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A Pragmatic Analysis of English Humor in Jokes

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A Pragmatic Analysis of English Humor in jokes


Looking back at the history, humorous language and behaviour had been treated as frivolous, ludicrous, and even evil. However, with the development of social civilization, people have gradually realized that humour actually is indispensable for our monotonous and regular life. Humour is embodied in operas, movies, writings, conversations, etc. And the most common type is humorous conversations. In many pragmatics books, lots of humorous conversations can be found, which are employed to analyze pragmatics. So we can see that humour and pragmatics are closely connected. However, papers about humorous language with a pragmatic view are comparatively only a few. Besides, most of them only focus on certain aspects of pragmatics, for example, cooperative principle. Based on the main parts of pragmatics, this paper does a comparatively detailed research on the humorous language in English conversations. At the beginning of the thesis, some popular definitions of humour are compared and a conclusion is made. Then humour is classified into four types and its functions in the social interaction are specified.
Key Words: English Humour; Conversational implicature; Violation; Humorous effects

摘 要

回望历史,幽默的语言和行为都被视为琐屑无聊,很可笑,和甚至邪恶。然而,随着社会文明的发展,人们逐渐认识幽默实际上是为我们的单调和定期生活不可或缺。幽默被体现在歌剧、 电影、 文字、 对话等。最常见的类型是幽默的交谈。 在许多语用学书籍,大量的幽默对话可以被发现,是用来分析语用学。所以我们可以看到幽默和语用学紧密相连的。然而,关于幽默的语言与语用的视图文件是相对较少。此外,绝大多数人只专注于某些方面的语用学,例如,合作原则。基于语用学的主要部分,本文做了较为详细的研究在英语会话幽默的语言。



Abstract I
摘 要 II
1 An Introduction to Humour 1 1.1 Definitions of Humour 1 1.2 Classification of Humour 3 1.3 Functions of Humour 5
2 Traditional Theories on Humor 9 2.1 Superiority Theory 9 2.2 Relief Theory 10 2.3 Incongruity Theory 12 2.4 Summary of Humour Theories 13
3 The Pragmatic Analysis of English Humor 15 3.1 Conversational Implicature in English Humour 15 3.2 PP in English Humour 18 3.3 Presupposition in English Humour 19
4 Conclusion 20
References 22

1 An Introduction to Humour

1.1 Definitions of Humour

On the humor, there is a lot of research, but so far there is no precise definition, humorous recognized academic fields. Some commonly used here to review existing definitions below. In the Oxford English Dictionary, the "humor" is "Quality is funny or comedy" or "appreciation of things, situations or those comics; the ability to be a competent person pastime." In Webster's New World Dictionary of American English, it is "a) kind of character, called for a sense of ridiculous or absurd disproportionate; b) Department of Psychology, found that the expression, or enjoy the ridiculous or absurd disproportionate; c) things, it is possible to design a funny or interesting. " Rick Walton humor theory for twenty years more than fifty children humor books. He concluded that there is no threat or promise humorous surprise. According to his theory, everyone has expectations of how the world works, when something happens in the opposite expectation, people are surprised. And along the surprise must lack threat. For example, if a girl walking in a dark street, a robber was shocked, she was surprised, but she does not find the situation amusing. In addition, when an unexpected display of commitments to meet the hopes and solve the problem, they are satisfied, happy, or too happy, but they do not really find it funny. For example, a person buy sports lottery, and two weeks later someone called him and told him he was the winner of one million yuan. It is a surprise? Yes, but this is not funny. When the archaeologists found the tomb of the ancient Wang Zhaoguo when a student discovered a new way to solve math problems, there is a surprise, but there is no sense of humor. Therefore, we can conclude that not every surprise is humorous, but each has a surprise humor, that is, you expect something suddenly. Warren Shibles, a philosophy professor at the University of Wisconsin- Whitewater, need humor from thought was wrong or harmful, but which is not a bad view. This, then, would produce laughter and body feel good. According to this definition, when someone feels that there is a mistake in some other vocal or physical behavior, he may feel funny. Here's error may be inconsistent with the concept of normal behavior between. For example, Why does an elephant wear a pair of red socks? Because his yellow ones are in the wash. The joke is beyond our normal concepts. We do not think that elephants should wear socks. So the answer is beyond our expectations. We find it very funny, because we believe that it is unrealistic and absurd logic. But once the mistake appears to be harmful it is no longer funny. For example, we laugh if someone stepped on a banana peel, but stop laughing if his injured leg. All in all, these first two sources emphasize two aspects: First, the language or languages of humor as other forms of behavior or induce or amused laugh. Second, understanding, appreciation, and the ability to create humor. The last two reasons for a deeper study of the definition of humor appears to do. Both show the difference between our expectations and reality is that you need to create humor. However, we should note that under different circumstances, other factors as a person's education level, geographic location, or mature mood may affect the achievement of humor. Thus, one finds some rather humorous, and another not at all funny feeling. By another strong may still feel humiliated. This article is confined to the field of linguistics, so the above conditions do not give special consideration to the study.

