Free Essay

“the Effect of Study Habits of Selected Marine Student to Their Academic Performance”

In: English and Literature

Submitted By joshuacercado
Words 7761
Pages 32

A Research Paper Presented to the College of Arts Department

In Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the
Course English

Presented To
Sir. Joel E. Payapa, Ed.D

Presented By
Cercado, Joshua Kim T.
Daniel, John Daniel M.
De Guzman, John Odilon T.

March 15, 2013

Chapter 1


The extent of student’s learning in academics may be determined by the grades a student earns for a period of learning has been done. It is believed that a grade is a primary indicator of such learning. If a learner earns high grades it is concluded that they may also have learned a lot while low grades indicate lesser learning. However, many experiences and studies found out that there are also several factors that would account for the grades. No single factor can be definitely pointed out as predicting grades. It has been an inter play of so many factors – gender, IQ, study habits, age, year level, parent’s educational attainment, social status, number of siblings, birth order, etc. In fact, almost all of existing environmental and personal factors are a variable of academic performance. However, at this point in time, there searchers would like to investigate the possible relationship of study habits and the factors affecting it to the academic achievement of under graduate education student of Technological Institute of the Philippines. The investigation of on this area thus becomes a real and compelling motivation for the researchers to conduct this study.


Marine Education in the Philippines

The Philippine education system, according to the report of of () (2001), is classified under nine clusters of disciplines for both undergraduate and graduate degrees and diploma. These nine clusters of discipline are Agriculture Education, Business and Management Education, Engineering and Architecture, Health Profession Education, Humanities, Social Sciences and Communication, Information Technology, Maritime Education, Science and Mathematics, and Teacher Education. Under the Maritime Education, the following fields or disciplines included are Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Marine Transportation, Marine Engineering, and Basic Merchant Marine Course.

The maritime education in the country was faced by different stages of transition – from its challenging beginnings up to the current state of opulence. A news report from (1992) stated that maritime education is the oldest educational system in the country. This claim is attributed to the geographic characteristics of the Philippines. Consisting of 7,107 islands and islets depending on tides, the country has a long coastline which is 235,973 square kilometers, longer than the United States (, 2002). With this fact, it is historically indicated that early ancestors already travel from islands to another by using boats and other water transportation made available at the early times. Thus, the Filipinos are culturally and historically innate or accustomed to marine navigation.

Maritime education also experienced downfalls characterized with downgrading quality of marine education and the need to meet quality standard requirements imposed by CHED and the IMO or the international maritime industry in general. The CHED, being the immediate institution that evaluates the quality of instruction in maritime schools, conducts evaluation procedures to see to it that both national and international requirements on maritime education are met. There have been controversies (, 2000) especially in the classification of marine schools and training centers who reached acceptable level of standards. In March-April 2001, the published an online article specifying on 37 institutions who complied with Standards for Training, Certification and Watch keeping ( ’95) as based in a memorandum circular issued by the CHED on March 2. Based on surveys conducted by the MTC, there are an estimated 118 schools offering BS Marine Transportation and BS Marine Engineering courses today. MTC executive director said the number is slightly lower than the 127 schools in 1996 and 15 less than the total 133 in the early 90s. As the condition of general education in the country complicates, the marine education is not an exemption.

News paper (2006) reported the 7th Asia-Pacific Manning and Training Conference at the Philippine Plaza Hotel, where Maritime Academy of the Asia and the Pacific (MAAP) president said that maritime education needs reforms. Such reforms must be centered to maritime academies all over the nation. The reforms include the following: inclusion of leadership training in their curriculum to boost Filipino seamen’s chances, lowering of attrition rate of enrollees and mixing out better trained graduates.

Statement of the Problem

This study intended to find out the factors affecting the study habits of undergraduate TIP - Education students. It also aimed to answer the following questions:

1) What is the profile of the respondents according to

1.1 Time management

1.2 Learning Skills

1.3 Study Skills

2) What extent of influence did the independent variables have on student study habits?

3) Did the independent variables significantly influence students study habits?

Scope and Limitations

The Scope of this the Education students here in Technological Institute of the Philippines of all year levels. The limitations of this research are only those students that are currently enrolled at TIP and is having the prescribe study load for a given semester. Only those undergraduate education students are allowed to participate in the research. This study considered only Technological Institute of the Philippines and the students of it. This may have an effect on the generalize ability of the study and its findings. However, its findings, at least some portion and extent of it may still hold true to other schools possessing the same characteristics or adhering to the same educational vision, mission, objectives, and curricula of the studies of Technological Institute of the Philippines.

