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First Semester Final Exam

Directions

• Mark your answers to the multiple-choice questions on the answer sheet at the end of the multiple-choice section. Use a black or blue pen. • Remember to complete the submission information on every page you turn in.

Multiple-Choice Questions (1 hour)
Section 1 consists of selections from prose works and questions about their content, form, and style.

Questions 1-10. Read the following passage, from "The Yellow Wallpaper," by Charlote Perkins Gilman (1899) carefully before you choose your answers. You may refer to the passage as often as necessary while answering the questions.

It is very seldom that mere ordinary people like John and myself secure ancestral halls for the summer.
A colonial mansion, a hereditary estate, I would say a haunted house and reach the height of romantic felicity—but that would be asking too much of fate!
Still I will proudly declare that there is something queer about it. Else, why should it be let so cheaply? And why have stood so long untenanted? John laughs at me, of course, but one expects that in marriage.
John is practical in the extreme. He has no patience with faith, an intense horror of superstition, and he scoffs openly at any talk of things not to be felt and seen and put down in figures.
John is a physician, and perhaps—(I would not say it to a living soul, of course, but this is dead paper and a great relief to my mind)—perhaps that is one reason I do not get well faster. You see, he does not believe I am sick! And what can one do?
If a physician of high standing, and one's own husband, assures friends and relatives that there is really nothing the matter with one but temporary nervous depression—a slight hysterical tendency—what is one to do?
My brother is also a physician, and also of high standing, and he says the same thing.
So I take phosphates or phosphites—whichever it is, and tonics, and journeys, and air, and exercise, and am absolutely forbidden to "work" until I am well again. Personally, I disagree with their ideas. Personally, I believe that congenial work, with excitement and change, would do me good.
But what is one to do?
I did write for a while in spite of them; but it does exhaust me a good deal—having to be so sly about it, or else meet with heavy opposition.
I sometimes fancy that in my condition if I had less opposition and more society and stimulus—but John says the very worst thing I can do is to think about my condition, and I confess it always makes me feel bad. So I will let it alone and talk about the house.
The most beautiful place! It is quite alone, standing well back from the road, quite three miles from the village. It makes me think of English places that you read about, for there are hedges and walls and gates that lock, and lots of separate little houses for the gardeners and people.
There is a delicious garden! I never saw such a garden—large and shady, full of box-bordered paths, and lined with long grape-covered arbors with seats under them. There were greenhouses, too, but they are all broken now.
There was some legal trouble, I believe, something about the heirs and co-heirs; anyhow, the place has been empty for years.
That spoils my ghostliness, I am afraid, but I don't care—there is something strange about the house—I can feel it.
I even said so to John one moonlight evening, but he said what I felt was a draught, and shut the window.
I get unreasonably angry with John sometimes. I'm sure I never used to be so sensitive. I think it is due to this nervous condition.
But John says if I feel so, I shall neglect proper self-control; so I take pains to control myself—before him, at least, and that makes me very tired.
I don't like our room a bit. I wanted one downstairs that opened on the piazza and had roses all over the window, and such pretty old-fashioned chintz hangings! but John would not hear of it.
He said there was only one window and not room for two beds, and no near room for him if he took another….
It is a big, airy room, the whole floor nearly, with windows that look all ways, and air and sunshine galore. It was nursery first and then playroom and gymnasium, I should judge; for the windows are barred for little children, and there are rings and things in the walls.
The paint and paper look as if a boys' school had used it. It is stripped off—the paper—in great patches all around the head of my bed, about as far as I can reach, and in a great place on the other side of the room low down. I never saw a worse paper in my life.

1. What kind of narrator is the narrator of this story? A. Omniscient B. Limited omniscient C. Third person D. Second person E. First person

2. Because she uses the present tense as the basic tense of her narration, the narrator indicates that: A. her life is developing as she tells her story and she may change. B. she fears the future. C. she fears the past. D. she is afraid to remember anything. E. she is an inept narrator.

3. The world of the narrator is dominated by: A. men who tell the woman what's good for her. B. ghosts of men long dead. C. ghosts of pilgrims long dead. D. men who want money. E. men who are devoted to healing others.

4. Consider lines 25-28: "I sometimes fancy that in my condition if I had less opposition and more society and stimulus—but John says the very worst thing I can do is to think about my condition, and I confess it always makes me feel bad." The word fancy most likely means: A. to invent. B. to decorate. C. to create intricate embroidered designs. D. to imagine. E. to contradict.

5. Consider lines 25-28: "I sometimes fancy that in my condition if I had less opposition and more society and stimulus—but John says the very worst thing I can do is to think about my condition, and I confess it always makes me feel bad." The rhetorical technique in this passage is: A. a non-sequitur revealing the narrator's love for herself. B. the narrator interrupts herself, suggesting she is experiencing inner conflict. C. a stream-of-consciousness pattern that reveals the narrator's passionate love of her husband. D. a statement of fact that the narrator feels rage. E. an emotional diatribe revealing the narrator's infantile attitude.

6. More than once the narrator says, "what is one to do?" The question indicates that the narrator: A. feels carefree. B. is decisive. C. is careless. D. feels out of control of her life. E. has taken control of her life.

7. In concentrating her attention on the garden, the narrator is: A. wishing she had a baby. B. wishing she had food. C. doing what she thinks her husband wants her to do. D. disobeying her husband. E. planning her escape.

8. The details given throughout the passage describing the room suggest that the narrator has considered each of these possible previous uses for the room except: A. gymnasium. B. a place to incarcerate an insane member of the family. C. nursery. D. a boys' school. E. children's playroom.

9. The fact that the room was once a nursery is significant. The room's history as a nursery ironically reinforces: A. the narrator's desire to be treated like a child. B. the desire of the narrator's husband to have a baby. C. the narrator's desire to take change of her life and give herself a new birth or beginning. D. the narrator's youth. E. the pleasure the narrator's husband takes in being childlike.

10. In lines 43-47 the narrator states: "I don't like our room a bit. . . . He said there was only one window and not room for two beds, and no near room for him if he took another." From this passage, we can infer all of the following except: A. John will not be staying in the room with his wife for long. B. the narrator is staying in the room against her will. C. John anticipates that he will need to use an adjacent bedroom. D. the narrator and her husband routinely sleep in separate beds. E. the narrator has a keen desire to redecorate the house.

Questions 11-19. Read the following passage carefully before you choose your answers. You may refer to the passage as often as necessary while answering the questions

If the reader will now be kind enough to allow me time to grow bigger, and afford me an opportunity for my experience to become greater, I will tell him something, by-and-by, of slave life, as I saw, felt, and heard it, on Col. Edward Lloyd's plantation, and at the house of old master, where I had now, despite of myself, most suddenly, but not unexpectedly, been dropped. Meanwhile, I will redeem my promise to say something more of my dear mother.
I say nothing of father, for he is shrouded in a mystery I have never been able to penetrate. Slavery does away with fathers, as it does away with families. Slavery has no use for either fathers or families, and its laws do not recognize their existence in the social arrangements of the plantation. When they do exist, they are not the outgrowths of slavery, but are antagonistic to that system. The order of civilization is reversed here. The name of the child is not expected to be that of its father, and his condition does not necessarily affect that of the child. He may be the slave of Mr. Tilgman; and his child, when born, may be the slave of Mr. Gross. He may be a freeman; and yet his child may be a chattel. He may be white, glorying in the purity of his Anglo-Saxon blood; and his child may be ranked with the blackest slaves. Indeed, he may be, and often is, master and father to the same child. He can be father without being a husband, and may sell his child without incurring reproach, if the child be by a woman in whose veins courses one thirty-second part of African-blood. My father was white man, or nearly white. It was sometimes whispered that my master was my father.