1.2 Classification of Humour

We generally think that humor is really laughable, it should be positive rather than a negative. However, although the normal body fluids are usually interesting and hurt anyone, and many of them do have aggressive. We live in a society in a lot of other people. Either consciously or unconsciously, we always try to people around me, coordinate and adjust our social status, according to our purpose. Humor often used as increase a person's social status, to fight an intellectual battle weapons or intelligence; preparation or as a way to achieve their own benefit, enhance personal relationships. Based on this view, one of the current popular view in the academic field are classified into four types of humor.

1.2.1 Affiliative Humour

Affiliative drive humor to make people laugh, to enhance a person's relationships with others are relatively benign way of self-acceptance. Use humor affiliated driving force might joke with others, and have the ability to make others laugh. Light humorous dialogue happen in our daily lives are such a large number. For example: "Hey, why do you take bread and a knife whenever you go to downtown?" "Well, it's because of the report of a traffic jam." "Jam" has a double meaning here. Of course, we know that "traffic jam" from the "jam" for bread literal meaning is very different. But in reply deliberately comic required text. Like humor does not hurt to let anyone and everyone thought it was funny.

1.2.2 Self-enhancing Humour

Sometimes with a sense of humor to enhance self-tolerance and non-harmful way to others. Improve self-humor is intended to reduce feelings of personal pressure by changing situations. People need a sense of superiority, for someone or something in this kind of humor, easily amused. Improve the humor associated with the behavior, including being ridiculous self-life, and make themselves up in spirits and humor amused. For example: Waiter: Tea or coffee, gentlemen? 1 st customer: I'll have tea. 2nd customer: Me, too. And be sure the glass is clean! (Waiter exits, returns) Waiter: Two teas. Which one asked for the clean glass? This is a typical example of humor, absurd. We laugh because the waiter did not realize in his reply can mean anything. Thus, the unconscious or attendant advantages of increased satisfaction. This humor is also prevalent in the third person or a nation laugh and appear in real life or movies and some clumsy and ridiculous acts joke.

1.2.3 Aggressive Humour

Aggressive humor is satire, manipulate, belittle or demean, can work in costs and damages relationships with others. In reality, aggressive humor will include ironic joke or tease others for their mistakes and lack of how others will respond to the concerns of a joke. For example: Hotel Clerk: I hope you enjoyed your stay with us, sir. Departing Guest: Ah in bed too hard, and the price is too high, the food is bad, the service is too slow, and too much noise, but anyway, I certainly like your ice. The last sentence of this response the whole discourse of humor, but apparently the hotel staff aggressive humor.

