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1 Philosophical Aspects of Culture SG- 3 C1 Native American Experience SG- 4 C2 White American Experience SG- 23 C3 Arab American Experience SG- 43 C4 Hispanic American Experience SG- 53 C5 Black American Experience SG- 76 C6 Asian American Experience SG-109 C7 Jewish American Experience SG-126 C8 Women in the Military SG-150 C9 Extremist Organizations/Gangs SG-167


Developed by Edwin J. Nichols, Ph.D.

|Ethnic Groups/ |Axiology |Epistemology |Logic |Process |
|World Views | | | | |
|European |Member-Object |Cognitive |Dichotomous |Technology |
|Euro-American |The highest value lies in the object |One knows through counting |Either/Or |All sets are repeatable and|
| |or the acquisition of the object |and measuring | |reproducible |
|African |Member-Member |Affective |Diunital |Ntuology |
|African-American |The highest value lies in the |One knows through symbolic |The union of opposites |All sets are interrelated |
|Hispanics |interpersonal relationships between |imagery and rhythm |Difrasismo |through human and spiritual|
|Arabs |persons | |“Aztec thought and culture.” |networks |
|Asian |Member-Group |Conative |Nyaya |Cosmology |
|Asian-American |The highest value lies in the |One knows through striving |The objective world is |All sets are independently |
|Polynesian |cohesiveness of the group |toward the transcendence |conceived independent of |interrelated in the harmony|
| | | |thought and mind |of the universe |
|Native American |Member-Great Spirit |Inspirational |Wakan Tanka |Transcendence |
| |The highest value lies in oneness |One knows through |“Great mystery” |All sets of life are |
| |with the Great Spirit |reflection and spiritual |(medicine wheel) |interrelated through |
| | |receptivity |four directions |mineral, plant, human, and |
| | | | |spiritual networks |


|Ethnic Groups/ |Epistemology |Pedagogy |Methodology |
|World Views | | | |
|European |One knows through counting and |Parts to the whole |Linear and sequential |
|Euro-American |measuring | | |
|African |One knows through symbolic imagery and |Whole-holistic |Critical path analysis |
|African-American |rhythm | | |
|Hispanics | | | |
|Arabs | | | |
|Asian |One knows through striving toward |Whole and parts are seen |Cyclic and repetitive |
|Asian-American |transcendence |simultaneously | |
|Polynesian | | | |
|Native American |One knows through reflection and |Whole seen in cyclic movement (wheel)|Environmentally experiential reflection |
| |spiritual receptivity | | |


TASK: Native-American Experience

CONDITION: Classroom environment

STANDARD: 1. Define Native-American as defined by DoD Dir 1350.2. 2. Describe the origins of Native-Americans. 3. Explain the beliefs and values of Native-Americans. 4. Describe the population trends of Native-Americans. 5. Explain concepts of treaties. 6. Describe the legal status of Native-Americans. 7. Describe historical events which impacted the Native- Americans and their population. 8. Describe the cultural values, attitudes and behaviors, and Social problems. 9. Describe Native-Americans contributions.

The Native-Americans of North America are a people of diverse cultures and customs. Their legacy is a celebration of diversity and community among nations, an example of an American people who’s cultural heritage, spiritual foundation and oneness with the environment offer the mainstream culture an excellent model for our future success. They are the only true Americans, however, when it comes to education, unemployment and political representation they are ranked at the bottom of the list.


1. Definition. As described in DoD Directive 1350.2 a Native-American or Alaskan Native is a person having origins in the original peoples of North America, and who maintains cultural identification through tribal affiliation or community recognition.

2. There is no one contemporary majority definition that establishes a person’s identity as a Native-American. The Bureau of Census states that “anybody who claims to be a Native-American” is a Native-American. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), which is the organization responsible for monitoring Indian affairs and issues, general definition to be a Native-American, you must:

a. Be 1/4-1/2 Native-American blood at a minimum.

b. Live on or near trust lands/reservations.

c. Be on a tribal roll recognized by the federal government.

d. Trace ancestry back three generations.

e. Be approved by BIA officials.

3. To receive BIA services they must meet all of these criteria. It puts the Native-Americans in an awkward situation since they are being encouraged to move off the reservations and assimilate with mainstream society. On the other hand, if they don’t live on a reservation and meet all of these criteria they can not receive BIA services.

4. In 1984, one-third of all Native-Americans lived on a reservation and the other two thirds in urban areas with the largest population in the state of California. Individual tribes have their own ways of establishing a person’s identity. In some tribes if a non-Native-American marries a Native-American then that non-Native-American is recognized as a Native-American.

5. There are 500 federally recognized tribes and fit no single description, since they are far too individualistic. There are 250 different Indian languages. However, most can communicate with different tribes through sign language, but not verbally. There are differences in social structure and political structures amongst the various tribes. Furthermore, there are light skinned, blonde hair, green-eyed Native-Americans to extremely dark colored skin. So Native-Americans do not all look alike as many films and pictures have portrayed.

6. Some examples of Native-American stereotypes portrayed in the media were the Cavalry always wins and the Native-Americans were always on the warpath scalping soldiers. However, the Europeans, not the Native-Americans introduced scalping to America. It was easy for the media and historians to distort history and Native-Americans, because it was difficult for the Native-Americans to defend themselves, since until recently there was no written language. Native-American passed on history through the word of mouth from one generation to the next. Many tribes have become extinct and their history was not passed on. As a result of the stereotypes and omissions in history or distortions of history, the Native-Americans have taken on a generally negative identity.

7. Origins of Native-Americans. Speculation about the origins of man in the New World was as fanciful as the tribal myths and legends. The early writers were constrained by theological concepts which traced man’s ancestry to Adam and Eve, through Noah and his offspring. The search for New World origins accordingly was at first confined to biblical interpretation, with embellishments from classical mythology. A tale attributed to Aristotle told of certain Phoenician sailors who sailed westward and disappeared into the Atlantic.

8. The tale was resurrected after Columbus’ voyage with the explanation that he had discovered the descendants of lost mariners. In another account, Plato’s fabled continent of Atlantis provided the land bridge over which people crossed to the Americas where they were isolated when Atlantis was destroyed by earthquake.

9. A favorite theme, one which persisted into the nineteenth century, identified the Native-Americans with the Lost Tribes of Israel, based on a supposed similarity between Hebrew and Aztec words and on certain customs and traditions said to be common to Jews and New World tribal people.
10. Stories about the creation and origins of man are common to all people. The Native-Americans are no different. Every tribe, or nation, has a creation myth that has been passed down through the generations.

11. Dr. Alvin M. Josephy, noted historian and author of the book, Two Nations, cited several examples of origin myths. He states: “Among the Nez Perce and other Native-American people of the mountainous Northwest, generations of grandparents told children stories of a time when the world was inhabited only by animals, all of whom spoke like humans and had human-like characteristics. Living by one of the waterways was a fierce monster who kept all the animals in fear by devouring them. Finally, the bold and courageous Coyote, the tribe’s cultural hero, jumped down the monster’s throat and killed him by sawing up his heart with flint. When the monster was dead, Coyote cut his body into small pieces, creating from each part a different tribe. In the desert Southwest, Hopi, Zuni, and Pueblo descendants of the Anasazis tell of the emergence of their people through a hole, known as sipapu, from an underground lake. Others related in great detail the climb of their ancestors toward perfection through three underworlds and their final emergence through sipapu into the present or fourth world.”

12. Another creation story which is told by the tribes of the northwest coast tells of a lonely god who wanted companionship: “Raven was lonely. One day he paced back and forth on the sandy beach quite forlorn. Except for the trees, the moon, the sun, water and a few animals, the world was so empty. His heart wished for the company of other creatures. Suddenly a large clam pushed through the sand making an eerie bubbling sound. Raven watched and listened intently as the clam slowly opened up. He was surprised and happy to see tiny people emerging from the shell. All were talking, smiling, and shaking the sand off their tiny bodies. Men, women, and children spread around the island. Raven was pleased and proud with his work. He sang a beautiful song of great joy and greeting. He brought the first people to the world.”

13. Most of the tribal legends tell of migrations to the sites that became their homes in the world. It is this migration theme which formed the basis for the scientific explanation for the western hemisphere. The first person to propose a theory that was not shrouded in fantasy, but represented an attempt to logically and factually explain the presence of New World people, was not even a member of the scientific community. In fact, he was from a religious order. De Acosta’s theory was a revolutionary leap in thinking toward the origins of New World people. However, it would be almost 400 hundred years before scientific evidence would lend support to what a Jesuit missionary had imagined.

14. Jose De Acosta, who in 1590 published the first of several volumes in which he argued that man and animals had crossed to the New World over a land bridge, the location of which was either in the South Seas, across from the Strait of Magellan, or off the northwest coast of North America. De Acosta noted that such a journey would require “only short stretches of navigation” -- an extraordinary premise, given that Europeans would not “discover” the Bering Strait for another 136 years.

15. Today, the generally accepted scientific view is that the roots of Native-Americans are located somewhere in Asia. They believe the migration occurred somewhere between 10 and 40 thousand years ago years as the Earth progressed through various periods of the last ice age in which the development of unimaginable Pleistocene glaciers caused the world’s oceans to drop over 300 feet. It was this drop in the level of the world’s oceans which scientist believe allowed the Bering Land Bridge, which is now known as Alaska to appear. This passage between the two continents, coupled with temperate weather periods which caused the sea to slowly rise while melting the ice that had previously blocked the land routes, provided an avenue for the migrating people, animals, and plant life to reach the New World. However, this is only theory, since Native-Americans pass their history through word of mouth and most of the tribes are extinct.

16. Archaeologists have confirmed the presence of people living in all parts of North and South America at least 12,000 years ago--longer than Egypt, Phoenicia, China , Israel, or any other nation identified in history. Eventually, the ice age came to an end and the glaciers began to recede, restoring the oceans to previous levels and once again covering the Bering Land Bridge. Once, in what would one day be called North America, these nomadic natives began to flourish, expand, and move south through the valleys and plains, following the animals they hunted for food and other necessities. Eventually these small bands of wanderers would inhabit a quarter of the world’s land surface. They would also develop sophisticated and diverse cultures that would extend from sea to sea and last for over a thousand generations.

17. It is important to consider and understand how Native-Americans view this scientific origin theory as it conflicts with many of the tribal origin legends and stories. Vine Deloria, Jr., of the Standing Rock Sioux offers us the opportunity to view a different perspective. The Bering Strait theory is tenaciously held by white scholars against the varied migration traditions of the natives and is an example of the triumph of doctrine over facts. Excavating ancient fireplaces and campsites may be exciting, but there are no well-worn paths which clearly show migratory patterns from Asia to North America, and if there were such paths, there would be no indication anywhere which way the footprints were heading. We can be certain of only one thing: the Bering Strait theory is preferred by whites and consequently becomes accepted as scientific fact. If the universities were controlled by the Native-Americans, we would have an entirely different explanation of the peopling of the New World and it would be just as respectable for the scholarly establishment to support it. The theory does illustrate a constant theme that a good many scientific and/or scholarly beliefs about Native-Americans originated as religious doctrines. As religion lost its influence as an opinion maker, the idea was picked up by some secular scholars, transformed into scientific theory, and published as orthodox science.

18. The origins of the Native-Americans are geographically disburse. The following are some of the cultural area concepts:

a. Northeastern. Mostly fishers and hunters.

b. Southeastern. A lot were farmers and hunters.

c. Plains. Farmers, fishers, and hunters.

NOTE: The Native-Americans hunted the buffalo for food. However, the settlers hunted them for sport. Traditional Native-Americans do not believe of killing animals for the sake of killing. When the Native-Americans killed a buffalo, every part of that buffalo was used. Buffalo were killed for food, shelter, and clothing. If a Native-American had enough food for the family then they would give part of the buffalo to other families in need of food. Native-Americans did not kill the buffalo for the sake of sport.

d. Southwest. Great Basin, Plateau. Farmers and sheep herders.

e. California Coast. Primarily seed gatherers ,e.g., berries, nuts and fishers.

NOTE: When the Europeans saw the Native-Americans gathering the berries and nuts they assumed they were gathering seeds, thus they were called “seed gatherers.”

f. Northwest Coast. Primarily fishers.

g. Subarctic. Fishers, hunters

19. When Columbus arrived it is estimated there was between one and ten million Native-Americans in America. Native-American scholars claim there were more than ten million.

20. As the Europeans settled in America, fur trading progressed into the continent’s heartland involving more Native-American nations and in 1670, the British established the Hudson’s Bay Company to compete with the French monopoly which existed in Canada. The tribes played the French and British against one another to get the highest prices for their furs. The Native-Americans received payment in guns, powder, balls, hatchets, blankets, cloth, kettles, knives, mirrors, awls, beads, paints, combs, and other European manufactured goods, and this exchange caused a great change in their material culture.

21. Many Native-American nations generally found it more lucrative to trade with the white men than to pursue old economic activities. Some of the agricultural nations stopped planting and let their fields lie fallow and overrun with weeds, while hunting societies lost the rhythm of their lives. Traditional trade networks and practices were disrupted, jealousies and feuds were aroused, and the ability of tribes to control the behavior of their members was undermined by the diverting presence of the Europeans.

22. The village, clan, and family cohesion and discipline broke apart as individuals, eager for economic gain and prestige, put personal goals ahead of the values and well being of the group. At the same time, bands and nations that once traded for mutual benefit were forced into cutthroat competition. Ancient tribal and personal spiritual values and sacred relationships with the land and animals also changed or were abandoned.

23. The balance which had existed for thousands of years had been destroyed . The excess hunting caused an exhaustion of wildlife, which at times resulted in starvation for the Native-Americans. Alcoholism became widespread as traders supplied large quantities of liquor to the braves, making it easier to swindle them out of their furs.

24. Authority and traditions of the tribe, which had previously been maintained in the past by elders and clan relatives, spiritual leaders, or, sometimes, by public ridicule and shame, were no longer effective. The efficient and peaceful system of trade and commerce which had existed for thousands of years among the Native-American nations had been completely destroyed by the mid-eighteenth century. It was replaced by a competitive European system which stripped away Native-American culture and traditions leaving behind uprooted and stressed people who turned to violence in an attempt to survive.

25. As the fur trade moved west it left behind an even worse legacy. Where there once was a land full of life, inhabited by proud, unbridled, and honorable people, there now remained only barren lands inhabited by a people who were no longer self-sufficient and without hope. Without a doubt, the uncontrolled expansion of the fur trade and the eventual disregard for established practices directly contributed to the decline of many North American Native-American nations. By 1850, the population decreased to an estimated 250,000. The three primary causes of the decline: a. Foreign diseases. The Native-American immune systems could not protect them from the foreign diseases ,e.g., small pox. Many other Native-Americans were given diseased blankets and clothing, so they would contract these diseases.

b. Starvation. A military tactic of cutting off the Native-Americans food supply was used. Animals and other sources of food were destroyed. Many of them were on the run so much, that when they got to an area where they could possibly get food, they had to move on again.

c. Extermination. Many of them died from mass executions. The history books may refer to them as “Great Indian Battles,” the Native-American historians call them massacres.

d. Other. Many died because the didn’t have a will to live any longer. Many died due to forced relocation. Some were taken to Europe as slaves and never returned.

26. Current population estimates there are presently two million Native-Americans in this county and by the year 2050 there will be approximately 4.3 million comprising still under 10% of the total population.


1. For years American history books talked about the ancestors of modern day Native-Americans as if they were all one race, and often, as if they were all of one nation. Further, they had a tendency to view them as particular to areas that are now the United States and Canada. In reality, however, while the 1991 U.S. Bureau of Census statistics show they comprise only about 1% of our population, Native-Americans represent fifty percent of the diversity, speak 252 languages, and currently have 505 Federally recognized tribes and 365 state-recognized tribes. Even greater diversity exists when a comparison of value orientations and cultural commitment is made.

2. Beliefs and values. The Native-American culture developed a value and belief system which differed significantly from those of the Europeans in some regards and yet was very similar in others. The Native-American world recognizes the importance of relationships that exist between all living creatures and their environment. This belief is a central theme throughout Native-American culture. This respect of life and land played an integral part in the development of Native-American society and is still very important today. This idea of the “inter-relatedness of all things” is one of the foundational principles forming the essence of their world view. The Native-Americans seek not to control the environment like European cultures, but to live in harmony with it. More importantly, because they believe everyone and everything is related, Native-American cultures developed a deep respect for life.

3. Religion. A discussion of beliefs and values would not be complete without examining Native-American religious practices. It is interesting to note that unlike the Christian religion in which man’s harmonious existence with nature was destroyed due to the fall from grace in the Garden of Eden, most Native-American cultures believe that it is possible, even necessary, for man to live in harmony with nature and others. There is a strong bond between the land and the people. Native-American cultures developed their own concept of God and the universe. These religious concepts are very complex and represent much more than superstitions to the Native-Americans as thought by the early Europeans. Everything to the Native-American is religion. It is at the core of every aspect of the traditional Native-American life. Native-Americans view the “mother” as earth. They think that the earth generates life, sustains life and eventually they will all return to the earth. Europeans thought this was rather abnormal or ignorant, because the Native-Americans were willing trade land for mere trinkets. What the settlers didn’t understand is that the Native-Americans did not place a monetary value on the land. The Native-Americans thought “how can you own something that was here when you got here and will be here when you leave.” They took the trinkets, because they were basically getting something for something that was not theirs anyway.

4. The Native-Americans view the earth as sacred and a reflection of the people. They believe there is a “oneness” between living things in terms of human beings, how they interact and are linked to the animals, trees, plants and the rest of the universe. The earth is viewed as the geometrical figure of a circle and is “the circle of life.” The Native-Americans view the circle as the one thing that binds all things together. The circle of life symbolizes a connection between all that exists and binds everything together. It is a very important figure. One Native-American stated “You have noticed that everything an Indian does is in a circle, and that is because the power of the world always works in circles and everything tries to be round. This knowledge came to us from the outer world with our religion. Everything the power of the world does is done in a circle. The sky is round and I have heard the earth is round like a ball and so are all of the stars. The wind in its greatest power whirls. Birds make their nests in circles, for their is the same religion as ours. The sun comes forth and goes down again in a circle and the moon does the same and both are round. Even the seasons form a great circle and they’re changing and always come back again to where they were. The life of a man is a circle. He goes from childhood to childhood again. And so it is in everything where power moves.”

5. Hence, individual life strengthens the tribe and is to be cherished, nurtured, and protected. The Native-American philosophy towards hunting helps to further illustrate the belief in the connection of all life. The shaman (native physician and ritualist) is often responsible for ensuring a successful hunt. This is accomplished by visiting the cave to meet the spirit in charge of the local animal population. Together, the shaman and animal spirit work out a redistribution of lives within the region. A certain number of human souls are for the spirit of animals killed in the hunt. The Native-Americans believe that since all souls are immortal, and thus available for later exchange, the reapportionment balanced out over time. However, for the process to work, it is necessary for the hunter to treat the mortal remains of the killed animals with honor an respect.

6. Most Native-Americans believe in one superior being although it is given different labels. They also believe in lesser beings. They believe that whatever you do to the earth you do to yourself, because you are connected and inter-linked with earth. Therefore they are very careful about what they do to people and how they treat people. For example, they wouldn’t cut down a tree for fire wood if there was dead wood on the ground. The circle is symbolized in many of their ceremonies and often their dwellings symbolize a circle.

7. Rituals are still an integral part of the Native-American lifestyle. They still serve to unite tribal communities and educate Native-American youth on their heritage and beliefs. These two factors have enabled the Native-American culture to survive through the millennia. It is also apparent that religion could have offered an opportunity for the Europeans and Native-Americans to meet on common ground. There were several commonalties that existed between Native-American and European religious practices.

8. First, representatives of both sets or religious, priests and shamans, pray or perform special rites to their respective gods for things their people need. Both religions believe in divine intervention or miracles. Secondly, Christians believe (then and now) in the possibility of miracles--a special blessing handed down by God to fulfill a special need. Native-Americans also ask their deities for signs of approval or kindness--rain after a drought, a cure for an illness or injury, gift of food in hard times.

9. The primary difference stems from the source of each religion’s belief. The Christians relying on Church doctrine based on various interpretations of the Bible made by generations of scholars, and the Native-American rooted in a profound connection with the land and all life. However, no common ground would ever be reached and the Europeans would seek to replace the Native-American religions with Christianity just as they had attempted to do with the Moslem cultures during the crusades.

10. Some Native-Americans would become Christians, while others would hold fast to their traditional beliefs. Some would die for their beliefs, while others would adopt new ones while still carrying on their traditions and practices as they had for thousands of years.

11. For the Native-Americans, religion and land are the cornerstone of their existence. These two elements combine to form a delicate balance which has been the basis of the Native-American world view for thousands of years. The arrival of the Europeans upset this balance and started a chain of events that would eventually result in the erosion, decay, and finally the ruin of many great Native-American civilizations.

12. With the loss of their land and persecutions of their beliefs, the Native-American way of life would be forever changed. It is an outlook that has been ingrained into the very nature of the Native-American people.

13. Role of the family. In the Native-American community families are extremely important. The children in Native-American families are socialized somewhat different from non-Native-American children. The family serves as an instrument of accountability and responsibility, which included the entire community. Native-Americans have very close kinship ties even in terms of extended families. Kinship is not limited just to the immediate family, but to the other families in the tribe as well.

14. The elders are the most respected in the community and viewed as being wise. Traditional Native-Americans feel it is an honor to be in the presence of the elders and they should be talked to and learned from. The elders teach how to act and not act, and their survival techniques.

15. Native-American children are more important than material possessions. The children are the one’s who are going to carry on the tribal traditions and the family. Physical punishment is not and is still not acceptable. If a child can not go to a social function, then the parents will not go. When teaching the children, respect is taught by example. When Native-Americans make artifacts or tools, they make them with imperfections to show that everything is not perfect and teach the children that not everything or everyone is perfect. They teach the children that they do not have to be perfect or expect others to be perfect.

16. The women are very important to the tribe. They are regarded as having a special magic and holiness. The women can bear the children. They make the toys for the children.

17. Though there are major differences in the values and beliefs of the American Native-Americans and Europeans, there are also similarities. Universal qualities like generosity, kindness, honor, courage, humor, and bravery are an integral part of Native-American culture. They recognize the importance of such traits. Men and women not only possess these qualities but actually demonstrate them in their daily lives before being placed in a position of authority and power.

18. Culture Values, Attitudes and Behaviors:

a. Cooperation vs. Competition. Excellence is related to the contribution to the group. American culture teaches us to compete and to win. Native-American culture encourages group involvement or group oriented goals.

b. Reticence vs. Verbalization. In terms of socialization, Americans are taught to be verbal and to question and challenge. Native-Americans are socialized that silence is important. To talk loudly and point is discouraged. It is not consider a good trait to bring attention to one self and listening is a skill that is encouraged. Native-Americans are taught that you can learn more by listening rather than talking. Because of this trait, many Europeans thought the Native-Americans were ignorant and did not understand or they had no feelings.

c. Group Oriented vs. Individualistic. Emphasis is put on the tribe versus self. American culture recommends that we be individualists and to take of ourselves and our families. Native-Americans believe in sharing.

d. Role Playing and Observation. Listening and role playing is a key to learning.

e. Giving/Sharing Highly Valued. Symbolizes friendship.

f. Time/Emphasis on Present. American culture teaches us to be on time. Native-Americans are not concerned with time.

g. Values. American culture teaches us that education is extremely important and puts a lot of pressure on people to learn and to get good grades. Native-Americans teach that it’s important the children learn, but it’s not something you get upset or angry with them about. They talk to the children and suggest that they learn and the reasons why it’s important, but they don’t pressure them about it.

19. The government, in an attempt to assimilate the Native-Americans, determined the Native-American children needed to be educated and should go to boarding schools. While in these boarding schools they were taught that all of the things they were taught by their tribe, their beliefs, values and attitudes about the universe were wrong. They were taught that the way they dressed, the way they wore their hair, and the way they spoke was wrong. Also, they were taught that the things their parents and grandparents believed in were wrong. As a result, there was a great deal of confusion.

20. The children returned home and tried to figure out what was right or wrong. The children were also being taught different ideas about religion and that they should be Christians and they should not believe in their legends and folk tales. The children began having problems with their identity. The children were ridiculed and made to feel uncomfortable. These boarding schools had a devastating effect psychologically on many Native-American children.

21. Large numbers of Native-American children were sent to foster homes based on recommendations of social workers because their parents were determined to be unfit parents, because of their values.

22. Treaties. The legal process that was used in dealing with the Native-Americans was the treaty. However, 400 treaties were signed between the government and the Native-Americans and not one treaty was kept in total. The main problem was the lack of comprehension by Native-Americans of the legal documents they were signing.

23. Legislation. There have been many pieces of legislation passed in reference to the Native-Americans.

24. In 1830 the Indian Removal Act was passed. President Andrew Jackson pushed for the Indian Removal Act. The settlers in Georgia and Alabama felt that if the Native-Americans didn’t assimilate or yield ground then they should be moved out. The Act forced approximately all 100,000 eastern Native-Americans to be moved to the west of the Mississippi. The five civilized tribes (large tribes) were moved. These included the Cherokee, Chippawa, Chickasaw, Creek, Seminoles and some of the Senecas from the north were moved to the Indian Territory which is now known as Oklahoma. The Cherokee resisted and it took approximately six years for them to move. The Cherokee move is the one most notable and was called “The Trail of Tears.” Of the 16,000 Cherokees moved, 4,000 either died or were seriously injured due to starvation or exposure.

25. Settlers, in their quest for security continued to pressure the government to do something about the Native-Americans. The settlers began moving westward and the wanted the Native-Americans to continue to be moved westward. The Army rid the country of numerous Native-Americans by forcing them to move, exposing them to disease, and putting them in isolated areas where they could not survive.

26. In 1887, the Dawes Allotment Act was passed. This was an attempt to get the Native-Americans to assimilate. The Act called for breaking up the reservations into allotments or parcels of land and make the Native-Americans farmers. It was thought if the Native-Americans were given their individual piece of land and farm, they would then be more like society and assimilate. The reservations were divided up into 40-60 acre lots per family, based on the size of the family. The first problem with this Act was the assumption the Native-Americans wanted to be farmers and wanted to assimilate. They divided up the reservation and gave allotments of land throughout the reservation to Native-Americans and non-Native-Americans and they would live side by side in a checker board affect. As a result of this Act, families and tribes were broken up. After each family received their allotment of land, the rest of the land was regarded as surplus and could be sold. Native-Americans lost 88 million acres of land as a result of this Act.

NOTE: It should be noted that many of these Acts were passed with good intentions. The Europeans did not understand the Native-American culture and did not understand that Native-Americans did not want to change or assimilate.

27. Indian Citizenship Act, 1924. This Act gave all Native-Americans their citizenship. However, if you lived on a reservation you could not vote.

28. Indian Reorganization Act, 1934. It promoted Indian self-government. The Native-Americans were allowed to buy back their land and made them eligible for jobs with the BIA, made federal loans available, and chartered business organizations. There were a lot of positive results due to this Act.

