Design and Cost Benefit Analysis of Grid Connected Solar PV System for the AUST Campus A. Muntasib Chowdhury1♦, I. Alam2♦, M. Rahman3♦, T. Rahman Khan4♦, T. Baidya5♦, A. Hasib Chowdhury6# 1 Department of EEE, AUST, Tejgaon, Dhaka, Bangladesh shovon_eee_aust@hotmail.com, 2imtialam@ymail.com, 3lemon_eee@yahoo.com, 4 tarek_eee666@yahoo.com, 5tonmoy_strings@yahoo.com # Department of EEE, BUET, Dhaka, Bangladesh 6 hasib@eee.buet.ac.bd ♦ Abstract— This paper describes a design and detailed
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cheapest and the most available source of energy is the sun. We can use the solar radiation, which is transformed in to electrical energy directly using PV cells. Now, to solve the electric energy crisis, we need to do a few things. * Increase the production * Decrease use, specially misuses * Reduce dependency on bio energy We will try to work on all the solutions altogether to solve the energy crisis in our project. The main idea of the project is consumers of electricity will
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How to calculate Present Value in MS Excel 2007 1. Suppose followings are the cash flows Cash Flows | 1500 | 2100 | 1545 | 1987 | 2500 | 2. The discount rate is 15%. 3. Write the cash flows in a column for example in column C starting from C5 to C9. 4. Now at a cell (e.g. in E5) write the following formula =PV(0.15,5,C5:C9) 5. Now Press ENTER button and you will get the present value (Notice that the figure is red in color and has a negative sign like the
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Design and Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Off-Grid Photovoltaic Power Systems Mounir Bouzguenda, Abdelkader Tami, Azzeddine Ferrah, and Jihad Al-Khalaf Faculty of Engineering, Sohar University PO Box 44 PC 311 Sohar-Oman Tel: +968-820-101 ext 233 Email:m.bouzguenda@soharuni.edu.om Abstract--The interest in off-grid photovoltaic (PV) solar energy systems in villages and remote areas is increasing. This interest stems from several factors such as improvement in living standards, reduced
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Chapter 6: 9) BOND 1 YEAR 1: In excel =PV(10%,10,80,1000) =$877.11 Rate = 10% nper= 10 PMT = 80 (1000*8% = $80) FV = $1000 BOND 1 YEAR 2: =PV(10%,9,80,1000)=$884.82 ROR = 80 + [884.83 – 877.11]/877.11 = 10% BOND 2 YEAR 1: =PV(10%,10,120,1000) = $1,122.89 BOND 2 YEAR 2: =PV(10%,9,120,1000) = $1,115.18 ROR = 120 + [1115.18 – 1122.89]/1122.89 = 10% Answer: No it does not. They are the same. 14) Price | Maturity (Years) | Yield to Maturity | $300 | 30
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MGT 555 Financial Management Session 2 If a firm's earning per share grew from $1 to $2 over a 10 year period, the total growth would be 100%, but the annual growth rate would be less than 10%. TRUE The above statement is true because annual growth rate is 7.18%. In calculation: FV= PV (1+1)n The above statement is true because annual growth rate is 7.18%. $2=$1 (1+I)10 In calculation: $2/$1
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: 2 Investment (PV) $1,000.00 3 Interest rate (I) 9.00% 4 No. of periods (N) 12 5 Dollars of interest paid per year (PMT) $80.00 6 PV Function =PV(I,N,PMT,FV,0) 7 Fixed inputs =PV(.09,12,80,1000,0) ($928.39) PV = $928.39 5-2 Yield to Maturity for Annual payments: Wilson Wonders’s bonds have 12 years remaining to maturity. Interest is paid annually, the bonds have a $1,000
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So the PV is = $ 937,474.28 Present Value (PV) of Growing Annuity. PVGA = C (1 – ( (1+g)/(1+r))t / r – g ) PVGA= $44,400 (1 – ((1+3%)/(1+6.5%))40 / 6.5% - 3%) PVGA = $44,400 (1 – ((1.03)/(1.065))40 / 0.035) PVGA = $ 44,400 (1 – 0.261 / 0.035) PVGA = $44,400 (0.739 / 0.035) PVGA = $44,400 (21.114) PVGA = $ 937,474.28 3b. Compelting his MBA at Wilton University A. PV of salary for 38 years (40 – 2 years) B. PV of signing bonus C. PV of costs for 2 years (tuition, books
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Road 2,700,000 Sale preparation & admin 945,000 Excavator piling 1,200,000 Broadcast burning 2,287,500 Site preparation 1,162,500 Planting costs 1,800,000 EBIT $22,505,250 Taxes 7,876,838 Net income (OCF) $14,628,413 Present Value of first harvest PV = $14,628,413/(1 + .0608)20 PV= $4,496,956 40 year interest rate 40-year project interest rate = [(1 + .0608)40] – 1 40-year project interest rate = 958.17% 40 year interest