Chapter 2

According to Palm Beach Community College (PBBC, 2008), they recommend that student’s study should have at least three hours outof class for every hour spent in class. They also said that a student must have a special place to study with plenty of room to work. And students should not be cramped. They presuppose that study time will go better if a learner take a few minutes at the start to straighten things up. A desk and straight-backed chair is usually best. “Don't get too comfortable--a bed is a place to sleep, not to study” as what they said. A student must have everything close at hand (book, pencils, paper, coffee, dictionary, computer, calculator, tape recorder, etc.) before starting to study. Students are not suggested to spend on time jumping up and down to get things. The PBCC suggests also that distracting noise should be minimized however they said that there are some people need sound and some like silence. In this case, a learner must find what works for him or her. Culprits are family and friends. Consider a "do not disturb" sign and turning on your answering machine is the way also to have better study habits according to the PBBC.

Frank Pogue (2000) did a research project to determine why students fail. What he founds to be true in that study habits survey was that more than 30 years ago still rings true today--students fail because they do not know how to study .The best advice he can give is to develop sound study skills. He said that a student should make sure that he/she has a good studyenvironment, a good desk, a sturdy chair, good light, comfortable roomtemperature and a quiet atmosphere. That means he/she should eliminate allexternal and internal distractions. Second, get a good overview of theassignment before starting the work. Know what skills, facts and ideas that are expected to master and the ground that are expected to cover. Start with most difficult subject first, while the mind is freshest and most receptive. Professors in the developing countries said that the undergraduate students should be fully equip with high level of analytical skills, the capacity for critical reasoning, self-reflection and conceptual grasp and ability to learn autonomously and exercise flexibility of mind (Simmons 2003). Study habits are said to be improving because of the advent and wide use of the Internet, hypertext, and multimedia resources which greatly affects the Study Habits (Liu, 2005). Karim and Hassan (2006) also note theexponential growth digital information, which changes the way students perceive studying and with printed materials that are to be use in facilitating study. Liu (2005) and Ramirez (2003) report that students print material from the Internet in order to study and read later on. Igun (2005) also found that Nigerians study from materials downloaded from the Internet. Reading is an attempt to absorb the thought of the author and know what the author is conveying (Leedy 1956). Studying is theinterpretation of reading materials. Study habits and skills are particularly important for college students, whose needs include time management, note taking, Internet skill, the elimination of distractions, and assigning a high priority to study. Fielden (2004) states that good study habits help the student in critical reflection in skills outcomes such as selecting, analyzing, critiquing, and synthesizing. Nneji (2002) states that study habits are learning tendencies that enable students work private. The study conducted by Hope L. Graven (2008) on the relationship between an individual's amount of caffeine consumption during his/her study session and the individual's study habits showed that the main effect of drinking caffeine on exam preparation was not significant There wereparticipants, 20 male and 58 female college students (N=78), answered self-ratings on their personal consumption of caffeine as well as their study habits when preparing for a test/exam. It was hypothesized that the more caffeine a student consumes while studying, the more accurately his or her study habits would be labeled as 'unhealthy', as determined by the researchers. Unhealthy study habits were operationally defined as low scores on amount of time per study session, time (in days) when preparation began, and amount of information the participants believed they had retained. High scores onanxiety level were included in 'unhealthy' study habits. A Pearson correlationindicated no relationship between amount of caffeine consumed whilestudying and the individual's effectiveness of studying and preparation. Marcus Credé and Nathan R. Kuncel (2008) in their research at the University of Albany said that Study habit, skill, and attitude inventories and constructs were found to rival standardized tests and previous grades as predictors of academic performance, yielding substantial incremental validityin predicting academic performance. The meta-analysis examined theconstruct validity and predictive validity of 10 study skill constructs for college students. They found that study skill inventories and constructs are largelyindependent of both high school grades and scores on standardizedadmissions tests but moderately related to various personality constructs; these results were inconsistent with previous theories. Study motivation and study skills exhibit the strongest relationships with both grade point averageand grades in individual classes. They also said that Academic specificanxiety was found to be an important negative predictor of performance. In addition, significant variation in the validity of specific inventories is shown.Scores on traditional study habit and attitude inventories are the mostpredictive of performance, whereas scores on inventories based on thepopular depth-of-processing perspective are shown to be least predictive of the examined criteria. Overall, study habit and skill measures improveprediction of academic performance more than any other noncognitiveindividual difference variable examined to date and should be regarded as the third pillar of academic success.