29. Johnson-O’Malley Act, 1934. This Act provided federal funds to be made available to contracting agencies for the purpose of Native-American education. However, little supervision was provided on the use of the funds resulting in abuse.

30. Relocation Act, 1952. This Act encouraged Native-Americans to move off of the reservations in to urban areas. They were told they would be given transportation to the cities, given funds when they got to the cities, and given vocational training. They would be taken to job sites after graduation. Large numbers of Native-Americans applied for relocation. Their applications were screened and they would indicate what areas they wanted to relocate to e.g., Denver, Chicago, Detroit, New York, California. The government would contact the office of the particular location they wanted to relocate to and provided them a responsible sponsor. Many Native-Americans were excited about the program, since they were curious abut the big cities, young men especially. They entered big cities totally unprepared and experienced culture shock. They were not prepared for the city and the city people were not prepared for them. With the minimal skills they obtained they only qualified for jobs with the lowest wages. Thus, they could only afford low income housing and lived in ghettos. Many turned to alcohol or drug abuse, became mentally ill, and many returned to the reservations.

31. House Concurrent Resolution 108, 1953. This was another attempt to help the Native-Americans to assimilate. The reservations were to be terminated or dissolved and the Native-Americans would no longer fall under federal supervision. They were to provide the Native-Americans money to get situated. However, there was some confusion. First of all the Native-Americans were not informed on what termination included. The government thought that if they terminated the tribes they could save money, since they no longer had to provide services to the Native-Americans. However, the government ended up spending millions of dollars on welfare, since the Native-Americans had little skills needed to earn a living in the cities. During the period of 1954 to 1960, 61 tribes were terminated. Since that time some of the tribes have been restored and termination has been ceased. The termination program had a devastating affect on the Native-Americans.

32. Indian Education Act, 1972. This Act ensured there were funds set aside solely for Native-American education.

33. Indian Self-Determination and Educational Assistance Act, 1975. This Act stated that in schools where there were large numbers of Native-Americans, there would be Native-American instructors and Native-Americans on the Boards of Education.

34. Indian Child Welfare Act, 1978. Until this time, children could be abruptly taken from their parents, by declaring their parents unfit. This gave Native-Americans more control over what was happening to their children.


1. Contemporary social issues. There are two major social problems confronting Native-Americans today. They are alcoholism and suicide. Dr. Kitano in his book Race Relations, states there are three responses to dominance. The first response is aggression, the second is acceptance and the third is avoidance. One form of avoidance is escaping through alcohol and suicide.

2. Social scientists state that after many years of abuse and being told you are inferior you will take on a negative self-identity. One out of four Native-American males is an alcoholic. One out of eight Native-American females is an alcoholic. Alcoholism is a problem not only on reservations, but in the urban areas as well. Along with alcoholism comes liver diseases. Native-Americans suffer from cirrhosis of the liver three times more than non-Native-Americans. Alcoholism has also led to increased arrests of Native-Americans due to inappropriate behavior while intoxicated. Alcoholism is 10 times higher than all other races. The majority of the youth start drinking in junior high school. Other health concerns are high rates of tuberculosis, high blood pressure, and high infant mortality rate.

3. Approximately 9% of the Native-Americans complete college, 17% attend college, and 24% are high school dropouts. The suicide rate is about 1.6% times the national average, one out of six adolescents have tried to commit suicide.

4. Legal Status of Native-Americans. The Bureau of Indian Affairs, established in 1824 and headquartered in Washington D.C., has approximately 13,000 employees, of which, 75% are Native-American. Trust Relationship is responsible for the following:

a. Overseeing over 300 reservations.

b. Leasing of mineral rights.

c. Developing of forest lands.

d. Developing and directing agricultural programs.

e. Protecting water and land rights.

5. Contributions. Most of the early discoveries were made by Native-Americans. The following are some of those contributions:

a. Food. 42% of food eaten over the world is derived from Native-Americans.

b. Modern Warfare. Stress strategy and technique more than technology.

c. Naming of North America. Over 2,000 English words were taken from Native-Americans languages.

d. Objects. Provided parkas, moccasins and spears.

e. Philosophy. Never give up, even against overwhelming odds.

f. Medicines. Over 60 known medicines, such as aspirin, came from the Native-Americans.

6. Contemporary issues include:

a. Gambling and games. Gross over 4 billion a year.

b. Land/Water Rights.

c. Land Claims. d. Toxic/Solid Waste Dumps.

e. Tribes taken on waste industries.

f. Self-Determination. Process of saying we are a tribe or getting recognition.

g. Mascots. Seen as offensive. h. Religious freedom. Use of peyote

i. Native-American Activism.

7. The Key Native-American Organizations Are:

a. American Indian Movement (AIM).

b. National Congress of American Indians (NCAI).

c. Native-American Rights Funds (NARF).

d. Dedicated to protecting natural material resources.

e. National Indian Youth Council (NIYC). Protects Native-Americans natural resources and religion.

f. Indian Youth of America (IYA). Provide opportunity to experiences in educational and social activities.

8. Native-American participation in the armed forces. Historically the Native-Americans have participated in all major conflicts. The following are only some of their contributions to the defense of our nation:

a. 17,000 Native-Americans registered for the military in W.W.I, but only 8,000 actually got inducted.

b. At the beginning of W.W.II, there were 25,000 Native-Americans in the military. Native-Americans won 71 Air Medals, 51 silver Stars, 47 Bronze Stars, 34 Distinguished Flying Crosses, and two Medals of Honor during W.W.II.

c. PFC Ira Hayes, a Pima Indian, was one of the men who raised the flag at Iwo Jima.

d. The Marines used Navajo troops in signal units to send code in their own language. Theirs was the only code never deciphered by the enemy.

e. 41,500 Native-Americans served in Vietnam.



Technological Peoples Native-Americans

|Concept of private property a basic value; includes resources, |No private ownership of resources such as, land, water, minerals,|
|land, ability to buy and sell, and inheritance. Some state |or plant life. No concept of selling land. No inheritance. |
|ownership. Corporate ownership predominates. | |
| | |
|Goods produced mostly for sale, not for personal use. |Goods produced for use value. |
| | |
|Surplus production, profit motive essential. Sales techniques | |
|must create “need,” hence advertising. |Subsistence goals; no profit motive, little surplus production. |
| | |
|Economic growth required, especially in capitalist societies, | |
|hence need for increased production, increased use of resources, |Steady-state economics; no concept of economic growth. |
|expansion of production and market territories | |
| | |
|Currency system - abstract value. | |
| | |
|Competition (in capitalist countries), production for private |Barter system - concrete value |
|gain. Reward according to task/wages. | |
| |Cooperative, collective production. |
|Average workday, 8-12 hours. | |
| | |
|Nature viewed as “resource.” | |
| |Average workday 3-5 hours. |
| | |
| |Nature viewed as “being;” seen as part of nature. |

| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
|Hierarchical political forms. |Mostly non-hierarchical: “chiefs” have no coercive power. |
| | |
| |Decisions usually based on consensual process involving whole |
|Decisions generally made by executive power, majority rule, or |tribe. |
|dictatorship | |
| |Direct participatory democracy; rare examples of autocracy. |
|Spectrum from representative democracy to autocratic rule. | |
| |Direct participatory democracy; rare examples of autocracy. |
|Operative political modes are communist, socialist, monarchist, | |
|capitalist, or fascist. | |
| |Recognizable operative political modes: anarchist, communist, or |
|Centralization: most power concentrated in central authorities. |theocratic. |
| | |
| |Decentralization: power resides mainly in community, among |
|Laws are codified, written. Adversarial process. |people. (Exceptions include Incas, Aztec, et al) |
| | |
| |Laws transmitted orally. No adversarial process. Laws |
|Anthropo-centrism forms basis of law: Criminal cases judged by |interpreted for individual cases. “Natural law” used as basis. |
|strangers (in U.S. western Europe. Soviet Union). No taboo. |Criminal cases settled by group of peers known to “criminal.” |
| |Taboo. |


|Large-scale societies; most societies have high population |Small-scale societies, all people aquatinted; low population |
|density. |density. |
| | |
|Lineage mostly patrilineal. |Lineage mostly matrilineal, with some variation; family property |
| |rights run through female. |
| | |
| |Extended families; generations, sometimes many families, live |
|Nuclear two- or one-parent families; also “singles.” |together. |
| | |
|Revere the young. |Revere the old. |
| | |
|History written in books, portrayed in television docudramas. |History transmitted in oral tradition, carried through memory. |

|Living beyond nature’s limits encouraged; natural terrain not |Living within natural ecosystem encouraged; harmony with nature |
|considered a limitation; conquest of nature celebrated value; |the norm; only mild alterations of nature of immediate needs; |
|alteration of nature desirable; anti-harmony; resources |food, clothing, shelter; no permanent damage. |
|exploited. | |
| | |
|High-impact technology created to change environment. Mass-scale|Low-impact technology; one-to-one ratio even in weaponry. |
|development: one-to-millions ratio in weaponry and other | |
|technologies. | |
| | |
|Humans viewed as superior life form; Earth viewed as “dead.” |Entire world viewed as alive, plants, animals, people, rocks. |
| |Humans not superior, but equal par of web of life. reciprocal |
| |relationship with non-human life. |


|Construction materials carried from distant places. |Construction materials usually gathered locally. |
| | |
|Construction designed to survive individual human life. |Construction designed to eventually dissolve back into land |
| |(except pyramids built by minority of Indians); materials |
| |biodegradable in one lifetime. |
| | |
|Space designed for separation an privacy. |Space designed for communal activity. |
| | |
|Hard-edged forms; earth covered with concrete. | |
| |Soft forms; earth not paved. |


|Separation of spirituality from rest of life in most Western |Spirituality integrated with all aspects of daily life. |
|cultures (not in some Muslin, Hindu, Buddhist states); | |
|materialism dominant philosophy in Western nations | |


TASK: White-American Experience

CONDITION: Classroom environment

STANDARD: 1. Define White-American as defined by DoD Dir 1350.2. 2. Describe the origins of White American and the different groups in Colonial America. 3. Define the different types of immigration and the impact on individuals. 3. Explain European American common experience and displacement. 5. Define Redemptioners.

We will focus on the experiences of some of the major White immigrant groups who came to this country, and on the historic and cultural issues of White-Americans. Included are the contemporary issues that will enable you to understand and help foster a positive equal opportunity climate within your unit.


1. Definition. According to DoD Directive 1350.2 a White-American (not of Hispanic origin) is a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, North Africa, or Middle East.

2. In 1850, it was relatively simple to describe a White-American. In all probability he or she was of Anglo-Saxon background and Protestant. However, after the Civil War, immigrants began coming from Southern and Central Europe. They were not Protestant, not Anglo-Saxon, and had different languages and cultures from those who preceded them. Although each of these groups has greatly assimilated into American life, each still maintains some of American life, each still maintains some of its uniqueness and has contributed much to White-American society as we know it today. Therefore, it is next to impossible to describe a White-American in the 1990’s. However, it is possible to highlight some of the experiences and contributions of major White ethnic groups who immigrated to this country. The list is by no means inclusive and is changing rapidly every day.

3. In 1980, approximately 200 million White-Americans could trace some of their ancestry back to the following groups (in descending size order): English, German, Irish, French, Italian, Scottish, Polish, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Russian, Czechoslovakian, Hungarian, Welsh, Danish, and Portuguese.

4. The White-American experience from its colonial beginnings is fairly short. It covers a period of approximately 400 years, a period that can be spanned by the overlapping lifetimes of a half-dozen individuals. Yet the roots of the White-American experience go deep into the human past. These roots are traced mostly to the Old World, but not the New.

5. Individuals who make-up the original White-American people came to American from three areas of the world. They were:

a. North Africa related to the Berbers. A Caucasian people, the Berbers are related in physical type to the Mediterranean subgroup of southern Europe. They form the base population of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya. Today they are mostly Muslims and much of their culture is “Arabized.”

b. Northwestern Europe. Belgium, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Norway, Scotland, Sweden, Switzerland, and Wales.

c. Southeastern Europe. Austria, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Spain, USSR, and Yugoslavia.

6. Anglo-Saxon and White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP). An Anglo-Saxon and White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP) is a person of Caucasoid, northern European, largely Protestant stock whose members are held by some to constitute the most privileged and influential group in U.S. society. In the New World, they were usually the Landlord and their culture and values, with rare exception, were those that defined the culture. Their culture and values were normally based on:

a. Handwork.

b. Perseverance.

c. Self-Reliance.

d. Puritanism.

e. Missionary spirit.

f. Abstract rule of law

7. The White colonists prior to the Revolutionary War, though immigrants by one definition, did not consider themselves immigrants. Rather, approximate 78% of the English population conceived themselves as Founders, Settlers, and Planters. As the formative population of those colonial societies, theirs were the policy, the language, the pattern of work, settlement, and many of the mental habits to which the post-Revolutionary War “immigrants” would have to adjust.

8. During W.W.I, millions of people living in the U.S. were seemingly more interested in their former homeland then their newly adopted country. The public labeled such people “hyphenated” Americans, German-Americans, Polish-Americans, and Irish-Americans. The Irish and the Jews from Russia, because of previous mistreatment, became bitterly hostile to English and Russia and very pro-German.


1. Immigrant. An immigrant is defined as one who settles permanently in a foreign country or region. In colonial American, those who arrived in American following the Revolutionary War were considered immigrants.

2. In 1607, the first permanent English settlement in America was established in Jamestown, Virginia. The Pilgrims arrived at Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1620. In 1629, the Puritans came to Massachusetts Bay. Puritan settlers to the New England area differed from the inhabitants of other colonies. Nearly all other colonies were settled by me without education, driven by poverty or misconduct out of their homeland. Puritan settlers were British families with respectable social positions. They were educated and financially secure. They came to American so they could live according to their own principles and worship God in freedom.

3. The unique background of these early Puritan settlers established a foundation for the cultural norms and beliefs of today’s New Englanders. “Blue Laws” prohibiting the conduct of many types of activities on the Sabbath were introduced in New Haven Colony in 1638. They were printed on blue paper. The 1790 census indicated that 78 percent of the 2.75 million Americans were of British background. In July 1831, Dr. S. F. Smith took the music of the British national anthem and changed the words to create “America.” The British had taken the tune from the Germans.

4. Canadian-Americans. The history of Canada is closely tied to that of the United States. The “Cajun” residents of Louisiana trace their roots back to French Catholic settlements in the provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Run out by the English in 1775, they settled in Louisiana in places like Lafayette and New Orleans. With them they brought a unique French influence to the region. Over 4 million Canadians have immigrated to the United States since 1820. The peak for Canadian immigration to the United States was in the 1920’s when 920,000 Canadians crossed the border looking for a new way of life. In the 1960’s this number decreased to 413,000 and in the last decade, 100,000. Canada is made up of persons primarily of British (45%) or French (29%) descent. Since Canada is bilingual country, most Canadian immigrants, regardless of French background, assimilate easily into Americans communities.

5. French-Americans. The influence upon American life is disproportionately greater than their actual numbers in the United States. French explores (e.g., Cartier, Champlain, Marquette, Joliet, LaSalle) were the first to discover areas in the heartland of America (e.g., the Mississippi River and all lands drained by it); the Great Lakes; the St. Lawrence River; Lake Champlain; Chicago, and Detroit. In 1562, the first group of French Protestants (Huguenots) came to America because of religious persecution and settled in South Carolina. The French fought alongside the colonists in the American Revolution; Rochambeau and Lafayette were great military minds.

6. Dutch-Americans. In 1609, Henry Hudson set out to find a Northeast Passage to the East Indies and landed in which is now New York. The first Dutch settlement in American was in Fort Nassau, near Albany, New York. In 1621, the Dutch West Indies Company was formed. It promoted trade and settlement in America. The first group of permanent Dutch settlers came to America seeking religious freedom in America. The Patroonship System was established in 1629. Land plus ownership rights were given to anyone settling 50 people on their land within four years. To qualify as a patroon, a person had to be a major stockholder in the Dutch West Indies Company since its founding. Although six patroonships were registered, only one was successfully settled.

7. In 1640, in a renewed effort to bring more settlers to New Netherland, the Dutch West Indies Company developed a charter encouraging persons of limited economic means to settle there. As an early Governor of New Netherland, Peter Stuyvesant changed it from a trading post to a permanent settlement, which permitted a large degree of religious freedom. In 1663, a Dutch Mennonite named Pieter Cornelis Plockhoy established the first socialist community in North America. In 1668, the Dutch Quakers established the first declaration against slavery in the United States. In 1758, they expelled from their membership anyone who bought or sold slaves. The attitudes and behaviors of early settlers to this area (much of what is present-day New York) greatly influenced the current culture and characteristics that are distinctive to this part of America. Unrest in the Netherlands increased immigration between 1829 and 1865. Immigrants settled in Wisconsin, Michigan, Iowa, New Jersey, Indiana, and South Dakota.

8. German-Americans. The first German immigrants to this country founded Germantown, Pennsylvania, in 1683. By 1766, one-third of Pennsylvania was inhabited by Germans. Most were poor farmers who settled along the frontier from Georgia to the New England colonies. The Pennsylvania Dutch were industrious and excellent farmers. They developed the Kentucky rifle and Conestoga wagon. Although many religious sects existed in Pennsylvania, there was a strong belief in religious tolerance and separation of church and state. John Peter Zenger established the concept of “Freedom of the Press. Von Steuben introduced a concept of military discipline during the Revolutionary War, which was instituted throughout the Army. During the firs half of the 19th century, German immigration exceeded all other. Germans settled all over the country, especially in Rochester and Buffalo, New York; Cincinnati and Cleveland, Ohio, St. Louis, Missouri; and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. German artisans and craft persons established businesses and help industrial expansion. German guilds marked the beginning of trade unions in this country.

9. Irish-Americans. The first Irish person to come to America was William Ayers, who was one of Columbus crew. Francis Maguire was one of the original inhabitants of Jamestown in 1607. John Dunlap, an Irish-American in Philadelphia. printed the Declaration of Independence. During and after the potato blight in Ireland (1846-48), immigration to the United States increased.

10. Italian-Americans. Italians were among the earliest explorers of the country--Christopher Columbus; Amerigo Vespecci (America was named after him); Verrazano missionaries Marcos de Niza and Eusebio Chino. Philip Mazzei, in 1773, established a plantation next to Thomas Jefferson’s in Virginia, where he introduced grapes and olives to America. He also aided the colonists during the Revolution. Italian immigration increased after the failing of a great political uprising in Italy in 1848. The peak of Italian immigration was reached during 1900-1920. the majority of Italians coming were poor and settled in New England, the Great Lakes Region, Florida, and California. Most who could not get work in their specialties concentrated in the heavily urbanized states along the Northeast Seaboard.

11. Polish-Americans. Several Poles accompanied the British when they landed in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1608. They were experts and instructors in the manufacture of glass, pitch, tar, and other products England imported from Poland. They did so well that other Poles were invited to come. However, they were not allowed privileges equal to those of the English. As a result of this inequity, the Poles organized the first American popular assembly and labor walkout in 1619 in Jamestown. Many Polish helped in the fight for American independence. Thaddeus Kosciuszko and Count Casimir Pulaski (father of American cavalry) organized some decisive victories. When Kosciuszko left America, he left his will in the custody of Thomas Jefferson. He designated that the proceeds from his estate be used to purchase Black slaves and give them freedom in his name.

12. Prior to 1865, Poles who came to this country were political exiles. Those who came after 1865 were poor peasants. They settled in Chicago, Buffalo, Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and Milwaukee. Even though they came from rural backgrounds, they became involved in industry, working in the local and iron fields. Dr. Marie Elizabeth Zakrzewska, a medical pioneer, was active in women’s suffrage and the abolition of slavery. She founded the New founded the New England Hospital for Women and Children. Caroline Still, one of the earliest Black women doctors, did her internship at the hospital. It was also one of the few White nursing schools to admit Blacks. Twelve percent of Americans who lost their lives in World War I were of Polish background, even though at no time did the number of Poles in this country exceed four percent of the total population..

13. Middle-Eastern-Americans. Middle-Eastern-Americans are estimated to number 2.5 to 3.0 million in the United States. This ethnic group is not closely tracked in the U.S. census and the trail of their immigration to the United States is sketchy. Many Syrians and Lebanese who immigrated to the United States in the last century came under Turkish passports. Approximately 70 percent of Middle-eastern-Americans are Christian and 30 percent are Islamic. Although the number of Islamic-Americans is on the rise, the majority of the Middle-Eastern population in the U.S. is made up of Maronite and Melkite Christians of Lebanese descent. The first Lebanese immigrant to the United States on record was Anthony Bishallany in 1854. The first Arabic newspaper in the United States was founded in 1892 as Kawab Amerika (The Star of America).

14. In 1919, there were 400,000 recorded Middle-Eastern-Americans living in the United States. Most were of Syrian and Lebanese descent and most lived in New York City. New York still has the largest Middle-eastern population in the country. Immigration quotas imposed in 1921 and 1924 reduced the allowable number of Middle-Eastern immigrants to less than 1,000. These restrictions were later repealed, but the flow of these immigrants into the United States has still remained at a trickle.

NOTE: Iranians, generally considered Persian and not Arabic, made up the largest group of immigrants from the Middle Eastern States or Islamic countries in 1989 with a with a total of 21,000 immigrants.


1. Foundation. English/England. Most colonists prior to the 1600s came directly from England. They were the first to successfully colonize in the New World. Englishmen had no desire to lose their Englishness, rather:

a. Build a better England.

b. One that would be free of the imperfections of their Native land.

c. One that would give them greater opportunities for personal happiness.

2. Puritans and Pilgrims. The Puritans sought out the American wilderness so they could establish a truly colony free of European decadence. They thought of themselves as “ A city upon a hill with the eyes of all people upon them.” They demanded strict conformity from all inhabitants. They earned the reputation for heartless discipline and the “Puritan tradition” in American life came to mean the censoring the behavior of others. (Holds more impact then any other immigrant group today).

3. Both Pilgrims and Puritans considered themselves good Christians. Their ideology emphasized:

a. Protestant faith.

b. Diligent application to work.

c. Individual accomplishment.

d. Anglo-Saxon legal heritage.

e. Written compact.

f. English language.

4. All of these aspects of their culture were firmly implanted on American soil as they laid the foundation for American society.

5. Influences. There key factors influenced the way of life of every new arrival to America:

a. Learning from those already here.

b. The environment they found.

c. Traditions they brought with them.

6. Divergence from the Homeland. There were three main reasons for divergence from the culture of the colonies and that of the homeland:

a. English society not transplanted as whole.

b. New World -- unfamiliar environment.

c. Countries other than England.

7. When the British took over New Netherlands (New York) in 1664, they offered citizenship to a population that spoke 18 different languages.

8. These English settlers had the most difficult physical environment to master, but the easiest social adjustment to make. They mastered rugged land that was hard, but built a society that was in their own image and never knew the hostility of old toward new succeeding groups.
9. Cotton Mather, was the first person, on record in 1684, to use the term “American.” Not long after, this term (American) was considered sufficiently distinctive, from Europe, to have national traits (most of which were fostered by frontier life). Colonists were thought to be:

a. More adaptable.

b. More independent.

c. More inventive.

d. More devoted to democratic principles.

e. More dedicated to the rule of law than the rule of a king.

10. Puritanism. In colonial America, Puritanism remained an important element. It would affect the outlook of most Americans for many generations, not as theological doctrines or religious practices, but in the form of attitudes that were real, though hard to define. These attitudes were:

a. Sense of duty.

b. Hard work and success as its own reward.

c. Mission to make the world a better place.

11. Puritans were able to influence Americans because:

a. They moved away from New England.

b. They trained the majority of ministers.

12. Non-English Groups. There were groups of colonial immigrants who came to be considered Native-born. They included:

a. Scotch-Irish. These 250,000 constituted the largest non-English Protestants.

(1) Protestants who left their homes for religious and economic reasons.

(2) Factors for emigration were English mercantile laws, successive rent increases, termination of farm leases, poor harvests, curtailed supplies of flax to linen for manufactures, increased food costs, and restrictions precluding Presbyterians from holding political office. However, not until 1717 when the 4th successive year of drought ruined crops were serious preparations begun for the migration to the New World. (3) Most of the Scotch-Irish were indentured servants. Once their service ended, they usually moved to the frontier. The Scotch-Irish were forever on the move.

(4) Wherever they want, the church and the schoolhouse followed. Devoutly religious with an intense desire for learning, they stressed the importance of an educated ministry and dissemination of knowledge.

(5) Virginia prohibited the sale of more than 20 Scotch-Irish on any one river.

(6) In 1729, a Pennsylvanian said: “The common fear is that if they (the Scotch-Irish), thus continue to come they will make themselves proprietors of province.”

b. German. These 200,000 were the second most significant European minority.

(1) Wherever Germans went, they prospered. Their concern for their property was proverbial, and it was often said that a German took better care of their cows than their children. One historian has written that they “produced in their children not only the habits of labor, but a love of it.” They fed their stock well, exercised frugality in diet and dress, and were known for their thrift, industry, punctuality, and sense of justice.

(2) Colonial Germans had little desire to blend with rest of the population. They kept to themselves, continued speaking German, attended their own churches, and rarely took the opportunity to become citizens of the British Empire. They maintained their own culture and feared that the use of English and contact with other groups would completely Anglicize their children.

(3) Because of their aloofness, they antagonized the dominant English group in the colonies, especially in Pennsylvania, who viewed them as dangerous elements in the community. Benjamin Franklin demanded in the 18th century “Why should the Palatine Boors be suffered to swarm into Language and Manners, to the exclusion of ours?” “Why should Pennsylvania, founded by the English become a colony of Aliens, who will shortly be so numerous as to Germanize us instead of our Anglifying them?”

c. Non-Protestant Groups. 98% of colonial America belonged to one Protestant sect or another. Only 1.4% embraced Roman Catholicism, and only 0.12% embraced Judaism.

(1) In 1775, there were 6 Jewish congregations, 56 Catholic, 65 Methodist, 120 Dutch Reformed, 150 Lutheran, 159 German Reformed, 310 Quaker, 494 Baptist, 495 Anglican, 588 Presbyterian, and 668 Congregation churches in America.

(2) To protect Catholics in case of eventual discrimination, Lord Baltimore urged passage of the Toleration Act in 1664. It granted freedom of religion to all who believed in the divinity of Jesus Christ. Five years later, however, under the domination of Protestant legislature, the act was repealed and Catholic were denied the protection of the law. The repeal signified how the colonist, and in later centuries other Protestants, regarded, the Roman Catholic faith.

(3) The English, in particular, were anti-Catholic, because English’s rivals, France and Spain, were catholic countries. The colonist feared that the Pope would order all Catholics to fight the spread of democracy.

e. Anti-Catholicism in colonial time manifest primarily in the area of civil and religious rights. Only in Rhode Island could a colonist Catholic enjoy full civil and religious rights according to chapter, decrees, and laws of the land.

