Free Essay

African Regional Conflict

In: Historical Events

Submitted By tasneemsutopa
Words 2260
Pages 10
Regional Conflicts in Africa
• Introduction……………………………………………………………………….2
• Regional Conflict…………………………………………………………………...2
• Angola:
• Angolan War for independence…….…………………………………………...3
• Angolan Civil War………………………………………………………………...5
• Sudan:
• Darfur Conflict…………………………………………………………………....5
• Burundi:
• Burundian Conflict………………………………………………………………7
• Nigeria:
• Nigerian civil war………………………………………………………………..9
• Rwanda:
• Civil War of Rwanda……………………………………………………………..11
• Liberia:
• Sierra Leon vs. Liberia………………………………………………………….12
• Democratic Republic of Congo…………………………………………………….13
• South Africa……………………………………………………………………….14


Since gaining independence many West African nations have undergone political instability. There have been many wars in Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Cote d’Ivoire. Since the end of colonialism, West African states have often been affected by instability, corruption, violence, and authoritarianism. The region has seen the most brutal and serious conflicts that have ever taken place, such as the Angolan Civil War, First Liberian Civil War, Second Liberian Civil War, Guinea-Bissau Civil War, Ivorian Civil War, and the Sierra Leone Civil War.

In this paper we’ll try to analyze the causes, costs and impacts of these regional conflicts and war, while giving a brief history of it.


According to Rightspeak Glossary,
“Regional conflict is a war requiring violation of the territorial sovereignty of two or more nation states.”
So we can say that when two or more countries get into a conflict either to protect own or invade other’s territorial sovereignty, they are being involved in a regional conflict.


• ANGOLAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE: Following independence from Portugal, the two primary rebel groups, the Marxist MPLA and the "pro-Western" UNITA movements battled for control of Angola. Each side received significant outside assistance. The MPLA enjoyed massive aid from the Soviet Union as well as combat troops from Cuba. Early in the conflict, Zaire sent troops to aid UNITA, while the United States (mostly through the Central Intelligence Agency) sent weapons and mercenaries. South Africa also aided UNITA with large cross-border incursions. South Africa's involvement came out of concern that a pro-Communist regime would aid SWAPO rebels fighting for Namibia's independence from South Africa. The war finally ended after the death of UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi.


• Declaration of Portuguese supremacy over the natives:
Under the Portuguese Colonial Act, passed on 13 June 1933 declared he supremacy of the Portuguese over native people.
• Movement against forced cotton cultivation:
Portuguese, British and German owned company Cotonang forced the native peasant to cultivate and prepare it for very low wages and low working condition. So On 3 January 1961 Angolan peasants in the region of Baixta De Cassanje, Malanje, boycotted the Cotonang's cotton fields where they worked.


Beginning in 1975 immediately after gaining independence from Portugal , the Angolan Civil war continued with some interlude until 2002. This was mainly a power conflict between two former liberation movements MPLA and UNITA.


• Ethnic divisions: Congo Empire, Ndongo and Matamba kingdom in the Ambundu area, Lunda Empire – these are the reflection of ethnic cleavages that slowly developed among the Bantu populations, and were instrumental in consolidating these cleavages and fostering the emergence of new and distinct social identities.

• Portuguese colonialism: In 1975 Portuguese settlers established several forts (ex: Saint Paul fort of Luanda, Benguela fort ect. ), which were mainly used for the development of the slave trade. In the 19th century, the Portuguese began a more serious program of advancing into the continental interior. However, their intention de was less territorial occupation and more establishing a facto overlordship.

• Build-up to independence and rising tensions: In 1961, the FNLA and the MPLA, based in neighboring countries, began a guerrilla campaign against Portuguese rule on several fronts. In 1975, South African Prime Minister B.J. Vorster authorized operation Savanna which began as an effort to protect engineers constructing the dam at Calueque, after unruly UNITA soldiers took over; the dam project, paid for by South Africa, was felt to be at risk. The South African Defense Force (SADF) dispatched an armored task force to secure Calueque, and from this Operation Savannah intensified, there being no formal government in place. The South Africans came to commit thousands of soldiers to the intrusion, and ultimately clashed with Cuban forces assisting the MPLA.