According to the (2009), students who are very successful in their desired career have good study habits. It is stated in the website that students apply these habits to all of their classes. The websitealso recommends some tips in improving study habits. The website also suggests that the student should try not to study all the subjects in just a period. The website also added that if you try to do too much studying at one time, you will tire and your studying will not be very effective. Space the work you have to do over shorter periods of time. Taking short breaks will restore your mental energy.

A study conducted by University of Kentucky was to determine if the college success can be improved with the Student Attitude Inventory (SAI). The inventory was developed in Britain and contains 47 items which attempt to identify students in higher education on the basis of: (1) motivation, (2) study methods, (3) examination technique, and (4) lack of distractions toward academic work. Students in six Kentucky community colleges were asked to express their attitudes toward study habits on the Student Attitude Inventory. There were 996 students in the sample population (413 males and 583 females). A measure of ability (composite American College Test score) and academic performance (cumula grade-point average) were obtained for each student sampled. The Student Attitude Inventory did contribute astatistically significant amount of variance beyond an ability measure for males and females. ( Mark E. Thompson, 2005).

According to Mark Crilly (2000), Successful students are able to balance social activities with good study habits. A diversion from studies will alleviate stress and help prevent from becoming fatigued. He said that a student should make sure that he must take a break for an hour after studies to meet with friends, to play some cards, work out at the gym, or to gab with anew acquaintance. For this way, that student will find concentration when he do study, if he plans a social activity afterwards. He said, “To develop a healthy social life, develop routine study habits. After supper, lug your books and homework to the library, find a comfortable and quiet niche, and study for two or three hours, taking intermittent 10 minute breaks every 45 minutes or so.” Making friends with whom you share similar study habits, and share a table or a study space with them would be a best way in developing study habits as what Mark said.

Conceptual Framework

Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of the study.

Independent variables as it influence the dependent variable of thisresearch are on the bases of psychological and educational theories, principles and concepts. Many studies say that learning are better acquired and mastered as soon as the learner attends to it. Gestalt psychology mentions the Law of Proximity referring to the way in which he tends to form groups according to the way they are spaced, with the nearer once being grouped together (Tria,et. Al., 1998). As applied to learning, this refers to the closeness in space or in time. Furthermore, it explains why it is easier to remember recent events and hence more easily joined with the interest of the present in a common Gestalt (tria, et. Al.,1998). In application to learning process, immediate and regular study periods and doing school requirements tend to result in a better performance than delayed and erratic study periods do.
Diverse study techniques, even for the improvement of memory stress the importance of immediacy in remembering and learning. Thorndikes Law of Exercise further supports this kind of principleasserting that, other things being equal, the more frequent a modifiableconnection between a situation and response is used, the stronger is the connection. When a modifiable connection between a situation and a response is not being use over a period of time, the strength of that connection isweakened. A behavior that is stimulated over regular periods will tend to be repeated leading to habit formation. A student who has developed this kind of behaviour, in this case, in terms of having regular and scheduled studyperiods and follows certain methods in studying proves to have better performance. The study focuses on the factors affecting study habits, influencing the academic performance of the student. In this view, the researchers wanted to study the factors in which affect the study habits.

Definition of Terms
Constitutive Definition:
•Factors- one that actively contributes to an accomplishments, results, or process
• Develop - to bring out the capabilities or possibilities of
•Study Habits- manner which you consistently use to study for school or college or even for the next day lesson.
• Students - describe as one who directs zeal at a subject. Student isused for anyone who is learning.
Operational Definition:
• Factors - these refers to anything that affects study habits
• Develop - refers to fast or gradual changes in a range of time
• Study Habits - refers to the ways of studying on a particular subject
• TIP Students - referring to all officially enrolled students of Technological Institute of the Philippines

Local Literature

In the Philippines, the literatures on maritime education are limited to academic reference materials including textbooks and course materials. Research studies are more or less tackled by selected individuals and institutions. There had been little research conducted and published in relation to maritime education and related aspects. The conduction of this study is then right and timely especially in providing useful body of knowledge to the chosen area of study and specialization.

Maritime education in the Philippines is among the best in the Asia-Pacific region (, 2001) and even the world. This is evident on the study sponsored by Philippine APEC Study Center Network which performed a benchmarking action on the country’s maritime and nursing education particularly in its best practices (, 2001). In the said study, Ramirez identified the outstanding qualities of the Philippine maritime education such as the composition of maritime bachelor degree, which consists of general education, specialization courses and one-year apprenticeship; English as the medium of instruction; and the emphasis on character and values necessary for students who serve locally and internationally. Such values and attitudes are reflected on the culture of discipline, hard work and team work are essential characteristics of Filipino servicemen. This research study was used by PIDS in the press release to build on the promising reputation of the maritime education system in the country.