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2 , , 1 EMBA © : ¯ , . ." " ,(PV) ¯ .(PMT) . ¯ , ¯ • ¯ " " • • (FV) • 2 EMBA © 1 3 EMBA © / ?(Amortization Schedule) ¯ ( ¯ ( ) ¯ . : -" -" 4 EMBA • • ) (principal) ) (interest) ¯ . , ¯ , • " " © ¯ ,( • – – 2 ¯ . , : ( (6.)= (2.)-(3.) 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 5 ¯ , 5 5: ,10% ¯ ) (2.) 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 (1.) • • (5.)= (3.)+(4.) 1,500 1,400 1,300 1,200 1,100 (4.)=r*(2.) 500 400 300 200 100 EMBA
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career path Career Path Consultant Requirements • Submit at least $200 in Personal Volume (PV) every rolling 3 months • Qualify with $1,000 in PV Reward • 25% Commission on PV • Opportunity to earn free products in StartSwell incentive for new Consultants • 25% Commission on PV • 2% Override on PEQA • Opportunity to earn StartSwell $200 Bonus • 25% Commission on PV • 3% Personal Sales Bonus • 3% Generation 0 Override • 2% Generation 1 Override • $1,000 one-time Director Promotion
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. 1. Keeping his current work for 40 years. There are several factors to be considered to calculate the present values (PV) of the first options are: His annual salary at the firm is $60,000 per year, and his salary expected to increase at 3 % per year until retirement, his current average tax rate is 26 % and discount rate is 6.5 percent. In this case, to get the present value (PV), we can use the formula of growing annuity. Salary = $60,000, tax rate = 26%, because of tax rate, c = $44,400
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HANH DANG ID 1236466 ASSIGNMENT 1 CHAPTER 4 4-8 Present Value (PV) = $20,000 Time : 5 years = 60 months Interest Rate : 12% = 1% per month The monthly loan payment is FV = PV (1+I)^N = $-20000 (1+ 0.01) ^60 = $444.89 EFF% = (1+I/M)^M – 1 = (1 + 0.12/12)^12 – 1 = 1.1268 – 1 = 0.1268 The loan’s EFF % = 12.68% 4-10 a. FV = PV (1 + I)^N = $500 (1+ 0.06) ^ 10 = $895.42 b. FV = $500 (1+0.12)^10 = $1552.92 c. PV = $500 / (1+0.06)^10 = $279.20 d. PV = $500 / (1+ 0.12)^ 10
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% discount rate Project A: PV Cash flow year one -- $4,000 / 1.05 = $3,809.52 PV Cash flow year two -- $4,000 / 1.052 = $3,628.12 PV Cash flow year three -- $4,000 / 1.053 = $3,455.35 PV Cash flow year four -- $4,000 / 1.054 = $3,290.81 PV Cash flow year five -- $4,000 / 1.055 = $3,134.10 PV Cash flow year six -- $4,000 / 1.056 = $2,984.86 Discounted Payback Period: -$10,000 + $3,809.52 + $3,628.12 + $3,455.35 = $892.99 and fully recovered Discounted Payback Period is 3 years
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Summary: The case started with the introduction of PV Technologies who is a Global Leader in Photovoltaic (PV) inverter industry and are suppliers to several segments of solar energy technology field including power plants (ranged from 10MW to 200 MW). In July, 2011 PVT received a RFP from their longtime customer – Solenergy Development LLC for the supply of “Utility Scale Central Inverters” for the upcoming 100MW plant. This plant was to be situated adjacent to an existing 25MW plant where
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ASFC and Jeff Karpenko would like to sell it * SSI’s head office is in Edmonton, whereas ASFC’s is in Toronto – would require a move and unhappy employees | Exhibit X - Acquisition of SSI Acquisition Costs | $ (8,500,000.00) | Initial Investment Cost1 | $ (31,638,022.67) | PV of Synergistic Savings2 | $ 3,616,200.00 | PV of Future Cash Flows3 | $ 39,426,739.41 | Initial Costs of Integration | $ (4,500,000.00) | Sales of Assets
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1. Assume that the before-tax required rate of return for Deer Valley is 14%. Compare the before-tax NPV of the new lift and advise the managers of Deer Valley about whether adding the lift will be profitable investment. Show calculations to support your answer. We have to calculate the net present value of cash flows and compare this amount to the cost of investments. Net present value of cash flows (cash inflow – cash outflow) X the factor for PV of cash flows for ordinary annuity