1.2.4 Self-defeating Humour

With excessive self-defeating self-deprecating humor or flatter. From the aggressive humor is that it can be used in different costs and damages, to make people laugh, to improve the relationship between the Self and Others. Humorous examples, self-defeating to seek to accept other people say interesting things on their own mistakes, shortcomings or defects. For example: A: Did you book the ticket for the flight? B: Yes. But I should have booked 2. A:Why? Somebody else will go with you? B:I'm not sure if one seat can handle my weight. B in this example exaggerates his weight. This type of humor to make fun of themselves raise very often hear people's daily lives laughter.

1.3 Functions of Humour

There are public prejudices humor is not important, even boring. Sense of humor is not received until most people even today. But if people pay attention to their actual behavior, that they actually value and experience, they will observe the humor in our lives is usually the most important thing. If one of the things he wants, but the lack of humor, his world will still be boring. Imagine, for example, marriage or work, without any sense of humor, and they will not tolerate oppression. Humor to provide people with their quality of life. It is believed to involve adjustment, happiness, hope, intelligence, joy and love. Here, some of the main uses humor to classify.

1.3.1 Amusement Provision and Relationship Improvement

The basic function of providing humorous entertainment. Humor can bring laughter and smiles, gives a lot of pleasure. Humor is invisible bridge to shorten the gap between people. It helps make communication more successful. In many cases, the purpose of humor is now becoming increasingly used for communication. In everyday communication, it can never be welcome. The most humorous people are his people, the most curious, keen observation and reflection of mind, who have experienced their mind to be able to exercise vigilance and stored in the mind springing from one point to another one point. Menon pointed out, humorous person is considered more interesting and intelligent. Today, the pressure from our society has become bigger, and it must be all armed intense challenge. So they tend to like to be with those who always have a good sense of humor, you can find some fun, laugh a break.

1.3.2 Tension Relaxation

We may have this experience-When we meet new people, usually in the first two sides are not so outspoken, or even a little nervous to each other. So if you introduce a sense of humor, and fully aware of the atmosphere of conversation will immediately become easier. Former US President Abraham Lincoln is well known that he has a sense of humor. When he went to the interview, he usually begins with a joke or a funny story, it is not only broke the deadlock, and soon also help relax tense tourists. In addition, people suffering from a rapport before and understand with a new person, they may use humor to alleviate their sense of threat, and let each other know that they are not a threat. Thus the communication is improved.

1.3.3 Self-esteem Defence

As it happens one might be mocked, either intentionally or unintentionally. Appropriate humor can not only prevent potential conflicts, but also appropriate to defend human dignity. Here is a story once taking place between George Bernard Shaw and Winston Churchill: Before the opening of his new play Haior Barbara, George Bernard Shaw telegrammed Winston Churchill. Have reserved two tickets for first night. Come and bring a friend if you have one. Bernard Shaw's words imply Churchill joke but no friends, and Churchill's answer, said Shaw's play bad, you can not have the opportunity for another performance, which successfully defended their dignity, in addition, appropriate counter.

1.3.4 Physical Health Contribution

Humor can induce laughter and happy mood. It is recognized that when a person with physical or mental illness or a real good mood laughter can be the best medicine. Through the years a large number of experimental studies, the researchers verified exposure to humor has many beneficial effects, lower blood pressure, reduce stress and improve the immune system. In the medical field, the humor is also widely used to help treat his patients to doctors. For example, dentists are trained to use humor to reduce their fear of the patient. From the above, we can see the humor to people's mental and physical life of these two huge benefits. This chapter introduces the basics of the definition of humor humorous, classification and function. In the next chapter, will specify the traditional theory of humor.

2 Traditional Theories on Humor

There are many views on humor theory of classification. Some scholars have pointed out that kind of humor more than 100 kinds of theories, and the traditional concept of reducing the prevalence of humor theory into three groups. They are the incongruity, relief and advantage theory.