On the results of the Seafarers International Research Centre (SIRC) survey in 2003 (, 2005), it reveals that of the total number of Filipino seafarers manning various ships across the globe. For the record, a measly 8.5% were senior officers, 21.5% were junior officers, and most or 70% were ratings. On the same survey, it was noted a marked decline from 11% in the share of senior officers and from 24% in the share of junior officers from its 2000 survey. Its significant share, however, in the over all market has undoubtedly remained a key to the supply-demand equation of maritime labor.

Yet, the history and development of maritime education in the country is documented by nationwide newspapers. Issues, problems, solutions, and all matters of the maritime education and maritime industry are publicized through daily news and correspondence. An article from Manila Chronicle (1992) reported that maritime education is the oldest educational system in the country as based on the geographic characteristics of the Philippines. Similarly, the (1993) documented the training of merchant ship officers in order to equip them for effective maritime services to be rendered. It has been identified that the country is the number one supplier of able seafarers for international shipping fleet. In the earlier decades, the problem of Philippine educational system specifically maritime education emerged and became complicated. A news report from in June 1993 stated the problem of downgrading of maritime education blamed on Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS), now Department of Education (DepEd). Meanwhile, a report published in in July 1997 claims that schools for sailors are substandard as according to CHED (, 1997). (1997) affirmed the statement of CHED by quoting Maritime League that the value of maritime education is deteriorating.

With the identified problems in the maritime education of the country, the DECS revises the curricula (, 1997). This is to address the emerging issues that affect the overall condition of the maritime education in the country. In November 1997, the published a report on the participation of the country and its selected delegates on a 3-day (December 2-4) general meeting of the Association of Maritime Education and Training Institute in Asia Pacific (AMETIAP) in Singapore. This could be among the state’s solution to the budding problems facing the maritime education system and maritime industry as well as way to accumulate body of knowledge that are useful to the general condition of maritime industry in the Asia-Pacific and the world. An editorial from published last November 26, 1997 discusses the issue of maritime education in keeping its standards for quality professionalism. This is to emphasize the need of creating quality standards towards Filipino students who will become seafarers in the future.

Due to the conditions of the maritime schools and institutions in the country and the problems that affect maritime education system, the Malacaňang warned school administration to “go to sea or sink” (, 1997). This prompts schools to upgrade their teaching strategies and all related factors on the maritime education system. As the condition of the maritime education worsens, a report from early in 1998 claimed that “RP may no longer be majour source of world's seamen”. (1998) also reported that the poor schooling of the maritime students threatens jobs for Filipino seamen.

It is indicated that with the budding need of maritime services worldwide, it requires more qualified Filipino seamen (, 1998). To attain this vision, the enhancement of maritime education and training seamen effectively would help. As the government implements quality assurance strategies to address the problem, a report from in July 1998 states that the CHED conducted evaluation of maritime school standards and identified names of schools that passed according to the IMO requirements. CHED authorities continued to monitor maritime school standards. Two years later, these evaluation activities created controversy as reported by (2000). To further enhance maritime education and training, the Asian Maritime University cited a new education concept, according to the in February 1999. This includes the improvement on curriculum and integration of latest technological innovations in the maritime education and training of student.

The CHED and the National Association of Maritime Schools and Training Institutes, in a report written in (April 1999), recognized that the inclusion of the country to the IMO White List endangers maritime schools. Because of the requirement of achieving IMO standards, maritime schools are faced with the challenge of improving instructional techniques and materials or let the CHED recommend or impose closure to educational institutions who fails to ameliorate into acceptable standards. The CHED phased out maritime programs of schools who failed in quality standards evaluation (, August 2001). After reviewing their curricula and with the objectives to maintain excellence in maritime education, maritime degree in 32 identified schools is barred due to their inability to comply with prescribed standards (, 2001). Similarly, the (2001) newspaper reported 44 maritime courses were phased out by CHED. The newspaper acknowledged specific schools while the newspaper is on maritime courses. Aside from constant evaluation of maritime school standards and with the need to restructure and enhance maritime schools and their standards, (May 1999) reports that the CHED sets review to the country’s maritime programs offered in various maritime schools.

In line with the improvement measures, a textbook program for maritime education was set (, June 1999). of and set this textbook development and production program as an associated activity and in cooperation to the national government’s efforts of improving the maritime education system of the Philippines. With the robust efforts of enhancing maritime education system and training in the country, the (2000) reports the country on hitting excellence in maritime training. The improved maritime education condition in the Philippines paved way for more maritime business and opportunities both locally and internationally like the ones offered by Netherlands (, 2001). Results of the yearly efforts of making a quality maritime education reap its fruit when Filipino seafarers are reported to be highly demanded for employment in international shipping line and general maritime industry (, 2001). As a matter of fact, in December of 2001, more than 10,000 listed jobs are waiting for Filipino sailors in Norwegian ships for employment (, 2001).