The Darfur conflict is an ongoing military conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan, the third largest country in Africa. It is a conflict along ethnic and tribal lines that began in 2003

• The roots of conflict at Darfur in Sudan:

• Global Warming: The war in Darfur was to do with lack of resources. This is caused by drought and desertification.

• Government Support To The Janjaweed: A militia group recruited from the Arab tribes who move place to place herding Camels. The Sudanese government tells the public that it does not support the Janjaweed. However, It has provided cash and assistance and has even participated in joint attacks.

• Rebel Armies Groups: The other side of the conflict is made up of a number of rebel armies including the Sudan liberation movement and Justice and Equality movement. These armies are recruited from black ethnic groups who make a living farming the land.

• Impact Of The Conflict in Darfur:

• .According to Sudan’s government 9000 people have been killed. The United Nations says that about 200000 people have been killed in the conflict so far.
• US$ 35.11 billion spent by the government of Sudan between2003-2009.
• Deep fear, depression and sense of hopelessness can last long after the conflict.

Since the year of 1880s, Burundi was a part of Germany East Africa. After the war Rwanda-Urundi felled under the Belgium colony. They broke up 1962 when the both became independent.

• Roots of the Burundian conflict:

• Past discrimination: Since independence in 1962, Tutsi dominated regimes have discriminated against Hutus.

• Weight of a violent history: Burundi’s post independence history is strewn with recurrent coups or attempted coups and inter-communal violence. Clashes that took place in 1965, 1966, 1972, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1993, and 1996. This sequence of massacres has created a culture of violence which is hard to dissolve.

• State monopoly of resources: The population is preponderantly rural and engaged in subsistence agriculture. The country’s small industrial sector is confined largely to local production or uncompetitive exports such as coffee and tea, produced until recently by state industries. Control of state power almost coincides with control of economic resources.

• Taking power: In Burundi, first armed rebellion began in with the objective of driving out the Tutsi power to replace by the Hutu. Because they believed that Hutu was oppressed by Tutsi. The name of this rebellion is ‘PALIPEHUTU’(Party for liberation of the Hutu people.

• Impact of the Burundian conflict:

• Conflict displaced whole population and make millions homeless.
• Conflict prevented people from their basic needs by destroying crops, land and the environment.
• Deep fear, depression and sense of hopelessness can last long after the conflict.

The Federation of Nigeria, as it is known today, has never really been one homogeneous country, for it's widely differing peoples and tribes. For administrative suitability the Northern and Southern Nigeria were joined in 1914. Thereafter the only thing this people had in common was the name of their country since each side had different administrative set-up.
At independence Nigeria became a Federation and remained one country. Soon afterwards the battle to consolidate the legacy of political and military dominance of a section of Nigeria over the rest of the Federation began with increased intensity. It is this struggle that eventually degenerated into coup, counter coup and a bloody civil war.

• Roots of Nigerian Civil War:
• Tribal differences : There was division, hatred, unhealthy rivalry, and pronounced disparity in development after the unification because of tribal differences.
• Economic recession: In 1964 prices rose 15% per cent, people were losing their jobs. This led to an economic downfall.

• Military coup: during the military coup led by Ibo officers in 1966 some leading politicians like Balewa were killed. Soon after the savage massacre of Ibos took place, during when the new leader General Ironsi was killed. Which brought in a chaotic situation.

• Impact of Nigerian Civil War:
• Disability: The massacres in the North and the subsequent disabled many people. These people died because of inadequate medical facilities.
• Increase of group animosity: Many people became mortal enemies to each other because of war experiences.

• Economic regression : certain individual enterprises that existed before the war died at the end of it bringing with them mass poverty for their former owners. Many people lost their jobs.

Rwanda has been inhabited by tribal peoples for thousands of years. In the 1400s a monarchy arose in the country lead by a Tutsi King. They called the king the Mwami. There were Tutsi lords owned the land while Hutu farmers worked the land.