2.1 Superiority Theory

Advantage theory suggests that when one senses a sudden advantage by seeing the faults of others things, to produce humor. Both forms can be advantages to claims based on humor theory: (1) strong demand to hold humor involves an advantage, and (2) a weak suggestion of superiority claims often find humor in many situations. Plato (427-348 BC years) is considered to be the study of humor into the first great philosopher lot of effort. Although humor is considered not serious, do not attach to that time, the importance of the philosophy of the founders did not bypass this problem. His comments prove a negative attitude. Plato saw no good sense of humor. In vain, he tried to expose the pleasure and pain of resentment that a mixture of entertainment. Those tend to consider themselves more laughter rich, handsome, and smarter than they are in real life. Plato believes humor is a negative phenomenon, because this emotion-based vicious and jealous, and another, or laughed at, especially in laughter caused difficulties or disasters, lower status or privileges. Aristotle (384-322 BC years) seen as a form of education received snob joke. He pointed out that the two main features of humor: absurd can be defined as an error or deformity does not produce pain or harm to others. In comedy, the audience despised character, because it presents the main virtues of smaller than, or "who is poor." Audience. "Preposterous," according to Aristotle, this is a failure or damage caused by a piece of ugliness without pain. And Plato, Aristotle allows humor in limited quantities, might be beneficial. That is, humor can relax and temporary easements. However, on this basis, Plato and Aristotle on the nature of humor do not make a clear statement that these two views of superiority. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) developed Plato and Aristotle's view that laughter is related to social status and advantages of a person in one's peers. In Leviathan (1660), Hobbes wrote that human beings are in a constant power struggle, victory should not be surprising to people who smile. He also said that laughter is nothing but a sudden passion caused by some brilliant Sharp (excellent) themselves, others suddenly concept by relatively weak (weakness) or with our own previous (before early age). However, the advantage is far below the accepted theory. Some think that the feeling of superiority is not a prerequisite of humor. For example, you see the sleeping cat with its four legs widely extended, can be considered funny clear advantages involved. If not a necessary condition for the superiority of humor, they enough? The answer is still "no." People can feel better than a lot of things, dogs, cats, trees, etc., were not amused. And their duller actions will make nobody feel better about himself.

2.2 Relief Theory

Relief theory attempts to describe and tension release of humor. The two most prominent theorist Herbert Spencer relief (1820-1903) and Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). You can consider two versions of the relief theory: (1) strong version considered excessive energy release; the results of all the laughter (2) weak version claims that it is often humorous laughter relates to a release of tension or energy cases. Half of the nineteenth century, the Herbert Spencer once again become a laughter-induced structural analysis of the situation. According to Spencer, laughter can cause a relationship, not always pleasant (ironically, hysterical laughter). Strong emotions, such as excitement or mental energy anxiety caused by tension. This energy is trying to escape, but the easiest way to do this is through those muscles, such as the mouth muscles, bionic muscles, sound equipment and respiratory muscle tissue. If these channels proved insufficient to release tension energy, the use of other means of escape, and the entire body began to shake in convulsions. This is the laughter, the emotions triggered by a simple mechanism. Sigmund Freud development of laughter, this is Spencer's theory plus a new process of relief theory restated better version. In the "joke and its relationship to the unconscious" (1905), he reached the following conclusions: witty fun stems from the inhibition of economic thought from spending or economic costs and expenses from the economic sense of humor in the comics. He describes three different sources of laughter joke, comic, and humor- some of it relates to mental energy savings row through laughter. Joking, energy will be saved and used for repressive hostility, and can be released in laughter. In the comics, the cognitive effort to resolve the legacy of intellectual challenge, can be released. Humor comes to the emotional energy savings. What emotion excited because the situation turns out to be that we should not take seriously something serious emotional reactions, energy is established can then be released. Laughter theory does not provide relief our way to distinguish from non-humorous humor laughter laughter. Sometimes people release tension humor and laughter are not connected. In addition, relief theorists mistakenly believe that since the release of psychic energy tend to think of physical movement, any movement of the body should be interpreted as excess nervous energy.