But to return, or rather, to begin. My knowledge of my mother is very scanty, but very distinct. Her personal appearance and bearing are ineffaceably stamped upon my memory. She was tall, and finely proportioned; of deep black, glossy complexion; had regular features, and, among the other slaves, was remarkably sedate in her manners. There is in "Prichard's Natural History of Man," the head of a figure—on page 157—the features of which so resemble those of my mother, that I often recur to it with something of the feeling which I suppose others experience when looking upon the pictures of dear departed ones.
Yet I cannot say that I was very deeply attached to my mother; certainly not so deeply as I should have been had our relations in childhood been different. We were separated, according to the common custom, when I was but an infant, and, of course, before I knew my mother from any one else.

From "Freedom and Bondage," by Frederick Douglass (1855)

11. Douglass indicates that his black mother, in comparison with his white or almost white father, was: A. soft. B. noble. C. inferior. D. sinful. E. repugnant.

12. Douglass is sharing information about his parents in order to: A. recapture the past. B. invite information about his past. C. emphasize the nobility of his birth. D. persuade his readers of the evils of slavery. E. express his dislike of his African blood.

13. Douglass says of a slave's father: "He may be white, glorying in the purity of his Anglo-Saxon blood; and his child may be ranked with the blackest slaves." What tone does Douglass adopt in using the phrase "purity of his Anglo-Saxon blood"? A. Reverential B. Sad C. Morose D. Festive E. Ironic

14. Douglass associates his mother with "dear departed ones" because: A. he has long been separated from her. B. she reminds him of his lost freedom. C. she threw him away. D. she has gone on a journey. E. she reminds him of his father.

15. In the fourth sentence of the second paragraph, Douglas writes: "When they do exist, they are not the outgrowths of slavery, but are antagonistic to that system." To what does the pronoun "they" refer? A. Practices of slavery B. Fathers and families C. Laws D. Social arrangements E. Plantations

16. At the start of two sentences in a row, Douglass uses the words "He may be," and he includes "may be" at or near the start of several other clauses in the same passage. By these repetitions Douglass is creating: A. onomatopoeia. B. metonymy. C. chiasmus. D. anaphora. E. personification.

17. "He may be the slave of Mr. Tilgman; and his child, when born, may be the slave of Mr. Gross. He may be a freeman; and yet his child may be a chattel. He may be white, glorying in the purity of his Anglo-Saxon blood; and his child may be ranked with the blackest slaves." An especially striking device in these lines is: A. metaphor. B. alliteration. C. personification. D. metonymy. E. antithesis.

18. In these paragraphs, Douglass indicates that slavery is especially opposed to: A. economic growth. B. luxury. C. civilization. D. Christianity. E. tradition.

19. "He can be father without being a husband, and may sell his child without incurring reproach, if the child be by a woman in whose veins courses one thirty-second part of African-blood." In this sentence, Douglass indirectly attacks: A. himself. B. his mother. C. his upbringing. D. the culture and laws of slave state. E. African traditions.

Questions 20-34. Read the following passage, from "In Defense of Women," by H.L. Mencken (1922), carefully before you choose your answers. You may refer to the passage as often as necessary while answering the questions.

It would be an easy matter, indeed, to demonstrate that superior talent in man is practically always accompanied by this feminine flavour—that complete masculinity and stupidity are often indistinguishable. Lest I be misunderstood I hasten to add that I do not mean to say that masculinity contributes nothing to the complex of chemico-physiological reactions which produces what we call talent; all I mean to say is that this complex is impossible without the feminine contribution that it is a product of the interplay of the two elements. In women of genius we see the opposite picture. They are commonly distinctly mannish, and shave as well as shine. Think of George Sand, Catherine the Great, Elizabeth of England, Rosa Bonheur, Teresa Carreo or Cosima Wagner. The truth is that neither sex, without some fertilization by the complementary characters of the other, is capable of the highest reaches of human endeavour. Man, without a saving touch of woman in him, is too doltish, too naive and romantic, too easily deluded and lulled to sleep by his imagination to be anything above a cavalryman, a theologian or a bank director. And woman, without some trace of that divine innocence which is masculine, is too harshly the realist for those vast projections of the fancy which lie at the heart of what we call genius. Here, as elsewhere in the universe, the best effects are obtained by a mingling of elements. The wholly manly man lacks the wit necessary to give objective form to his soaring and secret dreams, and the wholly womanly woman is apt to be too cynical a creature to dream at all.

What men, in their egoism, constantly mistake for a deficiency of intelligence in woman is merely an incapacity for mastering that mass of small intellectual tricks, that complex of petty knowledges, that collection of cerebral rubber stamps, which constitutes the chief mental equipment of the average male. A man thinks that he is more intelligent than his wife because he can add up a column of figures more accurately, and because he understands the imbecile jargon of the stock market, and because he is able to distinguish between the ideas of rival politicians, and because he is privy to the minutiae of some sordid and degrading business or profession, say soap-selling or the law. But these empty talents, of course, are not really signs of a profound intelligence; they are, in fact, merely superficial accomplishments, and their acquirement puts little more strain on the mental powers than a chimpanzee suffers in learning how to catch a penny or scratch a match. The whole bag of tricks of the average business man, or even of the average professional man, is inordinately childish. It takes no more actual sagacity to carry on the everyday hawking and haggling of the world, or to ladle out its normal doses of bad medicine and worse law, than it takes to operate a taxicab or fry a pan of fish. No observant person, indeed, can come into close contact with the general run of business and professional men—I confine myself to those who seem to get on in the world, and exclude the admitted failures—without marvelling at their intellectual lethargy, their incurable ingenuousness, their appalling lack of ordinary sense. The late Charles Francis Adams, a grandson of one American President and a great-grandson of another, after a long lifetime in intimate association with some of the chief business "geniuses" of that paradise of traders and usurers, the United States, reported in his old age that he had never heard a single one of them say anything worth hearing. These were vigorous and masculine men, and in a man's world they were successful men, but intellectually they were all blank cartridges.

There is, indeed, fair ground for arguing that, if men of that kidney were genuinely intelligent, they would never succeed at their gross and driveling concerns—that their very capacity to master and retain such balderdash as constitutes their stock in trade is proof of their inferior mentality. The notion is certainly supported by the familiar incompetency of first rate men for what are called practical concerns. One could not think of Aristotle or Beethoven multiplying 3,472,701 by 99,999 without making a mistake, nor could one think of him remembering the range of this or that railway share for two years, or the number of ten-penny nails in a hundred weight, or the freight on lard from Galveston to Rotterdam. And by the same token one could not imagine him expert at billiards, or at grouse-shooting, or at golf, or at any other of the idiotic games at which what are called successful men commonly divert themselves. In his great study of British genius, Havelock Ellis found that an incapacity for such petty expertness was visible in almost all first rate men. They are bad at tying cravats. They do not understand the fashionable card games. They are puzzled by book-keeping. They know nothing of party politics. In brief, they are inert and impotent in the very fields of endeavour that see the average men's highest performances, and are easily surpassed by men who, in actual intelligence, are about as far below them as the Simidae.