In 1959, a Hutu revolution overthrew the Tutsi monarchy and came into power. Over the next several years things were not good for the Tutsis. Many were killed and many more fled the country. In 1990 there was a civil war between the two groups and things got even worse until 1994 when a horrible thing happened. The government, led by the Hutus tried to kill all of the Tutsi people. This is called genocide. Over 800,000 Tutsi people were killed and millions fled the country.
• Causes of the Rwandan civil war
• Ethnic discrimination: Ethnic discrimination is the main reason for conflict of in Rwanda. Though, the Hutu’s was the 2/3 of the population, Ruling power was in the hand of Tutsi.
• Discrimination of wealth: Tutsi captured most of national resources. For this reason, The Hutu started fuming.
• Discrimination of power: Though, 2/3 of the population was. The Hutu, power was in the hand of Tutsi. The Tutsi was the ruler of the country. Difference of power between two ethnic groups has created violence in Rwanda.

• Impact:
• In the Rwandan regional conflict, the interhamwe militias used to rape women and young girls. Most of this interhamwe were aids victims.
• Most of the things in Rwanda became expensive after the war, including treatment, school fees, transport, rent, and food. This brought abput severe poverty upon people of Rwanda.

For ages the Liberia vs. Sierra Leon civil war has been referred to as the war of greed .The Sierra Leone Civil War (1991–2002) began on 23 March 1991 when the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), with support from the special forces of Charles Taylor’s National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL), intervened in Sierra Leone in an attempt to overthrow the Joseph Momoh government. The resulting civil war lasted 11 years, enveloped the country, and left over 50,000 dead.

• Causes of Sierra Leon civil war:
• Since Sierra Leone was a country with a massive diamond reserve, the competition for seizing control of lucrative diamond-producing regions has been widely regarded as a main cause of the conflict.
• Shrinking opportunities for education apparently made the young generation increasingly marginalized from their society, as a result protests arose.

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: Two successive and complex wars wrecked havoc on the Democratic Republic of Congo between 1996 and 2003. The complexity of the wars stems from many factors. Including the legacies of Bath colonial and autocrative rule. 5.4 million death, 2 million were displaced and became refugees died as a result.
• Causes of the conflict:
I. Colonialism
II. Dictatorship
III. Regional warfare
IV. Humanitarian crisis


After the second world war a new policy called ‘Apartheid’ was introduced by Dr. Malan. This tightened up control over blacks. Despite the vulnerability against the growing power of apartheid Chief Albert Luthuli, the ANC leader organized a protest campaign; in which black Africans stopped working on certain days. In consequence over 8000 blacks were arrested, many were flogged; Luthuli was put in jail for a long time and the campaign was called off.

Protests reached a climax in 1960 when a huge demonstration took place against the pass laws at Sharpville, an African township near Johannesburg . 67 Africans were killed during the open fire of police, 15000 were arrested, ANC was banned. Police arrested most of the black leaders like Nelson Mandela in order to repress the protesters. Nelson Mandela was sentenced to life imprisonment .

Following Mandela's release from prison in February 1990, intense negotiations began. On May 4, 1990, the ANC and the government agreed to the Groote Schuur Minute, which featured a commitment to end the violence.

• Causes of Apartheid conflict:
• Xenophobia among the European immigrants (ex: Dutch) and native Africans was the main of this conflict.

• Apartheid was a law based on racial segregation , a segregation purely based on the color of the skin. So Racism is another cause of Apartheid.

Prolonged conflict in Africa and elsewhere has had a devastating impact on civilian populations and development initiatives. The international response has been characterized by a growing emphasis on, and increased funding for, emergency `humanitarian' interventions at the expense of long-term development. Considerable inadequacies have been revealed in emergency responses developed to deal with natural disasters. There is a need for new ways of thinking and working different from those involved in both emergency and development work

• Mastering Modern World history by Norman Lowe
• World Politics since 1945 by PETER CALVOCORESSI
• The Challenge of Decolonization in Africa by Benjamin Talton
• African conflicts by Peter Larson
• Broch-Due, Vigdis, (2005), Violence and Belonging: The Quest for Identity in Post-colonial Africa
• Callaghy, Thomas, Kassimir, Ronald and Latham, Robert (eds.), Intervention and Transnationalism in Africa
• Tunde Zack-Williams, Diane Frost and Alex Thompson (eds.), Africa in Crisis, (Pluto Press:
• London, 2002)