(1) In Pennsylvania, where there were a number of Catholic churches. Catholics were permitted freedom of worship and enjoyed voting rights, but despite Quaker support they were excluded from public.

(2) According to Maryland laws passed after 1691, Catholics not only were deprived of political rights, but were also forbidden to hold religious services except in private houses.

(3) In other colonies, including Maryland, Catholics were second class citizens, repressed, banished, and categorically scorned and even excluded.

(4) Belgium had been allowed to settle in Jamestown only the condition that not more than 300 could enter that they conform to the Church of England.

13. The Dilemma. As a result of the different groups, there was an intertwining of diversity and homogeneity.


1. Early Americans, with the absence of a truly rooted national tradition, were united in a commitment to the future. They also shared the same common experience of displacement.

2. European colonist began to refer to themselves as “White” after about 1608.

3. Early Americans also shared many common traits. The most notable of the traits, which now characterize Native-Americans were:

a. Idealism.

b. Flexibility.

c. Adaptability to change

d. High respect for personal achievement.

e. Dependency on self and immediate fame versus wider community.

f. Tendency to conform to the values of peers and neighbors versus stubbornly clinging to traditions or ancestral ways.

4. Immigrant Experiences. There were various reasons for immigration to America. Four of the primary reasons were:

a. Religious Persecution. the search for freedom of worship has brought people to America from the days of the Pilgrims to modern times.

b. Political Oppression. America has always been a refuge from tyranny.

c. Economic Hardships/Factors. This third factor has been more complex than the religious/political factors. This has been the MOST compelling factor for the majority of the immigrants.

d. American Letters. The most powerful selling point for America came from the letters that Europeans wrote to their compatriots describing the wonders of America, or “the land of Canaan.” In the Scandinavian countries, in particular, letters were passed carefully, from family to family, published in the local newspapers, and discussed avidly from the pulpits on Sundays.

5. The Voyage. The voyage to the New World presented travelers with unanticipated hardships:

a. Initially had to save money for passage.

b. Saying “good-bye” to friends and family whom they could expect to never see again.

c. No guarantees’ ships would sail as agreed and extra days meant added expenses.

d. Weeks/months dismally on ships that were overcrowded and disease-ridden.

6. America’s Conscience and Servitude. In early America, many poor people were unable to get to the colonies on their own. To facilitate the trip, many individuals promised to serve as indentured servants in exchange for the cost of the voyage. Others assured payments would be made by friends or relatives after arrival. If payment was not made, they also were indentured for a period to time as payment of the costs of the trip.

7. Indentured Servitude. This was the most common means of getting to the colonies. While indentured servitude was outlawed in 1820, as early as 1636, the system had become so commonplace that one could easily obtain a printed from with blank spaces for the servant’s and master’s names.

a. The contract stated that the servant was to work for a set term, usually four years, during which time they would receive room, board, and clothing in addition to passage to America.

b. At the end of the term the individual was awarded “freedom dues,” in the combination of money, tools, clothes, and/or land.

c. Skilled workmen sometimes added a clause exempting them from field work. Children’s indentures, which were usually bound until the age of 21, specified that they be taught a trade or given an elementary education.

d. Many German indentures often entered into servitude on the condition that they be taught to read the Bible in English.

e. Servants were then assembled on deck so Planters could interview them and/or feel their muscles. Then they were auctioned to the highest bidder.

f. “Soul Driver.” those individuals who would buy in mass and then walk the servants from town to town re-selling them.

g. Masters could sell or auction them off, hire them out, whip, beat, brand them, or separate them from spouse/children, and punish runaways by extending or multiplying their term of servitude. For runaways, some colonies had penalty of hanging

h. In the early years, masters often drove their servants so hard that the backbreaking regime combined with crude living conditions caused over 50% of the servants to die.

i. Women indentured servants in some colonies had to serve an extra year if they became pregnant. Once their time of service was over, women did not receive land, as did men, and only rarely were given money.


1. Redemptioners. During the 17th century, indentured servitude was almost the only way a poor white person could get to the colonies or White labor could be supplied to American planters. As the colonies became better established, however, more substantial farmers and tradesmen were tempted to immigrate to the New World. A new system was invented to facilitate their trip, and in the 18th century more people traveled to the colonies as Redemptioners than as servants.

a. Redemption’s system developed when the Swiss and Germans began to emigrate in large numbers after 1708.

b. Emigrants traveled to main ports on the Rhine River, having had to pay tolls at approximately 36 toll houses.

c. Many reached Rotterdam/Amsterdam with depleted resources and were unable to cover the fare to America. In some cases, eager merchants took whatever money they had left, transported them to America, and allowed them two weeks to pay the balance of the fare.

d. These two weeks gave them the opportunity to contact friends or family who might advance them the money to “redeem” themselves.

e. When the necessary amount could not be found, Captains sold the passengers into servitude. The length of service was determined roughly by the size of their debt, usually two years.

f. Once the redemptioner was transferred to American master she/he was treated exactly like and indentured servant.

2. Convict Labor. Most colonist thought poorly of bonded servants. They agreed that “Man of the Poor” who had been useless in England were inclined to be useless likewise. Colonists held this opinion, in part, because they failed to distinguish between regular indentures and convict labor.

3. The Dilemma. The founders of the Republic dedicated the United States to the highest ideals of brotherhood. Yet, we know that the same men who saw a disparity between the ideals of democracy and convict and indentured labor, condoned slavery.


1. Many regions of the colonies had their own ideas on immigration. Some of these were based on the need of plantation owners, farmers, and religions. Examples of these are listed below:

a. Pennsylvania. All White European settlers were welcomed into the colony with terms of equal rights. The bottom line was to be a good citizen regardless of their religious background. This became the basis for U.S. immigration and naturalization policies for White Europeans after the foundation of the republic.

b. Colonial Massachusetts. Only those religiously pure.

c. Chesapeake Bay of Virginia and Maryland (known as the Virginia Idea).
With increasing reliance on a plantation economy, they wanted workers as cheaply as possible without necessary accepting them to member into the community.

2. Immigrants were especially greedy or materialistic, but they had been at the complete mercy of their environment in Europe and it was important to them to be in control of their lives in America.

3. Immigrated Acts and Laws. The term racist doctrine today denotes prejudice and discrimination based on skin pigmentation and other physiological attributes. However, at the turn of the century, it was common practice to talk about the Italians race, the Jewish race, or the Polish race. The late 19th and early 20th century theorists juxtaposed the superior Anglo-Saxon race (Aryan, races, of Eastern and Southern Europe). Outside the South, racist theorists were less interested in Negroes. As such, their concern was upon the steady stream of new Immigrants, who were filtering through Ellis Island. This gave concrete form and “scientific” legitimacy by supporters of Anglo-Saxon superiority.

a. In 1911, the Federal Immigration Commission published a 42-volume report (the Dillingham Report) contrasting the old immigration with the new and making some startling conclusions. It stated the new immigration class is far less intelligent than the old; approximately one-third of all those over 16 years of age were found to be illiterate.

b. In 1915 one of President Wilson’s progressive braintrusters described the non-Aryan newcomers as “low-brow, big-faced persons of obviously low mentality.” Not that they suggest evil. They simply looked out of place in black clothes and stiff collar and as if belonged in skins, in wattle huts at the close of the Great Ice Age. c. Madison Grant, chairman of the New York Zoological Society, wrote “a book which was the culmination of his racist thought.” Not bothering with Negroes or Oriental, Grant focused upon the lower order of Europeans who were inundating the country. He characterized the New Immigrants as “...a large and increasing number of the weak, the broken and the mentally crippled, of all races drawn from the lowest stratum of the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans, together with hordes of the wretches, submerged populations of the Polish ghettos.”

d. During W.W.I, social scientists conducted studies revealing the inferiority of the new immigrants. On the basis of a study of American GIs, it was concluded that “northern Europeans scored almost as well as Native-Whites, whereas soldiers born in Latin and Slavic countries average significantly lower.”

e. One future study concluded, “the intellectual superiority of our Nordic group to the Alpine, Mediterranean, and Negro groups has been demonstrated.”

f. Textbooks used in grade schools and colleges alike propounded the intellectual and moral superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race. Generations of American students were exposed to these theories which confirmed the widespread belief that the new immigrants were indeed inferior human beings.”

4. Assimilation. The striking fact of White-European immigration is that of social mobility, an improvement in the status and living conditions of the descendants of the million who flocked to the United States. Progress was by no means even from group to group or from generation to generation. Some key impacts affecting assimilation are listed below:

a. Language. The first generation retained their native languages or became bilingual. Their children and grandchildren gradually lost the old language and spoke only English.

(1) One way to cope with the problem of relating the story of the American people, when it was not a tale of common origins, was to tell the story as if the funding of the Republic proceeded from the experience of the English settlers only.

(2) Textbooks taught what values and characteristics were to be abandoned through stereotypical portrayals of racial, religious, and nationality groups. The early public school advocates clearly tied ideals of citizenship and national identity to Protestantism.

(3) Contadino, or agricultural laboring class, from which most southern Italians immigrants came, viewed educational institutions with distrust because in Italy they had represented the heavy hand of the government and had rarely proved of benefit. For the southern Italians both religious and secular knowledge was rooted in community folklore, not written texts.

(4) Many Slavs viewed the Americanization goals of the public schools as similar to the Maguarization policies of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which was the repression of their group culture by the politically and economically dominant. Among unskilled Slavs, schooling was often seen not as preparing for work but as its competitor, restricting the amount or money brought into the family.

b. Mass Media. The development of mass media came with the expansion of education in American culture. The printed word was important before W.W.I in the form of newspapers and journals, but after 1920 came the radio and movies, and then after W.W.II television. Though many groups did operate a press and run a radio or TV station, they could not compete with the dominant corporations. Regardless of their ethnic background, children were exposed to this mass culture of national products, similar values, and common heroes.

5. Contemporary America. Some of the contemporary America issues are:

a. Family Patterns. Despite major changes in family behavior since times, the White-American family has remained a nuclear one.

b. Education Patterns. A constant theme of educational textbooks in America is national unity rather than diversity, culture, of ideals.

c. Poverty. Although the poverty rate for whites was lower than that for the other groups, the majority of poor persons in 1990 were White (66.5%).

6. Current Status of White Americans (1989). In 1989, there were 249 million Americans, 84 percent (209 million) of whom were White. Projections of population growth in the United States through the year 2000 indicate that the White population will not grow as much as other segments of the population.


Famous Americans of British Background. Wyeth (Wyeth Drug Laboratories); the Wright Brothers (aviation); John Underwood (typewriters); the Mayo Brothers (medicine); Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson and Edgar Allan Poe (Literature); Marshall Field (merchandising); Coats and Clark (thread mills); and Arthur Pitney and Walter Bowes (mail machine). Currently, the majority of Americans of British background reside in California, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Massachusetts.

Major Contributions of British Background. Our language; many of our costumes; our court system, including the right to be tried by jury of one’s peers; names of many states and towns (e.g., Delaware; Virginia; New York; Madison, Wisconsin; Plymouth and Salem Massachusetts; New London, Connecticut) and early forms of punishment (e.g., pillory, stocks, and dunking stools).

Famous Americans of Canadian Background. Canadian-born musicians who are well known in the U.S. include: Hank Snow, Joni Mitchell, Neil Young, Bryan Adams, Ann and Nancy Wilson of “Heart” and Paul Anka. Famous entertainers include Donald Sutherland, David Steinberg, Ruby Keeler and Genevieve Bujold. Television producer Reuven Frank, former President of National Broadcasting Corporation (NBC), and Peter Jennings, television news anchor, are Canadian-born. The economist and Harvard professor, John Kenneth Galbraith is Canadian. John Augustus Larson, a Canadian-American who graduated from Boston University in 1914, invented the “polygraph machine” in 1921. Finally, Alfred C. Fuller, founder of the Fuller Brush Company was an immigrant to the U.S. from Nova Scotia who arrived with less than $400.00 and built a fortune in door-to-door sales.

Major Contributions of Canadian Background. Hockey is recognized as a Canadian sport that migrated to the United States. Famous Canadian hockey players include Bobby Orr and Wayne Gretzky.

Famous Americans of French Background. Paul Revere (patriot); John Greenleaf Whittier (author); Francis Marion (patriot); John Jay (first Chief Justice of the United States); Alexander Hamilton (first Secretary of the Treasury); Pierre Charles L’Enfant (designed Washington, DC); Pierre Samuel dePont de Nemour (gunpowder); P. Lorillard (tobacco); Philip Armour (meat packing); Henry David Thoreau (philosopher and author); the La Follette family (famous political family in Wisconsin); Stephen Vincent Benet (author); John Garand (invented the official rifle of the U.S. Army); and President John Tyler and James Garfield. Currently, the majority of Americans of French background lice in California, New York, New Jersey, Illinois, and Pennsylvania.

Major Contributions of French Background. Silk weaving; wine making; place names (e.g., New Orleans; St. Louis; Eau Claire, Wisconsin; Duluth, Minnesota; and Boise, Idaho); fashion; cookery (e.g., Baked Alaska, omelet, puree, mayonnaise, hors d’oeuvres, bouillon, consommé, sauté, filet); the public hall in Boston (Faneuil Hall); and the rag carpet.

Famous Americans of Dutch Background. Pearl Buck (author); Dr. Benjamin Spock (pediatrician); Presidents Franklin Roosevelt, Theodore Roosevelt, and Martin Van Buren; John Vliet Lindsay (former New York City Mayor and Congressmen); Cornelius Vanderbilt (steamship and railroad entrepreneur); General Alexander Vandergrift (first Marine Corps Officer to hold the rank of permanent General); Dr. William J. Kolff (invented the artificial kidney); Cecil B. DeMille (motion picture entrepreneur); and Piet Mondrian (artist). Currently, the majority of Americans of Dutch background live in Michigan, California, New York, New Jersey, and Illinois.

Major Contributions of Dutch Background. Place names (e.g., Amsterdam, Harlem, New York); golf; skating, windmills; and founded what is now Rutgers University (New Jersey).

Famous Americans of German Background. General John Pershing; Albert Einstein; Paul Tillich (Protestant theologian); John Jacob Bausch and Henry Lomb (started optical goods company); John Auguster Roebling (bridge builder who constructed the Brooklyn Bridge); Studebaker (car maker); Pabst, Anheuser, Bush, Schlitz, and Schmidt (brewers); authors John Steinbeck, John Gunther, and Theodore Dreiser; John Philip Sousa (composer and conductor); Presidents Herbert Hoover and Dwight D. Eisenhower; Henry Kissinger; baseball stars Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig; Berbard Baruch (financier and statesman); Nathan Straus (founded Macy’s Department Store); John Wanamaker (founded the department store bearing his name); Walter Chrysler (of automobile fame); Frederick Weyerhaeuser (lumber entrepreneur); the Rockefeller family (entrepreneurs and politicians); H.J. Heinz, Hershey, Kraft, and Fleischmann (of food fame); Henry Engelhard Steinway (piano maker); Werner Von Braun (rockets); and entertainers Merlene Dietrich, Florenz Ziegfield, and Johnny Weissmueller (Tarzan).

Major Contributions of German Background. Established the first paper mill in the U.S.; founded the glass making industry; printed the first Bible printed in the U.S. colonies; established the first foundry making type in North America; developed the first kindergarten in America; and brought such foods as wieners, frankfurters, noodles, pumpernickel bread, and pretzel to America.
Famous Americans of Irish Background. Flannery O’Conner, F, Scott Fitzgerald, Marianne Moore, James T. Farrell, and Eugene O’Neill (literature); the Unsinkable Molly Brown; Pat O’Brien, George M. Cohan, James Cagney, and Bing Crosby (entertainers); Christopher Drumgoole (established home for homeless boys in New York); James McCreery (his sizable donations helped found New York City’s Metropolitan Museum of Art); Mayor James Curly of Boston; the Kennedy family (politics--including a president, a senator, and an ambassador); “Wild Bill” Donovan (commander of the mostly-Irish Catholic “New York Fighting 69th” in World War I); Al Smith (politician); Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan; Senator Eugene McCarthy; Senator Joseph McCarthy; Mayor Richard Daley of Chicago; the “Fighting Irish of Notre Dame”; John L. Sullivan (fighter); George Meany (labor leader); and Andrew M. Greeley (priest and sociologist). Currently, the majority of Americans of Irish background live in New York, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and California.

Major Contributions of Irish Background. Irish-Americans played a major role in city politics and municipal services (e.g., Tammany Hall in New York); 12 of our Presidents were of Irish background. Although most of the Irish were Catholic, they established the first American Presbyterian Church and the first American Methodist Church. St. Patrick’s Day parades are big events in many locations throughout the country.

Famous American of Italian Background. Mother Frances Cabrini (Chicago social workers and the first American saint); Amadeo Giannini (founder of the Bank of America); John Cuneo (founder of the Cuneo Press, which was once the largest printing establishment in the world); Salvatore Giordano (President of Fedders Air Conditioning Corp.); Fiorello La Guardia (Mayor of New York City); Congressman Peter Rodino; Judge John Sirica (presided over the Watergate trials); Anthony Celebrezze and Joseph Califano (former Secretaries of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services); Arturo Toscanini (musical conductor); Enrico Caruso and Anna Moffo (opera singer); Constantino Brumaldi (painter who painted the frieze around the Capitol Rotunda); Enrico Fermi (Nobel Prize scientist whose experiments led to the development of the Atomic Bomb); Emilio Segre (discovered Technicuim, the first artificially created element); entertainers Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Perry Como, Guy Lombardo, Tony Bennett, Jimmy Durante, and Henry Mancini; and sports stars Joe DiMaggio and Vince Lombardi. Currently, most Americans of Italian background live in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, California, and Massachusetts.

Major Contributions of Italian Background. Introduced several foods (e.g. broccoli, zucchini, squash, endives, chicory, and pizza pie) and brought Italian grapes to the vineyards of California and Virginia.

Famous Americans of Polish Background. Casimir Funk (biochemist who discovered vitamins); Arthur Rubinstein (pianist); Samuel Goldwyn and the Warner Brothers (movie makers); Zbigniew Brzezinski (foreign affairs advisor); Thaddeus Sendzimir (revolutionized the steel industry by his new methods of processing steel); Edmond Muskie (former U.S. Senator and Secretary of State); Leon Jaworski (former Watergate prosecutor); Bobby Vinton (singer); Stan Musial, Tony Kubek, and Carl Yastrzemski (baseball stars). Currently the majority of Polish-Americans in the United States live in New York, Illinois, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Michigan.

Major Contributions of Polish Background. Established the first factory in America (glass factory); invented the pneumatic dynamite torpedo gun, ramrod bayonet, and telescopic sight for artillery.

Famous Americans of Middle-eastern Background. Robert Aboud (former vice-chairman of First National Bank); Najeeb Halaby (former chairman of Pan-American Airlines); Lisa Halaby, his daughter, is now “Queen Noor,” wife of King Hussein of Jordan; Danny Thomas and his daughter, Marlo, Jamie Farr, Paul Anka, Tigh Andrews (Entertainers); Joe Robbie (owner of Miami Dolphins); Abe Gibron (former coach of the Chicago Bears); Michael Debakey (medicine); Philip Habid (State Department envoy to peace and arms negotiations and Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs); Ralph Nader (consumer advocate).

Major Contributions of Middle-eastern Background. Middle-Eastern-Americans have made important contributions to American culture. Lebanese immigrants, Farah and Haggar are two well-known clothing manufacturers in the United States.


TASK: Arab-American Experience and Middle Eastern Culture

CONDITION: Classroom environment

STANDARD: 1. Define Arab-American. 2. Describe the origins of Arab American. 3. Define the different types of immigration. 4. Arab-American family structure and customs. 5. Define Islam. 6. Define Muslim.

For us to continue to be a strong nation, and to have a strong military, we must learn how to work together in harmony. A better understanding of the various cultures within American society will enhance our ability to lead and is beneficial when performing duties as an EOR. We will learn of the culture and contributions made by the Arab-Americans.


1. The term Arab-American is given to persons who immigrated to the United States from a group of independent nation-states on North Africa and the Middle East. They have a common linguistic and cultural heritage that has been shaped primarily by the religions of Islam and Christianity.

2. The population of Arab-Americans is approximately 2.5 to 3 million. Some estimate nearly 5 million. The majority of them have a Christian affiliation (70%) and Muslim (30%). The area of the country where the majority have settled include New York, Los Angles, San Francisco, Detroit, Washington, DC, Houston, Chicago, and Jacksonville.

3. Early immigration of the Arabs to the U.S. took place during between 1886 - 1914. Most came from greater Syria. Historically, Syria included Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, and occasionally Iran. The majority were poor, under educated, and had a distaste for indoor factory work.

4. There were many thousands of them working as slaves on plantations. Others were primarily traders, peddlers, industrial workers and farmers. Later some enterprises grew into large businesses such as Haggar and Farah.

5. These early communities, cut off from their heritage and families, inevitably lost their Islamic identity as time went by. Immigration slowed during the period between W.W.I and W.W.II (1915 - 1945) due to immigration laws.

6. Arabs who immigrated to the U.S. after 1945 were more educated, professional, and mainly of the Muslim faith. Most came from Egypt, Iran and Palestine. This group has been able to retain more of their culture than the earlier group. Those who arrived during the first group attempted to distant themselves from the Arab world by adopting western culture and language.

7. Many of our English words have been borrowed from the Arabs such as algebra, alcohol, alkali and alcove. The word “al” means “the” in Arabic. Some of the food names in America are also Arabic such as apricot, sherbet, coffee, sesame and ginger.


1. In a traditional Arab-American family, gender and age plays a big role in defining family role responsibilities. The father is usually the head of the family and the provider for its needs, while the mother has the primary responsibility of raising the children and taking care of the house.

2. This structure has not always been the norm in recent years. In the past, most major family decisions were made by the father, but recently some of these decisions are made jointly by both the father and the mother.

3. Sons and daughters are taught to follow the inherited traditions and are given responsibilities that correspond with their age and gender. Sons are usually taught to be protectors of their sisters and to help the father with his duties inside and outside the house.

4. Daughters are taught to be the source of love and emotional support in the family, as well as helping their mother to take care of household chores.

5. Families with lots of sons and daughters still exist, but in recent years the average size of the family has decreased.

6. Although the parents have the responsibility of raising a child, family members, relatives, friends and neighbors share in taking care of each other’s children. A known Arabian proverb, “He who grows on something, will grow old with it,” means the behavior that children are being taught will be the behavior they will have as they grow older.

7. In public, Arab-Americans behave conservatively. The public display of affection between spouses is nonexistent. They believe in a private society and display of ones feelings is kept private. Arguments between spouses, friends, and people in general are also kept private or conducted in a way that guarantees no one else is aware of it.

8. Since Arab culture is non-confrontational, a concept called “save face” is a way to solve conflicts and avoiding embarrassing or discomforting the parties involved. Saving someone’s face or dignity involves using maneuvers or holding one’s reactions to give the other party a way to exit the situation with minimal discomfort or harm to their dignity.

9. The save face concept involves compromise, patience, and sometimes looking the other way to allow time to get back to normal. The “save face” concept is looked at as a behavior of high quality ethics and manners. The Arab culture encourages people to act humbly and with sensitivity to a person’s dignity, especially when that person’s dignity and self-respect is endangered.

10. Due to their value of privacy in Arab society, houses built in Arab countries are built with big solid walls that maintain privacy from street traffic and their neighbors. One of the most important considerations in building a house is the guarantee that the residents of the house can’t see their neighbors from any part of the house, thus ensuring the privacy of their neighbors.

11. When an Arab visits a friend, the standing position next to the house or door should ensure that when the door is open they can’t see inside the house. Furthermore, they will not go inside until they are signaled to do so by their friend extending their right hand with the palm up and saying “come in”.

12. When visiting a friend’s home, office, and are introduced to a female worker or relative, they do not greet the individual with a kiss. If the woman extends her hand, then they may shake. Otherwise greeting with only words is appropriate. It is considered an insult should you compliment another’s wife, sister, or daughter on their beauty.

13. While visiting, should you explicitly admire a possession of an Arab he/she might feel obligated to offer it to you even if it is of special value to him/her. Admiring a possession of an Arab should not be prolonged. When an Arab receives gifts, it is a custom not to open it in front of the giver. The same is expected when an Arab gives another a gift.

14. Many Arab women dress conservatively. Some dress in clothes that do not cover their face or hair, while others cover them. For example, a very conservative woman might wear a long black garment that covers her body from the shoulders down to her feet. Under this cover she could be wearing a traditional Arab dress in full body length with long sleeves and filled with beautiful beadwork, or she could be wearing the latest style from an internationally known designer.

15. In addition to the dress, a very conservative woman would also wear a face and head cover. Some women wear the dress without the head and face cover, while others might wear a scarf that covers the hair, but not the face. Both men and women are expected to dress in a way that is modest and dignified.

16. As you can see the Arab culture is detail oriented where ethics and expected social behavior, like generosity, respect, and caring, are not only definitions, but are translated into customs and social duties.


NOTE: As previously stated the majority of Arab-Americans are Christian. However, as an EOR it is important for you to have a better understanding about the Islamic faith and the Muslims who practice it, to better support your commander and soldiers within your unit.

1. Islam is not a new religion. For a fifth of the world’s population, Islam is both a religion and a complete way of life. Muslims follow a religion of peace, mercy, and forgiveness, and the majority has nothing to do with the extremely grave events that have come to be associated with their faith. It should be noted that the word Muslim and Moslem have the same meaning.

2. The Arabic word “Islam” simply means “submission,” and derives from a word meaning “peace.” In a religious context it means complete submission to the will of God. “Allah” is the Arabic name for God, which is used by Arab Muslims and Christians alike.

3. Islam may seem exotic or even extreme in the modern world. Perhaps this is because religion does not dominate everyday life in the West today, whereas Muslims have religion always uppermost in their minds.

4. Islam and Christianity have the same origins. Together with Judaism, they go back to the prophet and patriarch Abraham and their three prophets who are directly descended from his sons Muhammad from the eldest, Ishmael, and Moses and Jesus from Isaac.

5. Approximately one billion people from a vast range of races, nationalities and cultures across the globe, from the southern Philippines to Nigeria, are united by their common Islamic faith. About 18% live in the Arab world. The world’s largest Muslim community is in Indonesia, substantial parts of Asia and Africa, while significant minorities are found in the Soviet Union, China, North and South America and Europe.

6. The things Muslims believe include:

a. In One, Unique, Incomparable God.

b. In the Angels created by Him.

c. In the Prophets through whom His revelations were brought.

d. In the Day of Judgment and individual accountability for actions.

e. In God’s complete authority over human destiny and in life after death.

f. God’s final message to man was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad through Gabriel.

7. Some Arabs also believe in “Fatalism,” or self-reliance vs. God’s will. This is a belief in or attitude that events are fixed in advance for all time in such a manner that human beings are powerless to change them.

8. An individual can become a Muslim by simply saying “there is no god apart from God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God.” By this declaration the believer announces his or her faith in all God’s messengers, and the scriptures they brought.