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P RAMCHANDRA RAO VS STATE OF KARNATAKA SUBMITTED BY K.SAI SHARAVAN KUMAR B.L HONS FIRST YEAR LEGAL METHODS INTRODUCTION There are altogether too many prisoners waiting trial in Indian prisons. As per the latest comprehensive statistics2 available on prisons in India, there are 1,93,627 undertrial prisoners as against 63,975 convicts constituting 71.2% of the total prison population in India. The range varies from a low of 12.1% in Tamil Nadu to a maximum of 98.7% in Dadra
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Question 1 a) To calculate PMT for loan: PV = 4,800,000 N = 360 I/Y = 0.39583333 ← 4.75%/12 FV = 0 Result: PMT = -25,039.07 The monthly payment on this loan is $25,039.07 b) To calculate FV after 2 years: PV = 4,800,000 N = 24 I/Y = 0.39583333 ← 4.75%/12 PMT = (25,039.07) Result: FV = -4,648,269.08 The balance (future value) after two years is $4,648,269.08 Question 2 To calculate monthly PMT based on loan PV = 175,000 N = 240 I/Y = 0.4166667
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FIN 402 FALL 2012 ANSWERS - HOMEWORK #1 1. (Q2) a. financial b. financial c. real d. real e. real f. financial g. real h. financial a. PV = $100/1.0110 = $90.53 b. PV = $100/1.1310 = $29.46 c. PV = $100/1.2515 = $3.52 d. PV = $100/1.12 + $100/1.122 + $100/1.123 = $240.18 a. You can use annuity formula or Excel: PV of bond = PV of coupons + PV of principal PV of coupons = $275/0.026 * (1 – (1/1.026^20)) = $4,246.80 PV of principal = $10000/1.026^20 = $5,984.84 PV of bond = $4,246.80 + $5,984.84
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Exhibit 1: International Standards Agency | Code | Country | Description | ASTM International | E standards (E900-2000) | United States | Photovoltaic cells and module integrity, Develops and delivers international voluntary consensus standards. | CSA International | CSA 107.1 | Canada | Inverter testing | European Solar Test Installation/ESTI | CEC 503 | Italy | Qualification test procedures for crystalline PV modules | European Solar Test Installation/ESTI | CEC 701
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Red Bull Case Study 1. Red Bull has always done marketing in an unconventional ways compared to the mainstream. When the company first started in the United States in 1997, Red Bull did their promotions by relying on word-of mouth. They gave away free cans of Red Bull all around the country from their specially made Red Bull vehicles. They also let the negative rumors spread about their company without addressing each, causing more stir around the country about Red Bull. They seemed to
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interest payment will be 10/100 * 1000 = $100,N= 1 year for Bond S and N=15 years for Bond L 1) Going interest rate = 5%Bond L => N=15, I/yr=5%,PV = ?,PMT=100,FV=1000 * PV = $1518.98Bond S => N=1, I/yr=5%,PV=?,PMT=100,FV=1000 * PV= $1047.62 2) Going interest rate=8%Bond L => N=15, I/yr=8%,PV = ?,PMT=100,FV=1000 * PV = $1171.19Bond S => N=1, I/yr=8%,PV=?,PMT=100,FV=1000 * PV= $1018.52 3) Going interest rate=12%Bond L => N=15, I/yr=12%,PV = ?,PMT=100,FV=1000 * PV
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A simple definition of PV system is converting the light coming from the sun to useful electricity. In the case of LAWANG BATO NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL, their PV system supplies the School library and T.L.E. room, wherein the reality this places is not commonly used by the students. As a student of Electrical Engineering and knowledgeable on this matter, I suggest that instead of supplying those places why not give the free electricity to the rooms used by the majority of the students of LBNHS. As
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Emancipation Of Women and their role in nationalist movement in Raja Rao’s Kanthapura Raja Rao’s first published work in English, the Kanthapura had a rather controversial and revolutionary plot in accordance with women being participants of nationalist movements. The third world countries, at that time, were opposed to the idea of women in the socio-political realms. Kanthapura drove through barriers of male dominance and female regression that prevailed in India at that time and Raja Rao
