Study. Print.

8. McCuddy, Michael K. Zappos.com: Behavioral Dynamics - Causes for Concern or Celebration? Case Study. Print.

9. McCuddy, Michael K. Zappos.com: The Multiple Challenges of Growing an Unusual Company. Case Study. Print.

10. McCuddy, Michael K. Zappos.com: Why Do Zapponians Love the Company? Case Study. Print.

11. W, Pat. "Zombie Elves Takeover Zappos HQ!" Web log post. Zappos Family Blog. Zappos, 23 Dec. 2010. Web. 15 Feb. 2011. <http://blogs.zappos.com/blogs/zappos-family/2010/12/23/zombie-elves-takeover-zappos-hq>.

12. "Zappos Family Core Values | About.zappos.com." Home | About.zappos.com. 1999. Web. 01 Feb. 2011. <http://about.zappos.com/our-unique-culture/zappos-core-values>.

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