(2002) reports on the “Philippines' state-funded maritime education and training institutions” to listen to the appeal of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo for cost reduction, savings, job generation and global competitiveness in maritime education and maritime industry. This is according to Secretary , Presidential Assistant for Education. Again, the history of maritime education in the Philippines may happen again. With this, (2006) suggests that the government and the industry must be aware of the potential problems that may arise. The deficiencies must be identified and standards are also revised. He said that shortcuts must be stopped now and given concentration on education rather than the revenue generation must be instituted.

Basing on the literatures above, the maritime education – its history and further development – vary from time to time. It was also noticed that most literatures on marine education are focused on general education as well as professional subjects that are imperative to the overall learning experiences of students and to the teaching of instructors. References for maritime subjects are thriving yet it is outstanding to note that these are written by foreign authors. It could be said that local literatures are scarce or limited within the bounds of social institutions that undergone such researches. The publication of research studies and its results is complicated due to the time constraint and financial challenges.

Foreign Literature

As identified, the foreign literature in maritime education and maritime industry is sufficient yet they cater in terms of geography, science, politics, law, sociology, and other applications.

Marine education on these recent years is equipped with technological advancements and various reforms and improvements. The need to deal with the demands of internationalization and globalization processes necessitates maritime institutions worldwide to upgrade in terms of instruction and facilities. According to an article in (2006), the maritime industry and labor is facing various challenges. In February 2006, the Maritime Session of the International Labour Conference adopted a consolidated maritime Labour Convention. This instrument represents a major breakthrough in several respects. Not only does it embody a comprehensive maritime labor code designed to protect over 1.2 million seafarers worldwide, but it is also highly innovative compared with previous international labor standards in terms of format, content and procedures for revision. It is recognized that many of the previous standards needed updating because the maritime sector has undergone sweeping structural changes over the past 25 years, particularly as a result of the globalization of its operations and workforce. With the recognition of the role of change in the international maritime arena, maritime education is no exemption.

Specifically, (1995) states that the aim of education in the area of marine engineering is to convey knowledge of the construction and operation of the automation systems of ships in accordance with the requirements of the IMO as formulated in the STCW ’95 Convention. The range of courses includes electrical, electronic, and control engineering distributed over the operational and management levels, comprising a theoretical knowledge (fundamentals of automation, instrumentation and control systems) and a practical knowledge (operation, testing and maintenance of electrical and electronic control equipment including fault diagnostics) (, 1995). Furthermore, (2004) identified the specialized training of marine students, seafaring cadets, and crewmembers have seen numerous changes in the last few decades. The advent of contemporary technologies and computer-based instruction affected worldwide maritime education and training (MET), just like any other fields of education and specializations (, 2004; , 2004; ., 2003, and , 2000; ., 1997).

As mentioned in the first chapter of this research, the Philippines plays an outstanding role in the international shipping and maritime industry by being the principal supplier of seafarers (, 2005). and (2005) explored the employability of Chinese and Filipino seafarers. The reputation of mariners from the Philippines is illuminated not only by this article but also with the evident reports from legitimate maritime offices locally and internationally. So, by studying the early maritime education patterns of the future Filipino seafarers, this research is able to present predictions on the future mariners particularly those who are enrolled in Marine Engineering and Marine Transportation respectively.

The state of maritime education in the Philippines is commonly documented by United Nations subsidiaries. Although, such publications cater to the macroscopic perspective, they are also descriptive and lack in empirical investigation. Further, the international literature of Philippine maritime education is limited in the institutionalization processes handled by legitimate sources and sponsors. Most of the time, publications of literature or conduction of research activities on Filipino maritime education is sponsored by maritime organizations, private academies, and other related agencies and findings were kept and used in private. In some cases, they publicized several portions of the findings yet they were already classified as important data are weeded out. Also, literatures in maritime education or maritime subject in general are school-based. Thus, through this research, the presence of limited international publications pertaining to Filipino maritime education – being the world’s top choice in maritime industry, is recognized.