2.3 Incongruity Theory

Incongruity theory of humor, focusing on the most important objects of humor theory. The term "incompatible" is widely used, including vague logical impossibility, insignificant, impropriety. In this article, the incongruity will support key points about humor pragmatic analysis. In rhetoric, Aristotle proposed humor, says the best way to amuse the audience laugh is to establish an expectation and delivered to a distortion of what the first faint incongruity theory. "Twisted" means absurd or different expectations, which the audience can be surprised and get something fun. Although relief theorist Herbert Spencer, he did not dislodge the incongruity theory, we propose a funny situation, people expect a lot, and find some small. This so-called descending incongruity. In the opposite case, rather than a few small things, people suddenly discovered a big thing, if he could elevate a sense of incongruity. Immanuel Kant (1724 -1804) "gives the uncoordinated action of humor was clearly stated:" In the Critique of Pure Reason stimulate lively laugh at everything that must have some ridiculous things (in which understanding, So you can find dissatisfied). " Laughter is expected to cause intense feelings of sudden transition into nothing. For example, when we hear a story of a human hair, said: To become gray in one night from too much grief, we do not find it very funny, even if we do not believe this story (the transition to the opposite). On the other hand, we would laugh if the man in the story is so sad his wig turned gray (transition to what). Kant believed that a good joke must contain our initial take is true, briefly deceive us, and disappear into nothingness next moment something. This is the mechanism, sparking laughter. Here's something absurd regularly. Arthur Schopenhauer (1788 --1860) has developed into a so-called "ridiculous theory" uncoordinated. According to him, laughing and expect certain things like inconsistencies abstractions or behavior between people from identifying the physical. Successfully identified absurd and identify non-correspondence between the conceptual and practical thing is the cause of laughter. However, Kant, Schopenhauer and other theorists are not able to explain the inconsistencies of the most important things: Why is not always funny absurd; what difference does a funny sense of humor with absurd figure. The incongruity theory is far too broad, it will be very interesting, it is inadequate because it does not distinguish between non-humorous incongruity is inconsistent with the basic.

2.4 Summary of Humour Theories

Three different schools of humor theories discussed in the previous section, every aspect of the theory reveals a common, if not necessary, humor. It is misleading, put these theories as a competitor. In fact, in each category theorists focus on different issues. For example, the advantages of theorists tend to focus on what the feelings are what is needed is a sense of humor, or why people find something interesting. Relief theorists tend to focus on the function of humor serve human life. Most talk about humorous incongruity theory object to what people think, or rather funny answer questions. The main differences between these schools is that they tend to think that a problem is more humorous than other basic research. This paper is the study of humor and pragmatic view. Unlike any traditional theory, this article will attempt to specify how the relationship between humor reflect pragmatic maxim and what between them. The following two chapters are the main part of the paper. Chapter 3 will answer the question: What is pragmatics, especially humorous analysis of those parts of this study contribute to it? Chapter 4 will result in the actual analysis pragmatics of conversation humor.

3 The Pragmatic Analysis of English Humor

n the face of the chapter describes some basic knowledge about the humor, humor theory and pragmatics. As the most important part of this article, in particular Chapter 4 analyzes the sample through a lot, leading to a more comprehensive understanding of English humor pragmatic effect is reflected in the English language with a humorous effect.