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Problems 5-1 Earned Value Calculation 1. What are the PV, EV and AC for the project at the end of day 6? PV= $101,000 AC= $88,880 EV= (PV x % Completed) = $101,000 x 6/7= $86,860 2. What are the SV, CV, SPI and CPI for the project? SV= (EV-PV) =$86,860-$101,000=$-14,140; this project is behind the schedule CV= (EV-AC) = $86,860 - $ 88,880= $-2,020 this project I over the budget SPI= (EV/PV) = $86,860/$101,000= $0.86 (If the
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Task 1 1 EARS # of times compounded National First 0.1025 10.25% Semiannually Regions Best 0.139947879 13.99% Monthly 2 The bank that would recommend is National First Bank because the rate is lower and the interest is componded semiannually. 3 Loan amount of $6,950,000 being offered by Regions Best at 8.6%APR for 5 yrs? Monthly payment amount will be $142,926.09 PMT ? PV $6,950,000 Interest 0.72% (8.6% divided by 12
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PV Technologies Case Study Submitted by Viswa Kumar PK Roll Number: EPGCMM-06-013 Problems / Issues faced by the PV Technologies: As per the information from Sales Manager Mr.Salvatori, PVT might lose the contract against SOMA energy and BJ Solar from the bidding, which is one of the high visibility project conducted by Solenergy Development LLC who won to construct a PV solar energy Power Plant. Mr. Greg Morgan – Chief Engineer conducted the evaluation of the bidders and the assumed
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PV Technologies, Inc.: Were They Asleep at the Switch? Case Synopsis: There was unofficial information on the following; - wrt Barstow bids, PVT was trailing behind competitors SOMA Energy and BJ Solar - It was perceived that the above is due to Solenergy’s renewed focus on expense control and the company felt that there was wide difference in the prices quoted by PVT and the other companies. They believed an enhanced maintenance schedule along with a proactive quality control program
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MAT 101 SLP3 1. Given: PV = $1000, i = .02, t = 20 FV = PV (1 + it) = 1000 ( 1 + (.02)(20)) = 1000 ( 1 + .40) = 1000 (1.40) = $1400.00 2. Given: PV = $1000, i = .05, t = 20; PV = $1000, I = .10, t = 10 FV = PV (1 + it) = 1000 (1 + (.05)(20)) = 1000 (1 + 1.00) = 1000 (2.00) = $2000.00, Option A FV = PV (1 + it) = 1000 (1 + (.10)(10)) = 1000 (1 + 1.00) = 1000 (2.00) = $2000.00, Option B No advantage noted in calculation given 10%/10 years renders same results as 5%/20 years. The investment would
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have a total of $100,000 to leave to your children. a. How much must you deposit in the bank at 10% on January 1, 1997 in order to achieve your goal? (Use a time line in order to answer this question.) b. What kinds of problems are associated with this analysis and its assumptions? SOLUTIONS TO ALTERNATIVE PROBLEMS 5-1A. a. FVn = PV (1 + i)n FV11 = $4,000(1 + 0.09)11 FV11 = $4,000 (2.580) FV11 = $10,320 b. FVn = PV (1 + i
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Necole Willis Homework Week 4 May 31, 2013 E 6-5 (a) $30,000 X 4.96764 = $149,029.20. (b) $30,000 X 8.31256 = $249,376.80. (c) ($30,000 X 3.03735 X .50663 = $46,164.38. E 6-12 Building A—PV = $600,000. Building B— Rent X (PV of annuity due of 25 periods at 12%) = PV $69,000 X 8.78432 = PV $606,118.08 = PV Building C— Rent X (PV of ordinary annuity of 25 periods at 12%) = PV $7,000 X 7.84314 = PV $54,901.98 = PV Cash purchase price
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Part One: Present Value Problems 1. Suppose you invest $2,500 in an account bearing interest at the rate of 14% per year. What will the future value of your investment in six years? FV = PV x (1 + interest rate)^n FV = 2,500 x (1 + .14)^6 FV = 2,500 x (1.14)^6 FV = 2,500 x 1.14 x 1.14 x 1.14 x 1.14 x 1.14 x 1.14 FV = $5487.43 2. Your best friend won the Wheel of Fortune in Las Vegas and has offered to give you $10,000 in five years, after he has collected his first million