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Conflict and Resolution

...causes of Africa internal conflicts (1000 word) INTRODUCTION Conflict usually occurs primarily as a result of a clash of interests in the relationship between parties, groups or states, either because they pursuing opposing or incompatible goals. Although the term war is sometimes used as a synonym for conflict, it is more usual to restrict the meaning of war to violent conflict, involving armed forces. But like war, conflict is and has been throughout history a normal way of conducting disputes between political groups within human society. As David Weeks puts it, “conflict is an inevitable outcome of human diversity and a world without conflict is not desirable, because it would mean a world without diversity.” Africa is a diverse continent – diverse in ethnic, religious and socio-cultural terms. The 1990s saw no diminution in the number of conflicts in Africa, and most forecasts predicted further increase. While Africa has had its share of inter-state wars, the majority of its conflicts were internal, and these internal conflicts appear to be increasing, as elsewhere. A tragic factor in this is that the civilian populations bear the brunt of the casualties in such conflicts, estimated at some 80-90 per cent of total casualties across the world. These conflicts cause not only casualties and refugees but contribute vastly to the spread of disease, malnutrition and starvation, social and economic decline and moral deterioration. AFRICAN CONFLICTS AND VIOLENCE There......

Words: 1673 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

African Union

...CONFLICT RESOLUTION. THE AFRICAN CONTINENTAL BODY (AFRICAN UNION). Introduction The AU project was born in Sirte in 1999 with the decision to draft an act of constitution. The AU’s Constitutive Act was subsequently signed in Lomé, Togo on 11 July 2000. The official inauguration of the AU took place in July 2002 in Durban, South Africa and represented the next level in the evolution of the ideal of Pan-Africanism. Learning from the lessons of the OAU, the AU has adopted a much more interventionist stance through its legal frameworks and institutions. The AU’s Peace and Security Council (PSC) was established in 2004 through the Protocol Relating to the Establishment of the Peace and Security Council of 2002 (AU 2002). The AU’s 15-member PSC is mandated to conduct peacemaking, peacekeeping and peace building. In effect, the AU maintained a working relationship with the UN and other international organisations, namely the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), The AU has adopted a number of important new documents establishing norms at continental level, to supplement those already in force when it was created. These include the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption (2003), the African Charter on Democracy, Elections and Governance (2007), the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) and its associated Declaration on......

Words: 1307 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

History of Oil and Gas in Nigeria

...obokparo 35093 Introduction The advent of the African Union (AU) can be described as an event of great magnitude in the institutional evolution of the continent. On 9.9.1999, the Heads of State and Government of the Organization of African Unity issued a Declaration (the Sirte Declaration) calling for the establishment of an African Union, with a view, inter alia, to accelerating the process of integration in the continent to enable it play its rightful role in the global economy while addressing multifaceted social, economic and political problems compounded as they are by certain negative aspects of globalization. Cooperation goes well beyond the confines of development policy to embrace issues of global political importance such as migration, climate change and peace and security. Three profile areas have now been identified for development cooperation with sub-Saharan African states: Good governance Sustainable economic development Water Alongside cooperation with individual African states the promotion of regional and pan-African organizations is becoming increasingly important. Between 2004 and 2007, funding for development cooperation with Africa was increased by 34 per cent. If we include debt cancellation, funding in fact rose by 56 per cent. For 2009, pledges worth 1.1 billion euros are planned for sub-Saharan Africa. Cooperation between Germany and regional organizations within Africa With the founding of the African Union (AU) in July 2002, the states of Africa......

Words: 750 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Humanitarian Crisis In Darfur constant civil wars that generated feelings of hatred between different ethnic groups in the region and frequent crisis, which was humanitarian in most cases that attracted the international and regional organizations concern since 2003. The Darfur region was an arena of violent clashes between African tribes namely Fur, Mazalit, and Zaghwa and Arabian tribes. This unmediated and unsolved conflicts turned into one of the worst humanitarian crisis in the world. The conflict in Darfur has old and deep roots and it’is only the latest manifestation of a recurring problem. However, several important differences distinguish the 2003 and 2005...