3.1 Conversational Implicature in English Humour

The former may reflect or the hearer in a particular situation and in a particular context, the calculation of the latter, it may lead to humorous effect. English humor in each one maxim violation will be discussed below. Depending on the number of the first points of the maxim,, when people talk to others that they should make a contribution to the transcript information needed to proceed. However, people do not always stand to the rules and they are too simple answer is sometimes confused or mislead the hearer, becomes a source of humor is happening where.
(1) Kid: I et seven biscuits for breakfast this morning. Mom: Ate. Kid: Ok, maybe it was eight.… In this talk, the children make mistakes in pronunciation and pronounced "et" for "eat" and mother trying to correct this error. He said the mother was too short, and it thought the child and his mother took him to lie, because "eat" and "eight" has the same pronunciation. If the mother to complete this sentence: "'prime' is wrong, you should say that I 'eat' seven biscuit", the child does not respond to it, and therefore will not create humorous effect.
(2) Bill: I have a dog Lily: Oh, is it a poodle? Bill: No Lily: A shepherd dog? Bill: No. Lily: What kind? Bill: A hot dog. Obviously, Bill is deliberately uncooperative in their conversation. We can see that he made a topic, but only gave a very short answer, no more explanation. But his simple answer cause more curiosity from the hearer, and wanted to know what kind of dog it is on Earth. Bill's final answer is Lily's expectations. This caused the number of violations of the listener's expectations, while expected to be broken, to produce humor.
When Peters learned that he was being fired, he went to see the head of human resources. "Since I've been with the firm for so long," he said, "I think I deserve at least a letter of recommendation." Head of human resources is actually reluctant to write a letter of recommendation, Peters, but in order not to threaten. Peter's face in front of him, or we might say, does not violate the principle of politeness, the head did not directly reject Peters, but rather provides a very short message is not necessary or desired information, which is conducive to Peters find another job. The last one: "When he left us, we are very satisfied," sounds like a compliment, but we can see what it really means, "We are very happy because he left".
(4) Man: do you have a family? Woman: Yes, I have one son. Man: Oh, really? Does he smoke? Woman: No, he's never touched a cigarette. Man: That's good. I don't smoke either. Tobacco is very bad for one's health. And does your son drink wine? Woman: Oh, no. He's never drunk a drop of it. Man: Then I congratulate you, Ma'am. And does he ever come home late at night? Woman: No, never. He goes to bed immediately after dinner every night. Man: Well, he is a wise young man. How old is he? Woman: He's six month old.
(5) First Manufacturer: How's business? Second Manufacturer: Picking up a little. One of our men got a$50,000 order yesterday. First Manufacturer: Go away. I don't believe that. Second Manufacturer: Honest he did-I'll show you the cancellation. In both (4) and (5) of the side at the beginning of misunderstanding because of its interlocutor does not provide sufficient information necessary. When the end provides the necessary information to create humorous effect. (4) was the first meeting between the two passengers conversation on the train. The man tried to start conversations question "Do you have a family," and soon they focus on the theme of the woman's son. If the woman tells the man very beginning, "I have a son who is six months", where the only stop talking. Or suppose when a man asked, "He does not smoke," the woman added, "No, he was six months old," talk does not lead to a humorous effect, the last, either. On the one hand, this woman does not tell people that her son was just a child. On the other hand, focuses on a man who acts without asking his age. They are in violation of the first points of the maxim of quantity, and misunderstandings because of the lack of information leads to humor. (5), the second manufacturer replied: "Less picking", which means "my business will be better." So first he said he misunderstood the manufacturer really get such large orders. The second manufacturer if his first reply: "But then cancel the order," the first one manufacturer would not doubt his words. Then there will be no sense of humor.

3.2 PP in English Humour

Politeness principle is often considered during a conversation when the speaker believes his words might threaten his interlocutor's face. In the last part of this chapter, politeness principle is also involved in the discussion of the way when a violation. Comply with the principles of courtesy and contempt it can produce comic effect.
(1) Hotel Clerk: I hope you enjoyed your stay with us, sir.
Departing Guest: Well, the bed was too hard, the price was too high, the food was lousy, the service was slow, there's too much noise, but anyway, I certainly enjoyed your ice water. Of course, guests are very satisfied with the hotel. When he replies Clerk, he might simply say: "No, I do not like where the fundamental", but he spoke more, pointing out that he does not like every aspect, which is very detailed and convincing and strongly showed his dissatisfaction. In its reply to the last, he seems to respond to the Clerk said, but apparently it's just ironic that implies almost everything in the hotel is not satisfactory. When the speaker does not want to threaten another person's face, he would take a polite way of talking. But if used improperly polite, or find the meaning of words, seemingly polite way would be humorous, sometimes sarcastic. And at last, the husband frankly admitted his wife may have trouble men. In these examples, you can see people sometimes make fun of those close to them, and only those who can tolerate it impolite. However, in our daily life, people do need that sense of humor because it brings more fun and relieve boredom of everyday life.