20. In the first paragraph, the author establishes the claim that "neither sex, without some fertilization by the complementary characters of the other, is capable of the highest reaches of human endeavor" (lines 8-9). In this paragraph the author supports this claim by: A. quoting other authorities. B. giving facts followed by wide-ranging analysis. C. emotional appeals. D. giving examples of women whose "mannish" traits contributed to their success and citing the limited number of male roles that demand a strictly masculine imagination. E. figurative language

21. The passage describes "women of genius" as "distinctly mannish," saying that they "shave as well as shine" (lines 7-8). The language of this passage is an example of: A. alliteration and overstatement. B. metaphor and understatement. C. personification and metaphor. D. simile and overstatement. E. onomatopoeia and metaphor.

22. The concluding paragraph (lines 15-16) states: "The wholly manly man lacks the wit necessary to give objective form to his soaring and secret dreams, and the wholly womanly woman is apt to be too cynical a creature to dream at all." This sentence derives its unity chiefly from the use of: A. personification. B. irony. C. understatement. D. facts. E. antithesis.

23. The second paragraph characterizes the "chief mental equipment of the average male" as which of the following: I. A mass of small intellectual tricks II. A complex of petty knowledges III. Tasks women are equally capable of performing

A. I only B. II only C. I and II only D. II and III only E. I, II, and III

24. Which of the following best describes the rhetorical technique used in the phrase "that collection of cerebral rubber stamps" in the first sentence of the second paragraph (lines 17-19)? A. Ad hominem, or personal attack B. Hyperbole (exaggeration) C. Elevated or high diction D. Red herring, or diversionary comment E. Jargon

25. In the passage, the author uses derogatory language to characterize all of the following except: A. stockbrokers. B. lawyers. C. politicians. D. bankers. E. journalists.

26. The rhetorical purpose of the second paragraph can best be described as: A. expository. B. argumentative. C. speculative. D. deductive. E. narrative.

27. Which of the following best describes the effect of the sentence in lines 24-26 in which the chimpanzee's "learning how to catch a penny or scratch a match" is compared to "empty talents"? A. It provides evidence that the author is directing remarks to an audience of animal lovers. B. It reinforces the assertion that the average male has only "petty accomplishments." C. It alerts the reader to a change in tone. D. It intimidates the reader with a direct command. E. It offers a contrasting example to prove the argument.

28. In paragraph 2 (line 35) the author mentions Charles Frances Adams for what reason? A. To illustrate the silliness and absurdity of those who disagree with the author's thesis B. To add colorful "personal interest" details without substantially supporting any particular claim C. To add the agreement of a famous authority, thereby increasing the credibility of the author's view D. To undercut the description of "masculine men" at being "blank cartridges" E. To contrast the childishness of "masculine men" with the sagacity of a president's grandson

29. The first sentence of the third paragraph (lines 38-40) refers to "men of that kidney." What is the antecedent for this expression? A. European businessmen B. Men who have the ability to calculate large arithmetic sums in their heads C. Usurers D. Successful men who intellectually are "blank cartridges" E. Men who are grandsons of presidents

30. In the third paragraph, the qualities of "first rate" men are described in terms of: A. things they do badly, such as remembering trivial facts, tying cravats, and playing games and sports. B. mathematical tricks and games and sports they do well, such as grouse shooting, golf, and billiards. C. their impressive command of social skills and dressing, such as the ability to tie cravats and play cards. D. their knowledge of literature, music, and art. E. their political skills and bookkeeping.

31. What is the antecedent for the pronoun they in the final sentence (lines 49-1): "In brief, they are inert and impotent in the very fields of endeavour that see the average men's highest performances...? A. Havelock Ellis B. Cravats C. Games such as golf, billiards, and cards D. Aristotle and Beethoven E. First-rate men

32. The tone of the final paragraph is best described as: A. amazement. B. ironic. C. sarcastic. D. simplistic. E. sexist.

33. The images of the last two paragraphs (lines 17-52) combine to form an impression of: A. vibrancy and success. B. European snobbery toward American society. C. the dull and stultifying effect of the usual "masculine" pursuits. D. struggle and desperation. E. danger and entrapment.

Questions 34-45. Read the following passage, from "Female Suffrage," by Susan Fenimore Cooper (1870), carefully before you choose your answers. You may refer to the passage as often as necessary while answering the questions.

Then, again, as regards that talisman, the vote, we have but one answer to make. We do not believe in magic. We have a very firm and unchangeable faith in free institutions, founded on just principles. We entirely believe that a republican form of government in a Christian country may be the highest, the noblest, and the happiest that the world has yet seen. Still, we do not believe in magic. And we do not believe in idolatry. We Americans are just as much given to idolatry as any other people. Our idols may differ from those of other nations; but they are, none the less, still idols. And it strikes the writer that the ballot-box is rapidly becoming an object of idolatry with us. Is it not so? From the vote alone we expect all things good. From the vote alone we expect protection against all things evil. Of the vote Americans can never have too much--of the vote they can never have enough. The vote is expected by its very touch, suddenly and instantaneously, to produce miraculous changes; it is expected to make the foolish wise, the ignorant knowing, the weak strong, the fraudulent honest. It is expected to turn dross into gold. It is held to be the great educator, not only as regards races, and under the influence of time, which is in a measure true, but as regards individuals and classes of men, and that in the twinkling of an eye, with magical rapidity. Were this theory practically sound, the vote would really prove a talisman. In that case we should give ourselves no rest until the vote were instantly placed in the hands of every Chinaman landing in California, and of every Indian roving over the plains. But, in opposition to this theory, what is the testimony of positive facts known to us all? Are all voters wise? Are all voters honest? Are all voters enlightened? Are all voters true to their high responsibilities? Are all voters faithful servants of their country? Is it entirely true that the vote has necessarily and really these inherent magical powers of rapid education for individuals and for classes of men, fitting them, in default of other qualifications, for the high responsibilities of suffrage? Alas! we know only too well that when a man is not already honest and just and wise and enlightened, the vote he holds cannot make him so. We know that if he is dishonest, he will sell his vote; if he is dull and ignorant, he is misled, for selfish purposes of their own, by designing men. As regards man, at least, the vote can be too easily proved to be no talisman. It is very clear that for man the ballot-box needs to be closely guarded on one side by common-sense, on the other by honesty. A man must be endowed with a certain amount of education and of principle, before he receives the vote, to fit him for a worthy use of it. And if the vote be really no infallible talisman for man, why should we expect it to work magical wonders in the hands of woman?

34. The point of the statement that the vote should not be a "talisman" (lines 1-8) is to: A. emphasize that American society is not perfect. B. suggest that the vote fraud is possible. C. assert that the vote is not a magical solution to the many imperfections in America. D. refute the charges of those who believe the granting the vote will further corrupt the country. E. reveal the sexism imbedded in the American political system.