Words: 1183 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...NAMES :KIBE MAUREEN I.D NO: 632107 COURSE:IBA 4010 LECTURER:LUKA EPAINITO OBBANDA TASK : ASSIGNMENT 1 TITLE: TRADE BLOCS SEMESTER: FALL 2013 INTRODUCTION ECOWAS is an acronym to mean Economic Community of West African States whereas a trading bloc is a set of countries which engage in international trade together, and are usually related through a free trade agreement or other association.ECOWAS was established in May, 1975 as a regional institutional framework for the coordination and promotion of economic cooperation and sustainable development in West Africa. The challenges of economic develpoment in an underdeveloped and highly unstable environment such as west africa appear enormous and so leave one to ponder on the possibilty of success or otherwise in realizing such an idea. ESTABLISHMENT OF ECOWAS ECOWAS was established in 1975 to coordinate and promote trade,cooperation and sustainable development throughout West Africa.The signing of the ECOWAS treaty of Lagos was indeed a kind of radical response to the plague of poverty and underdevelopment bedeviling West Africa, and as a result, practically provided the much desired framework for the realization of rapid and sustainable socio-political and economic development throughout the sub-region, and has till date the following member states: Republic of Benin,Burkina Faso,Cape Verde,Cote d’Ivoire, Gambia,Ghana,Guinea,Guinea Bissau,Liberia,Mali,Niger,Nigeria,Senegal,Sierra Leone and the Republic......

Words: 1149 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Conflicts in Africa

...Conflicts in Africa Terrell Campbell English 103 Professor Duguay March 31, 2015 Despising the decades of conflict, death and tragedy, coverage of issues in Africa has often been ignored, overgeneralized, or unreasonably focused on limited aspects. There is a deeper analysis, background and context that has often been lacking, so regardless of what seems like constant images of starving children in scarcities, news of billions in aid to Africa from generous donor countries, the background context and analysis is often missing. Whether aid makes the situation worse, or why there is scarcity and hunger in Africa when African nations are exporting crops to other parts of the world are rarely asked by the mainstream. Why is Africa so violent? There is a reason why some of Africa’s bloodiest, and brutal wars never seem to end is because they’re not really wars. Not in the traditional sense, at least. The soldiers don’t have much of an ideology, not much of a clear goal. They couldn’t care less about taking over capitals or major cities — in fact, they prefer the deep bush, where it is far easier to commit crimes. Today’s rebels seem especially uninterested in winning converts, content instead to steal other people’s children, stick axes in their hands, and make them do the killing. Most of today’s African fighters are not rebels with a cause, but predators. That’s why there are stunning slaughters like eastern Congo’s rape epidemic, where armed groups in recent years......

Words: 837 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The Somali Conflict: Finding a Solution for Lasting Peace in the Horn of Africa

...The Somali Conflict: Finding a Solution for Lasting Peace in the Horn of Africa The Civil War in Somalia History of the Somali Conflict The colonial territories of Somalia and Somaliland joined to for m the Somali Republic under the East African nation’s first constitution in 1960, marking the first time that the territories enjoyed independence from foreign colonial rule since the 1880’s. Unfortunately, political strife and tension was present even at the time of the country’s formation. Prior to colonial rule, the two territories were governed by a highly decentralized form of pastoral rule, consisting of large clans of nomadic and agricultural familial units (Ahmed 1999, 114). It has been argued that the incompatibility of such a decentralized form of governance with a highly centralized Western-style governmental structure is the fundamental driving force behind the ongoing political conflicts, formations of factions, and civil war in Somalia (Ahmed 1999, 115). Indeed, centralized government was not successful in the fledgling African country. By 1969, less than a decade after its inception, the Somali government was taken over in a swift and virtually bloodless military coup led by the commander of the Somali Army, Major General Mohamed Siad Barre (Linke 2011, 47). Upon seizing power, Barre quickly dissolved the country’s parliament and court system, suspended the constitution, and constructed a military dictatorship based largely on Marxist principles......