Local Studies

In a study conducted by (1992), he probed on the development and role of Mariners Polytechnic Colleges Foundation in maritime education. This is among the earliest and fundamental research studies focusing on the study and teaching techniques of the said institution. Results from this study showed the circumstances and trends of maritime teaching and learning in the early 1990s and affirmed the need to improve standards. However, the weakness of this study is its inability to look into general maritime education conditions in the country since it is limited on the said institution. Yet it is focused both on teaching and learning process, it may be deemed that such processes are no longer applicable or existent in the current maritime education setting.

Similarly, (1997) used the aforementioned institution and tackled the status and prospects of marine education. The author presented the history of Mariners Polytechnic Colleges Foundation and likewise explore on its study and teaching processes. The result and criticism of the study is also similar to (1992).

(2001) focused her comparative study of the attitude towards quality education of professional and general education instruction of maritime schools. The topic mainly caters to the rating of college teachers. Like the other studies conducted, results showed the need of constantly upgrading and enhancing of teaching strategies and facilities. The evaluation of qualifications, skills and abilities of both professional and general education instructors are crucial in finding out the effects on the overall bearing of maritime students as products. There are significant qualities that characterize the one from the other. Professional education instructors possess specialized skills that are learned from particular degrees or specialization. The concentration of knowledge is mostly directed to the professional courses or subjects taken up by the students. On the contrary, general education instructors are less focused as they may come from various academic backgrounds yet possessing the ability to teach general education subjects. General results shows specific differences but still it recognizes the need for improvement as based on the trends in the maritime education system. The criticism of this comparative research is on the accuracy of the criteria used in the evaluation of both subjects of the study. The question of subjectivity is highly probable. It is suggested that the evaluation criteria is approved by authorized personnel or based in quality standards presented by a reputable educational body or agency.

Further, (1999) affirmed the important role of communication in education. On her case, she tackled on the communication program of National maritime Polytechnic particularly on the implications for future program directions. Communication may be defined as the transmission of meaning and information from one person to another ( and , 1998). While the transmission itself may appear to be a simple task, the interpretation of the message being relayed through communication poses a challenge. In general, communication becomes effective when both parties involved are honest and open to share information and have the ability to decipher the meaning of their messages. Effective communication must always practice as it is significant to individual health as well as for the creation of positive relationships. Specifically, the ability to communicate directly affects an individual’s stress levels, self-esteem and relationship quality ( and , 1998; , 1992). Communication serves a number of functions for the organization (, 2001). In production, communication plays its role in the direction, coordination, and control of tasks and activities. It deals with the what, when, and how of the process. Consequently, communication serves as the pathway through which suggestions and insights that would generate change and new ideas in the system are discussed. Communication also keeps and preserves values and relationships necessary to keep the system of the organization collectively. Effective communication is a necessity in the workplace (, 2002). Researchers and practitioners have long recognized communication skills are critical to job performance, career advancement, and organizational success (, 1989; and , 1986; , 1987). Similarly, (1994) suggested that communication serves four major functions within a group or organization: control, motivation, emotional expression, and information.

’s study is limited in terms of environment. However, it is not a big factor that can be greatly attributed or contributory to the results of the research. What is interesting in the study is the comprehensive discussion of the role and functions of communication. The identified implications are also imperative as they serve as the main challenges in the communication program as well as process not only of the selected institution but in general as well. Given these implications, precautionary and safety measures are established. On the other hand, the research is unaware of the factors that affect the effective implementation of communication program. With this, it might have been easier to devise practical and useful recommendations. The diversity of communication programs in relation to its objectives is also overseen. The idea of what-works-with-this-will-not-work-on-the-other is ignored. Then again, the suggestion for future research investigation is helpful to overcome the research flaws. This research topic was vastly discussed by other researchers, experts, and authors and similarly applies to various setting.

On other applications, (1980) surveyed and studied the conditions of maritime libraries in Metro Manila in order to come up with recommendation on the improvement of libraries in the Philippines particularly on naval and maritime subjects. Similarly, (1997) focused on the evaluation of 25 libraries in Engineering colleges and universities in Metro Manila using the standards set by the Technical Panel for Engineering Architecture, and Maritime Education (TPEAME). During the second semester of school year 1996-1997, the author used a two-part questionnaire to gather data on the present status of the engineering libraries and was supplemented by direct observation and interviews.

The findings of are not far from ’s considering almost two decades of interval. It revealed that thirteen libraries have weak periodical collections and did not meet the standard for storage space of seldom used books. Specific recommendations were suggested for possible improvement in the administration and organization of the resources and services of the libraries. On the brighter perspective, the findings are: the objectives of the library are in accordance with institutional goals and aims; heads of the libraries are qualified professional librarians and members of library associations; and libraries have existing policies regarding administration and organization of their resources and services. In the long run, these two studies show the need to continuously improve the educational facilities in the country regardless of field of specialization.