35. The speaker uses we and the phrase we Americans (line 5). What is the most probable explanation for this? A. The passage was written by a committee or other group of people. B. The passage was written by a person representing the views of a committee or coalition. C. The author has invented a group of people who are the imagined speakers. D. The author is using the "editorial" first-person plural because this is a long-standing journalistic tradition. E. The author is using the "editorial" first-person plural to generate a sense of group solidarity between the writer and the readers.

36. The speaker mentions idols and idolatry (lines 5-6 ). This is a rhetorical strategy designed to: A. contrast mystical belief in the vote with the "government of a Christian county" in line 3. B. create a sense of fear in the reader. C. ridicule the American people. D. expose flaws in the system of American government. E. attack personally those who hold an opposing view.

37. In line 6-7 the writer states, "And it strikes the writer that the ballot-box is rapidly becoming an object of idolatry with us. Is it not so?" This is an example of: A. alliteration. B. onomatopoeia. C. bandwagon fallacy. D. rhetorical question. E. personal attack.

38. In lines 9-11, the writer begins many sentences and clauses with "it is expected..." This is best described as an example of: A. understatement. B. hyperbole. C. anaphora. D. chiasmus. E. redundancy.

39. In lines 10-12 the vote is described as having "by its very touch" the "power to produce miraculous changes," including "turning dross into gold." The rhetorical strategy employed is best described as: A. illusion. B. allusion. C. metaphor. D. anecdote. E. fact.

40. What is the antecedent of It in lines 10-12: "It is held to be the great educator..."? A. Gold B. Idolatry C. Touch D. Honesty E. The vote

41. Taking into account all the information in the passage, which is the most probable meaning of the word "talisman"? A. Good luck charm B. A magician C. A device that predicts the future D. A voting machine E. A tribal medicine man

42. The speaker mentions extending the vote to "every Chinaman landing in California" and "every Indian roving over the plains" (lines 14-16). The best explanation for this statement is that: A. the speaker would like to see the vote extended to these groups. B. these are predictions of what will occur in the future. C. these illustrate the widespread demand for voting rights that was facing America in 1870. D. the speaker assumes most of the reading audience at the time would be shocked by this suggestion, and would therefore be persuaded that it is not wise to give women the right to vote E. these are examples of possible voting fraud.

43. In lines 15-18 the speaker poses a series of questions. This is done in order to: A. hint that the questions have no answer. B. suggest that the vote cannot deliver such high expectations. C. ridicule the intelligence of the reader. D. signal a change of tone or attitude in the speaker. E. create anxiety in those who hold the opposing view.

44. The context of the sentence in line 23 ("As regards man, at least, the vote can be too easily proved to be no talisman") evokes which of the following meaning(s) of the word man? I. Humankind II. To fortify with personnel III. A male human

A. I only B. II only C. III only D. I and II only E. I and III only

45. The tone of the passage is best characterized as: A. lighthearted. B. angry. C. bitter. D. apathetic. E. ironic.

Questions 46-50. Read the following passage, from "Mary Barton," by Elizabeth Gaskell, carefully before you choose your answers. You may refer to the passage as often as necessary while answering the questions

Mrs. Barton produced the key of the door from her pocket; and on entering the house-place it seemed as if they were in total darkness, except one bright spot, which might be a cat's eye, or might be, what it was, a red-hot fire, smouldering under a large piece of coal, which John Barton immediately applied himself to break up, and the effect instantly produced was warm and glowing light in every corner of the room. To add to this (although the coarse yellow glare seemed lost in the ruddy glow from the fire), Mrs. Barton lighted a dip by sticking it in the fire, and having placed it satisfactorily in a tin candlestick, began to look further about her, on hospitable thoughts intent. The room was tolerably large, and possessed many conveniences. On the right of the door, as you entered, was a longish window, with a broad ledge. On each side of this, hung blue-and-white check curtains, which were now drawn, to shut in the friends met to enjoy themselves. Two geraniums, unpruned and leafy, which stood on the sill, formed a further defence from out-door pryers. In the corner between the window and the fireside was a cupboard, apparently full of plates and dishes, cups and saucers, and some more nondescript articles, for which one would have fancied their possessors could find no use—such as triangular pieces of glass to save carving knives and forks from dirtying table-cloths. However, it was evident Mrs. Barton was proud of her crockery and glass, for she left her cupboard door open, with a glance round of satisfaction and pleasure. On the opposite side to the door and window was the staircase, and two doors; one of which (the nearest to the fire) led into a sort of little back kitchen, where dirty work, such as washing up dishes, might be done, and whose shelves served as larder, and pantry, and storeroom, and all. The other door, which was considerably lower, opened into the coal-hole—the slanting closet under the stairs; from which, to the fire-place, there was a gay-coloured piece of oil-cloth laid. The place seemed almost crammed with furniture (sure sign of good times among the mills). Beneath the window was a dresser, with three deep drawers. Opposite the fire-place was a table, which I should call a Pembroke, only that it was made of deal, and I cannot tell how far such a name may be applied to such humble material. On it, resting against the wall, was a bright green japanned tea-tray, having a couple of scarlet lovers embracing in the middle. The fire-light danced merrily on this, and really (setting all taste but that of a child's aside) it gave a richness of colouring to that side of the room. It was in some measure propped up by a crimson tea-caddy, also of japan ware. A round table on one branching leg, ready for use, stood in the corresponding corner to the cupboard; and, if you can picture all this, with a washy, but clean stencilled pattern on the walls, you can form some idea of John Barton's home.

From "Mary Barton," by Elizabeth Gaskell (etext #2153, 1848)

46. The initial impression of "total darkness" in the first sentence contrasts with the "one bright spot" of glowing coal. This detail suggests that the Barton home is: A. dingy, dark and uninhabitable. B. bright and luxurious. C. elegant and spacious. D. cozy and hospitable. E. run down and inelegant.

47. Which of the following are suggested by the fact that the curtains were drawn "to shut in friends met to enjoy themselves" and that the geraniums "unpruned and leafy, . . .formed a futher defence from out-door pryers " (lines 8-11)? I. The Bartons like to maintain privacy. II. The Bartons live in a crowded neighborhood. III. Their friends are suspicious.

A. I only B. II only C. III only D. I and II only E. I, II, and III

48. The speaker emphasizes all of the following details of the house except: A. colors in the furnishings and objects. B. sounds. C. the quantity of furniture. D. the neatness and orderliness of the room arrangement. E. cleanliness.

49. In line 24, "The fire-light danced merrily on this," the word this refers to: A. the fireplace. B. the green tea-tray. C. the scarlet lovers. D. the table. E. the stencilled wall.

50. The author's style in this passage is characterized by: A. highly abstract metaphors. B. literary allusions. C. juxtaposition of fact and myth. D. elegant high diction. E. vivid details.

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This is the end of the multiple-choice question section of the Exam.
Now continue with the free-response portion.
Directions

• Neatly write your responses in the spaces provided. Use a blue or black pen. Don’t write in the margins. • Remember to complete the submission information on every page you turn in. • If you need more paper to complete your answers, use the blank submission sheets, found in Resources.

Free-Response Questions (2 hours, 15 minutes)

Question 1 (Suggested time—40 minutes. 20 points.)

In the following passage, from the Rambler, Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) discusses the subject of envy.