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. www.tsx.ca www.webfin.com/en/index.html Problems 1. Burns Fire and Casualty Company a. 6 percent yield to maturity Present value of interest payments PVA = A ( PVIFA (n = 20, %i = 6) (Appendix D) PVA = 110 ( 11.470 = $1,261.70 Present value of principal payment at maturity PV = FV ( PVIF (n = 20, %i = 6) (Appendix B) PV = $1,000 ( 0.312 = $312 Total present value: Present value of interest payments $1,261.70 Present value of principal payments 312.00
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Matt Perry Finance – Baker College Week 2 Problems Chapter 4 9) a) FV: 500 * (((1+.06)^1)-1)/.06) = 530 b) FV: 530 * (((1+.0 ᥄ ᥄ ᥄ 6)^2)-1)/.06) = 561.80 c) PV: 500 * ((1-(1+.06)^-1)/.06) = 471.70 d) PV: 500 * ((1-(1+.06)^-2)/.06) = 445 10) ᥄ ᥄ ᥄ a) FV: 500 * (((1+.06)^10)-1)/.06) = 895.42 b) FV: 500 * (((1+.12)^2)-1)/.12) = 1552.92 c) PV: 500 * ((1-(1+.06)^-10)/.06) = 500 d) PV: 500 * ((1-(1+.12)^-2)/.12) = 279.20 ᥄ ᥄ ᥄ ᥄ ᥄ ᥄ ᥄ ᥄ ᥄ ᥄ ᥄ ᥄ ᥄ ᥄ ᥄ ᥄ ᥄ ᥄ 15
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RATING ERRORS HALO EFFECT: The tendency to let someone’s exemplary performance in one dimension influence your rating of the person in other dimensions; assuming that good performance in one dimension means the person is also as competent in other dimensions. Example: You are filling out the Recommendation of Readiness (ROR) for an employee with whom you have a great relationship. This employee volunteers for unpopular after-school activities, and comes up with creative solutions to problems
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The purpose of this report is to analyze the data constructed by PowerCo to determine the potential profit or loss of building a new power generator. Because of the increase in demand, the current power plant will not be able to supply the demand for electricity over the next 10-12 yrs. A proposal has been made, and this report will determine if a new power generator should be constructed. Present Value (Pv) of Expected cost, Cf=Cash flow Pv=Cft/(1+r)˄t Year Expected Cost in Millions
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PV Technologies, Inc.: Were They Asleep at the Switch? Problem: • Will Solenergy’s evaluation of PV Technologies put them at risk of a poor reputation and as a result position them lower in the renewable energy market? Objectives: • Stay as an industry leader in the renewable energy industry • Keep true to company vision/mission statement • Profitability • Focus on building continuous and long-term personal relationships Alternatives: • Four alternative courses of action- 1
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OM CHAPTER 7 PROCESS SELECTION, DESIGN, AND ANALYSIS DAVID A. COLLIER AND JAMES R. EVANS OM, Ch. 7 Process Selection, Design, and Analysis ©2009 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning 1 Chapter 7 Learning Outcomes learning outcomes LO1 Describe the four types of processes used to produce goods and services. LO2 Explain the logic and use of the product-process matrix. LO3 Explain the logic and use of the service-positioning matrix. LO4 Describe how to apply
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2014 ratios will be misled, and a return to normal conditions in 2015 could hurt the firm’s stock price. 10% 10% 5-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 | | | | | | PV = 10,000 FV5 = ? FV5 = $10,000(1.10)5 = $10,000(1.61051) = $16,105.10. Alternatively, with a financial calculator enter the following: N = 5, I/YR = 10, PV = -10000, and PMT = 0. Solve for FV = $16,105.10. 7% 7% 5-2 0 5 10 15 20 | | | | | PV = ? FV20 = 5,000
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$1 into its equivalent FV FVn = PV ( 1 + i )n FV1= 100(1+.10)1=110 Discounting Translating tomorrow's $1 into its equivalent PV PVn = FV÷( 1 + i )n PV1= 110÷ (1+.10)1=100 4-3 Compounding and Discounting When making investment decisions, managers usually calculate PV. 4-4 2 FVIFi,n (FVIF Table) FVn = PV ( 1 + i )n 4-5 FV– Single Sum If you deposit $100 in an account earning 6%, how much would you have after 1 year? PV = 100 FV = 0 106 1 Tabular and Mathematical Solution