(1997) concentrated on social science instruction particularly on values education and the development of values in Philippine Maritime Institute in Tagbilaran City for the school year 1996-1997. (2000), in a correlational study, discussed the shipboard experience in relation to training performance in personal safety and social responsibility course at IDESS Maritime Centre (Subic), Inc. (2001) delved on the internal efficiency of maritime education using the same institution used by (1992) and (1997).

The achieved improvements in the maritime education over the past decade resulted to the varying needs of students. In a research study by (2001), he explored the need of maritime education students of Misamis University and proposed a guidance program. Cabrera came up with effective guidance counseling program that caters to maritime education students and their specific areas of personal development. What is interesting in this study is the ability of the author to dig deeper on the personal side of students. However, what is criticized on his work is the area of concentration of the study wherein a specific yet limited setting was used and various students are proposed to be subjected in a general guidance program that may be inapplicable to everyone granted that maritime education students, like any other person, have individual differences. With these limitations in the study, the recommendation for further study is recognized as well as the application and evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed guidance program.

This study is very much related to the subject of this research inquiry. The guidance program of the said maritime school should inquire into the personal reasons of students on matters that affect their present and future activities that directly link with their maritime education experiences. The exploration of the thoughts that lead to the achievement of their maritime goals must be facilitated. The study habits, challenges and difficulties are further discovered and addressed. Also, the variety of reasons behind maritime schooling or career orientation is included. With these, the maritime education student is secured on which path to take and direction to follow that will lead to his/her dreams. However, the research study of Cabrera does not further discuss the said concepts. Thus, this research investigates on the reasons or factors that affect their decision in pursuing maritime education. It particularly centers on early education trends like enrolment motivation.

From the reviewed studies above, it could be said that most literatures focusing on the subject of maritime education is limited to school setting and for the sake of academic requirements. Local literatures are scarce or limited within the bounds of social and academic institutions that undergone such researches. The research topics are more on focused on teachers and instruction, facilities and others. Less research topic caters to the students as key variables. Also, the publication of research studies and its results is complicated due to the time constraint and financial challenges. The presentation of research articles in wider audience is not possible. Journals and other publications on maritime education are limited if not missing. Thus, local studies are encouraged to be publicized and printed for professional, academic, and even mass consumption.

Foreign Studies

Foreign studies, similar to foreign literature, are extensive. First, and (1987) focused on ASEAN seafaring perspective. The said authors provide an overview of the future research in ASEAN seafaring. Then, and (1998) evaluated the education of marine engineers particularly on the area of control engineering using the requirements prescribed by the IMO and contained in the STWC ’95 Convention. Accordingly, they said that “the best preparation of a graduate to undertake a professional career is ensured by a comprehensive system of lectures, laboratory exercises, training on professional simulators and apprenticeship on board instrumentation, sail and cargo vessel” (). This means that maritime education must be practically applicable rather than merely theoretical. Additionally, subjects that are taught must be renewed every now and then and should be based on the current trends in the marine industry i.e. safe navigation and environment protection.

The following studies are focused in the computerization or technologically driven methods of maritime education: , 2004; , 2004; ., 2003, and , 2000; and ., 1997. (2004) conducted a global survey of the current developments of computer based training (CBT) and its application to maritime education and training (MET). Findings state that the skill of training of seafaring cadets and crewmembers is a very crucial issue, thus, the use of CBT programs will result to beneficial outcomes. (2004) discussed the issue of new technology and maritime training in the 21st century by looking on the implications and solution in the maritime education and training institutions. With the same findings as , concluded that “maritime institutions can benefit from the use of new technology, but only through rational planning and sustainable staged growth” (). and (2003) particularly applied the same topic if research to maritime engineering education. The development and application of computer-based training programs is a type of tool to support didactic processes present in vocational training centers. and (2000) analyzed the impact of new technologies on the context of the METHAR Project in Europe while and (1997) catered on the CBT of ship automation. These studies conducted are not particularly related to the main subject of this research. However, it is claimed that the concept of technology and its effects in the maritime education is among the key potential factors that affect the enrolment in Marine Engineering.