Read the passage below, and then write a one-page essay in which you analyze how Samuel Johnson uses rhetorical strategies and stylistic devices to convey his views about the role of envy in the lives of people in his time.

No. 183. TUESDAY, DECEMBER 17, 1751

Nulla fides regni sociis, omnisque potestas
Impatiens consortis erit. LUCAN, Lib. i. 92.

(No faith of partnership dominion owns;
Still discord hovers o'er divided thrones.)

The hostility perpetually exercised between one man and another, is caused by the desire of many for that which only few can possess. Every man would be rich, powerful, and famous; yet fame, power, and riches are only the names of relative conditions, which imply the dependence, and poverty of greater numbers.

This universal and incessant competition produces injury and malice by two motives, interest and envy; the prospect of adding to our possessions what we can take from others, and the hope of alleviating the sense of our disparity by lessening others, though we gain nothing to ourselves.

Of these two malignant and destructive powers, it seems probable at the first view, that interest has the strongest and most extensive influence. It is easy to conceive that opportunities to seize what has been long wanted, may excite desires almost irresistible; but surely the same eagerness cannot be kindled by an accidental power of destroying that which gives happiness to another. It must be more natural to rob for gain, than to ravage only for mischief.

Yet I am inclined to believe, that the great law of mutual benevolence is oftener violated by envy than by interest, and that most of the misery which the defamation of blameless actions, or the obstruction of honest endeavours, brings upon the world, is inflicted by men that propose no advantage to themselves but the satisfaction of poisoning the banquet which they cannot taste, and blasting the harvest which they have no right to reap.

Interest can diffuse itself but to a narrow compass. The number is never large of those who can hope to fill the posts of degraded power, catch the fragments of shattered fortune, or succeed to the honours of depreciated beauty. But the empire of envy has no limits, as it requires to its influence very little help from external circumstances. Envy may always be produced by idleness and pride, and in what place will they not be found?

Interest requires some qualities not universally bestowed. The ruin of another will produce no profit to him who has not discernment to mark his advantage, courage to seize, and activity to pursue it; but the cold malignity of envy may be exerted in a torpid and quiescent state, amidst the gloom of stupidity, in the coverts of cowardice. He that falls by the attacks of interest, is torn by hungry tigers; he may discover and resist his enemies. He that perishes in the ambushes of envy, is destroyed by unknown and invisible assailants, and dies like a man suffocated by a poisonous vapour, without knowledge of his danger, or possibility of contest.

Interest is seldom pursued but at some hazard. He that hopes to gain much, has commonly something to lose, and when he ventures to attack superiority, if he fails to conquer, is irrecoverably crushed. But envy may act without expense or danger. To spread suspicion, to invent calumnies, to propagate scandal, requires neither labour nor courage. It is easy for the author of a lie, however malignant, to escape detection, and infamy needs very little industry to assist its circulation.

Envy is almost the only vice which is practicable at all times, and in every place; the only passion which can never lie quiet for want of irritation: its effects therefore are everywhere discoverable, and its attempts always to be dreaded.

It is impossible to mention a name which any advantageous distinction has made eminent, but some latent animosity will burst out. The wealthy trader, however he may abstract himself from publick affairs, will never want those who hint, with Shylock, that ships are but boards. The beauty, adorned only with the unambitious graces of innocence and modesty, provokes, whenever she appears, a thousand murmurs of detraction. The genius, even when he endeavours only to entertain or instruct, yet suffers persecution from innumerable criticks, whose acrimony is excited merely by the pain of seeing others pleased, and of hearing applauses which another enjoys.

The frequency of envy makes it so familiar, that it escapes our notice; nor do we often reflect upon its turpitude or malignity, till we happen to feel its influence. When he that has given no provocation to malice, but by attempting to excel, finds himself pursued by multitudes whom he never saw, with all the implacability of personal resentment; when as a publick enemy, and incited by every stratagem of defamation; when he hears the misfortunes of his family, or the follies of his youth, exposed to the world; and every failure of conduct, or defect of nature, aggravated and ridiculed; he then learns to abhor those artifices at which he only laughed before, and discovers how much the happiness of life would be advanced by the eradication of envy from the human heart.

Envy is, indeed, a stubborn weed of the mind, and seldom yields to the culture of philosophy. There are, however, considerations, which, if carefully implanted and diligently propagated, might in time overpower and repress it, since no one can nurse it for the sake of pleasure, as its effects are only shame, anguish, and perturbation.

It is above all other vices inconsistent with the character of a social being, because it sacrifices truth and kindness to very weak temptations. He that plunders a wealthy neighbour gains as much as he takes away, and may improve his own condition in the same proportion as he impairs another's; but he that blasts a flourishing reputation, must be content with a small dividend of additional fame, so small as can afford very little consolation to balance the guilt by which it is obtained.

I have hitherto avoided that dangerous and empirical morality, which cures one vice by means of another. But envy is so base and detestable, so vile in its original, and so pernicious in its effects, that the predominance of almost any other quality is to be preferred. It is one of those lawless enemies of society, against which poisoned arrows may honestly be used. Let it therefore be constantly remembered, that whoever envies another, confesses his superiority, and let those be reformed by their pride who have lost their virtue.

It is no slight aggravation of the injuries which envy incites, that they are committed against those who have given no intentional provocation; and that the sufferer is often marked out for ruin, not because he has failed in any duty, but because he has dared o do more than was required.

Almost every other crime is practised by the help of some quality which might have produced esteem or love, if it had been well employed; but envy is mere unmixed and genuine evil; it pursues a hateful end by despicable means, and desires not so much its own happiness as another's misery. To avoid depravity like this, it is not necessary that any one should aspire to heroism or sanctity, but only that he should resolve not to quit the rank which nature assigns him, and wish to maintain the dignity of a human being.

Question 2 (Suggested time—40 minutes. 20 points.)

Read the following fictional narrative from Mary Barton, by Elizabeth Gaskell (1810-1865) written in 1848 when she was a minister's wife in Manchester, England. Then, write a one-page essay analyzing some of the ways Gaskell creates the experience of the mill workers. You might consider such devices as contrast, repetition, diction, and imagery.

With all this, Mary had not her father's confidence in the matters which now began to occupy him, heart and soul; she was aware that he had joined clubs, and become an active member of the Trades' Union, but it was hardly likely that a girl of Mary's age (even when two or three years had elapsed since her mother's death) should care much for the differences between the employers and the employed—an eternal subject for agitation in the manufacturing districts, which, however it may be lulled for a time, is sure to break forth again with fresh violence at any depression of trade, showing that in its apparent quiet, the ashes had still smouldered in the breasts of a few.

Among these few was John Barton. At all times it is a bewildering thing to the poor weaver to see his employer removing from house to house, each one grander than the last, till he ends in building one more magnificent than all, or withdraws his money from the concern, or sells his mill, to buy an estate in the country, while all the time the weaver, who thinks he and his fellows are the real makers of this wealth, is struggling on for bread for his children, through the vicissitudes of lowered wages, short hours, fewer hands employed, etc. And when he knows trade is bad, and could understand (at least partially) that there are not buyers enough in the market to purchase the goods already made, and consequently that there is no demand for more; when he would bear and endure much without complaining, could he also see that his employers were bearing their share; he is, I say, bewildered and (to use his own word) "aggravated" to see that all goes on just as usual with the millowners. Large houses are still occupied, while spinners' and weavers' cottages stand empty, because the families that once filled them are obliged to live in rooms or cellars. Carriages still roll along the streets, concerts are still crowded by subscribers, the shops for expensive luxuries still find daily customers, while the workman loiters away his unemployed time in watching these things, and thinking of the pale, uncomplaining wife at home, and the wailing children asking in vain for enough of food—of the sinking health, of the dying life of those near and dear to him. The contrast is too great. Why should he alone suffer from bad times?