9. As mentioned earlier Muhammad is known as the Messenger of God. He was born in 570 in the city of Makkah, which we pronounce Mecca. He was known for truthfulness, generosity and sincerity, so that he was sought after for his ability to arbitrate in disputes. Historians describe him as calm and meditative. He was of a deeply religious nature, and had long detested the decadence of his society.

10. At the age of 40, while engaged in a meditation, Muhammad received his first revelation from God through the Angel Gabriel. The revelation, which continued for 23 years, is known as the Qur’an pronounced “kur-ran”.

11. The Qur’an is a record of the exact words revealed by God through the Angel Gabriel to the Prophet Muhammad. It was memorized by Muhammad, then dictated to his Companions, and written down by scribes, who crosschecked it during his lifetime. Not one word of its 114 chapters has been changed over the last 14 centuries.

12. The Qur’an is the last revealed Word of God, and is the primary source of every Muslim’s faith and practice. Its basic theme is the relationship between God and His creatures. At the same time it provides guidelines for a just society, proper human conduct and an equitable economic system.

13. Muslims respect and revere Jesus, and await his Second Coming. They consider him one of the greatest of God’s messengers to mankind. A Muslim never refers to him simply as ‘Jesus,’ but always adds the phrase ‘upon him be peace.’ The Qur’an confirms his virgin birth and Mary is considered the purest woman in all creation.

14. The Islam faith is built upon Five Pillars and they are the framework of the Muslim life. The Five Pillars are:

a. Faith - There is no god worthy of worship except God and Muhammad is His messenger.

b. Prayer - obligatory prayers are performed five times a day, and are a direct link between the worshipper and God. The prayers are said at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset and nightfall. Although it is preferable to worship together in a mosque, a Muslim may pray anywhere, such as in fields, offices, factories and universities. The five prayers contain verses from the Qur’an.

c. The Zakat - One of the most important principles of Islam is that all things belong to God, and that wealth is therefore held by human beings in trust. The word zakat means purification and growth. Each Muslim calculates his or her own zakat individually. For most purposes this involves the payment each year of two and a half percent of one’s capital.

d. The Fast - Every year in the month of Ramadan, all Muslims fast from first light until sundown, abstaining from food, drink, and sexual relations. It is principally a method of self-purification.

e. Pilgrimage - The annual pilgrimage to Makkah is an obligation only for those who are physically and financially able to perform it. The pilgrimage begins the twelfth month of the Islamic year, which is lunar, not solar, so the Ramadan and the pilgrimage fall sometimes in summer and sometimes in the winter.

15. Islam sees a woman, whether single or married, as an individual in her own right, with the right to own and dispose of her property and earnings. Educated Arab women are active in all levels of society in Lebanon, Jordan and Egypt. However, in the stricter Islam counties like the Gulf States, women do not work, and if they do work, they work in schools or banks. Changes are occurring.

16. A Muslim marriage is not a “sacrament,” but a simple, legal agreement in which either partner is free to include conditions. Marriage customs vary widely from country to country. According to Islam, no Muslim girl can be forced to marry against her will, but her parents will simply suggest young men they think may be suitable.

17. When a woman gets married she moves to her husband’s home. Sons might move to their own houses when they get married, but at least one son will still live at the family house even if he is married in order to take care of the parents. The groom gives a marriage dowry to the bride for her own personal use, and she keeps her own family name rather than taking her husband’s.

18. Divorce is not common, although it is not forbidden as a last resort. Many Arab Christians belong to a religious denominations that do not permit divorce. However, among the Muslim faith religious law carefully regulates divorce. In order for a Muslim man to get a divorce he must simply say “I divorce you” in front of witnesses three times. A woman must go through court proceedings to obtain a divorce.

19. The religion of Islam was revealed for all societies and all times and so accommodates widely differing social requirements. Circumstances may warrant the taking of another wife, but this is granted, according to the Qur’an, only on the condition that the husband is scrupulously fair. This is generally done to conceive more sons, but the practice is becoming more rare.

20. Although the dietary laws of the Islamic faith is much simpler than those followed by Jews and the early Christians, the code which Muslims observe forbids the consumption of pig meat or any kind of intoxicating drink. The Prophet taught that “your body has rights over you,” and the consumption of wholesome food and the leading of a healthy lifestyle are seen as religious obligations. While the eating of pig meat is strictly observed, like other religions, there are some Islamic’s who do drink.

21. It is one function of Islamic law to protect the privileged status of minorities, and this is why non-Muslim places of worship have flourished all over the Islamic world. Islamic law also permits non-Muslim minorities to set up their own courts, which implement family laws drawn up by the minorities themselves.

22. Although the rules of the Islamic faith may seem restrictive, both Arab men and women view it as protective.


1. Arab-Americans have many contemporary issues. The issue considered the most important is the Arab-Israeli conflict. With the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict there is a perception Arab-Americans only support a Palestine homeland and do not care about Israel. This is not the case. While there is support for a Palestine homeland, they also understand and support the need for security at Israeli borders.

2. Most Arab-Americans feel the U.S. should continue to use political influence to resolve issues in the Middle East.

3. Arab-Americans are in favor of the future democracy of the Kuwaiti government, and for other Arab states to follow as well.

4. The biggest concern of Arab-Americans is the feeling, as a whole, they are being discriminated against because of the perception that terrorists are only Arabs. They feel they are receiving the backlash of terrorism and of hostage taking.


In order to understand Islam it is necessary to know the meaning of certain key terms and the identity of some proper names. Most of them are in the
Arabic language, and there is often no equivalent in English or in other tongues. ALLAH

The true name for the creator of the Universe is called Allah. He is merciful, the Beneficent, the Knowledgeable, the Protector, the Mighty, the God, the Provider, the Exalted, the Lord, the All-Knowing, the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing, the Magnificent, the Wise, the Loving, the First, the Last, and the Eternal.

The Qur'an mentions 99 beautiful names for Allah through which Muslim do recognize Him, and His responsibilities for the whole Universe.

Many people ask why the term "Allah" is used instead of "God" and assume its use implies that Muslims worship a separate God. There is only ONE GOD - a belief held by followers of each of the three main world religions: Islam, Christianity and Judaism.

ALLAH is the Supreme Being, the one and only God. Allah is the same God as that worshipped by the Jews and Christians, and Arabic-speaking Christians also use this name when referring to God.


Many equate Islam and Muslims to mean Arabs. Muslims may be any nationality. An Arab could be a Muslim, a Christian, a Jew or an atheist. Arabs constitute only about twenty percent of the Muslim population.


The Arabic meaning of Ayah is a miracle and a sign. The Qur'an is considered to be a miracle itself. Each verse or sentence is called an Ayah or a miracle. The plural of Ayah is called Ayat, which means miracles.


The call for the daily prayers is called Azan. The person who calls the Azan is called a Mu'azzin. A Mu'azzin calls the Azan five times a day before Muslims are to perform their daily Salah (Prayer).


Muslims believe that people are born free of sin. It is only after they reach the age of puberty and it is only after they commit sins that they are to be charged for their mistakes. No one is responsible for or can take the responsibility for the sins of others. However, the door of forgiveness through true repentance is always open.


Other than the two general feasts, there are few festivities that Muslims do enjoy. These are related to different activities or functions. Some of these activities are:

- 'Aqiqah: It is a dinner reception to be made after a child is born. Relatives, friends, and neighbors are invited for such an occasion.

- Walimah: It is a dinner reception to be made after a marriage is consummated. It is offered by the parents and/or by the married couples. Friends, relatives, and neighbors are also invited.


Islam is an Arabic word the root of which is Silm and Salam. It means among others: peace, greeting, salutation, obedience, loyalty, allegiance, and submission to the will of the Creator of the Universe. Islam is the last and final religion to all mankind and to all generations irrespective of color, race, nationality, ethnic background, language, or social position. It is incorrect and objectionable to call Muslims Muhammadans, as Muhammad is not worshipped in the way Christians worship Christ.


It is an Arabic word the root of which is Jahada, which means to strive for a better way of life. The nouns are Juhd, Mujahid, Jihad, and Ijtihad. The other meanings are: endeavor, strain, exertion, effort, and diligence, fighting to defend one's life, land, and religion. This word has been in frequent use in the Western press over the past several years, explained directly or subtlely, to mean holy war. As a matter of fact the term "holy war" was coined in Europe during the Crusades, meaning the war against Muslims. It does not have a direct counterpart in Islamic glossary, and Jihad is certainly not its translation. Jihad is not a war to force the faith on others, as many people think of it. It should never be interpreted as a way of compulsion of the belief on others, since there is an explicit verse in the Qur'an that says: “There is no compulsion in religion" Al-Qur'an: Al-Baqarah (2:256). Jihad is not a defensive war only, but a war against any unjust regime. If such a regime exists, a war is to be waged against the leaders, but not against the people of that country. People should be freed from the unjust regimes and influences so that they can freely choose to believe in Allah. Not only in peace but also in war Islam prohibits terrorism, kidnapping, and hijacking, when carried against civilians. Whoever commits such violations is considered a murderer in Islam, and is to be punished by the Islamic state. During wars, Islam prohibits Muslim soldiers from harming civilians, women, children, elderly, and the religious men like priests and rabies. It also prohibits cutting down trees and destroying civilian constructions. The term may be used for/by Muslims as well as non-Muslims.

MUHAMMAD (s.a.w.)

The last and the final prophet and messenger of Allah to all mankind is called Muhammad (s.a.w.) and at the age of forty he received the message of Islam from Allah through angel Jibril (Gabriel). He was the last of a line of prophets like Nuh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses), and Isa (Jesus).


(also spelled Moslem) is based on the same Arabic root as Islam (s-l-m) and means one who submits to God, that is, a believer in Islam. Any person who believes in the creed and the teachings of Islam is called a Muslim. More than one billion Muslims are found in different parts of the world. They are not to be confused with Arabs, as the latter may include Christians, agnostics, or other non-Muslims.

TASK: Hispanic-American Experience

CONDITION: Classroom environment

STANDARD: 1. Define Hispanic-American as defined by DoD Dir 1350.2. 2. Explain the major groups. 3. Describe the historical information. 4. Explain the basic culture concepts.

Our country’s history is filled with the names of individual men and women who through their genius, perseverance, and faith in the value of what they were doing created the society which we honor, serve, and defend today. What is often overlooked, however, is the equal importance of the organizations, associations, and communities, which these individuals forged. Made up of individuals who will never be famous, but who all shared in the dreams and values of their founding fathers, these partnerships are the lifeblood of any society. We will examine some of the Hispanic partnerships that have been formed to support the needs of Hispanics in their efforts to become full, productive and integrated members in the grand partnership which is our country today.


1. Definition. According to DoD Directive 1350.2, a Hispanic is a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, or Central or South America, or of other Spanish cultures, regardless of race.

2. To fully appreciate the importance of partnerships to Hispanics today, one must first have some appreciation of the size, diversity, and challenges faced by Hispanics in the past and in many cases still facing them today. As the author Thomas Weyr noted in the introduction to his book, Hispanic U.S.A.,

|Hispanics are unlike any previous groups of immigrants, perhaps because so many do not consider themselves|
|immigrants at all. They have been here for 450 years. They may number 18 million or 20 million or 23 |
|million, even 30 million. They are establishing Spanish as a second language in the United States |
|alongside English. They have built a new and vibrant Hispanic Catholic Church, and encourage Protestant |
|sects to compete for their souls. They are constructing a new culture and a new consciousness. They are |
|changing the country. |

3. The primary source of statistical data on Hispanics comes from U.S. Census Bureau publications. The criteria used to identify Hispanics in the 1990 census consisted of asking persons if they were of Spanish or Hispanic origin. If they answered yes, they were then asked to identify themselves as Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, Puerto Rican, Cuban, or other Spanish/Hispanic origin. From their answers to census questions, we get a picture of the size and composition of the body of Hispanics in the U.S. today.

4. As Weyr implied above and as the census publications readily admit, exact data on the Hispanic population in this country is an estimate rather than precise. Because of the difficulties in collecting information on individuals due to their illegal status or non-availability, much of what is described in this paper, from whatever source, should be understood as an approximation of fact. With that in mind, we can state the following:

a. In 1992, Hispanic numbered approximately 22 million people and composed almost 9 percent of the total U.S. population of 251 million.

b. The Hispanic population is growing at a faster rate than the non-Hispanic. Between 1980 and 1990 it increased by 53 percent, in comparison with only 6.7 percent for non-Hispanics. By the year 2000 it is expected to reach 30 million or 15 percent of the total. Most Hispanics trace their roots back to Mexico (64 percent). The remaining approximately 20 percent trace their roots back to Central and South America and the Caribbean.

5. Hispanics are found in every state in the union, but are clustered in urban areas. The southwestern states of California, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas have the highest concentration of Hispanics with approximately 63 percent of the total Hispanic population residing within their borders. New York (12.3 percent), Florida (8 percent), Illinois (4 percent) and New Jersey (1.7 percent) account for an additional 26 percent of the total. Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans are the largest ethnic groups. More than 92 percent of all Hispanics live in cities. The cities that are projected to have the highest concentrations of Hispanics by the year 2000 are:

a. Los Angeles. This city currently has the largest concentration of Hispanics. It is projected that 9.6 million Hispanics will be living in greater Los Angeles and representing almost half of the city’s 20 million population.

b. New York. There will be approximately 3.6 million Hispanics living in New York and accounting for one-fifth of the city’s population.

c. Miami. Representing almost half the city’s population, almost 2 million Hispanics will live in Miami.

d. Houston. Hispanics, who will number 1.6 million, will account for one-fifth of this city’s population.

e. Chicago. About 1.5 million Hispanics will live in the Greater Chicago area and will represent about 10 percent of the total population.

f. San Francisco. Representing about 20 percent of the total population of 7.8 million, Hispanics will account for 1.4 million.

g. Dallas. Approximately 1.2 million of Dallas’ population of 6.5 million will be Hispanic.

h. San Diego. 900,000 Hispanics will live in the greater San Diego area and will represent almost one-quarter of the projected 3.5 million population.

6. Historical Experiences of Hispanic-American Groups:

a. Mexican-Americans. The Mexican-American experience is different from the European experience in that many lived in the areas of Texas, New Mexico and California prior to them gaining statehood. These states were part of greater Mexico at one time. Manifest Destiny paved the way for annexation of Mexican territory.

NOTE: Manifest Destiny in U.S. history is the supposed inevitability of the continued territorial expansion of U.S. boundaries westward to the Pacific, and even beyond. American expansionists to justify U.S. annexation of Texas, Oregon, New Mexico and California and later U.S. involvement in Alaska and Hawaii often used the idea of Manifest Destiny.

b. 1836. Texas declares Independence from Mexico. Tejanos, who are Hispanics born in what would later become Texas, were an important factor in the fight for Texas independence. Historians and Hollywood and myth persist in painting the Texas rebellion against Mexico as a battle solely between Anglo settlers and the Mexican government. The roots of rebellion lied deep in the Tejano community. During this period approximately 4,000 Tejanos and 35,000 settlers resided in Texas. Both Tejanos and settlers fought on the same side in the battle of the Alamo.

c. 1845. Mexican-American War. The Mexican-American war began when the United States annexed Texas and Mexico claimed it was an act of war. Texas was declared a state this same year.

d. 1848. Treaty of Guadeloupe-Hidalgo was signed between Mexico and the United States after the war. It slated half of the Mexican territory to the U.S. and gave landowners the right to be an American or Mexican citizen. English was declared the official language. The Mexicans in the territory had one year to decide to become citizens of the U.S., or they became an American citizen by default. The land that had been Tejano hands for generations was soon transferred to settlers through threat or right out fraud. Many Tejano families were forced to abandon their homes and flee to Mexico. Shortly thereafter the land grants the Tejanos had were not recognized. When the Mexicans took their land deeds into court they were considered invalid, because they were in Spanish. The Mexicans had a difficult time defending themselves, because they had to speak English. The Treaty included guarantees protecting the land, religion, and political liberty in these territories. Unfortunately, in much the same way as the American Indians were dispossessed of the lands given them by treaty, the Mexican-Americans were defrauded of most of their original lands. According to Roberto E. Villarreal in Latino Empowerment, there were two major historical factors involved. “First, the bulk of Mexican residents in the southwestern United States had limited preparation in defending what was a shift in their subjugation from the Mexican to a United States legal and political jurisdiction.” In other words, the majority of residents affected were peasant farmers with neither the power to actively resist nor the knowledge of the new legal and political system under which they found themselves. Beyond these self-help associations, most efforts to organize politically in order to resist attacks on their lands were met with failure.

e. 1920s. During the Industrial Revolution the United States was growing and a cheap labor force was needed. Mexicans were recruited to assist with the Industrial Revolution.

f. 1930s. In the depression years, because of the high unemployment of U.S. citizens, many Mexicans were rejected and sent back to Mexico.

g. 1917-1942. The U.S. initiated guest labor programs, commonly known as the “Bracero” programs, which brought Mexican workers into the Southwest to work as non-citizen farm workers due to an alleged labor shortage. There were approximately 500,000 workers enrolled in the program at its height. This forced displaced Chicanos from rural agricultural jobs to urban centers.

7. Puerto Ricans. The Puerto Ricans became Americans by conquest.

a. 1493. Spanish Colonization. Juan Ponce de Leon and Christopher Columbus arrived on the island of Puerto Rico and established a colony. Puerto Rico was inhabited at that time by a branch of Arawak Indians known as Tainos.

b. 1898. Treaty of Paris. The Treaty of Paris ended the Spanish-American war and the U.S. gained control of Puerto Rico. It did not make Puerto Ricans American citizens, but rather residents, which gave them limited rights.

c. 1917. The Jones Act. This Act granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship. However, the government of Puerto Rico would be ran by non-Puerto Rican Americans. They were the only Hispanic group that were not subject to U.S. immigration laws. Many individuals came to the U.S. in order to earn a better living and planned to move back at a later time. One of the major obstacles for them joining the military is that many of them did not speak English.

d. 1952. Commonwealth. Puerto Rico was granted Commonwealth status and the right to elect their own governing officials and have its own constitution and government. Although it is a Commonwealth of the U.S. and Puerto Ricans are considered U.S. citizens they still are not allowed to vote in U.S. Presidential elections.

8. Cubans. Cuban-Americans are concentrated mostly in Miami metropolitan areas and in central Florida. They mainly arrived during two specific periods:

a. 1959. As the result of the Communist takeover in 1959 approximately 925,000 Cuban refugees have been admitted to the United States. The first wave settled in the Miami area and was extremely wealthy and educated. They could not return to their homeland.

b. 1980. The Mariel Boatlift. The Mariel Cuban Boatlift officially began April 15, 1980 and ended October 31, 1980, with the arrival of over 125,000 Cubans to Southern Florida from Port of Mariel, Cuba.

9. El Salvadorians, Guatemalans, Nicaraguans. Many came to the U.S. to seek political asylum due to political strife and to escape extreme poverty.

10. South Americans. The South Americans immigrated to U.S. in smaller numbers than other Hispanic groups. The reason for immigration was for better economic conditions. Most were wealthy professionals.


1. Basic Culture Concepts. To identify Hispanics you have to consider the following variables that divide the Hispanic population:

a. Race. Hispanics can be classified into any race category from white to black. b. Language. Some Hispanics only speak English, some only speak Spanish, and others are bilingual.

c. Time of arrival into what is now the U.S. The relationship between some Hispanics depends on their arrival to the U.S., e.g., 1st, 2nd and 3rd generations. In some cases 1st generation Hispanics may resent the immigration of other Hispanics.

d. National Origin. Many do not relate to the term Hispanic. They relate to the area where they are from, e.g., Puerto Rican, Mexican, Cuban, etc. The term Hispanic refers to approximately 30 different nationalities.

NOTE: There are other differences among them that make any general statements about Hispanics as a unified group subject to criticism of oversimplification. Even within an ethnic group, different terms exist. For example, when speaking of individuals of Mexican ancestry, one might use “Mexican-American” to mean any person of Mexican origin living in the U.S., whether or not holding U.S. citizenship. That same person if living in Texas might prefer to be described as a “Tejano” or Texan and would likely consider being called Mexican-American derogatory. If used in a political context, a man might describe himself as a “Chicano,” especially if he has been associated with the activist civil rights movement. In other contexts, such as in census data collecting, the desired term would be “Hispanic,” that applies to anyone of Spanish origin or who speaks Spanish. Lastly, the term “Latino” has become popular across many of the ethnic groups to identify persons of Latin-American origin. It is often used to identify political movements that go beyond Mexican-American, but which are indigenous to the America’s.

e. Public Law 94-311 (16 Jun 76). This law provided a better definition of who is a Hispanic. This law assisted in the political and psychological identity of Hispanics.

2. Hispanic Families. Many Hispanic families feel family traditions are more important than accomplishments. Hispanics have several types of families. They have extended families which include grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins and close friendships; nuclear families, which include Mom, Dad, and children; families consisting of the father, mother, children and other children of the mother and father from previous unions; and Mother-Based families.

3. Family Values. Hispanics can be classified as family-oriented. They tend to be patriarchal (male dominated). Roles within the family are assigned on the basis of gender and position. Older members of the family carry a great deal of authority. Usually the mother’s role is to discipline the children while the father’s role is to be responsible for establishing the standards of behavior. Children’s roles vary with gender and age. The oldest female takes care of the youngest; oldest male does the same, and takes the role of parents if parents pass away. Grandparents or elders are highly respected.
4. Women’s Roles. A single generalized role for Hispanic women would be an unfair stereotype. There is much diversity. Hispanic women can be anything from traditional to ultra-modern executives depending on the degree of acculturation and job availability.

5. Religion within the Hispanic community is very important. Approximately 80% of Hispanics are Roman Catholic. However, there is a growing appeal to Protestantism, because many feel it is more responsive to their needs.

6. Machismo and Respeto in the Hispanic culture is very important. Machismo refers to males and is defined as a learned sense of responsibility. The terms Hemb or Macha refers to the female as a learned sense of responsibility.

7. Respeto (dignity) means to have respect. A person must act in a way worthy of being respected. An example may be the requirement to shake hands with elders first, and during conversations you should not give their elders direct eye contact.

8. Hispanic Profile. The following information provides a “profile” of Hispanic-Americans:

a. Hispanics are the youngest major population with the average age of 26.

b. Hispanics have a rapid growth rate amongst the major cultures and it is expected the rate will continue to be rapid.

c. Mexicans are the largest Hispanic subgroup, Cubans are the smallest.

9. Education and income. The education profile of Hispanics is not good. They have the lowest number of school years completed and a high level of dropouts. As of 1991, only 25-34 percent have completed high school or higher level.

a. The income gap between Hispanics and non-Hispanics has increased.

b. The Hispanic-Americans have the highest number of children living in poverty.

10. Anti-Hispanic Sentiment and Discrimination. Just as many other groups, Hispanics have had to endure anti-Hispanic sentiment and discrimination. The following are some examples:

a. English only movement.

b. Discrimination in the workplace. If you look Spanish, you did not get hired.

11. Education has traditionally been one successful route used by immigrants and minorities to move into and upward in American society. For Hispanics, the biggest challenge they have faced is the language in the educational systems of the U.S. The use of the Spanish language by Hispanics whether Mexican-American or Puerto Rican or Cuban has played a definite role in their isolation and discrimination in the educational process. The length of time in the U.S. has a definite bearing on levels of English fluency, education, jobs, and wages of Hispanics. In an attempt to address this problem, most school systems in areas of high concentrations of Hispanics are working with various forms of bi-lingual education.

12. In California, for example, 1.2 million students enter public schools for the first time and may not even understand what is being taught in the classroom. According to the state’s Department of Education, 27 percent of these children are not getting any kind of help, because opponents say bi-lingual education is a waste of money and should be eliminated or cut back. In 1991, the U.S. Department of Education completed an eight-year study designed to determine what programs work best in helping Latino students succeed in school. The report concluded that primary Spanish education does not interfere with or delay English acquisition.

13. Many experts feel that Spanish-speaking students can best master English and the other subjects addressed in today’s schools if they first have a firm understanding of their primary language and pride in their ethnic backgrounds.

14. Historic Considerations. Throughout our history, ethnic and racial groups have immigrated, voluntarily or involuntarily, in waves, and within limited time periods. They entered into the existing communities and over a period of two or three generations assimilated themselves into the population as a whole. This has not been the case with Hispanics. Whether crossing the Mexican border or arriving by boat or plane from Cuba, Puerto Rico, or Latin America, Hispanic immigration has been constant and will probably continue to be so. This influx of new immigrants provides for a constant renewal of cultural ties and language skills, a factor that other traditional ethnic groups did not experience. It thus allows Hispanics to maintain and reinforce their rich, diverse heritage and language even while becoming members of American society.

15. While Hispanics share many characteristics in common, such as language, religion, and family values, the fact that they emigrated at different times in history from several different countries, and often for different reasons, whether economic or political, has resulted in different approaches to adapting to American society and culture. In some cases, such as New Mexico and California, Hispanics settled the land long before the arrival of Anglo-American culture. In other cases, Hispanics are arriving today from Central and South America often with nothing more than a suitcase and the hope for a better future.

16. Thus, for example, the priorities and attitudes of a recent immigrant from the Dominican Republic to the Dominican barrio of Brooklyn, NY, will be distinctly different from that of a successful female Hispanic business owner in Los Angeles who might trace her origin back five or six generations to a time when California was a part of Mexico or even Spain. This fact has often led to disagreement among Hispanics and within their organizations as to what are the priorities that must be addressed if Hispanics are to advance. Oftentimes associations have arisen within specific ethnic groups specifically for their benefit and to the exclusion of others. For example, the Cuban Americans National Council was founded in 1972 to specifically “identify the socioeconomic needs of the Cuban population in the U.S. and to promote needed human services.”

17. Hispanics in the military. Hispanic-Americans are underrepresented in the Armed Forces in all grades. Some of the barriers to their enlistment are:

a. Inadequate academic preparation.

b. Lack language and technical skills.

c. Intense family attachment. Hispanics are family oriented and family separation is a major factor in recruitment.

d. Retention and Adaptability to the Environment are important. Many leaders see the inability of some individuals to function using English. In the future, recruitment and retention of Hispanics will likely become more critical as Hispanics become a larger proportion of the military eligible population.

e. Hispanic population in the military as of 1994:

| |Officers |Enlisted |
|Army |2,244 (2.9%) |24,037 (5.3%) |
|Air Force |1,575 (1.9%) |13,440 (3.9%) |
|Navy |1,828 (3.0%) |28,644 (7.1%) |
|Marine Corps | 591 (3.3%) |14,312 (9.2%) |
|Coast Guard | 187 (2.5%) | 1,691 (5.8%) |
|DoD TOTAL |6,614 (2.6%) |82,124 (6.0%) |

18. Some of their military contributions include:

a. More than 9,900 Mexican-Americans fought during the Civil War.

b. During the Spanish-American War several Hispanics served with Theodore Roosevelt’s “Rough Riders.”

c. There are insufficient records to determine how many Hispanics served in W.W.I. However, one Hispanic named David Barkely was awarded the Medal of Honor.

d. Approximately 250,000-500,000 served in W.W.II.

e. During the Korean War nine Hispanics received the Medal of Honor.

f. Approximately 80,000 Hispanics served in the Vietnam War theater of operations and 13 won the Medal of Honor.

g. 20,000 Hispanics participated in Operation Desert Shield/Storm.

h. A total of 38 Hispanics have received the Medal of Honor.