The topic of (20003) particularly discusses the policy on the reforms and improvements present in the maritime education and training in China. In the author’s evaluation, the maritime education in the said country and the Chinese MET need to improve the quality of education by completely revising the policies that are existing in relation to the area. Similarly, and (2005) evaluated China and Philippines in relation to the skills and competence of Chinese and Filipino seafarers. Findings clarify the history of Chinese and Filipino maritime industry and linked with the role in economic development. At the end of the research study, the authors cleared the China is a nation with a major stake in the shipping industry and Filipino seafarers' employment in the world's merchant ships is outstanding. It is unquestionable that one is a ship-owner and the other a source of seafarers. The study of and could be linearly connected with the subject of this research as education and training leads to the identity of the Filipinos as world’s outstanding seafarers. The motivation of Filipino seafarers on the times that they plan to enroll up to the period of their study is taken into consideration.

(2003) is concentrated in the communication process of mariners. As according to ability of maritime universities to implement quality English teaching through English as Second Language (ESL) programmes is proposed. Meanwhile, the same study touches on critical thinking. All in all, the result of the study illuminates the need to maintain a quality education based on prescribed standards. The development in maritime communication is essential as globalization forces and multicultural trends continuously affect every phase of living nowadays (, 2003). Because of this, maritime education needs to address the demands that go with these budding trends.

Facing globalization forces and multicultural trends in the maritime education as well as industry requires a learning method that will serve as weapon in accumulating new body of knowledge. This is the core of the research study of and (2003). According to the authors, “Problem Based Learning (PBL) is a learning method based on the principle of using problems as a starting point for the acquisition and integration of new knowledge”. This kind of learning method greatly complies with the expectations of the shipping industry especially on the case of managers and the merchant marine fleet for deck officers. In relation to the development of maritime education worldwide, this study is significantly related. On the case of research pursuit, and ’ study is supplemental in purpose as it determines the major steps in learning using the said method. The authors contend that as far as the nature of maritime education is considered, PBL curriculum seems to contribute a lot to the quality of maritime educational system.

The result of SIRC survey and similar observations have triggered research studies even by maritime institutions abroad inquiring into the factors affecting career growths of Filipino seamen (, 2004). This significant sponsored study by Warsash Maritime Centre’s Dr. and Dr. identifies the reason on the decline of Filipino seafarers in the international maritime industry. Among these reasons are the following: “lack of motivation, low career aspirations, and lack of confidence”. This research prompted authorities to come up with comprehensive and meaningfully attuned trainings that would “add-value” to the Filipinos seafarer. Specific recommendations mentioned include the conduct of trainings along “leadership and command, personnel management, ship management, and commercial and legal knowledge” (, 2005). On this case, the reasons behind the decline of Filipino seafarers are associated with the perceived factors in the enrollment of students. Using these reasons, the researcher aims to identify the effects of these reasons to the overall decision of enrollees to enter specific maritime courses.

The literatures in international maritime education are always thriving. The need to continue future research in the seafaring industry is always been recognized. There are new developments in every aspect of living and this means that the maritime education and industry is also affected. With this fact, the academic proponents of contemporary maritime education are always on the look out of research topics that will be conducted. It can be claimed that foreign literatures in maritime education is centered in on educational techniques as well as facilities that will affect the entire maritime education and training worldwide. The need to involved early maritime education trends was seldom tackled. Therefore, this research inquiry addresses this identified limitation.

Chapter 3

This chapter presents the methodology that will be use in the conduct of this study and will include the discussion of research design, setting of the study,
Sources of data.

Tulio, D., Foundation of Education 2. Mandaluyong City: Echanis Press,2008 Noll, J., Educational Issues, USA: Mcgraw-Hill Companies, 2006 Thomas, G., Education and Theory ( Strangers in Paradigm),New York:Open University Press, 2007 Hargreaves, S., Study Skills for Dyslexic Students, California: SAGEPublication Inc., 2007 Schultz, F., Annual Editions Education, USA: McgrawHill Companies,2005 Fullan, M., and Germain, C., Learning Places, USA: Corwin Press, 2006 McGregor, D., Developing Thinking Developing Learning, England: OpenUniversity Press, 2007 Mirasol, G.C., Extent of Influence of Study Habits, Attitude and Peer Relationship on Students’ Academic Performance: St. Michael’s College,Secondary Level, Philippines: 2002
Internet Links “The Ten Study Habits of Successful Students”, February 18, 2009 ( “Establishing Good Study Habits”, February 16, 2009( “Study habits of postgraduate students in selected Nigerian universities”,February 14, 2009: by Igun, Stella E.,Adogbeji, Oghenevwogaga Benson( “The Prediction of Academic Achievement by The British Study HabitsIinventory”, Mark E. Thompson,2005: February 16,2009 ( “Study Habits, Skills, and Attitudes: The Third Pillar Supporting CollegiateAcademic Performance” ,February 21, 2009: by Marcus Credé and NathanR. Kuncel (

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