I know that this is not really the case; and I know what is the truth in such matters; but what I wish to impress is what the workman feels and thinks. True, that with child-like improvidence, good times will often dissipate his grumbling, and make him forget all prudence and foresight.

But there are earnest men among these people, men who have endured wrongs without complaining, but without ever forgetting or forgiving those whom (they believe) have caused all this woe.

Among these was John Barton. His parents had suffered; his mother had died from absolute want of the necessaries of life. He himself was a good, steady workman, and, as such, pretty certain of steady employment. But he spent all he got with the confidence (you may also call it improvidence) of one who was willing, and believed himself able, to supply all his wants by his own exertions. And when his master suddenly failed, and all hands in the mill were turned back, one Tuesday morning, with the news that Mr. Hunter had stopped, Barton had only a few shillings to rely on; but he had good heart of being employed at some other mill, and accordingly, before returning home, he spent some hours in going from factory to factory, asking for work. But at every mill was some sign of depression of trade! some were working short hours, some were turning off hands, and for weeks Barton was out of work, living on credit. It was during this time that his little son, the apple of his eye, the cynosure of all his strong power of love, fell ill of the scarlet fever. They dragged him through the crisis, but his life hung on a gossamer thread. Everything, the doctor said, depended on good nourishment, on generous living, to keep up the little fellow's strength, in the prostration in which the fever had left him. Mocking words! when the commonest food in the house would not furnish one little meal. Barton tried credit; but it was worn out at the little provision shops, which were now suffering in their turn. He thought it would be no sin to steal, and would have stolen; but he could not get the opportunity in the few days the child lingered. Hungry himself, almost to an animal pitch of ravenousness, but with the bodily pain swallowed up in anxiety for his little sinking lad, he stood at one of the shop windows where all edible luxuries are displayed; haunches of venison, Stilton cheeses, moulds of jelly—all appetising sights to the common passer-by. And out of this shop came Mrs. Hunter! She crossed to her carriage, followed by the shopman loaded with purchases for a party. The door was quickly slammed to, and she drove away; and Barton returned home with a bitter spirit of wrath in his heart to see his only boy a corpse!

Question 3 (Suggested time—55 minutes. 20 points.)

In American history — and the history of many other nations — immigration has been an issue that often creates great conflict. In recent times, illegal immigration has been a particularly contentious issue in American society. Faced with an illegal immigrant population numbering in the millions, many citizens and lawmakers have argued that the American government needs to take a stronger stand on illegal immigrants.

Read the following sources (including any introductory information) carefully. Then, in an essay that synthesizes at least three of the sources for support, take a position that defends, challenges, or qualifies the claim that America should take a stronger stance on illegal immigration.

You may refer to the sources by their titles (Source A, Source B, etc.) or by the descriptions in parentheses.

Source A (Douthat and Woodson) Source B (Williamsen) Source C (Scott) Source D (Anonymous) Source E (Graph)

Remember to use the sources to support your position. Do not focus your essay on the paraphrasing or summarizing of the sources. Your position should be the focus; the sources should be support.

Take fifteen minutes to read the sources and 40 minutes to write the essay.

Source A

Douthat, Ross and Jenny Woodson. "The Border: Illegal Immigration Is Once Again A Potent Political Issue," The Atlantic Monthly, Jan-Feb 2006, 54.

The following is an excerpt from a magazine article on illegal immigration.

Immigration pressure from Mexico is unlikely to abate anytime soon. Nearly half of all Mexicans asked by Pew said they would come to the United States immediately if they had "the means and opportunity." Twenty-one percent said they would do so even if they had to come illegally. Indeed, many Mexicans seem to have a sense of entitlement regarding the United States: 58 percent surveyed in a 2002 Zogby poll believe that "the territory of the United States' Southwest rightfully belongs to Mexico."

Americans are unhappy about this state of affairs: according to recent polls, most favor beefing up the enforcement of immigration laws and using troops to police the border. A majority even voiced support for the Minuteman Project, a group of civilian vigilantes who have begun patrolling the border themselves.

However, political leaders in both parties (along with many business organizations, media outlets, and bipartisan interest groups) see the issue differently, believing that restricting immigration is not economically desirable. The immigration proposals currently circulating in Washington seem unlikely to reduce the influx from the south. They are aimed instead at regularizing it, by creating a temporary-visa program for migrant laborers. Although such a "guest worker" program might be paired with legislation to tighten border security and curb the hiring of illegal immigrants, as President Bush suggested in a November policy speech, there's reason to doubt that serious restrictions would actually result. The last major immigration reform, in 1986, was supposed to provide a similar tradeoff —an amnesty program for illegal aliens already in the United States was joined to a commitment to crack down on employers of illegal immigrants. The amnesty was implemented; the crackdown fizzled out. And in December of 2004 Congress authorized the addition of 10,000 Border Patrol agents over a five-year period beginning in 2006 —but only 210 new positions were funded for this year.

This gap between popular and elite opinion means that the porousness of the border is becoming a potent issue, especially for working-class voters, whose jobs may be vulnerable to guest-worker programs. Tom Tancredo, a Republican congressman from Colorado, has threatened to make an insurgent run for the 2008 GOP presidential nomination if no other candidate comes out strongly against illegal immigration, and observers speculate that Democrats might use the issue to try to outflank the GOP on the right. (Last year the governors of New Mexico and Arizona, both Democrats, declared states of emergency because of the influx of illegal immigrants, blaming the federal government for failing to secure the border.)

Nativist politics hasn't fared well in recent decades. And securing the border may not be feasible no matter what the public wants —at least absent a heavy military presence and the sorts of barriers used in Cold War Berlin and the Korean DMZ. (Spending on border security rose dramatically during the 1990s, but so did the number of illegal immigrants.) However, unless the gap on this issue between America's leaders and its citizenry is somehow narrowed, whether by stringent reform or by rising economic optimism on Main Street, a populist backlash could ensue — against both illegal immigrants themselves and those many see as their enablers in Washington.

Source B

Williamsen, Kurt. "Not Giving Up On Immigration Control: When It Comes To Immigration Reforms And Tight Immigration Controls, Many Say It Can't Be Done. But They Are Wrong," The New American, Oct. 31, 2005, 27.

The following is an excerpt from a magazine article on illegal immigration.

Not giving up on immigration control: when it comes to immigration reforms and tight immigration controls, many say it can't be done. But they are wrong.

To reduce the number of illegals trying to cross our southern border from the present rate of one to three million a year to a more manageable size, we need to make their lives in the interior of the country as untenable as possible. To begin with, illegals need to be cut off from all types of welfare programs. When illegals have a child in this country, their children are immediately eligible for Medicaid. Because the bulk of incoming immigrants are poor, they qualify. Also, according to Madeleine Pelner Cosman, a medical lawyer, illegal immigrant children "have inordinately high incidences of disabling mental disease" that include behavioral "disabilities such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder." Because of their "disabilities," they get Social Security Disability Income.