1. Factors Influencing the Formation of Hispanic Associations and Partnerships. As noted earlier there exist several historical reasons why Hispanics are not the homogeneous ethnic group one might assume. And, as a result of recent surveys it was found that distinct differences do exist among Hispanic groups in the U.S. today. These differences can and have affected the types of organizations formed by Hispanics as well as their composition. The results of a Ford Foundation-sponsored Latino National Political Survey (LNPS) in which 2,800 Cuban-Americans, Mexican-Americans, and Puerto Ricans were interviewed indicated differences among Hispanic groups.

2. For instance, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans will usually identify themselves by their national place of origin instead of being willing to be lumped into categories such as “Hispanic,” “Latino,” or “Spanish-American.” About five to six percent prefer to be identified as “American.”

3. Not only are there differences between the various ethnic groups based on origin, but differences in the amount of time each group has been in the U.S. can put into focus just how well Hispanics are doing. As noted elsewhere, a large segment of the Mexican-American population can trace its origins to the land that is now New Mexico, Arizona, and California, hundreds of years before the United States came into existence. For thousands of other Hispanics arriving from Central and South America and the Caribbean, as well as recent arrivals from across the Mexican border, their time in the U.S. might be measured in months, weeks, or even days.

4. This causes tremendous differences in how well the various groups are doing economically, politically, and in terms of education levels. As an example, most native-born Hispanics when lumped together have not shown much progress, but when examined in light of time in the U.S., a very different story appears. In one study which examined this question, it was found that “a key to understanding Hispanic’s apparent lack of progress is that 36 percent of them are immigrants to the U.S. and half of those arrived within the last 10 years. Historically, the most recent immigrants usually have difficulty starting out, so the statistical status of their entire group is artificially depressed. But when the data for Hispanics are adjusted to reflect the difference in nativity and duration of residence, a different portrait emerges.”

5. Hispanic Organizations and Partnerships Today. There are almost 200 major national and local organizations in this country devoted to assisting Hispanics today. Some may have historic ties to one or another ethnic group whether Mexican-American, Cuban, etc. Most are devoted to a specific area or interest.

6. In examining the success of ethnic colleges, especially historically Black colleges, NHU president, Roberto Cruz, noted three factors for their success. These are: “The university encourages students to meet high expectations, provides role models, and offers support systems.” Cruz noted that, traditionally, in most U.S. schools: “Teachers do not expect much from Hispanic students, so students do not try hard in school. They are not expected to be successful. At NHU, we push students to reach their goals.

7. Throughout the country there are numerous Hispanic educational organizations formed to target specific ethnic groups. ASPIRA OF AMERICA is one such organization. It was founded in 1961 in New York City as a grass-roots organization to serve the Puerto Rican community that was characterized by high unemployment and student dropout rates. Aspira’s goals are: ‘to identify promising youth, motivate them to continue their education, provide educational guidance and leadership, and promote students in their education. Aspira also promotes the understanding of Puerto Rican cultural history and achievements for the purpose of developing a sense of self-confidence and identity among Puerto Rican youth. ‘

8. Another example of a Hispanic organization providing support to its members is MAES (Mexican American Engineers and Scientists). The thrust is on models and mentors for aspiring students. As a result of such efforts, total Hispanic enrollment in engineering majors has increased every year since 1986.

9. Business and Labor. According to Workforce 2000, a study by the Hudson Institute, through the year 2000, 85 percent of new entrants into the U.S. workforce will be minorities and women. Through active networking partnerships, Hispanics are today trying to ensure that Hispanics will be ready for and have access to the new jobs as they arise.

10. Educators and business schools in foreign countries understand the importance of being able to communicate in many languages. Dr. Catherine Phillips of San Francisco City College states “we should be encouraging programs like English as a Second Language for students. I predict that Latinos who become proficient in both English and Spanish will be the most sought after people in the world despite the English only movement. I am convinced that Latinos are the greatest untapped resource this country has.”

11. Hispanics, when given the opportunity, have displayed fine entrepreneurial skills. For example, from 1982 to 1992 the number of licensed Latino-owned companies in the Los Angeles area grew from 29,000 to an estimated 103,000. To foster this type of growth in L.A. as well as nationally, the National Hispanic Corporate Council (NHCC)--the nation’s largest Hispanic corporate organization--was founded in 1985. Devoted to increasing the participation of Hispanics in the corporate world, NHCC president Gustavo Pupo-Mayo recently noted that “diversity and inclusion of Hispanics begins in the corporate board room where policy is established.”

12. Another powerful force bringing Hispanics together is the United States Hispanic Chamber of Commerce (USHCC). Through its conventions and working committees, it provides a forum for Hispanic business leaders, entrepreneurs, and government officials to network with buyers and vendors around the country. At the same time, it provides insights into the formation of new business partnerships and new routes for Hispanic business and trade. As USHCC president, and CEO Jose Nino recently noted: “It is through business that many Hispanics have grasped the dream.” He further noted that the most important aspect of the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce is the networking it does with the Hispanic businesses and that “only through a unified process can the Hispanic community reach its full potential. We must remember that we are all Hispanic and that is the common bond which we all share, and try not let our ethnic differences separate U.S. as a community.”

13. Politics and Government. Over the past twenty years Hispanics have made tremendous gains in political organizations and public office holding. This is especially true in the states of the Southwest and California, as well as in New York and Illinois. Much of this change can be attributed to the increasing number of Hispanic voters. As Hispanics continue to increase in numbers each year, and as growing numbers of youth who currently make up the majority of the Hispanic population become eligible to vote, Hispanics will before long have the power to make changes within the system while at the same time becoming true members of the American community.


Famous Hispanic Contributors and Contributions. Hispanic-Americans made significant contributions to the development of our great nation even before the days of Admiral David Farragut and the Civil War. Farragut’s father, a Spaniard, came to America in 1776 and fought for this country during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. More recently, Hispanics have made their mark in politics, public service, the entertainment industry, organized sports, business, and science, as well as the military service. In the November 1992 elections, because of redistricting and greater political awareness, Hispanics counted an unprecedented number of 18 members of Congress and two delegates within their ranks. The eight new freshmen congressmen overcame overwhelming odds in some cases to win in ‘92. This includes California Representative Lucille Roybal-Allard (the eldest daughter or Representative Edward Royal), who is the first Hispanic woman to directly follow her father in Congress, from an entirely different district. Other historical political firsts are discussed below. It is important to remember that with their representation election, Hispanics now have twice the political clout.

Henry Cisneros, former Mayor of San Antonio, Texas, is a member of the Clinton administration, holding the cabinet post of Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.

In the entertainment world, Hispanic-Americans came to the forefront in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Edward James Olmos, known for his role on the television show Miami Vice, launched a successful movie career and also starred in Stand and Deliver, a movie about Los Angeles educator Jaime Escalante, and American Me, which concerns crime and violence in the Hispanic community. Gloria Estefan is a top contender in the record industry and Rubin Blade recorded his first album in English for non-Hispanic audiences.

In the world of science, Antonia Novello, a distinguished M.D., became the first Hispanic astronaut. Ellen Ochoa was the first Hispanic woman astronaut.

Like David Farragut, Hispanics continue to distinguish themselves in the military service of their country. Hispanics have been awarded 39 Medals of Honor to date--more of the nation’s highest military honor than any other identifiable group. Some 20,000 Hispanics served in Operation Desert Shield/Storm and many unsung Hispanic heroes emerged from the ground war with Iraq. In his autobiography, General H. Schwarzkopf refers reverently to his former commander, Hispanic General Richard E. Cavazos, U.S.A. (Ret.), as one of the finest division commanders that he ever worked for. During Operation Restore Hope, the relief effort in Somalia, this nation mourned for the family of Domingo Arroyo, a Hispanic Marine and the first casualty in the region killed in a fire fight with Somali warlords.

Hispanic-Americans have made a difference in the history of this country. They leave a proud heritage for future Hispanic leaders of the 21st century to emulate. Additional noted Hispanic-Americans and their contributions are listed below:


Nydia Velazquez -- First Puerto Rican woman to serve in the House of Representatives.
Lincoln Diaz-Balart -- Florida Congressman and anti-Castro activist, who is the first member of Congress to be related to Fidel Castro.
Robert Menendez -- New Jersey Congressman who is the first Cuban-American to serve in the House and first Cuban representative from the state of New Jersey.
Ileana Ros-Lehtinen -- First Cuban-American woman in the House of Representatives.
Luis Gutierrez -- Illinois’ first Hispanic in Congress.
Henry Bonilla -- First Republican from the state of Texas.
Frank Tejeda -- First member of the 103rd Congress elected when he emerged from the March 1992 filing period unopposed by Democrat or Republican.
Bill Richardson -- First Hispanic as Chief Deputy Majority Whip.
Joseph M. Montoya -- U.S. Senator.
Dennis Chavez -- First American-born Hispanic elected to the U.S. Senate.
Herman Badillo -- First Puerto Rican elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
Henry Gonzales -- Texas Congressman and Chairman of the House Banking Committee.
Ed Pastor -- First Hispanic Congressman form the state of Arizona.
Bob Martinez -- Former Governor of Florida and head of the Drug Enforcement Agency under President Bush.
Rual Castro -- Governor of Arizona, resigned in 1977 to accept appointment as U.S. Ambassador to Argentina.
Ramona Acosta Banuelos, Katherine D. Ortega, and Catalina Vasquez -- Former U.S. Treasurers.
Lena Guerrero -- Member of the Texas State Legislature and first woman or ethnic minority to be appointed to the Texas Railroad Commission.
Xavier Suarez -- First Cuban-American mayor of Miami in 1985.
Fernando Ferrer -- Bronx, N.Y. borough president since 1987, possible candidate in New York mayoral race.
Nelson Merced -- First Hispanic elected to the Massachusetts State Legislature.
Jose Serrano -- Bronx Democrat Congressman and champion of inner-city educational reform.
Federico Pena -- First Hispanic mayor of Denver.
Gloria Molina -- First Latina on the City Council of Los Angeles.
Laura Cavazos -- First Hispanic to occupy a cabinet position, as Secretary of education for the Reagan Administration.
Bert Corona -- Mexican-American Political Associations.
Cesar Chavez -- United Farm Workers.
Jose Angel Gutierrez -- La Raza Unida Party.
Jerry Apodaca -- Former Government of New Mexico.
Baltasar Corrada -- Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico.


Jamie Escalante -- Los Angeles educator credited for his role in improving the math and science skills of Los Angeles-area high school students--the improvement in Escalante’s students’ scores on the Calculus Advanced Placement Exam for college entrance was so dramatic that the group was accused of cheating by the Educational Testing Service in Princenton, N.J.--the move Stand and Deliver tells his story.
Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Ellen Ochoa, and Sid Gutierrez (NASA space shuttle astronauts.
Luis W. Alverez -- Nobel Prize winner in physics for work with subatomic particles.
Severo Ochoa -- Nobel Prize winner in medicine and physiology for laboratory synthesis of DNA and RNA.


Edwards James Olmos, Anthony Quinn, Gilbert Roland, Martin Sheen, Raquel Welch, Imogene Coca, Freddie Prinze, Jose Ferrer, Erik Estrada, Paul Rodriquez, Richardo Montalban, Saundra Santiago, Esai Morales, Marcia Conchita Alonso, Jimmy Smits and Raul Julia -- Actors.
Rita Moreno -- First Hispanic actress to win an Oscar.
Brunilda Ruiz --Ballerina.
Trini Lopez, Joan Baez, Tony Orlando, Xavier Cuggat, Desi Arnaz, Carlos Montoya, Vickie Carr, Chita Ricera, Jose Feliciano, Graciela Rivera, Tito Puente --Entertainers.
Truman Capote and Anais Nin -- Authors.
Geraldo Rivera -- Talk Show Host.
Luis Valdez, writer of La Bamba--the Richie Valens -- Story Writer/Director.
Lourdes Lopez --Princle Dancer, New York ballet,
John Benitez -- Record producer best known for producing Madonna’s first hit record.
Kenny Ortega -- Choreographer.
Ernesto Lecuona -- Composer.
John Secada -- Musician.


Nicolas Guillen -- Poet inspired by African rhythms.
Carlos Montenegro -- Novelist.
Wilfredo Lam and Manuel Martinez -- Painter.
Piri Thomas -- Writer.
Eduardo Seda, Ernesto Galarza, Octavio Romano, Richard Duran, Julian Samora and George Sanchez -- Scholars.
Luis Valdez, Guadalupe de Saavedra and Abelardo Delgado -- Poets.


Angelo Cordero -- Jockey.
Chi Chi Rodriquez, Nancy Lopez, and Lee Trevino -- Golf.
Jim Plunkett -- Football.
Jose Torres, Hector (Macho) Camacho and Kid Chocolate -- Boxing.
Juan Marichal, Luis Tiant, Pedro Ramos, Orlando Cepeda, Roberto Clemente and Luis Aparicio -- Baseball.
Albert Salazar -- Boston Marathon winner.


Roberto C. Goicueta -- Former president and current chairman of the board of Coca-Cola.
Prudencio Unanue -- Founder of Goya, a corporation producing Hispanic food products.
Oscar de la Renta and Adolfo Sardina -- Fashion designers.
Elwood Quesada -- First head of the Federal Aviation Agency and former vice-president of Lockheed Aircraft Corporation.
Cesar Chavez -- Head of the National Farm Workers’ Association (United Farm Workers of America).


Hispanics have served as general and flag officers in the military. Admiral Horacio Rivero was the first Hispanic four-star admiral in the Navy; General Richard E. Cavazos was the first Hispanic four-star general in the Army; and Lieutenant General Elwood R. Quesada was the first Hispanic general officer in the Air Force. Brigadier General Luis R. Esteves was the first Puerto Rican graduate of West Point and founder of the Puerto Rican National Guard.


Mexicans showed Californians how to pan for gold and introduced the technique of using mercury to separate silver from worthless ores. Certain foods common in the U.S. are of Hispanic origin: tacos, tortillas, Caesar salad, and chili con carne, which was invented about 1880 by Mexican-Americans living in Texas. In 1992, salsa outsold ketchup for the first tine in the United States.

Some Hispanic words which have become part of the American language: redo, cabana, macho, bonanza, mosquito, chocolate, tobacco, adobe, burro, corral, desperado, incommunicado, patio, plaza, poncho, vigilante, cafeteria, canoe, hurricane, cannibal, manatee, tomato, canyon, armada, bronco, and barbecue.

Six state names are of Hispanic origin: Texas (from tejas, land of tile roofs), Nevada (land of snow), Colorado (red land), and California (an imaginary island in Spanish folklore, “an earthly (state of flowers). Throughout the United State there are many cities and towns with Hispanic-origins names. In California, alone, there are more than 400. Other contributions include poinsettias, Chihuahuas, chewing gum, canasta, and rummy.


Although Spain was a strong colonial power in North America in the 1700s, the Spanish defeat in the Seven Years War led to the parceling of lands to the English in the Spanish Colony of Florida. Spain, therefore, felt no loyalty to the British Monarchy during the course of the American Revolution. Despite negotiations with the Continental Congress, neither side could agree on the fate of Florida and therefore Spain played no overt role in aiding the American colonist. Nevertheless, several Hispanic forefathers, like the father of David Farragut, provided discrete or covert aid to the colonists. Another such man was Bernardo de Galvez, a Spanish army officer and Governor of Louisiana in 1777.

From 1775-77, de Galvez provided rations and weapons to the Continental Army. In 1777, he arranged safe passage for James Willing, an American agent of the Continental Congress, who had led a successful campaign along the Mississippi harassing British shipping, plantation owners and military outpost.

Taking advantage of weakness in the British defenses and Spanish recognition of American independence in 1779, de Galvez captured all the British forts along the Mississippi from Lake Pontchartrain to Baton Rouge. He later defeated all British forces in Florida and restored control of this region to Spain. For his contribution, de Galvez has been memorialized on a U.S. stamp and a statue in Washington, D.C. and in his namesake city of Galveston, Texas.


One of de Galvez’s officers, Franciso de Miranda, also played an important role in the defeat of the British on the Mississippi and the capture of the port of Pensacola. Ultimately a revolutionary himself, de Miranda left the Spanish army and led a campaign against Spanish colonialism while living in North America and Europe. In 1805, he led an American-sanctioned invasion of Venezuela and is credited with the title of “Precursor of Latin American Independence.” During the 1800s, the sale of all Spanish lands west of the Mississippi to France was made under the proviso that these lands not be in turn relinquished to the United States. France reneged on its agreement and President Jefferson negotiated the Louisiana Purchase for $15 Million in 1803.


The next conflict involving Hispanics in American history took place over territorial disputes between Mexico and the “Lone Star State” of Texas. When Mexican General and self-proclaimed President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna attacked the Alamo on March 6, 1835, 183 Texans were killed and six of them were Mexican.

One Hispanic survivor of the Alamo was Lieutenant Colonel John Nepomuncene Seguin. Selected as a courier to leave the fort, sneak through Santa Anna’s lines and obtain reinforcements, Seguin succeeded in escaping but could not obtain relief in time. After the war, he returned to San Antonio where he served two terms as the city’s mayor.


One of the most interesting Hispanic figures of this period in American history is Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo. Born of the upper class in 1808, Vallejo grew up during the turbulent years of the Mexican Revolution. An accomplished Mexican army officer by the age of twenty-one, he gained the confidence of the Mexican governor and was named military commander of northern California. During the same period, he became a member of the territorial legislature an delegate to the Mexican Congress.

Despite these ties to his naive Mexico, Vallejo believed it would be in the best interests of the California territories to yield their sovereignty to the United States. He shifted loyalties and discretely helped Americans secure California. Later appointed as an agent for the U.S. government, he became one of eight California’s to write the State’s first constitution and became one of the first members of the state westward expansion of America, Vallejo has been highly recognized. The city of Vallejo, California, was named in his honor, a vineyard produces wines with his name, and in 1965, the U.S. Navy commissioned the nuclear powered fleet ballistic missile submarine U.S.S. M. G. Vallejo (SSBN-658), one of “the forty-one for freedom,” in honor of this distinguished Hispanic.


When the Civil War broke out, the Mexican-American community was divided in loyalty. Approximately 1,000 joined the Union Army and another 2,550, the Confederate Force.

By the end of the war, as many as 9,900 Mexican-Americans fought. Most served in the regular army or volunteer units which were integrated. Some, however, served in predominately Mexican-American units with their own officers. Of the 40,000 volumes written about the Civil War, only one, Vaqueros in Blue and Gray, has been written about their contribution.

In 1863, the U.S. government established four military companies of Mexican-American Californians (the First Battalion of Native Cavalry) to utilize their “extraordinary horsemanship.” At least 469 Mexican-Americans served under Major Salvador Vallejo, helping to defeat a Confederate invasion of New Mexico.

Colonel Miguel E. Pino established the Second Regiment of New Mexico Volunteers. At least six independent militia companies commanded by Mexican-Americans were raised in New Mexico. Approximately 4,000 Mexican-Americans volunteered in these companies. In Texas, the Union established 12 Mexican-American companies (the First Regiment of Texas Cavalry). By and large, the officers were non-Hispanic, although there were some Mexican Texans serving as captains and lieutenants.

David G. Farragut was the most famous Union Hispanic. When he was nine years old he was appointed as a midshipman in the U.S. Navy. At 13 he served aboard the U.S.S. Essex during the War of 1812. In 1862, he successfully commanded Union forces and captured the city of New Orleans. In the Battle of Port Hudson (135 miles north of New Orleans) Farragut’s tactics for attacking fort gained accolades. After orchestrating the capture of Mobile, Alabama, Farragut was commissioned Admiral of the Navy on July 26, 1866. He took the command of the European Squadron and while in the Mediterranean, he visited the birthplace of his father in Ciuddela, Minorca, where he received a hero’s welcome.

Other Hispanics served in such Confederate units as the Benavides Regiment, the 10th Texas Cavalry, the 55th Alabama Infantry, Manigault’s Battalion of South Carolina Artillery, the 6th Missouri Infantry, the Chalmette Regiment of Louisiana Infantry, and the Second Texas Mounted Rifles. Colonel Santos Benavides was the highest ranking Mexican-American in the Confederate Army. He was one of the first to take up arms and one of the last to surrender.

Loretta Janet Velasquez, a Cuban-born woman, enlisted in the Confederate Army in 1860, masquerading as a man, without her soldier husband’s knowledge. She fought at Bull Run, Ball’s Bluff, and Fort Donelson, but was detected while in New Orleans and discharged. Undeterred, she re-enlisted and fought at Shiloh until unmasked once more. She then took duty as a spy, working in both male and female guise. Her husband died during the war and she married three more times, widowed in each instance. She later traveled throughout the West settling in Austin, Nevada.


The catalyst for the Spanish-American War was the sinking of the battleship Maine on February 15, 1898. Historians have debated the cause of the Maine’s demise for almost 100 years. Was it sabotage or was it an accident? Was the incident engineered by the American side to give the country an excuse for war? The loss of 260 American lives makes the latter theory unlikely. Admiral Hyman G. Rickover wrote a scholarly thesis on the subject, claiming that the explosion that ripped through the Maine’s lower decks was caused by oily rags which led to an uncontrollable fire that ignited a magazine full of ammunition. Whatever the reason, the United States declared war on Spain on April 11, 1898, with the avowed purpose of freeing the oppressed Cubans.

During the Spanish-American War in 1898, there were several Hispanic members of Theodore Roosevelt’s “Rough Riders.” Captain Maximiliano Luna was the most distinguished Hispanic “Rough Rider.” A military camp in New Mexico was named after him. After the Spanish American War, George Armijo, another Hispanic “rough Rider,” became a member of Congress.


At the beginning of World War I, Hispanics and others who lacked sufficient English skills were sent to training centers to improve their language proficiency and produce soldiers fully capable of being integrated into the army. Eventually a training plan to do so was established at Camp Gordon, Georgia. However, by the time the camp was operational the war was almost over.

Nicholas Lucero, a Hispanic, received the French Croix de Guerre during World War I for destroying two German machine gun nests and maintaining constant fire for three hours. Marcelino Serna, received the distinguished Service Cross for the single-handed capture of 24 enemy soldiers. His other decorations included: the French Croix de Guerre, the Victory Medal with three bars, and two Purple Hearts.

It was not until 1989 that the first Hispanic recipient of the Medal of Honor was recognized in a ceremony during Hispanic Heritage Week. David Barkley was awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously for bravery in action on the Meuse River, France, in November 1918. Barkley’s Hispanic background did not come to light until 71 years after he gave his life for his country. Other Hispanics did serve in World War I, but there are insufficient records to determine how many.


Estimates for World War II range anywhere from 250,000 to 500,000 Hispanics served in the Armed Forces. Records are sketchy because, like the Census Bureau, the military did not closely track Hispanic members. However, Hispanic soldiers participated in all the major battles of World War II. Nevertheless, it is known that between 1940 and 1946, approximately 53,000 Puerto Ricans served with the exception of the Puerto Rican 65th Infantry Regiment, Hispanics did not serve in segregated units. National Guard units, with large proportions of Mexican-Americans, served from Arizona, Texas, New Mexico, and California. There were about 200 Puerto Rican women in the Women’s Army Corps.

The New Mexico National Guard, with its large representation of Hispanics, became the largest single American unit in the Philippines. There knowledge of Spanish was a definite asset as Spanish was a principal language in the Philippines. Because of this presence, many Hispanic-Americans were taken prisoner during the fall of the Philippines and participated in the “Bataan Death March.”

The first Hispanic Medal of Honor recipient of World War II was Private Jose P. Martinis. He was honored for his role in the 1943 American invasion of the Aleutian Islands. One unit in particular, the 141st Infantry Regiment from Texas, had a high concentration of Hispanic soldiers. This distinguished unit saw 361 days of combat during World War II, earning three Medals of Honor, 31 Distinguished Service Crosses, 12 Legions of Merit, 492 Sliver Stars, 11 Soldier’s Medals, and 1685 Bronze Stars. Hispanic were awarded 12 of the 431 Medals of Honor awarded during the Second World War.


During the Korean war nine Hispanics received the Medal of Honor. The Puerto Rican 65th Infantry Division was the only all-Hispanic Division to serve during the Korean War. It earned four Distinguished Service Crosses and 124 Silver Stars. “Hero Street, .A,” in Silvis, Illinois, a Chicago suburb, is so-named because it contributed more men to military service during World War II and Korea than any other place of comparable size. this street was home for a number of Hispanic families, and Silvis now has a monument to the eight Hispanic heroes who died during the two wars.

Captain Manual J. Fernandez, U.S.A.F., an F-86 fighter pilot assigned to the 334th Squadron, 4th Fighter Interceptor Wing, was credited with 14.5 enemy kills in 125 missions. He was the third-ranked fighter pilot of the war and retired as a Colonel.


Precise figures are not available for Hispanic participation in Vietnam. Prior to the full-scale escalation of the Vietnam War, Special Forces Advisor, Sergeant First Class Isaac Camacho’s fire base was overrun by Viet Cong in November 1963. After an intense fire fight, Camacho was taken prisoner. He is most likely the first Hispanic POW of the Vietnam era. Remarkably, Camacho escaped his captors after 20 months and made his way to freedom. He was awarded the Silver and Bronze Stars in September 1965 and later promoted to Captain, U.S. Army.

Lieutenant Commander Everett Alvarez, Jr. was the first American pilot taken as a prisoner of war and remained a prisoner longer than anyone else, eight and a half years. One April 30, 1975, Master Sergeant Juan J. Valdez climbed aboard the last U.S. helicopter to depart the roof of the U.S. Embassy in Saigon. The U.S. presence in Vietnam, which spanned 18 years, ended. Valdez’s presence gave credence to the America’s war: “First in...last to leave.”


Approximately 80,000 Hispanics served in the Vietnam theater of operations and 13 won the Medal of Honor, 6 of them Marines. This is not unusual. Hispanics have received the highest honors to date in the U.S. Navy. As of 1990, six ships and three active submarines have been named for Hispanics, including the nuclear-powered 688 class fast attack submarine, U.S.S. San Juan, named after the capital city of Puerto Rico.

Admiral Horacio Rivera became the first Hispanic four-star Admiral in 1979 and ultimately served as Vice Chief of Naval Operations. Between 1979-1980, Edward Hidalgo held the highly esteemed and power position of Secretary of the Navy. During Hidalgo’s tenure, millions of dollars were committed to television advertising campaigns and new recruiting techniques to attract Hispanic youth to the Navy.


