CH5. Natural Resource Utilization & Pollution of the Environment
* Resource depletion: the consumption of finite or scarce resources.
* Pollution: undesirable contamination of the environment by the manufacture or use of commodities.
* Conservation: the saving or rationing of resources for future use.
* Private costs: costs of production borne by the producer.
* External costs: costs of production not borne by the producer.
* Social cost of production: = private costs + external costs
* Internalization: make producers bear the total social cost of production.
* Ecological system: an interrelated and interdependent set of organisms and environments
* Ecological ethics: ecosystems as having inherent rights or interests and we have direct duties to them.
* Ecofeminism: socio-ethical theory which combines ecological ethics with a critique of paternalistic patterns of domination (top down hierarchical authority structures) in our political and economic institutions as contributing to environmental exploitation.
* Unlimited resource view: view encapsulating the attitude of bygone times which regarded the earth’s carrying capacity as unlimited, and air and water as "free goods."
* Sustainable growth: a level of economic and population growth which enables each generation to hand down a world no worse than it inherited to succeeding generations, which avoids the Doomsday scenario.
* Doomsday scenario: scenario in which population is controlled by rising death rates and economic growth is limited by economic collapse.
* Direct duty: a duty rooted in the rights or interests of the individual to whom the duty is owed. We have a duty to protect ecosystems for their own sake, as ecological ethics does, is to proclaim a direct duty rooted in rights or interests of the ecosystems...