As part of making life as an illegal alien untenable, cities deemed "sanctuary cities" for illegals — like Chicago, Denver, and Los Angeles —which do not report illegal immigrants to the federal government, must be required to detain illegals for deportation. Pressure brought to bear on state legislators could bring about this result. To enlist the aid of local law enforcement personnel in deporting illegals, statewide standards need to be set for what does and does not constitute racial profiling (to prevent the ACLU from suing cities for doing their duty), and the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement needs to do its job.

A report by the Center for Immigration Studies, entitled "Officers Need Backup," lists numerous instances when immigration officials either refuse to pick up illegals from local law enforcement or turn them free after they pick them up. In fact, illegals end up in our legal system constantly, only to be released. When European, Asian, and African illegals are caught at the southern border, unless they are suspected terrorists, they are immediately released because Mexico will not take them —they are not Mexican nationals —and Customs considers it too costly to fly them home. When Hispanics get caught in our country, they are usually given a "notice to appear" at a future court date, and they are let free. Over 88 percent don't show up for hearings. In cities near the border the no-show rate is often over 98 percent.

To make immigration controls work, we must lock up the illegals (in tent cities, if necessary) until it is time to deport them, and we must end or greatly simplify the appealing of deportations by illegals, by which illegals clog the federal holding facilities and bring deportations to a virtual standstill. Only the federal government can make the Bureau of Immigration do its job, and so congressional representatives need to hear that we know about this.

Also, many more immigration officers need to be hired to patrol the interior of our country to arrest businessmen who hire illegals and do not report the workers for tax purposes, breaking tax laws. To stop employers from hiring illegals who have managed to obtain forged identification documents, thereby giving employers who hire them the veneer of legality, and to catch illegal aliens, immigration officers should investigate every company that turns in an invalid Social Security number on tax forms because most illegals who have forged immigration documents are using fake Social Security numbers.

Source C

Scott, Michael. "America Must Take Stronger Measures to Halt Illegal Immigration." The Social Contract 11, no. 1 (2000).

The following appeared in an article in a scholarly journal.

One look at the ravages of illegal immigration in California is enough to make most Americans sick. At least 40 percent of the nation's 6 million illegal immigrants are here. From a base of 2.4 million illegal immigrants already present, they just keep coming — 120,000 net new illegals each year into California (300,000 nationally), and the horrendous social costs just keep rising. There are 408,000 illegal immigrant K-12 students to educate at a cost to California taxpayers of approximately $2.2 billion annually, for example. Never mind that these students can't work, drive or vote once they graduate, unless they obtain fraudulent documents.

Taxpayers subsidize 96,000 illegal immigrant births in statewide county hospitals (200,000 nationally) at a yearly cost of $352 million. Then we have annual ... [welfare] costs for these new citizen children of nearly $552 million. Add another $557 million to incarcerate 23,000 illegal alien felons in California, plus $60 million health care costs for various services, and we're over $3.7 billion annually —out of our pockets, and against our overwhelming opposition to such outrages.

Eliminating this brutal migratory devastation involves two basic actions, enforcing our own immigration laws, and accepting the ugly reality that "we've met the enemy and it is us".
Source D

Center for Immigration Studies. Illegal Immigration. http://www.cis.org/topics/ illegalimmigration.html

The following appeared on a website for a nonprofit and nonpartisan research group that studies immigration in America.

The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) estimates that in January of 2000 there were 7 million illegal aliens living in the United States, a number that is growing by half a million a year. Thus, the illegal-alien population in 2003 stands at at least 8 million. Included in this estimate are approximately 78,000 illegal aliens from countries who are of special concern in the war on terror. It is important to note that the 500,000 annual increase is the net growth in the illegal-alien population (new illegal immigration minus deaths, legalizations, and out-migration). In 1999 for example, the INS estimates that 968,000 new illegal aliens settled in the U.S. This number was offset by 210,000 illegal aliens who either died or returned home on their own, 63,000 who were removed by the INS, and 183,000 illegal aliens who were given green cards as part of the normal "legal" immigration process. One of the most important findings of the INS report is the intimate link between legal and illegal immigration. The INS estimates that it gave out 1.5 million green cards to illegal aliens in the 1990s. This was not due to amnesty legislation, but rather reflects how the legal immigration process embraces illegal immigration and encourages it through legal exemptions. According to the INS, only 412,000 illegal aliens were removed during the decade.

The Census Bureau has also developed estimates of its own. Their estimate at the time of the 2000 Census suggests that the illegal immigration population was about 8 million. Using this number, it can be concluded that the illegal-alien population grew by almost half a million a year in the 1990s. This conclusion is derived from a draft report given to the House immigration subcommittee by the INS that estimated the illegal population was 3.5 million in 1990. For the illegal population to have reached 8 million by 2000, the net increase had to be 400,000 to 500,000 per year during the 1990s.

The two "magnets" which attract illegal aliens are jobs and family connections. The typical Mexican worker earns one-tenth his American counterpart, and numerous American businesses are willing to hire cheap, compliant labor from abroad; such businesses are seldom punished because our country lacks a viable system to verify new hires' work eligibility. In addition, communities of recently arrived legal immigrants help create immigration networks used by illegal aliens and serve as incubators for illegal immigration, providing jobs, housing, and entree to America for illegal-alien relatives and fellow countrymen.

The standard response to illegal immigration has been increased border enforcement. And, in fact, such tightening of the border was long overdue. But there has been almost no attention paid to enforcement at worksites within the United States. Nor has there been any recognition that the networks created by high levels of legal immigration contribute to mass illegal immigration.

Source E

Wasem, Ruth Ellen. "Estimates of unauthorized aliens residing in the United States, 1986-2002." Congressional Research Service Report to Congress (Sept. 15, 2004), 3. http://www.immigrationforum.org/documents/crs/CRS_undocumented_2004.pdf

The following graph appeared in an article about immigration by a congressional research group.

[pic]

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...| ASDA Case StudyOrganizational Behavior | Lina Ley | 4/5/14 | Aviles Santa Franklin | | | ASDA Case StudyOrganizational Behavior | Lina Ley | 4/5/14 | Aviles Santa Franklin | | THE CASE OF ASDA STORES LIMITED Introduction ASDA Stores Limited is a merchandise and grocery retailer operating in the United Kingdom. The company formerly known as Associated Diaries and Farm Stores was founded in 1949 but changed its name to ASDA Stores Limited in 1965 (Matusitz & Leanza, 2011). Its headquarters is based in Leeds, UK. In 1999, Asda was acquired by Wal-Mart and is currently part of the largest retailer in the world. Asda employs approximately 178,000 people who work in its more than 500 stores in the UK. Currently, Asda is the second largest retailer chain store in the UK (Data Monitor, 2012). Organizational Behavior Organizational behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how individuals, people and groups act in organizations. It is concerned with what people do in an organization and how their behavior affects the performance of the organization (Harvey, Millett & Smith, 1998). Organizational behavior is an interdisciplinary field that draws on the ideas and research of many disciplines that are concerned with human behavior and interaction. These fields include sociology, psychology, social psychology, communications and anthropology (Robbins, 2003). When people interact in organizations many factors come into play...