3.3 Presupposition in English Humour

English humor, sometimes, words can speak to other people's expectations, to cancel the premise that appear in their conversation. So cancel the preset produce comedy. For example:
(1) Reporter: Mr. Gandhi, what do you think of Western Civilization? Gandhi: I think that it would be a very good idea. In this example, the reporter's question is a prerequisite for the existence of Western civilization. But Gandhi's answer to the cancellation of the presets and tools, "This is a very good idea to establish a civilization in Western countries," which means "presence is no civilization in Western countries." We know that Gandhi (1869 -1948) was a leader of the Indian national liberation movement, he said it also cleverly ironic humor brutal British colonial rule.
(2) Husband: Well, I finally got the car fixed. Now it will start. Wife: How much did it cost? Husband: Only two dollars. Wife: That's not bad. What was wrong with it? Husband: It needed gas. Husband using "fixed", causing the car had some problems, and "only" strengthen the preset preconditions. Under normal circumstances, to repair the car should be quite expensive so of course his wife that "this is not bad." But "it needs gas" at the end of the cancellation of the original preset and the original car is good, only to run out of petrol. Apparently, her husband opened a joke, and his wife. When you read the first example, may be through with his second thought he could achieve humor and meaning. The second example is a light humor, you can immediately make a smile. This reflects the humor by eliminating pre-human movement unconventional and creative and enjoyable our lives.

4 Conclusion

According to the authors of the study so far, although there have been several studies of humor theory since long before, dating back to 400 BC, in fact, it did not receive special attention until this century. Especially on the humor of the language not only developed more than 20 years. To view the study of this problem, there tend to analyze the effect of humor or humor pragmatic pragmatic features and some files. More ways it relates to pragmatics, add more rhetorical successfully connect them with violating the principles of cooperation maxims and explains how to create a humorous effect through these devices. Because this paper focuses on the humor of the pragmatic, the authors therefore confined to the English verbal humor or humorous conversation topics. At the end of this article, the author wants to say, no one is born with humor. People can learn to be humor from their parents, friends, books, or even to school, if possible. More and more people have realized the importance of humor, though has been less attention to formal education in our society since the emergence of human civilization. Fortunately, in the academic field, more scholars from different aspects have begun to keen on this area. Perhaps one day, in our universities, have a college education to establish a sense of humor. In addition to learning the history and theory of humor in different fields, students will learn how to more effectively use them in real life.


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Jokes, were he graduated as the best medical student. NOTE: Therefore i make a decree upon your life, May God lift you up from grass to grace, from nobody to somebody, from disgrace to grace,may his favour shine upon you in everyday of your life, may he promote you and place you on a higer level, and never put you to shame in Jesus name. Why not say Amen ?? Chichi:: Akpos paid me to climb d tree mama:: that stupid son of a bitch wanted to see ur panties chichi:: i know now, dats why i removed my pant before climbing the tree 1)Garri No Get Advert, But E Sell Pass Indomie 2)No Matter How Toms sell, E No Go Sell Pass Slippers 3)If You Never Thief Meat From Pot B4, Then You Mama No Sabbi Cook 4)A Girl Who Laffs @ Your dry Joke during a first date doesn't have transport money to get back Home 5)The only woman who knows where her man is every Night is a "Widow" 6)Bowen university is the only uni you find people kissing wif there both eyes wild open, so as not to get Caught..... 7)Say Hausa Man Poor, No mean say him NO fit afford to buy Transitor Radio 8)U cant kneel down to greet ur parent but u can Kneel to give ur BF heads, una go explain 4 judgment day o 9)If the Alarm of a China fone cannot wake you up.....Forget it u r "DEAD" 10)To listen to CoolFM, just put ur radio in a Fridge 11)Its a small world no mean say u go trek from ur house reach malaysia o0. Pls comment and add urs.. Teacher: our topic today is ''Question tag' e.g she is......