Approximately 20,000 Hispanic serviceman and women participated in Operation Desert Shield/Storm. According to Defense Manpower Data Center statistics, Hispanics comprised 7.9 percent of the Fleet Marine Force, 6.0 percent of the Navy, 4.2 percent Army and 3.1 percent of the Air Force representation in the Persian Gulf theater during the war.


TASK: Black-American Experience

CONDITION: Classroom environment

STANDARD: 1. Definition of Black-American as define by DoD Dir 1350.2. 2. Describe the Nations of Africa. 3. Describe the African society. 4. Explain the Slave Trade Period. 5. Describe the Slave Culture. 6. Define Slavery and the Economy. 7. Define the Black-American Culture. 8. Describe Black-Contemporary Issues.

It is important to have an understanding of the history, contributions, current conditions, and issues for African-Americans in the United States and in the military service. we will discuss the population, family structure and marriage, education employment, economics, famous Black contributions, and military participation of African-Americans.


1. Definition. Black (not of Hispanic origin) as described in DoD Directive 1350.2 is a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Africa.

2. The early kingdoms and nations of Africa-Americans included:

a. Ghana (650 AD - 1200 AD) - Was the first great empire in western Africa to rise to power. Ghana was known for agriculture and trading and gained wealth through trade and taxation.

b. The kingdom of Mali overthrew Ghana and became a powerful empire in 1235 AD. Mali was important for agriculture, mining and weaving. The kingdom was ruled by a man named Mansa Musa who encouraged industry and wealth in his people and there was an abundance amount of gold. This kingdom lasted for approximately 20 years.

c. Songhay captured Mali in 1469 AD and became the primary Western African power and trading point. Songhay was known for great intellectual centers. They had a University located in Timbuktu. This University taught law, grammar, literature and surgery. However, the media in general portrayed them otherwise. There are other kingdoms, and empires in West Africa, but none as well known or powerful as Songhay and these empires are the most dominant when it comes to African-American culture.

3. African Society. According to author Andrew Billingsley, the traditional African family was composed all of the following:

a. All members of the community.

b. In the extended family, community members were viewed as relatives.

c. The traditional African family included not only the deceased members, but also unborn members still in the womb. Also, if anyone spoke of you then you were a part of the family system.

d. The family recognized and accepted the belief that their existence depended on all family members living and deceased.

e. The eldest male family members were the head of the family.

f. Early Africa was a mixture of tribes. Each had its own distinct language and social structure, as well as a very distinct economical life. So, as we look at the African family, you can see they had a family structure contrary to some media portrayals.

4. African women, men and children had definite roles and responsibilities. Some of these roles included:

a. Men. The men were the economic providers, educators and disciplinarians.

b. Women. The women were responsible for the social functions, reared the children, went to the market, and responsible for other children in the community. They would take on the responsibility of other children due to death or illness of their parents.

c. Children. The children belonged solely to the family. Birth was extremely important to the African family, because the parents believed they had to be born through their children.

5. African Class System. The Africans had their own class system. They had an enlarged family group called the “clan.” Within this system their were three tiers:

a. Top tier. The first was called the top tier. This tier was composed of descendants from free men. They were born of free men and could prove they belonged to the clan.

b. Middle tier. The middle tier was made up of mostly workers. These individuals could not prove they belonged to the clan. c. Bottom tier. The bottom tier was composed of disgraced or degraded persons. These individuals may have been captured in war or they may have been slaves.

6. Slave trade period. A Dutch war ship brought the first 20 Africans to Virginia or the New World. They were sold for needed supplies. Approximately 7 million slaves made the journey to the United States in the seventieth century (1 out of every 5 died).

7. Why slavery?

a. Blacks were initially viewed by society as savages, animals, different, therefore, being less than human. Thus, the White-Americans could justify using them as slaves.

b. Blacks had a foreign lifestyle. They had a different color, culture and language.

c. The new nation required a stable labor force.

NOTE: Why Africans were used as slaves versus Native-Americans. Native-Americans knew the land and could run away. The Africans knew nothing about the land, the different foods, or their surroundings. Also, Native-Americans were susceptible to the different diseases more quickly. Africans were easily identified and captured if they ran away.

d. It was a world business, isolation, different languages, broke them down to adaptive superiority in order to survive.

8. Why slavery worked.

a. Slavery worked because of the lack of knowledge the Africans had of the land, food, and weather. They were subjected to a new socialization process which involved family ties broken, they were placed with Africans who didn’t speak the same dialect and so they could not communicate, and the different lifestyle they had to lead.

b. The slaves were made powerless, which allowed slavery to work. It created an adaptive inferiority and this stereotype was used to justify the status of Black Americans. Furthermore, there was an economic factor in which the Africans were being traded for sugar, molasses or any other supplies needed for survival.

1. Role of the slave family.

As people relate to Adam and Eve in the Bible, for Blacks this can be related to the first born in America. Anthony and Isabella, who were slaves, gave birth to the first child in America of African descent and the baby was named William.

a. Marriage: Slave marriages and slave family relations had no legal standing, but usually lasted for decades, if not a lifetime. However, it was not a secure relationship because they were often sold, (mostly males). This pattern existed throughout slave society, in all geographic regions, in both rural and urban settings, among field hands as well as house servants. The slave owners found marriage and family relations among slaves a stabilizing force, reducing the incidents of fighting over women and inhibiting escape attempts.

b. Under the slavery system, the head of the household changed. This was a result of the mother or father being sold out of the family. Most often it was the father; therefore, many slave families were headed by women. The slave families had no rights, and were viewed as a breeding ground.

2. The slave family member’s roles.

a. Father. Was viewed as a breeder and not head of household by the slave owner. The father was no longer able to maintain the family ties and often times not able to choose his own mate.

b. Mother. The slave mother was the transmitter of the African history and culture. In the original African culture the man was the educator. However, during slavery this role became the responsibility of the mother. The mother was the “silent binder” of the family overall.

c. Children. They were consider “ebony” or “black gold” and profit for the owners in the slave society. This was especially true for the male child and in some cases the female child, because they would grow up and become a worker. However, to the black family, children were important and the hope of the future. Most of the children grew up in two-parent families, with the father as head (secretly) and bore his surname and were never neglected by the mother or the father.

3. Social status. During slavery, the social status of Blacks were dependent on the following:

a. Free or slave. There were some Africans that came to the new world and were free. They primarily lived in the North. They were free because they were on the voyage with Columbus. So when they came to the new world they were free men.

b. Owner of the slave. The owner’s position in the community was very important. The more slaves owned the higher the status.

c. Field worker, housework, laborer, artisan. The status of the slave depended on where they worked.

d. Male or female.

e. Complexion (dark vs. light). The lighter the skin color the more favorable of a job you would hold, for example, housework versus field work.

4. A diminished culture. The males were powerless, and the African culture diminished under slavery. Dr. Kitano in his book, “Race Relations,” states that “systematic efforts were made to stamp out their native culture.”

5. New names were given. They were not allowed to practice their own religion, and no drums were allowed. Self-determination and self-expression were prohibited. The key condition that encouraged Black culture during slavery was American racism. The socialization process of the children was extremely important in that the parents had to teach the children how to survive in America and the slave culture.

6. Music. Music is and has been an important element of the African American culture. The slave owners would not allow the Africans to beat their drums fearing they would send out messages and create an uprising. Therefore the slaves used other methods of making music, for example, the kitchen pan, washboards, and animal bones. Melodies for their songs were taken from their African heritage or what they heard White churchgoers singing. They changed the rhythm, added a slurred beat, and rewrote words to the songs to fit their own dialect and especially to express their feelings. They added clapping of the hands and the stomping of the feet.

7. Language. Communication with new slaves arriving from Africa was not allowed. Slaves were expected to communicate to slave owners and show them respect, regardless of their time in captivity. The slave owners kept slaves who spoke the same dialect separated so they couldn’t communicate with each other in their native language. In Africa, there were over eight hundred different dialects blended together. This resulted in the use of “pidgin” English, which is derived from West Africa. It was used in the conducting the different commerce or trade. Another language developed is that of “Gullah” which was spoken on the sea islands of what is now South Carolina. It is also of Africa origin and is known to day as “Geeche.” “Creole” is another derivative of the African language spoken in Haiti, Louisiana, and Texas.

8. Religion. Early slaves were slow to give up their own religion as they wanted to maintain there own traditions. An important aspect of the African religion included a sort of “witch doctor,” which the Whites did not accept and refused to allow them to practice their religion. The major reason for non-acceptance and rejection of Christianity by the Black slaves was they were not able to reconcile between Christianity and slavery, plus they already had their own religion. Attending church afforded a brief rest period which brought secondary gains that were more social than religious. Initially, church services were given by White preachers. Black preachers were only allowed to preach in the presence of the White masters. The content of their sermons were controlled by their master.

9. There were three types of churches during slavery. There were White churches with Black members, separate Black churches under White leadership, and there were separate Black churches with Black leadership. There was great reluctance to let Blacks have their own church with Black leadership. In 1794, Bishop White had a desire to ordain a Black, which went against the establishment. A Black man named Richard Allen was ordained and refused to accept what the society said he must accept and the first Black church was establish. The first Black church was of the Methodist faith. The African Methodist Episcopal (AME) church was formed based on this historical time.

10. Development of the Black Church in America. Blacks knew as long as they remained in the White churches, conditions would always be the same. This was due to the following:

a. A total lack of self-help programs for Blacks.

b. Non-participation in church activities.

c. An absence of Blacks in leadership roles.

d. A doctrine that did not serve the needs of Black people.


1. Militarily, prior to the Revolutionary War participation of Blacks was justified because of their indentured status. Blacks were recruited and then after the War they were rejected. When War started up again Blacks were recruited. It was a cycle of recruit, reject, recruit. Blacks were used during the Revolutionary War either with or against the colonies.

2. When the Continental Army was formed the official policy was rejection of Blacks. The British forces offered freedom to the slaves if the Blacks joined them. When this happened the U.S. decided on letting Blacks into the overall military.

2. There was a system called “manumission” in which the master could send a slave to fight in his place and upon the slaves return he was promised his freedom. In 1792, the Congress officially restricted military service to able body white males. This meant the master could no longer send a slave to fight in his place.

4. In 1820, the Army issued the following order “No Blacks or Mulatto will be received as recruit in the Army.” This blocked all minority, especially Black, from joining the Army.

5. Slavery also impacted the economy in the following ways:

a. Cheap labor source. Slaves represented cheap labor and a way to make money.

b. Slavery enhanced the status of the slave owner through profit, prestige, depending on how many slaves were owned, and superior attitude over Blacks and those Whites who did not own slaves.

6. Myths and stereotypes were used to justify the economic exploitation of Blacks during the slave period. The following are some stereotypes:

a. Ignorant, lazy, incapable of competing, and inferior in intelligence.

b. “Less than human” status in the eyes of many Whites.

c. Natural station in life of Blacks was slavery.

d. Contrary to popular belief, all Southern Whites did not own plantations and slaves and some did not agree with the slavery system. These individuals were shone from society.

7. Early laws during slavery and their impact on Black-Americans. Slaves were property and not human beings. There were “Slave Codes” established. An example of one of the codes stated that if a White slave ran away and got caught, he would have to serve his master for one year. However, if a Black slave ran away and got caught, he would have to serve his master for the rest of his or her life.

8. Slavery and legislation.

a. Slavery was first recognized in Virginia by a law passed in 1662. Prior to this people were put into slavery without this law. This law did not change any of the existing conditions of slavery, except to make it law.

b. In 1663, Maryland followed Virginia’s model and came out with the declaration that Blacks were to serve “Durante Vita,” or for the duration of their lives.

c. After 1690 slavery became a system that had stripped Blacks of all their rights. More laws were passed to ensure control of the slaves.

d. Blacks, in the latter part of the 17th Century, were treated more and more like property and less like human beings.

e. Laws were used to reinforce racial attitudes that Blacks were inherently inferior and should be slaves because it was natural.

9. Revolutionary period. During the Revolutionary Period in 1776, the colonies, became independent states. In every state slavery was legal.

10. Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.

a. In the Declaration, the term “People” would encompass free inhabitants and three-fifths of the slaves in each state. In essence, Black slaves were considered three-fifths person and two fifths property.

b. The Constitution adopted in 1787, incorporated provisions that bore directly upon the status of Black People. Article 1, Section 2, made Black people three-fifths of a person and two-fifths property. Article IV, Section 2, helped reinforce the fact that slaves were merely property.

c. Northern delegates were in favor of slaves being regarded as property, and thus, not deserving of representation.

11. During the 1700s and early 1800s, slave codes were defined and determined the status of Blacks. The purpose was to:

a. Restrict the slaves and protect the Whites.

b. The slave code varied from state to state.

c. Codes were strengthened when there was a slave revolt or threat or revolt. There were actually over 200 slave revolts.

d. In 1857 in the Dred Scott Case, the highest court in the land affirmed the inequality of Blacks (that slaves were property). Blacks could not be citizens of the United States and the basis was on the Constitution because they formed no part of the “people” referred to in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Blacks had no rights which Whites were bound to respect.

12. Emancipation Proclamation.

a. The Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 did not end the war nor the institution of slavery.

b. Black Codes specified conditions of work, property rights, rights to public assembly, and ownership of firearms for Blacks.

c. At the end of the Civil War all Blacks were free and the following was the impact:

(1) No longer could members of the family be sold.

(2) Marriage between Blacks finally legalized and recorded.

(3) Black men were in charge of their families.

(4) Extended families began to grow.

(5) The geographic mobility or northern migration was disruptive to Black family life. Blacks were leaving their family for a better life. This also created problems since there was more competition for jobs.

13. Reconstruction (1870-1877). The Black-Americans found new hope during this period.

a. Congress passes the Enforcement Act in 1870. Allowed the federal government to use troops for enforcement.

b. Black institutions of higher learning were built under the Freedmen’s Bureau. It assisted slaves in transition from slavery to freedom. Howard, Hampton, Fisk, and Atlanta University were the first four Black Universities in America.

c. Involvement in Politics. Blacks participated in politics more during this time than any other previous time.

d. Civil Rights Act of 1866 was the most significant piece of legislation affecting Blacks during Reconstruction. This gave Blacks the Rights of being an American.

14. Amendments to the Constitution produced the following changes to the laws:

a. The 14th Amendment prohibited states from depriving any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. b. The 15th Amendment (1870) gave Black men the right to vote.

c. Reconstruction died when President Hayes took office in 1877, and the federal soldiers were removed from the south. Therefore many of the Blacks lost hope and aspiration.


1. Black-American Culture.

a. The key condition that encouraged black culture was American racism.

b. Blacks blocked from full participation in the dominant culture.

c. Blacks perceive racism is built into the institutions of the society and its cultural values.

d. For protection, Blacks had to distance themselves from those in the dominant culture who denied them assimilation.

e. Combating racism requires a group struggle in order to transcend its crippling effects on liberty, life, etc.

2. Black-American family. The Black-American family is very important institution within the Black community. They include:

a. Nuclear Families. Husband, wife, and children.

b. Extended Families. Husband, wife, children, and other relatives.

c. Augmented Families. Husband, wife, children, other relatives, non-relatives. Individuals who moved in with the family, and those raised by the family.

3. There are three family patterns:

a. Patriarchal. Father.

b. Matriarchal. Mother. c. Equalitarian. Father and mother share responsibility.

4. The following are characteristics of the Black families function for development, survivability, and stability:

a. Strong kinship bonds.

b. Strong work orientation.

c. Adaptability of family roles.

d. High achievement orientation (make your family proud).

e. Religious orientation.

5. Customs, and traditions.

a. Black church services. Services are often held with a lot of interaction between the preacher and congregation.

b. Practice of calling older Black women by their first names, e.g., Miss Jane.

c. It is expected in many areas that Blacks will speak to other Blacks that he/she meets, whether they know them or not.

6. Dynamics of Black-American culture.

a. Mutual Aid. Help others in need, especially children.

b. Compassion.

c. Adaptability.

7. Religion. The church provides the following:

a. Sense of recognition and self-worth.

b. A place where individuals can participate.

c. Black leadership.

d. Continued protection against racism.

e. Primary vehicle for the release of emotional tension accumulated in a racist society.

f. Center for community life and activity.

8. Laws and Black-Americans, 1877 to present.

a. Segregation is the act or practice of separating. In the United States it was the practice of separating the races. The segregation era lasted from 1877 until 1954.

b. Unequal enforcement of the law.

c. Segregation in schools.

d. “Jim Crow” segregation system became law. Jim Crow laws were named for an antebellum (Pre-American Civil War) minstrel character. Some examples of the laws are:

In Oklahoma, telephone booths were segregated. Mississippi had separate soft-drink machines. In Atlanta Georgia, an Afro-American could not “swear to tell the truth” on the same Bible used by White witnesses. In North Carolina, factories were separated into Black and White sections. In some Alabama towns it was against the law for Blacks and Whites to play cards, checkers, dominoes, or other games together on athletic teams. In Florida, school textbooks were segregated in separate warehouses. In Washington, D.C., Black people could not bury their dead dogs or cats in the same pet cemeteries used by Whites. One Jim Crow law tried to stop Black and White cotton-mill workers from looking out the same window.

e. The “American Dream,” land of freedom and opportunity, for many Blacks was not to be obtained. Some of the hindrances were:

(1) Plessy vs. Ferguson 163 U.S. 537 (1896): The Plessy Court established the “Separate but Equal Doctrine.” Louisiana’s act, which was challenged by Plessy, required railroads' companies carrying passengers in the state to have “equal but separate accommodations.” Plessy was a Test Case. Homer A. Plessy, an octoroon (one-eight black), boarded the East Louisiana Railroad in New Orleans bound for Covington in the same state and sat in the white car; he was arrested when he refused to move to the black car. Convicted by the state he appealed on constitutional grounds, invoking the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments. The Court had already decided in Louisville, New Orleans and Texas Pacific Ry. vs. Mississippi (1890) that Jim Crow cars in Intrastate Commerce did not violate the Commerce Clause. Plessy cleared the constitutional way for legislation that forced the separation of the races in all places of public accommodation.

(2) Jim Crow laws: The Jim Crow laws were central to white supremacist thought. That Blacks were inherently inferior was a conviction being stridently trumpeted by White Supremacist from the press, the pulpit, and the platform, as well as from the legislative halls, of the South. The label, “For Colored Only,” was a public expression of disparagement amounting to officially sanctioned civil inequality. (3) Inability to obtain land: The laws prohibited Blacks from purchases or owning land.

9. During the 20th Century, the struggle for ensuring total freedom was intensified. Several organizations and historical leaders provided the Black philosophy during this time. They were:

a. Booker T. Washington, President of Tuskegee Institute: He believed hard work would make you acceptable. He urged Blacks to develop skills that would win them places in their southern communities.

b. W.E.B DuBois and Pan-Africanism: Believed that 10 percent (“The Talented Tenth”) of the Blacks who had educational advantages should teach others. He felt Blacks should use their minds as well as their hands.

c. Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA).

d. Mary McLeod Bethune: Educator and advisor to U.S. Presidents. (Started college with only $l50.00).

e. Dr. Kitano in his book, “Race Relations,” states W.W.I and W.W.II provided the major impetus for social change.

10. The following provided new experience and new exposures for Blacks:

a. The NAACP and the Urban League have been long-standing fighters of racism. They trained an elite group of lawyers to fight segregation in the courts.

b. Smith vs. Allwright: Primaries that denied Blacks the right to vote. RESULT: 1965 Voting Rights Act.

(1) Shelley vs. Kraemen. Restrictive covenants that kept Blacks from buying homes where they wanted to live. RESULT: 1948 restricted covenants.

(2) Morgan vs. Virginia Supreme Court. Jim Crow transportation. RESULT: 1946 Jim Crow laws unconstitutional.

(3) The Urban League directed their efforts toward helping Blacks and other economically and socially disadvantaged groups to share equality in every aspect of American life.

11. Civil Rights Movement. The Civil rights Movement began in 1950.

a. 1954 - Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education. RESULT: Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka was a great legal triumph. Although it did not instantly end school segregation, it destroyed the constitutional foundation which legalized segregation in the South. And on May 17, 1954, the Supreme Court unanimously declared that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal” and, as such, violate the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guarantees all citizens “equal protection of the law.”

b. Civil Rights Act (1957). Designed to prevent the denial of voting rights and to set up an investigative agency (Civil Rights Commission).

c. In 1960 Congress passed another civil rights act to reinforce the 1957 act.

d. Between 1960 and 1964 there were executive orders by President Kennedy affecting discrimination in employment and housing.

e. Executive Order 11063 in 1962. Prevented discrimination in building and purchasing of housing in federally funded projects.

f. Executive Order 10925 in 1961: Barred discrimination in federal employment and by government contractors.

g. The moving force behind the passage of most of the civil rights legislation were Black people.

h. The 1964 Civil Rights Act. RESULTS:

(1) Blacks could no longer be excluded from public accommodations.

(2) The Justice Department was empowered to bring desegregation suits.

(3) Any program or service which practiced racial discrimination was denied federal aid.

(4) Racial bias in employment and union membership was prohibited. i. 1965 Voting Rights Act. RESULTS:

(1) Banned literacy test and other screening devices.

(2) Federal examiners were assigned to conduct registration and observe voting.

j. The Civil Rights Act of 1968. RESULTS: Barred discrimination in renting and purchasing of private dwellings.

1. Education. In 1991, only 66.7 percent of Black-Americans over the age of 25 had completed 4 years of high school. The percentage of Blacks with four or more years of college have steadily increased from 4.4 percent in 1970, to 8.4 percent in 1980, and most recently to 11.5 percent in 1990. The following are some key contemporary issues concerning Blacks and education:

a. Historic gateway to a better life.

b. Education achievement still lags.

c. Dropout rates declined, but still high.

2. Employment. Of the approximately 13.9 million Blacks in the civilian labor force in 1992, 14.1 percent were unemployed. These rates are considerably lower than the highs in 1983 of 21.0. However, the unemployment rate of Blacks in the United States continues to be high. In 1992, although Blacks comprised approximately 10.1 percent of the total civilian work force, they constituted 23.6 percent of all private household cleaners and servants. This is down from 42.4 percent in 1983. Blacks comprised only 2.7 percent lawyers, 3.3 percent physicians, 3.9 percent of the engineers, and 4.9 percent of college professors. The following are some issues concerning Black employment:

a. Black poverty rate is 31.9%.

b. 50% of all Black children under age 6 live in poverty.

3. Political Power. Black-Americans have contributed much toward shaping America’s history, often against considerable odds. Changes in attitudes and advances in the area of civil rights allowed more Blacks to reach the forefront of American politics. For example, Edward W. Brooke (U.S. Senator, Republican, Massachusetts; first Black senator since Reconstruction); Shirley Chisolm (first Black woman to serve in the U.S. House of Representatives and to run for President); Barbara C. Jordan (U.S. Congresswoman, Texas); Jesse Jackson (1984/1988 Presidential candidate); Andrew Young, Jr. (first Black Congressman for the deep South, [Georgia since 1901); Carl B. Stokes (first Black mayor of a major American city--Cleveland); Harold Washington (former mayor of Chicago); Thomas Bradley (first Black mayor of Los Angles); Douglas Wilder (first Black elected of a state, [ Virginia]); Sharon Pratt Kelly (first Black woman mayor of a major American city--Washington, DC); David Dinkins first Black mayor of New York City); Carol Moseley-Braun (first Black Democrat and first Black woman in the U.S. Senate); Ron Dellums (congressman fro California and first Black Chairman of the House Armed Services Committee); Ron Brown (former Secretary of Commerce in the Clinton administration, and former Chairman of the Democratic Party). The following are some issues concerning Black politics:

a. Gradual increase in Black elected officials since the 60’s and 70’s.

b. Demographic changes in racial composition which affect the political life of Blacks.

c. Black vote is still far too short at the polls.

4. Health Care. The percentage of all persons not covered by health insurance in 1990 was 12.9 percent. The census shows that 18 percent of Black-Americans had no health insurance. The following are some issues concerning Black health care:

a. Life expectancy for Blacks are increasing.

b. Higher death rates from cancer, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and liver/kidney failure.

c. Death rate related to inadequate access to doctors and hospitals.

d. Lack of adequate health coverage. e. Infant mortality.

5. Black on Black Crime. Continues to be a problem, especially for those who live in the inner cites. The following are some issues concerning Black on Black crime:

a. Young Black men are 10 times more likely to be murdered.

b. 46% of all the nation’s prisoners are Black.


1. Colonial Period. Blacks arrived as slaves in 1619 in Jamestown, 1626 in
New Amsterdam, and 1636 in Salem. For the most part Black slaves were not authorized to carry arms or ammunition. However, in New Amsterdam in 1641 they were armed with a “tomy hawk and a half pike” to assist in fighting. In the Plymouth Colony, Abraham Pearse, a Black man, was listed on the roles as being capable of bearing arms, and later in the Massachusetts Colony “all Negroes and Indians from sixteen to sixty” were enjoined to attend militia training. This militia service was scattered and New England soon followed the Virginia lead and began to ban Blacks from militia organizations.

2. Because this gave the Blacks the “social status” on a par with ministers and public officials, who were also exempted, many colonial legislatures required free Blacks to work on public projects for a like amount of days as White settlers gave to the militia, and slaves were commonly used as laborers. Free Blacks were for the most part allowed to enlist as soldiers in the militia. In the southern colonies greater restrictions were placed on the Blacks, but in time of emergency Blacks were permitted, and sometimes required, to serve in military units. In New York they fought in the Tuscarora war in 1715, and in Louisiana in 1730 they fought the Natchez Indians for the French.

3. In 1736, a Spanish force was assembled in Mobile to again fight the Natchez. Accompanying them was a separate company of Blacks with free Blacks serving as officers. This represents the first occasion Blacks served as officers in a colonial military unit. During the French and Indian War, Black militia men served with independent colonist units from some of the states as scouts, wagoneers, and laborers with regular English forces. During this period Black-Americans had won honors in several battles and “Negro Mountain” in Maryland was so named in honor of a Black man killed in a fight with Indians during this war.

4. By the end of this period the Black population in the colonies had grown to 462,000 and the fear of revolts caused the Blacks to be exempted from military duty, except in times of emergency.

5. Revolutionary War. Crispus Attacks, a Black man who was the first of five to die in the Boston Massacre of 1770 and is said to be one of the first martyrs to American independence. Eyewitness reports credit Attacks with shaping and dominating the action, and when the people faltered, he is said to have been the one who rallied them and encouraged them to stand their ground. Black Minutemen fought at Lexington and Concord as early as April 1775, but in May of that same year, the Committee for safety of the Massachusetts Legislature presented a resolution that read:

“....Resolved that it is the opinion of this Committee, as the contest now between Great Britain and the Colonies respects the liberties and privileges of the latter, which the Colonies are determined to maintain, that the admission of any persons, as soldiers, into the army now raising, but only such as are freemen, will be inconsistent with the principles that are to be supported, and reflect dishonor on the colony, and that no slaves be admitted into this army, upon any consideration whatsoever.”