Words: 1205 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Gabon Economic Structure

...income four times that of most sub-Saharan African nations). On the other hand, a skewed income distribution and poor social indicators misrepresent the situation if only GDP is taken into account. The richest 20% of the population receive over 90% of the income while about a third of all Gabonese live in poverty. Most of the population remains poor. Many foreign and local observers have consistently lamented the lack of diversity in the Gabonese economy. As oil reserves diminish, eco-tourism could grow in economic importance. Gabon's rainforests teem with wildlife, including lowland gorillas and forest elephants. National parks make up around one tenth of the land area. Trade Gabon's currency, the Communaute Financiere Africaine, is automatically converted into French francs, thus giving trading partners confidence in its security. The bulk of the crude oil goes to France, the United States, Brazil, and Argentina. Major export items include manganese, forest products, and oil. Overall, France receives more than one-third of Gabon's exports and contributes half of its imports. Gabon also trades with other European nations, the United States, and Japan. Public and private enterprise Legal issues Gabon is member of regional organizations whose missions are to harmonize and unify the economic, monetary, banking, and business laws. A good number of such laws are already applicable in member countries including Gabon. Regional Economic and Monetary Law Gabon is......

Words: 820 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Challenges of the Brics

...Challenges of BRICS Despite the successes and opportunities outlined above there are some inevitable challenges that every organization has to face, be it regional, continental or global and BRICS is no exception. It must also be pointed out that, the challenges and or failures that BRICS face are celebrated by their rivals like the G7 and United States of America in particular. This is because in their efforts to maintain world governance, these organizations are also driven by their ambitions on the international front as influential global players. It is however, difficult to point the exact failures and challenges of BRICS because it is still at its infant years and does not have a charter where reference could be made to ascertain challenges and accomplishments. Some of the challenges discussed herein were noted by scholars during the IBSA dialogue era and continue to defy the mandate of BRICS to date. To start with, the challenge that is common to all three countries of IBSA Dialogue forum is that none of them are clearly identified and respected to the fullas regional representatives. For instance, South Africa is challenged by Nigeria, Egypt and others (Sotero, 2009). However, for a state to be regionally and globally recognized, it first needs to be viewed as dominant by its neighbours before anything else otherwise it becomes a toothless dog. Of course to the southern part of Africa, South Africa is a force to be envied, but this is not the case beyond the......

Words: 918 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Colonialism and South Sudan

...Colonialism’s Link to the Creation of South Sudan COM/156 January 27, 2012 Any nation’s history has a continuous influence on its development. For many countries, their development has been affected by colonialism, when the land was governed by another entity. The importance of colonial history was evident in Sudan in January, 2011 when a referendum asked voters of southern Sudan to decide between separating from Sudan and maintaining a unified Sudan. Nearly 99 percent of eligible voters cast their ballot for independence thereby ending the 55 year existence of the largest nation in African (Hanzich, 2011). An extremely diverse country in which governmental decisions have favored the Arab population of the North, Sudan’s existence has been marked by strife. For all but 12 years, Sudan has been torn apart by civil wars. Since the colonial period ended, Sudan’s central government could not use violence, oppression, or peace agreements to minimize colonialism’s impact and establish a sense of unity in the country. Thus, the creation of South Sudan stems from colonization which confined opposing factions within one political boundary and created a history of civil war. The artificial political boundaries established by Sudan’s colonial powers—Egypt and Great Britain—brought together diversity for which Sudan’s central government could not build unity. Building cohesion has been difficult because colonial powers determined a country’s borders “according to......