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Asda

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Asda

... This defines how colleagues behave at Asda. It ranges from how colleagues treat customers and other external stakeholders to how they treat each other. Asda’s culture of trust pervades all that happens within all elements of Asda’s operations. Asda is a company with a conscience, dedicated to doing the right thing for its customers, colleagues and communities. Andy Clarke, President and CEO states: ‘Building trust with each other is the most important step to winning the absolute trust of our customers.’ Asda’s beliefs are behind every decision that every colleague within the company makes and help influence the organisation’s culture. These are: to provide excellent service to our customers to show respect for the individual to strive for excellence to act with integrity. In 2009 Asda ran a survey to discover what its customers thought about the company. From the results of this survey Asda created its ‘customer pledges’ outlining what customers should expect to experience from Asda. The success of these pledges led Asda to replicate this with ‘colleague pledges’. These were covered in the annual colleague survey in 2013, ‘Your Voice’, which surveyed every colleague across the business in stores, Home Offices and Distribution. The four colleague pledges demonstrate what Asda is committed to providing for its workforce. These are: Fairness at work. Opportunity for all. Respect for each other. Pride in Asda. Leadership Asda 18 Image 5Asda leaders are committed to...

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...TESCO implement a clear cost leadership strategy, as market leaders they benefit heavily from economies of scale. The introduction of their own brand allowed the company to cut their costs and increase their profit margins. Tosco's current strategy is very much one of growth. Depend on the feature aimed at the high street consumer TESCO offering different categories shop and services- In ‘'Tesco's Extra'' stores here are over 15,000 of their own brand products. Customer can buy any product in cheaper price. "Tesco Extra" stores, selling not just food, like other supermarkets but material products such as kitchen accessories, entertainment items such as televisions and VCR players and CDs, magazines and cleaning products. "Tesco Metro" was introduced. This was a feature aimed at the high street consumer while offering the benefits of a large supermarket. "Tesco Express" in essence a petrol station with a small Tesco store onsite. This offered customers convince products i.e. bread, milk and essential grocery items. Tesco Direct - The recent interim results show how Tesco's non-food products have made good progress. Tesco's Direct will offer the vast range to anyone with computer access. Telecommunications - Tesco launched an ISP service back in 1998, but have invested more heavily in this field since 2003. Tesco's mobile is in an association with O2 and their ADSL package with NTL. Their most recent example of differentiation is the “Tesco Internet Phone”, which is an......

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Asda

...Asda, the grocery store chain that Archie Norman had just been hired to lead, teetered on the edge on bankruptcy and ruin. While Asda had enjoyed a long run of success in the United Kingdom, upscale competitors and down-market deep dis-counters had sharply eroded its customer base. Norman, an outsider to Asda who had never run any retailing operation, believed that Asda could not afford the luxury of piecemeal or incremental improvement. Everything about the organization - from the way they purchased and displayed products to the way store managers interact-ed with shop-floor employees - would have to change. Everything. Company Background With 65,000 employees in 205 Asda stores and another 2,000 at corporate headquarters, Asda was the fourth largest grocery store chain in its home country. Asda enjoyed annual sales of $6 billion,1 and claimed 8 percent of the supermarket business, ranking fourth in market share. Starting in the late 1960s, Asda pioneered within the country the concept of large supermarkets located outside of downtown areas with expansive parking lots and low prices. Flourishing particularly in working class areas, Asda became known as a blue-collar store, specializing in low prices in a warehouse-like atmosphere (“Pile it high and sell it cheap” was a phrase commonly associated with this type of opera-tion). The demographics of their customer base was decidedly “down market.” In that niche, Asda was quite successful, operating without any real......

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...P2 Introduction In this assignment I will be talking about key stakeholders who influence the purposes of two businesses, the business I have chosen are Tesco and Asda. Also I will be talking about the interest of owners, customers, suppliers, employees, trade unions and shareholders have in the businesses. Another point I will be talking about is why business have to consider local communities and pressure groups when operating their business. Tesco and Asda key Stakeholders are; Customers: Customers want good quality products and services for affordable prices, customer want to shop at Tesco and Asda and receive well experience whenever they shop there. Also Tesco must always understand that meeting customers needs and expectations are very important, otherwise they will lose customers are profits. Suppliers Tesco would buy resources that they have needed of to produce goods and services from suppliers, so Tesco and Asda needs to have an effective relationships with their suppliers in order to get quality resources at reasonable prices which intern will help Tesco and Asda to sell products cheaper if they get it cheaper this means Tesco and Asda will then make their customers more happy because they are getting good quality products and services for affordable prices, but this is a two way process as suppliers depend on the business they supply to earn money. Owners Owners would want the business to run smoothly and earn from it so the interest they would have in......

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Afbs

...FOUNDATION TO BUSINESS STRATEGY ALDI ALDI is one of the world’s leading grocery retailers with more than 7,000 stores across 70 countries. The company originates from Germany, where it was founded in 1913 as one of the first retailers to offer self-service. Since opening its first store in 1913, ALDI has established itself as a reputable retailer operating in international markets including Germany, Australia, UK, and the U.S. What distinguishes ALDI from its competitors is its pricing strategy without reducing the quality of its products. In fact, in some cases ALDI’s products are 30% cheaper than those offered by its competitors. ALDI can do this because the business operates so efficiently. ALDI has operated in the UK since 1990, and now has over 500 stores in the UK and Ireland employing in excess of 20,000 people. ALDI’S POLICIES: ALDI does not have a clear defined Vision and mission statements, however it has clearly defined policies based on which it could create its competitive position in the market. ALDI’S Policies are based on ‘What if a grocery store challenged the typical retail business model?’ALDI’s business model enables to provide the customers the highest quality products at the lowest possible prices. This value stems from the numerous efficiencies and innovations instituted at every level of ALDI’S operation. The following are the cost saving strategies that ALDI adopts: * Customers bring their own bags or buy our reusable bags to save money ...

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Dd131 Tma 03

...and expanding into local areas with superstores and convenience stores as well as on the High Street. Supermarkets expansion has resulted in the suffering and closure of many small local businesses. Dennis Wrong, Socioligist states that in a situation where the gain of one is equivalent to the loss of another so the net gain is zero, it is a ‘zero-sum’ game. This essay examines the relationship between supermarket power and a ‘zero- sum’ game. It shows how the supermarkets gain is balanced by the loss to others and outlines the ‘positive sum’ games of power. The concept of power is viewed in variety of ways by different groups, I feel this depends on the angle you are viewing things from. Contemporary UK has four huge supermarket chains, Asda, Morrisons, Sainsbury’s and Tesco often referred to as ‘giants’ by the economy which indicates the level of power and dominance they have in the market. Every consumer has personal preferences and rights of choice when it comes to making purchases of goods and services. These preferences some would argue, are influenced or controlled by the varieties made available to us along with other contributory factors. With the four supermarket chains dominating the food market, the power they have over what they offer to consumers limits the choices of the consumer. Some would...

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Three Firms: Changes in Their Enviroment

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Organisational Behaviour

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