6. The British forces began offering freedom to Black slaves in return for their joining His Majesty’s Troops, and by December 1775 almost 300 Blacks were members of Lord Dunmore’s “Ethiopian Regiment.” Their uniforms were inscribed “Liberty to Slaves.” That same month George Washington authorized recruiting officers to sign up free Blacks, but still prohibited slave participation. Some slaves did participate as “substitutes” for their masters. By mid-1778, an average of 42 Black soldiers was in each integrated brigade, and later all-Black units were formed in Rhode Island, Boston and Connecticut. One of these units, relatively untrained, fought the battle of Rhode Island on Aquidneck Island I August 1778. It held the line for four hours against British-Hessian assaults, enabling the entire American army to escape a trap. A monument to their courage was erected in Portsmouth, Rhode Island. By 1779, the issue of enlisting Blacks soldiers had been resolved. With his troop strength dangerously low, George Washington welcomed all Blacks, free or slave, into the ranks.

7. Post-Revolutionary War. Although Blacks were still excluded from most land forces during the War of 1812, this was primarily a naval war and experienced Blacks proved to be a valued and sought-after resource. When Commodore Perry won his great victory on Lake Eric, at least one of every ten sailors on his ship was Black. Before and during the War of 1812, Black slaves from southern states escaped and fled to a haven with the Seminole Indians in Florida. England and Spain refused to return these slaves to their owners. The first Seminole War began as an attempt to recapture runaway slaves. The second Seminole War resulted from attempts to remove the Seminole from Florida to make room for Whites settlers. However, one-quarter to one-third of the warriors resisting this removal were Black. This Black presence among the Seminole is believed to be the principal reason that removal of the Seminoles was sought, as they were attracting the Black slaves from the southern states. The Seminoles were “allowed “ to move to Indian Territory, but only a few Blacks were permitted to go. Some escaped to Mexico, others were returned to their former White owners.

8. Civil War. Historians have argued the root causes of the Civil war for over a hundred years. Clearly, the abolition of slavery and freedom for all Blacks was one of the major reasons that war broke out. Upon taking office, in order to avoid a break-up of the Union, President Lincoln announced in his inaugural address that he had no intention or legal right to interfere with the “institution” of slavery in those states “where it now exist.” In 1861, Secretary of War Cameron declared that, “This Department has no intention at present to call into the service of the Government any colored soldiers.” However, General John C. Fremont issued a proclamation of emancipation in Missouri in 1861, and in Georgia, Kansas, and Ohio, Blacks were accepted into certain volunteer units. These orders were all countermanded or negated by the Federal officials in Washington.

9. In May 1863, the War Department created the Bureau of Colored Troops to handle recruitment. The United States Colored Troops (USCT) were created at this time, but all officers were still to be White. Black soldiers were paid considerably less than White soldiers, until January 1864, when equal pay was achieved. Over 180,000 Blacks served in USCT units -- 10 percent of the total Union strength. Another 200,000 Blacks served in service units. Fewer than 100 served as officers. Thirteen Black Non-Commissioned Officers received Medals of Honor for action at Chapins Farms, Virginia, where they assumed command of their units and led assaults after their White officers had been killed or wounded. Of the 1,523 Medals of Honor awarded during the Civil War, twenty-three were awarded to Black soldiers and sailors.

10. Indian Campaigns. After the Civil War the USCT were moved to western posts to relieve tensions created by the presence of armed Black soldiers in the South. During the Indian Campaigns (1866-1890) the Black regiments in the West, despite poor equipment and inadequate rations, had a high morale and fewer desertions than any other Army unit. The poorly equipped Black cavalrymen supplemented their rations by hunting buffalo. Called “Buffalo Soldiers” by the Indians, the Black soldiers earned 18 of 370 Medals of Honor during this period.
11. An officer who served many years with the all-Black 10th Cavalry noted that although the Black soldiers did all the fighting at Cheyenne Agency during the Indian Campaigns, and sustained all the casualties, the White troops received all the commendations. The role of the Black soldier was summed up with one brusque statement: “Two colored troops of the 10th Cavalry were also engaged.” In summarizing the effectiveness of the Black units during the Civil War, General W. T. Sherman wrote to the Secretary of War, J. D. Cameron on 1 March 1977:

“....I have watched with deep interest the experiment of using blacks as a soldier in the Army since the Civil War...General Butler misconstrues me as opposed to blacks as soldiers for I claim them equality in the ranks as opposed to blacks as soldiers for I claim them equality in the ranks as in civil life...I advised the word “black” be obliterated from the statue book and that Whites and blacks be enlisted and distributed alike in the Army.”

12. General Sherman’s recommendation on integration of the armed forces would not take effect until 1954.

13. Spanish-American War. When the battleship Maine sank in Havana Harbor in February 1898, there were 22 Black sailors who died with the rest of the crew. Up to the time of the outbreak of the war with Spain, only one company of Black soldiers served at a post east of the Mississippi River. During this short war, Blacks served with distinction, particularly under the command of Colonel “Teddy” Roosevelt and his “Rough Riders.” Overall, Blacks received six of fifty-two Medals of Honor during the Spanish-American War.

14. World War I. Approximately 10 percent of the 400,000 Blacks who served in World War I were assigned to combat units. Over 1300 were commissioned as officers (less than 1 percent of all officers). World War I saw the largest number of commissioned Blacks in the Army since Blacks were admitted. One Black American, Eugene Jacques Bullard, served as an aviator in the French Foreign Legion. Fleeing racial persecution in the United States, he joined the Legion in 1911. Wounded twice and declared disabled, he somehow engineered a transfer into the French Air Service and became a highly decorated combat pilot. Having flown more than 20 combat missions, he was known as the “Black Swallow of Death,” and his plane was marked with a heart pierced by an arrow with the motto: “All Blood Runs Red.” Despite his record, Bullard was never allowed to fly for the United States even after the country entered the war in 1917.

15. Until 1991, of the 127 Medals of Honor awarded during World War I, none were awarded to Blacks. This changed on April 24, 1991 when President Bush posthumously awarded the 128th Medal of Honor to Corporal Freddie Stowers, a Black soldier killed while leading his company in an assault against a German-held hill in France on September 28, 1918. The review of Stowers’ war record by the Office of the Secretary of Defense was a result of an inquiry launched by Hofstra University historian Leroy Ramsey in 1988.

16. World War II. On October 25, 1940, Benjamin O. Davis, Sr., became the first Black American to achieve the rank of Brigadier General in the regular Armed Forces.
During the Battle of Pearl Harbor, Dorie Miller, a messman aboard the USS West Virginia, manned a free gun on the USS Arizona and shot down six Zeros, for which he was awarded the Navy cross. Miller died with 644 other shipmasters on Thanksgiving Day 1943 when his ship was torpedoed and sunk by a Japanese submarine. The Navy later named a destroyer escort in his honor. After World War II the Navy prohibited Blacks for enlisting. Finally in 1942 the Navy decided to accept volunteers for general service, but even then they were prohibited from going to sea.

17. Black soldiers saw little combat in World War II. There were notable exceptions, however, the 761st tank Battalion won the Presidential Unit Citation for its efforts in the European Theater of Operations. Although this all-Black unit was nominated for this award six times between 1945 and 1976, the award was not presented until 1978. In early 1941, the Tuskegee Training Program was begun at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. A total of nearly 1,000 “Tuskegee Airman” were trained through this program, and the Tuskegee Institute was the single training facility for Black pilots until the flying program closed there in 1946. In all, the Tuskegee Airmen destroyed 261 aircraft, damaged 148 more. They flew 15,533 sorties and 1,578 missions, with 66 of their members killed in action between 1941 and 1945.

18. Post World War II. Executive Order 9981 was issued by President Harry S. Truman on July 26, 1948, establishing a policy of equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the Armed Forces without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin. Also established was a Presidential Committee, chaired by Charles Fahy, which examined racial policies to determine whether Blacks were militarily and technically qualified to hold all military occupations, and whether segregated units should be maintained. The Committee concluded that full utilization of Blacks would improve military efficiency and that segregated units were an inefficient use of Black resources. In June of 1949, Wesley A. Brown was the first Black graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy.

19. Korean War. Full implementation of Truman’s integration policy was slowed by the Korean Conflict, which began in 1950. Two Black Army sergeants, Cornelius H. Charlton an William Thompson, were among the 131 Medal of Honor recipients.
Ensign Jesse L. Brown, the first Black naval aviator, was killed in a combat mission in December 1950 and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross and Air Medal posthumously. At about the same time, Frederick C. Branch became the first Black to be commissioned in the U.S. Marine Corps. “Project Clear,” a study on the effects of segregation and integration in the Army both in Korea and the United States, was conducted by the Operations Research Office of Johns Hopkins University and released in 1954. It concluded that racially segregated units limited overall Army effectiveness, while integration enhances effectiveness; integration throughout the Army was feasible; and that the quota on Black participation was unnecessary. This study assisted with desegregation and by 1954 the last all - Black unit had been disbanded, while Black enlistment’s grew.

20. The Vietnam Era. In June 1961, the first DoD directive was issued that was designed to eliminate off-post discrimination, and by 1963 post commanders were made responsible for developing equal treatment in both off-base and on-base situations. Full implementation of this policy was hampered by the war in Vietnam. During the Vietnam era there was a disproportionate number of Blacks entering the military. They were underrepresented on the local draft boards and often were unable to receive deferments. Consequently, Blacks constituted 16 percent of all those drafted, compared to 11 percent of the total national population. Blacks tended to stay in the military longer and to volunteer at higher rate for elite units, such as airborne or air cavalry units. As a result, Blacks assumed a higher proportion of the casualties than might be expected. There were 20 Blacks among the 237 Medal of Honor winners in the Vietnam era.

21. U.S. Air Force General Daniel “Chappie” James, a Tuskegee Airman, flew 78 combat missions into North Vietnam. In September 1975 he became the first Black promoted to the four-star grade.

22. Post-Vietnam Era. With the end of the Vietnam War in 1973 came the advent of the all volunteer force. Other changes included a drastic increase in pay and a policy of equal pay for equal work. Enlistment’s soared. Whereas Black membership in the Army of 1968 was 12 percent, it rose to 32 percent in 1979. In 1964, Black officers made up only 3.3 percent of the force. By 1979, this number had risen to only 6.8 percent. With Blacks making up 32 percent of the enlisted ranks, there was an apparent disparity in officer representation. Blacks were still occupying the majority of the lower pay grades and positions of responsibility.

23. Operation Desert Storm. Civil rights leaders claimed that the disproportionate numbers of Black troops in the armed forces at the time of the Persian Gulf war would lead to high percentages of Black casualties. The Department of Defense released figures on the percentage of participation of various ethnic groups and the percentage of causalities each group suffered. Blacks who make up 12 percent of the U.S. population, made up 24.5 percent of military personnel deployed to the Gulf. Black personnel of all branches who died in combat or non-branches who died in combat or noncombat situations represented 15 percent (182) of the total casualties in the war.

24. On October 1, 1989, General Colin Powell was appointed by President Bush to be the 12th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He was the youngest person and first Black to receive this appointment. As the Chairman he became the principal military advisor to the White House, the Secretary of Defense, and the National Security Council.



Frederick Douglass -- Influential Black leader and abolitionist during the 1800’s.
Carter G. Woodson -- Founder of the Journal of Negro History in 1916.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. -- civil rights leader, Nobel Peace Prize recipient, 1964. Coretta Scott King -- Widow of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and renowned civil rights leader in her own right.
Malcolm X -- Major Black leader of the 1960’s.
W.E.B. Dubois --Sociologist/historian.
Justice Thurgood Marshall -- First Black on the Supreme Court.
Justice Clarence Thomas -- Replace Thurgood Marshall on the Supreme Court in 1992.
Ralph J. Bunche -- Official at United Nations, Nobel Peace Prize recipient, 1950.
Harriet Tubman -- Established an underground railroad to assist in the escape of slaves to free states and Canada.
Robert C. Weaver -- First Black Cabinet member as Secretary and Urban Development.
Patricia Roberts Harris -- Secretary, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Secretary, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development; and U.S. Ambassador to Luxembourg.
Roy Wilkins --Executive director, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Mary McCloud Bethune -- Educator; civic leader; first Black woman to head a Federal office as Director, Division of Negro Affairs of the National Youth Administration, World War II; founder Bethune-Cookman College.
William H. Hastie -- First Black Federal judge and first Black governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands in 1937.
Jane M. Bolin -- First Black female judge.
Baker Motley -- A Black female attorney who participated in the landmark Brown vs. Board of Education desegregation case and who later became the first Black female federal judge.
General Colin Powell -- Former National Security Advisor and first Black Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Barbara Harris -- First Black woman bishop of the Episcopal Church in the Massachusetts diocese.
Hazel O’ Leary -- Named Secretary of Energy by President Clinton, the first Black woman to hold a cabinet position outside the fields of health, education, welfare and housing.
Jesse Brown -- Former Vietnam veteran and first Black Secretary of Veteran’s Affairs.
Willie Williams -- First Black police chief of Los Angles.


Benjamin Banneker -- Mathematician, astronomer, publisher of almanacs, inventor of first clock in the United States, member of commission which laid plan of Washington, DC.
Edward Bouchet -- First Black to receive a Ph.D. degree (physics) from an American University Yale, 1876.
George Washington Carver -- Agricultural scientist, botanist.
Ernest E. Just—Cell physiologist.
Charles R. Drew -- Physician, “father” of blood plasma and blood banks.
Percy L. Julian --Soybean chemist.
Theodore K. Lawless -- Dermatologist.
Daniel Hale Williams -- Physician, surgeon, performed the first successful heart operation.
Leon Roddy -- International authority on spiders.


Sidney Poiter -- First Black to win an Academy Award for best actor.
Hattie McDaniel -- First Black to win an Oscar.
Bill Cosby -- First Black to star in a regular television series, I Spy.
Bill Robinson -- Dancer.
Oprah Winfrey -- Actress and talk show moderator.
Woopie Goldberg -- Actress/comedienne.
Leslie Uggams -- Actress
Eddie Murphy -- Actor and comedian.
Arsenio Hall -- Former talk show host.
Montel Williams --Talk show host.
Denzel Washington -- Actor.
“Spike” Lee -- Producer and director.
Sammy Davis, Jr. -- Actor, dancer and singer.
Morgan Freeman -- Actor.
Ossie Davis -- Actor and playwright.
Ruby Dee -- Actress, pianist and first Black actress in major role at the American Shakespeare Festival.
Carol Gist -- First Black Miss USA -- 1990.
Kenya Moore -- Miss USA - 1993.
Ed Bradley -- First and only Black co-anchor of the popular television news magazine 60 Minutes.
Bryant Gumbel -- Former co-host of The Today Show.
Richard Pryor -- Comedian.
Bernard Shaw -- Co-anchor Cable News Network (CNN).


W.C. Handy -- Blues.
Scott Joplin and Tom Turpin --Ragtime.
Harry Lawrence Freeman -- The first Black to write and produce and opera.
Florence B. Price -- First Black woman to win recognition as a composer.


Joseph Douglass -- Violin, grandson of Frederick Douglass.
Louis Armstrong -- Jazz, trumpet player.
William “Count” Basie -- Piano.
Charlie Parker -- Jazz, alto saxophone and clarinet player.
Lionel Hampton -- Vibraphones.
Edward Kenny “Duke” Ellington -- Band leader, and piano player.
Thelonius Monk -- Jazz and piano player.
Fats Waller -- Jazz, piano and organ player.
Miles Davis -- Jazz, and trumpet player.
Dizzy Gillespie --Trumpet player.


Leotyne Price --First Black international diva who paved the way for classical artists Kathleen Battle and Jessye Norman.
Marian Anderson -- Major concert figure/pioneer classical artist and first Black singer signed by the Metropolitan Opera House.
Paul Robeson, Adele Addison, Martina Arroyo -- Concert artists.
Mahalia Jackson -- Gospel.
Ella Fitzgerald and Billie Holiday --Jazz.
Charlie Pride -- Country.
Harry Belafonte -- Calypso.
Nat King Cole and Lena Horne -- Popular music in the 40’s and 50’s.
Steven Wonder and Michael Jackson -- Contemporary music.
Diana Ross -- Singer and entertainer.
Lionel Ritchie -- Singer and song writer.
Aretha Franklin -- Singer and entertainer.
M.C. Hammer --RAP musician.


James A. Baldwin -- Go Tell It On The Mountain.
Alex Haley -- Roots.
Langston Hughes -- Not Without Laughter
Zora Neale Hurston -- Autobiography, Dust Tracks on the Road.
Richard Wright -- Native Son.
Chester Himes -- Short story writer, essayist and novelist.
Alice Walker -- Novelist, and poet who won the Pulitzer Prize for literature in 1993 for the book The Color Purple.
Carl Rowan -- Syndicated columnist.
Lorriane Hansbury -- First Black woman to write a Broadway play: “A Raisin in the Sun”).
Toni Morrison -- Novelist and Princeton professor who won the Pulitzer Prize for the historical novel Beloved in 1988.
Ralph Ellison -- Influential Black writer and author of The Invisible Man, 1952.


Phillis Wheatley -- Early American poet.
Nikke Giovanni -- “Princess of Black Poetry.”
Ntozake Shange -- Chorepoem, author and playwright, For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide When The Rainbow’s Not Enuf.
Gwendolyn Brooks -- First Black woman Pulitzer Prize winner for poetry.
Maya Angelou -- Black poet famous for her autobiography, I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings.
Margaret Walker Alexander -- Poet, novelist known for influential poem: “For My People.”


Alice Coachman -- First Black woman to win an Olympic gold medal for the high jump in 1948.
Wilma Rudolph -- First Black woman to win three gold medals in a single Olympiad in the 100/200 meter dash and 400 meter relay in 1960.
Florence Griffith-Joyner -- Runner and Olympic Gold Medalist 1988.
Jackie Joyner-Kersee -- Runner and Olympic Gold Medalist 1992.
O.J. Simpson, Rosey Grier, “Mean” Joe Greene, Bill Willis, Gale Sayers, Marion Motley, James Brown (football).
Walter Payton -- NFL Hall of Famer and all time career leader in rushing yards and touchdowns.
Althea Gibson -- First Black female to win U.S. Tennis Association championship, 1957, and the Wimbeldon Women’s Singles Title, 1957.
Arthur Ash -- First Black man to win Men’s Singles Title at Wimbeldon, only Black man to be laid in state in the Virginia State Capitol after his heath from AIDS in 1993.
Lee Elder -- Golf.
Pele -- Soccer.
George Foreman, Joe Louis, Floyd Patterson, Mike Tyson, Evander Holyfield, Muhammed Ali, Joe Frazier Sugar Ray Robinson and Sugar Ray Leonard -- Boxing.
Charles Dumas -- The first athlete to high jump over seven feet, four gold medals.
Jesse Owens -- Olympic track star, four gold medals, 1936.
Kareem Abdul-Jabbaar, Wilt Chamberlin, Bill Russell, Julius “Dr J” Erving, Ervin “Magic” Johnson, Michael Jordan, Shaquille O’Neal, Charles Barkley, Patrick Ewing Oscar Robinson, Clyde Drexler, and David Robinson -- Basketball.
John Roosevelt “Jackie” Robinson -- First Black major league baseball player, first Black player elected to Baseball Hall of Fame; Roy Campanella (Baseball Hall of Fame); Henry “Hank Aaron (broke Babe Ruth’s home run record, 1974; holds 18 major league records); Willie Mays (Baseball Hall of Fame, hit 660 home runs in his 22-year career); Raymond “Hooks” Dandridge, Josh Gibson (elected to Baseball Hall of Fame from the Negro League); Frank Robinson (first Black manager of a major league team); “Bo” Jackson and Dieon Sanders (firsts two Black athletes to demonstrate excellence in two competitive sports—football and baseball).


Booker T. Washington -- (educator, slave-born founder of Tuskegee Institute and the National Negro Business League); Samuel Fraunces (successful tavern owner, New York City 1770’s); Paul Cuffe (shipper/merchant, New England, 1790-1810); James Wormley (hotel proprietor, Washington, DC, 1800’s); George E. Johnson (Ultra-Sheen Hair Products, first Black-owned corporation listed on a national stock exchange); Leroy Callender (consulting engineer); John Sengstacke (newspaper publisher); Henry G. Parks, Jr. (founded sausage company); A. G. Gaston (Birmingham businessman); H.C. Haynes (barber/inventor of the razor strop, 1899); Wally Amos (talent agent and president of the Famous Amos Chocolate Chip Cookie Company); John Harold Johnson (editor/publisher, Ebony, Jet, Negro Digest).


Garrett Augustus Morgan -- Invented the gas mask, safety hood, automatic traffic light, first human hair straightened. He received a gold medal for using his invention as he dramatically saved the lives of miners who were trapped in a fallen tunnel.
Granville T. Woods -- Patented more than 60 items, many of which were used by railroads, including a device which powered trains by electricity rather than steam); Elijah McCoy -- Invented the self-lubricating machine, “The Real McCoy.”
Benjamin Banneker -- In 1771 invented the alarm clock.
Lewis Latimer -- Invented and patented the first practical electric light bulb that used a carbon filament.
M.B. Rhodes -- Patent the “water closet” which pave the way for modern-day indoor toilets.
Lloyd Hall -- Patented the process that reduced the curing time for bacon form several weeks to just a few hours.
W. Johnson -- Invented the egg beater.
Mme. Jenkins -- Invented Aunt Jemima’s pancake flour.
J. Hawkins -- Invented the gridiron, know today as the oven rack.
Norbert Rilljeux’s -- Revolutionized the sugar industry by patenting a multiple vacuum evaporation process the turned cane juice into white sugar crystals. This process is also used in the manufacture of condensed milk, soap, glue, gelatin and in the recovery of waste liquids in distilleries and paper factories.
William B. Purvis -- Patented several paper bag machines, as well as metal cutters on wax paper an aluminum foil boxes.
Sarah Boone -- Invented the ironing board, with its collapsible leg support.
Jan Matzeliger -- Revolutionized the shoe industry when he invented the shoe-lasting machine thereby enabling shoe manufacturers to attached the top of shoes to their soles by machines. This was the first machine to mass produce shoes. Prior to that time, it had been done by hand.
A. L. Rickman -- Invented overshoes.
William Hampton -- His discoveries led to the vulcanizing of rubber with which to make automobile tires.
Granville Woods -- Was often called the “Black Edison.” He held over 35 patents on electro-mechanical devices which he sold to American Bell Telephone, General Electric, and Westinghouse Air Brake. His inventions help to improve telegraphy and telephone instruments.
C.B. Brooks -- Invented the mechanical street sweepers.
P.B. Downing -- Responsible for inventing the mailboxes.
O. Dorsey -- Invented the door-holding device that helps to relieve the burden of someone opening and closing the door, when a large group of people or furniture is moving in or out the building.
T.B. Pinn -- Invented the file holder. A wooden prototype of today’s modern file cabinets.
J L. Love -- Pencil sharpener.
Lewis Latimer -- Locking rack for hats, coats and umbrellas. Better known today as the portable coat rack.
L.P Ray -- Dust pan.
T.W. Stewart -- Mop.
G.T. Sampson -- Clothes dryer.
S.R. Scottron -- Curtain rod.
W.S. Grant -- Curtain rod support.
J.A. Burr -- Lawn mower.
Frederick McKinley Jones -- Invented the first practical truck refrigeration unit that helped to change the food transport industry in the country.
Augustus Jackson -- Ice cream-making process.
Hydram Thomas -- A Saratoga chef, invented the potato chip.
Jones and Long -- Invented the bottle cap.
George F. Grant -- Golf tee.”
J.W. Batts -- Luggage carrier.
A.C. Richardson -- Invented the apparatus used to lower the casket into the grave.
Henery Brown -- Strong box.
George Washington Carver -- His work with the peanut, soybean and sweet potato contributed so importantly to the agriculture and industry. Responsible for many inventions to include the dye.
Charles Drew -- A pioneer in the field of Blood Plasma preservation.

NOTE: George Washington Carver and Dr. Charles Drew were the only two of virtually dozens of Blacks scientist-inventors and scholars whose genius has contributed to our society as we know it today. Unfortunately, Dr., Drew died from injuries sustained as the results of a car accident in North Carolina, because they refuse to treat him at a white hospital. SOURCE: Original article taken from the St. Louis Post-Dispatch February 1990.
Written By: Edda R. Pittman, St. Louis, MO
Contributor: Judy Peoples, Kansas City, MO.


For fifty years the Johnson Publishing Company, publishers of Ebony magazine, has served the Black community of this country. Their Golden Anniversary edition was published in November 1992. The following calendar of events in Black history was taken from that edition. These dates represent milestones in the struggle for civil rights by Black Americans:


1. March 7, 1942 -- First Black cadets graduate from flying school at Tuskegee, Alabama. In June 1943, the first squadron of Black aviators, the 99th Pursuit Squadron, flew its first combat mission, strafing enemy positions on the Italian island of Pantelleria.
2. November 1, 1942 -- John H. Johnson, editor of Supreme Life Insurance Company newsletter, organizes Johnson Publishing Company and publishes first issue of Negro Digest.

3. November 3, 1942 -- William L. Dawson is elected to Congress from Chicago. On August 1, 1944, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. of Harlem became the first Black congressman from the East.

4. April 3, 1944 -- The Supreme Court rules in Smith v. Alllwright the “White primaries” could not exclude Black voters.

5. April 24, 1944 -- The United Negro College Fund is incorporated.

6. April 25, 1945 -- The United Nations is founded at San Francisco meeting attended by Black American consultants, including W.E.B. DuBois, Mary McLeod Bethune, Ralph J. Bunche and Walter white.

7. May 8, 1945 -- Germany surrenders on V-E Day, Japan surrendered on September 2, V-J Day, ending World War II. A total of 1,154,720 Blacks were inducted into the armed services. Many returned to America and attended college with the GI Bill of Rights benefits.

8. October 23, 1945 -- Brooklyn Dodgers sign Jackie Robinson and send him to their Montreal farm team. On April 15, 1947, Robinson made his debut at Ebbetts Fields and became the first Black in the Major Leagues in modern times.

9. November 1, 1945 -- Founding of Ebony Magazine marks the beginning of a new era in Black-oriented journalism.

10. March 21, 1946 -- Kenny Washington signs with the Los Angeles Rams and becomes the first Black player in professional football in 13 years. Three other Blacks—Woody Strode of the Rams and Ben Willis and Marion Motely of the Cleveland Browns—signed in the same year.

11. June 3, 1946 -- U.S. Supreme Court (Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia) bans segregation in America.

12. December 5, 1946 -- President Harry S. Truman creates the landmark Committee on Civil Rights. In October 1947, the committee issued a formal report, “To Secure These Rights,” which condemned racism in America.

13. July 26, 1948 -- In response to widespread Black protest and a threat of civil disobedience, President Truman issues two executive orders ending racial discrimination in federal employment and requiring equal treatment in the armed services.

14. September 18, 1948 -- Ralph J. Bunche is confirmed as acting United Nations mediator in Palestine. On September 22, 1950, Bunche was awarded the Nobel Peace Price for his successful mediation of the Israeli-Palestine conflict. He was the first Black to win a Nobel Prize.