Words: 1651 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Ghana Swot

...identifying internal strengths and weaknesses, and the external opportunities and threats (SWOT) in developing a marketing strategy for Ghana as a tourist destination. The SWOT analysis is the most famous technique used by firms and organization to access their Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat in their prospective industry to steer its affairs to the right direction (Briggs, 2001). We will use the SWOT as a strategic planning tool and identify three potential markets for Ghana’s expansion. Introduction International tourism is a key industry for less developed countries because they are in some prime areas throughout the world. Ghana is rich in history interwoven with British and Dutch Colonization, Gold mining and the African Diaspora. However, it will have to compete with other prime locations such as Europe, North America, the Caribbean islands and more. Ghana is a former British Colony located in western Africa who gained their independence in 1957 after 56 years as a British Colony. Since then “Military regimes had run the country for twenty out of the thirty-nine years...

Words: 1379 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Poverty in Africa, Causes and Solutions

.....................................4-5 a. Corruption- Bad Leadership and Weak Institutions...........................................,,.....5-6 b. Conflicts.....................................................................................................................6-7 c. Unfavourable Trade Policies- Weak Economies.......................................................7-8 Are there any possible solutions.................................................................................................8-9 a. Tackling Corruption- Strong Institutions and Good Governance..........................9-11 b. Building Infrastructure, Sound Economic Policies and Regional Integration.....11-15 c. Effective Management of Intractable Conflicts...................................................15-16 Conclusion....................................................................................................................................16 References.....................................................................................................................................17 2 Introduction Africa as a continent is blessed with a wide variety of resources including human and natural resources. This begs the question of whether these resources have been transformed and utilized to the benefit of the average African. In 2009, the UN Population Fund reported that the population of Africa had exceeded one billion for the first time and a year later, figures......

Words: 5120 - Pages: 21

Free Essay

Essay War

...part of the wider North African and Middle Eastern protest movements known as the Arab Spring, with Syrian protesters at first demanding democratic and economic reform within the framework of the existing government. The uprising began with protests in March 2011 in Daraa, but a violent response from the government and subsequent clashes left dozens of opposition protesters and at least 7 policemen dead. In April 2011, the Syrian Army was deployed to quell the uprising and soldiers fired on demonstrators across the country. After months of military sieges, the protests developed into an armed rebellion. The conflict is asymmetrical, with clashes taking place in many towns and cities across the country. In 2013, Hezbollah entered the war in support of the Syrian army. The Syrian government is further upheld by military support from Russia, which it stepped up in the winter of 2013-14, and Iran, while Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and the United States transfer weapons to the rebels. The international response to the conflict has been described as a proxy war due to the nature of this involvement. By July 2013, the Syrian government was in control of approximately 30-40% of the country's territory and 60% of t The Syrian Civil War, also known as the Syrian Uprising, is an armed conflict in Syria between forces loyal to the Ba'ath government, which took power in 1963, and those seeking to oust it.he Syrian population. A late 2012 UN report described the conflict as being......

Words: 595 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Neocolonialism In Africa

...second generation post-colonial African leaders have left behind impressive legacies. The likes of Nelson Mandela of South Africa, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, to name but four. They proved to be African leaders who rose to the occasion and met the challenges of their time - even if the degree to which they were or were not successful in that regard may be debatable....

Words: 1425 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...nearly all of Africa had been subjected to European rule. During early explorations Europeans, the Portuguese to be specific, took immediate notice to the wealth of the African continent by building forts at coastal trading posts in Western Africa, where ships could be loaded with the local slaves, gold, ivory, and palm products in exchange for alcohol, guns, and sugar; the vast wealth of certain areas in the Western African coast were given nicknames such as, Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, and Slave Coast for their chief products. Portuguese ships took gold from Eastern Africa to pay for the silks and spices of Asia(389). This world region has clear, mainly coastal, boundaries. In the colonial late 1800s and early 1900s, trade routes and connections moved away from the land crossing of the Sahara that connected northernmost Africa with the rest of the continent and toward the ocean routes linked with the expanding European global economy(380). Africa has a wealth of natural resources. Overall, however, Africa's potential mineral resources are underused, and the economic benefits from their exploitation seldom return to Africans. Some large deposits, such as the iron ores of Equatorial Guinea, remain unused at present because of internal political strife or the lack of internal transportation. Until the 1990s, many African countries possessed few sources of fossil fuels. In the 1990s, evolving offshore oil exploration...

Words: 519 - Pages: 3