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A NPER RATE PV PMT Given 20.00 0.09 25000.00 Debt Outstanding Solve 228213.64 228213.64 1st INTEREST 20539.23 1st PRINCIPLE 4460.77 NPER RATE PV PMT Given 1.00 0.09 25000.00 Solve 22935.78 22935.78 Last INTEREST 2064.22 Last PRINCIPLE 22935.78
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with 0 * If you invest 100 into a business it would be shown as -100 at 0 because you have cash flowing out * Time value of a lump sum (compounding) * The process of going from todays valyes (present values (PV)) to future values is called compounding. * Lump sum compounding starts with a single starting amount. * Terms used in analysis: * PV=beginning amount * I=interest rate (in decimal) * INT=dollars of interest earning uring a
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Chapter 2: Time Value of Money Practice Problems FV of a lump sum i. A company’s 2005 sales were $100 million. If sales grow at 8% per year, how large will they be 10 years later, in 2015, in millions? PV of a lump sum ii. Suppose a U.S. government bond will pay $1,000 three years from now. If the going interest rate on 3‐year government bonds is 4%, how much is the bond worth today? Interest rate on a simple lump sum investment iii. The U.S. Treasury
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GLOBAL MARKET OUTLOOK For Photovoltaics 2014-2018 Supported by: GLOBAL MARKET OUTLOOK For Photovoltaics 2014-2018 Principal authors and analysts: Gaëtan Masson (iCARES Consulting), Sinead Orlandi, Manoël Rekinger Publication coordination: Benjamin Fontaine, Sinead Orlandi External contributors: AECEA, APERe, APESF, APISOLAR, APREN, assoRinnovabili, Australian PV Association, BPVA, BSWSolar, CANSIA, CREIA, CRES, CZEPHO, Danish PV Association, EDORA, ENERPLAN, Fronius
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Summary: PV Technologies (PVT) was a premiere supplier to several segments of the solar energy technology field. In late July 2011, PVT received a Request for Proposal (RFP) from a long-time client, Solenergy Development LLC, a major developer of energy generation systems. Solenergy was seeking a supplier of utility grade central inverters for their 100MW plant; which was to be situated adjacent to an existing 25MW plant where PVT's central inverters had been performing flawlessly
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high Part D Alpha Company PMT ….. …. … . .. PMT 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 PMT = 26982 N = 6 I = 6.5 PV = ? PV = PMT [ 1-( 1+ I )-n ] I = 26982 [1- ( 1+ 0.065 ) -6 ] 0.065
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from day 1 is $615,000 Profit from day 2: (2,000*110 1/2) – (8,000*110 1/4) = -$661,000 Total loss: $45,000 (or total profit: -$45,000) Value of inventory at the end of Day 2: $0 (c) The market maker’s objective is to make a profit from the bid-ask spread. In order to improve performance over the 2-day period, the market maker could have decreased the amount of shares he short sold on day 1. Topic 2: Performance Measures 2. (a) Price = PV = F/(1+R)T PV = $1,000/(1+0.05)5 = $783.53 (b
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CORPORATE FINANCE ASSIGNMENT-1 Suppose you need Rs.30,000 next year to buy a new computer. The interest rate is 8 percent per year. How much money should you set aside now in order to pay for the purchase? PV = FV / (1+r)n PV= 30,000 / (1+0.8)1 PV= 30,000 / 1.08 PV = 27,777.78 b) If you can postpone your purchase until the end of 2 years, how much you need to invest now? PV = FV / (1+r)n PV= 30,000 / (1+0.8)2 PV= 30,000 / 1.1664 PV = 25,720 2) If your
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= 1,000 (1+r)3 = 1,000 (1.1)3 = 1,331 3 Review of time value of money In general, FV = PV (1+r)t = PV * FVIF (r, t) FVIF = future value interest factor On exams, if you write FV = 1,331, this is not enough. You must write at least: FV = 1,000 FVIF (10%, 3) or FV = 1,000 (1 + 0.1)3 = 1,331 If FV = PV (1 + r)t, then 1 PV FV t (1 r ) PVIF = present value interest factor 4 Review of time value of money To find r in PVIF or FVIF We know that
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