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An Analysis of Language Features in English Advertisements

...AN ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE FEATURES IN ENGLISH ADVERTISEMENTS   Abstract This paper presents an analytical study of the language features of English advertisements at lexical, syntactic and discourse levels. In order to conduct a data-driven study, the author builds a corpus of 60 English advertisements. It is hoped that through the detailed survey of three types of advertisements: namely, daily consumer goods ads, technical equipment ads, service ads, similarities and differences in advertising language features can be summarized and possible reasons will be given in the light of the meaning, and function of language. This paper will be presented in five parts. The first part is the introduction and the last conclusion. The focus of the paper is laid on the three middle parts which respectively analyze language features at lexical, syntactic and discourse levels. The conclusion of this paper is drawn from the data analysis. In the analysis, examples from the corpus will be given; figures, tables and graphs will also be offered to make the paper understandable and persuasive. It is hoped that the study can shed light on the language features of advertisements and also provide help to copy writers and advertising English learners.   KEYWORDS: English Advertisements, Lexical, Syntactic, Discourse,             Similarities, Differences   Contents   |1. |Introduction ……………………………………………………………… |1 | |1.1...

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An Analysis of English Pragmatic Failure from the Perspective of Culture

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English Analysis of How Luck You Are

...sent from to The document has been allocated a reference ID - D11531594. Please save these details for future reference. Please fill in your name so that we can link your name to your e-mail address. Regards, Urkund automatic registrar This is an automatic e-mail message. You cannot reply to it. If you have questions about Urkund and its use, contact our Customer Support: +46 (0)8 738 5210 (Mon-Fri 08.00-16.30) or by e-mail to How lucky you are The writer, Debi Alper, has written the story, how lucky you are, in 2010. The story is about a boy named max and a girl named Ishraqi. Max is an English boy, who lives in London. One day he decides to bunk school and goes to sit in front of the UK Borders Agency Building in Croydon Town Centre. While sitting there, he rolls the thinnest possible fag, when suddenly a girl falls on to his lap. His first reaction is to tell her to watch it, whilst yelling at her. When he then realises her beauty, his tone changes and he starts being nice. Max feels that he wants to converse with her, and asks her if she is bunking class too. Instead he finds out that she is going to a meeting in the Borders Agency Building. She tells him her name, Ishraqi, and her story. The story about why she is in London, instead of home in Iran. Ishraqi is accompanied by alexsa, who works in a refugee camp as a......

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...Though humor can often be a welcome addition to many situations, using humor at work can often lead to unwanted outcomes. With the introduction of different genders in the workforce we have to take into consideration that different types of people appreciate different types of humor. With that in mind men and women respond differently to humor. Using the wrong style with the wrong people can have less than productive results. While men seem to appreciate a self-enhancing style of humor and women finding an affiliative style more to their liking. Humor with sexual undertones can lead to conflict and division of groups. These types of humor can be offensive and should be avoided in the workplace. While the use of humor can be a good thing it often can be a double edged sword mainly for the way others perceive it causing a misinterpretation. Using the wrong type of humor can have adverse effects, with people having different views resulting in less than proactive results. Misunderstanding of humor can materialize feelings of discontent, alienation, inferiority, and anger. Most times it is better to avoid the use of aggressive humor as it can make others feel intimidated and cause competition between employees. To effectively use humor in the work place is possible but efforts must be taken to provide a comfortable platform. Using the correct types of humor and reading the situation and audience to select the proper humor style to use can be the largest challenge. The OHM......

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An Analysis of Language Features in English Advertisements

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Humor and Dissent

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The Joke

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