15. November 1, 1951 -- Publication of the first issue of Jet Magazine by Johnson Publishing Company marks the beginning of a new era of weekly news coverage in Black America.

16. May 17, 1954 -- In a unanimous decision, the Supreme Court outlaws segregation in the public school system. Landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision sounded death knell for legal segregation in the United States.
17. May 10, 1955 -- Chuck Berry records “Maybelline,” which played major role in development of rock ‘n’ roll. Berry and other Black stars, notably Muddy Waters and Little Richard, were the major musical influences on the Beatles and others white groups.

18. December 5, 1955 -- Historic Bus Boycott begins in Montgomery, Ala. Rosa Parks sparked the boycott when she refused (December 1) to give her bus seat to a white man. The Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. was elected president of the boycott organization.

19. March 6, 1957 -- Independence celebration of Ghana marks the beginning of the end for colonial rule in Africa.

20. August 29, 1957 -- U.S. Congress passes Civil Rights Act of 1957, the first federal civil rights legislation since 1875.

21. September 25, 1957 -- Nine Little Rock, Ark., schoolchildren are escorted to Central High School by federal troops, ending efforts to thwart court-ordered integration.

22. December 17, 1959 -- The founding of Motown Records helps change the understanding, marketing and promotion of Black popular music.

23. February 1, 1960 -- Four North Carolina A&T students begin the Sit-in Movement at the lunch counter of a Greensboro, N.C. five-and dime store.

24. May 4, 1961 -- Thirteen “Freedom Riders” begin bus trip through the South to test compliance with laws banning segregation in interstate transportation. Black and White riders were bombed and savagely beaten, but their movement ended segregation interstate transportation facilities.

25. October 1, 1962 -- Escorted by 12,000 federal troops, James Meredith enters the University of Mississippi, ending the state’s defiance of federal law.

26. June 12, 1963 -- Medgar Evers, NAACP field secretary in Mississippi, is assassinated in front of his home.

27. August 28, 1963 -- 250,000 people participate in the March on Washington, the biggest civil rights demonstration ever.

28. September 15, 1963 -- Four Black girls are killed in the bombing of Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham.

29. July 2, 1964 -- Civil Rights Bill, with public accommodations and fait employment sections, is signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson.

30. August 20, 1964 -- President Johnson signs Economic Opportunity Act, initiating the “war on poverty.”

31. February 21, 1965 -- Malcolm X, charismatic Black nationalist leader, is assassinated at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem. Three Blacks were later convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment.

32. March 21, 1965 -- Thousands of marchers, led by Martin Luther King, Jr. and protected by federal troops, complete the first leg of the Selma-to-Montgomery march.

33. August 6, 1965 -- President John signs the Voting Rights Bill which authorized the suspension of literacy tests. Federal examiners were sent to the South under provisions of the bill.

34. August 11, 1965 -- An insurrection starts in the Watts section of Los Angels and rages for six days. The Watts insurrection was the first in a wave of major disturbances that forced a national reappraisal of racism in America.

35. January 18, 1966 -- Robert Weaver is sworn in as secretary of housing and urban development and becomes the first Black member of a presidential cabinet.

36. October 2, 1967 -- Thurgood Marshall becomes the first Black member of the U.S. Supreme Court.

37. November 7, 1967 -- Carl Stoked of Cleveland and Richard Hatcher of Gary become the first Blacks elected mayor of major U.S. cities.

38. February 29, 1968 -- The National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (the Kerner Commission) says in formal report that White racism is the root cause of the riots in American cities.

39. April 4, 1968 -- Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated by White sniper in Memphis. The assassination triggered a national crisis with rioting in more than 100 cities and calls for racial renewal and repentance. President Johnson declared a day of mourning.

40. April 20, 1968 -- U.S. Congress passes Civil rights Bill banning racial discrimination in the housing market and making it a crime to interfere with civil rights workers.

41. January 23-30, 1977 -- The ABC-TV dramatization of Alex Haley’s “Roots” becomes the highest-rated drama in TV history and sparks a national “roots” craze.

42. November 2, 1983 -- President Ronald Reagan changes his mind and signs a bill designating the third Monday in January of each year as a federal holiday in honor of Martin Luther King, Jr. Millions celebrated the first holiday on January 20, 1986.

43. November 3, 1983 -- The Rev. Jesse L. Jackson, president of Operation PUSH, announces that he will run for U.S. President. His campaign generated unprecedented fervor. In his second bid for the presidency in 1988, he captured four states primaries.

44. September 20, 1984 -- The Cosby Show premieres on NBC-TV and changes the image of African-Americans and the viewing habits of White Americans.

45. September 21, 1989 -- Gen. Colin L. Powell is confirmed by the Senate as the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

46 November 7, 1989 -- L. Douglas Wilder of Virginia becomes the first Black elected governor.

47. January 24, 1991 -- The spreading AIDS epidemic is called a major health threat to African-Americans by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Officials said the disease, which forced a major re-evaluation of sexual relationship, was the leading cause of death among African-American women 15 to 44 years old in New York State and New Jersey. African-American leaders cited the danger to addicts using infected needles and called for safe sex practices.

48. March 3, 1991 -- Videotaped beating of motorist Rodney G. King by White Los Angeles police officers sparks an international uproar. Four White officers were indicated on March 14.

49. June 27, 1991 -- Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall announces his retirement and decries the increasingly direction of the Court. On July 1, President Bush nominated Clarence Thomas, a conservative Black on the U.S. District of Columbia Court of Appeals, to fill the vacant seat. Thomas, who was opposed by major civil rights groups, was confirmed by a narrow 52 to 48 margin after Attorney Anita Hill, a Black woman who had worked for him at the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, accused him of sexual harassment. Judge Thomas denied the charge but the Judiciary Committee bearing set the stage for the Year of the Woman political races in 1992.

50. April 29, 1992 -- Acquittal of four White police officers in the Rodney case sparks biggest U.S. riot since the urban explosions during the Civil War. Federal troops were called out to quell rebellion. The LA Corner’s Office said 58 person died during the disturbances.


TASK: Asian-American Experience

CONDITION: Classroom environment

STANDARD: 1. Define Asian-Americans. 2. Discuss Origins of the Asian-Americans. 3. Discuss the Historical Perspective of the Asian-Americans. 4. Discuss Contemporary Asian-American Issues. 5. Discuss the Social Structure of Asian-Americans. 6. Discuss Values and Backgrounds Affecting Asian-Americans. 7. Discuss Asian-Americans in the U.S. Military.

For us to continue to be a strong nation, and to have a strong military, we must learn how to work together in harmony. A better understanding of the various cultures within American society will enhance our ability to lead and is beneficial when performing duties as an EOR. We will learn of the culture and contributions made by the Asian-Americans.


1. Asians are the largest population group on the face of the earth. Almost all countries are involved in some type of trade with Asians countries. All of us are involved in Asian trade in some form or another. Furthermore, we have a tremendous number of military personnel stationed in Asian countries and a significant number of military personnel with Asian born spouses.

2. Many people think of Asian-Americans as one single homogeneous group. Actually they are one of the most diverse groups. As described in DoD Directive 1350.2, an Asian or Pacific Islander is a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, or the Pacific Islands. This area includes, for example, China, India, Japan, Korea, the Philippine Islands, and Samoa.

3. In 1970, there were 1.5 million Asian-Americans living in the United States. By 1980, there were 3.7 million. By 1990 there were 7.2 million, representing almost a 100 percent increase in just the last twenty years.

4. This rapid increase has made Asian-Americans the fastest growing segment of our population. Demographic experts predict that this growth will continue at an even greater rate throughout the 1990-s and into the 21st century. However, then, as now, Asian-Americans will still comprise less of the total population than will Hispanics and African-Americans.

5. In 1990, Asian-Americans were the largest population group in Hawaii, where they were 63% of the population. The five largest groups of the Asian population in the United States are: Chinese (1.7 million), Filipino (1.5 million), Japanese (850,000), and Korean (800,000).

6. While there is not sufficient time to discuss all Asian groups, we will focus on the groups that have impacted the most on American society and history. These groups are Chinese, Japanese, Koreans and Filipinos. The Chinese and the Japanese were the first group of Asians to come to the U.S. What happened to them set the stage for other groups that followed.


1. The major influx of Chinese immigrants to the U.S. took place during the period 1840 to 1882. Most of the those who immigrated to the U.S. did so because of the turmoil ongoing in China. They were primarily poor people, not very well educated, and had few professional skills. In most cases, they hoped to earn money for them to take back with them when they returned to their country. The work they received during this period was primarily in agricultural. Since this type of work was very labor intensive, there was a constant need for laborers. There was also a need for laborers in building the cross continental railroad.

2. Most Chinese came to the U.S. voluntarily to work and paid their own way. They also brought with them the tools they had used in China for years. One of the tools was called the sluice. It is the long inclined trough used for separating gold ore. When gold was discovered in 1848 at Sutters Mill in California, the sluice was introduced and used.

3. A large percentage of individual groups that immigrated to the U.S. eventually returned to their native country. Approximately 55 percent of the Asians who came to the U.S. did not stay.

NOTE: Between 1895 and 1918 over 55% of the English who came to the U.S. returned to their native land. 46% of the Scottish; 42% of the Irish; 40% of the Polish; 50% of the Italians; and 46% of the Greek also returned to their home land.

4. The Japanese started coming to the U.S. in the 1860s and brought with them extensive experience in agriculture.

5. Filipinos, as a result of the Treaty of Paris in 1898 and ratified in 1889, provided U.S. national status to Filipinos. In the U.S., national status does not carry the same rights and privileges of citizenship, but does allow the Filipinos to enter and leave the U.S. without restriction. Filipinos came to Hawaii and California for farming. During this time there was a lot of poverty in Philippines.

6. Koreans began coming to the U.S. in 1901. During this time, Korea was under the control of Japan. There were only approximately 7200 Koreans in the U.S. until the late 1960s. However, Koreans are now the third largest source of immigration in the U.S. today.

7. Asian-Americans have contributed significantly to this nation. They built the cross continental railroad in a time of little mechanization e.g., horse drawn labor, through adverse weather conditions. 12,000 of the 14,000 workers on the central pacific railroad were Chinese. So they built the railroad that joined the east and the west.

8. Another contribution is that they converted the swamps of the San Quaquin valley in California into some of the most fertile farmland on the face of the earth today. They built dikes, and drained the water by using their extensive knowledge of agriculture.

9. They not only had extensive knowledge of agriculture, but aquaculture as well. They helped farm and mine the sea as well. There was a Chinese cannery built in San Francisco in the 1860s. And finally they helped build the pineapple and sugar cane plantations in Hawaii.

NOTE: When you take a look at the history of Asian-Americans, just like Blacks, Hispanics etc., some of their records of the their contributions have disappeared. Not all of their contributions are recognized in our history books. The Chinese and Japanese made some of the biggest early contributions to the development of the west.


1. One of the things you need to understand about Asians is that they came and they succeeded. However, their success or ability to remain in the U.S. was not easy. There were many laws and regulations that were enacted to restrict or limit their immigration and even prohibited their citizenship.

2. In 1852, California passed a Foreign Miners Tax. They passed this legislation to tax all foreigners who were involved in mining. As one of the reasons the Chinese came to the U.S. were to work in gold mines, it directly affected them. Initially, each Chinese was required to pay a tax of three dollars a month, which was a majority of their monthly earnings.

3. In 1853 the tax was raised to $4 a month. Tax collectors who got to keep a percentage of the tax were authorized to seize and sell property on one hour’s notice for failure to pay tax. This caused even more hardships on the Chinese since the laws were not even printed in Chinese until 1855. Furthermore, there was a law in California that prevented the Chinese, along with Negroes, Indians and mulattos from testifying in court.

4. The next important piece of legislation was the Naturalization Act of 1870. This was the first national legislation that impacted on Asians. This act forbade the entry of spouses into the U.S. and it excluded the Chinese from obtaining citizenship. The legislation also applied to Jews coming from Europe and other groups.
5. The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed by Congress in 1882 was the first national legislation directed specifically towards a specific racial or ethnic group. This act specifically precluded Chinese immigration for a ten year period.

6. In 1892 congress passed the Geary Act. This Act continued the Chinese Exclusion Act. As a result of the Naturalization Act of 1870, the Chinese Exclusion Act and the Geary Act, the Chinese community consisted mainly of a male society. In 1854 there were 4500 Chinese immigrants in the U.S. and only 16 of them were women. This gave rise to the concept of the “mutilated family.” Whereas the husband is in the U.S. and the wife and family remain in China. This started the gradual decline of the Chinese community.

7. The Japanese immigrants saw what was happening to the Chinese and negotiated The Gentleman’s Agreement of 1907. This Agreement stated the Japanese agreed to voluntarily restrict immigration. Since Korea belonged to Japan during that time, it cut off Korean immigration. The Gentleman’s Agreement allowed the Japanese to set up the “picture bride’ system. This system allowed them to send pictures back and forth to Japan, get married based on the picture, and then allowed them to bring their spouse to the U.S. This created a population increase amongst the Japanese.

8. In 1913 the Alien Land Act was passed. This Act prevented aliens who were ineligible for citizenship from owning land in California.
NOTE: Ask he students what is the primary way most people attain their citizenship.

9. Most people attain their citizenship by being born in a certain place. So if the Japanese family had a baby in the U.S., it makes the baby a U.S. citizen, based on U.S. law. So the Japanese could title their land in the names of their children, who were U.S. citizens.

10. As I mentioned earlier, there were very few Chinese women in the U.S. In 1922 the U.S. government passed the Cable Act. This Act says that if you are an American female and you marry a foreign male, you lose your citizenship.

11. The next piece of legislation that was passed was the Exclusionary Immigration Act of 1924. It is also known as the National Origins Act. It excluded all Asians from immigration. It also put immigration quotas on British, Germans and others. The Exclusionary Immigration Act did not apply to Filipinos, as they were considered U.S. nationals. This impacted on the California Fruit Growers Association as most of their Mexican laborers had to be replaced by Filipinos. This Act basically excluded the immigration of all Asians, except the Filipinos.

12. The U.S. passed the Tiddings-McDuffie Act in 1934 which granted common wealth status to the Philippines giving them their independence. As the Philippines became a free country, they were no longer considered U.S. nationals and became subject to immigration quotas. The quota allowed the Philippines was 50 people per year.

13. At this point in time we have the Chinese and Filipino communities declining and the Japanese community continuing to grow.


1. After Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor December 7th, 1941 there was a tremendous amount of resentment towards Japanese-Americans. As a result of the bombing there was a lot of racism against Japanese-Americans.

2. On May 3d, 1942, the President issued Executive Order 9066. Executive Order 9066 basically stated that all persons of Japanese ancestry living in certain parts of the country were to be interned. Over 110,000 individuals of Japanese ancestry were relocated and interned. Two-thirds of them were actually citizens of the U.S..

NOTE: Executive Order 9066: “Instructions to all persons of Japanese ancestry living in the following area (It goes on to describe the areas of California, Oregon and Washington State). Pursuant to the provisions of civilian exclusion order number 34, this Headquarters dated May 3rd, 1942 all persons of Japanese ancestry both alien and non-alien (U.S. citizens) will be evacuated from the above (California, Oregon and Washington State) by 12 o’clock noon Pacific Western Time Saturday May 9th, 1942. No Japanese person living in the above area will be permitted to change residence after 12 o’clock noon Pacific Western Time, Sunday May 3rd, 1942 without obtaining special permission from the representative of the Commanding General, Northern California Secretary to Civil Control Station located at 920 C street..........”evacuees must carry with them upon departure to the assembly center the following property: bedding and linens (no mattresses) for each member of the family; toilet articles for each member of the family; extra clothing for each member of the family; sufficient knives, forks, spoons, plates, bowls and cups for each member of the family, essential personal effects for each member of the family. All items carried will be securely packaged, tied, and plainly marked with the name of the owner, numbered in accordance with the instructions obtained at the civil control station. The size and number of packages is limited to that which can be carried by the family or the family group. No pets of any kind will be permitted.....” signed J.L. DeWhit, LTG, United States Army, Commanding General, Western Defense Command, in Fourth Army

NOTE: So, if a Japanese-American woke up on Sunday morning and went out to get his or her newspaper off the porch, and you saw this notice posted on the wall, you could sell your house, business, etc. as long as you could do it by noon that same Sunday. The notice was dated May 3rd, which was a Sunday.

3. Of special note was the fact that while the U.S. was at war with Japan, Germany, and Italy, not a single German was interned nor was a single Italian put into camps. We even interned U.S. military personnel of Japanese descent. The Japanese-Americans were interned in relocation centers located in California, Arizona, Utah, Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado and Arkansas. Another interesting fact is not one Japanese person in Missouri, Texas, New Jersey, New York, Atlanta or anyplace east of the Great Plains were put into an internment camp. Only Japanese in the Western Defense Command jurisdiction. Not a single Japanese was put into an internment camp from the island of Hawaii, and over 30% of the labor force on the docks at Pearl Harbor were Americans of Japanese descent. The reason it took from December 1941 to May 1942 to decide to intern the Japanese-Americans is that in the Senate and Congress there was actual debate on whether they should be exterminated. The reason that only Japanese-Americans on the west coast were interned was the attitude of the Western Defense Command.

4. The internment order had the Japanese trying to sell everything they had. Other Asian groups also were often mistaken for being Japanese. Chinese store owners had put signs in their windows “Chinese Store” so as not to be mistaken for a Japanese store.

5. Since the Chinese were our allies, they now became the “good folks.” In 1943, the Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed and a quota system was set up to allow 100 Chinese to immigrate each year. Filipinos were also allies. After W.W.II in 1946, Filipinos in the United States were allowed to petition for U.S. citizenship. This lasted until 1976.

6. In 1952 the Walter-McCarren Act was passed and Asians who were not born in the U.S. were eligible for naturalization. It changed the Exclusion Act to an Act that had restrictions. It wasn’t until 1965 that President Johnson signed the National Origins Act which removed from the immigration laws all of the quotas and provided entry on a first come first serve basis.

7. From 1975 into the 1980’s there have been over 400,000 Southeast Asian refugees enter the U.S. e.g., Vietnamese, Laotians, and Cambodians. They came to primarily seek freedom from persecution.


1. Initially the perceptions of the Chinese people were positive because they would work long hours for low wages. Remember we discussed there were 12,000 Chinese laborers working on the Western Pacific railroad? When the last spike was driven in, there were suddenly 12,000 unemployed Chinese people. With such a large number of unemployed workers the labor unions viewed the Asian-Americans with resentment, fear, and as a real threat. This resulted in a number of false perceptions and stereotypes. The false perceptions and stereotypes included: atheistic heathens, opium smokers, gamblers, and gangsters.

2. Probably the most sinister of all Asian-American stereotypes was Dr. Fu Manchu. He had razor sharp fingernails, the flowing robes, sinister eyes, and the cruel and ruthless mind. One of the interesting views about Fu Manchu is he eventually hopped into a spaceship and became Ming the Merciless, an arch rival of Flash Gordon.

3. In contrast to these evil stereotypes, there was a very prominent detective on the Honolulu police department, called Charlie Chan. Although Charlie Chan had his act together he was followed around by his “number one son” who didn’t. The “number one son” became the comic relief.

4. In contrast to Fu Manchu and Charlie Chan we have the Chinese restaurant and the Chinese laundry where people are hard working. When you needed your shirts pressed you took them to the Chinese laundry.

5. Some folks see them as the “Model majority” while others see them as the “Yellow peril” showing up everywhere in the U.S.

6. There are some circumstances that helped create some of the myths. The immigration patterns played a part. For instance, in 1860, 6,000 Chinese came to San Francisco. In 1861 it was 12,000. In 1862 it was 30,000. San Francisco was the primary entry port where most of the Chinese entered the U.S.. When individuals visited San Francisco and returned back home or wherever, they would tell people they are invading the country. So there was a tendency for people to think there were hordes of Asians coming to shore.

7. The Working Man’s Party kept Asians out of the labor market. The Chinese were willing to work, but the labor unions did not want them in. Remember, the Chinese couldn’t own farms, because of the Alien Land Act, they could be miners, but remember the Foreign Miners Tax. All of these factors affected the job opportunities of the Chinese. The only market open or available to them was laundry. As a result, the Chinese opened up numerous laundry shops.

8. The Chinese restaurant business basically started under similar circumstances. After work the Chinese would return home, not to a wife and children, because of the of the Chinese Exclusion Act. So they formed co-ops of 10 or 12 men living together, where a couple of men would stay at home and cook the evening meal. We may refer to it as “K.P.” Later neighbors would be invited over to eat and eventually they started into the restaurant business.

9. By 1880, 60% of the Chinese in San Francisco were involved in the laundry or restaurant business.

10. Most of the media portrayal of Asians was done by whites. We mentioned earlier about Charlie Chan.

11. The first movie starring an Asian family in the movies was a movie with Charleton Heston called “The Hawaiians.” It was the first time there was an Asian portrayal of Asians on the screen. The first Asian allowed to fight a white person was in a movie starring Steve McQueen called “The Sandpebbles”. However, Asians couldn’t win in movies. There are still movies out there such as Kung Fu starring David Carradine. So now we have the “Kung Fu” stereotype and the “gentle” and the “wise” stereotype.

12. Fear and reaction is still out there. There is the fear and resentment of the Chinese in San Francisco in 1878 to the fear and resentment of the Vietnamese boat people today. So you have to ask yourself ” have we come very far?”


1. The Chinese family structure is the “clan.” The family needs are placed above individual needs. The family, not the individual, is the nucleus of Chinese culture. They have an extended family.

2. The surname or family is place before the first name, because it is the most important. There is a strong respect for elders within the Chinese family.

3. There is a very strong male tradition in the Chinese family, because the family exists only as long as the name continues. The family name goes from father to son.

4. The Chinese practice Filial Piety. Filial means “towards the father”, and “Piety” means worship or reverence towards the father. Some of the characteristic of Filial Piety is that parents command the children. Children are not consulted on family matters. If the children display bad behavior it is seen as the dereliction of the parent. A child doing wrong dishonors all of the family members.

5. In the process of Filial Piety, as the children matures, an impression of affection by the mother lessons. It is appropriate to kiss a baby, but when the child gets older it’s very much reduced. Furthermore, the father is always detached from the child to ensure proper dignity and respect.

6. Filial piety among contemporary Chinese-Americans is not quite so patriarchal or formal. The depth of the traditional values varies with the amount of traditional culture contact, not with the length of time they’ve been in the United States.

7. The Japanese-American family is similar to the Chinese-Americans. It is very patriarchal. Filial Piety is practiced. It is male oriented where the father is the absolute authority. There is a general respect for elders. Males are the only heirs within the family. In many cases, the father-son relationship is stronger than the father-spouse relationship. To the Japanese, the family is above the individual.

8. The Japanese have an extended family concept. Their extended family is referred to as the “House”. The “House” is a social entity to which status, lineage and customs are attached. The needs of the house are considered first. The type of filial piety in a Japanese family are reciprocal in that the child and the parent are obligated to each other.

9. The first thing you need to understand about the Korean family structure is Korea has a socially stratified society. There are several distinct classes. Traditionally, there were four classes: the scholars; the technicians and administrators; the commoners; and then the base people. This traditional lasted for thousands of years.

10. After the Korean War in 1954, an amendment to the constitution changed the social class stratification to an economic stratification. The current stratification has three classes: people with money and influence; people with money and no influence; and people with no money and no influence. Although this took place in 1954, the old stratification has not completely gone away.

11. Filial Piety is a very prominent element of family membership. It is a strong male orientation. The concept of the household in the Korean family is called the “CHIP,” pronounced “cheap,” It is similar to the clan. There is a strong respect for the elders and the educated.

12. As you can see, the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean families have similarities in the family structure.

13. The Filipino family structure is very different from the Chinese and Japanese family structure. First of all, there are more than 7,000 different islands that make up the Philippines and many have their own diverse cultures.

14. The Philippines have been affected by a lot of outside influences. There was a lot of early contact with China that influenced the Philippines and the Philippine lifestyle. The Malaysian trade routes brought the Philippines into contact with Muslims and other cultures. Ferdinand Magellan claimed the Philippines in 1521 for Prince Philip of Spain. This control lasted 378 years until the U.S. ousted Spain.

15. Filipinos have an extended family similar to the Chinese. However, the family is less formal in their relationships. The family is bonded together with love, respect and responsibility. It is a mutual bond. Relatives of both the husband and wife are part of the extended family.

16. Due to the Spanish influence, the family includes the godmother and godfather as part of the child’s family. Filial Piety is not practiced. The spouses share parental responsibility, authority, and decision making, similar to the American culture.


1. Culture is passed on from generation to generation through language.

2. The Chinese language is the oldest and most widespread language on earth. The Chinese language is monosyllabic. This means it is spoken in words of one syllable. Therefore, gestures and tones are very important to language meaning.

3. A key point you need to understand is that in China there are over 1000 different dialects or spoken languages, many of which are mutually incomprehensible. This means that if someone from North China meets someone from South China they will be speaking different languages and not able to understand each other. However, the Chinese have only one written language which everyone can understand.

NOTE: A brief true story about the implications of the different dialects is that most of the early immigration came from an area of southern China called the Canton Province. During World War II, bombers were loaded on the aircraft carrier Hornet with the plan to bomb Japan. The escape plan after the bombing was to fly to China and ditch the planes. Prior to taking off from the Hornet, it was decided to teach the pilots to say “I am an American” in Chinese, so they would not be confused with Russians, and when they land in China they could identify themselves. They were taught in a southern China dialect, but ditched their airplanes on the border with Russia in northern China. When the Chinese approached them they raised their hands saying “I am an American.” Not able to identify themselves in the dialect spoken in northern China, 20 of the 80 pilots were shot or killed, because they couldn’t identify themselves.

4. In the written language there is a sign for every idea and they are called ideographs. The concept of the language is the expressing of ideas instead of words, which is a significant difference from the Western language. This written language is also understood in Japan and Korea as well.

5. The Japanese language was borrowed and adapted from the Chinese. The spoken language differs in dialect from the Chinese. It is polysyllabic and mutually intelligible. The basic concept of expressing ideas rather than word sounds is also a part of the language. It is a single spoken language that is understood by everyone.

6. The written language consists of Kanji, Hirigana, and Katakan. Kanji involves several thousand characters of Chinese style ideographs. The Hiragana is the most common written form and uses phonetic symbols. The Katakana is sort of an attempt at an alphabet. The Hiragana and Katakana are relatively new styles.

7. The Korean language is written with Chinese characters and a native Korean script known as han’gul pronounced “Hongool.” It is a phonetic alphabet. The grammatical structure is similar to the Japanese, as is used as the single spoken language. In the Korean language there are different levels of speech when addressing persons who are superior, equal, or inferior in rank.

8. As mentioned earlier there are over 7,000 islands that make up the Philippines. There are over 300 different spoken languages in the Philippines. The three most prominent are Tagalog, English and Spanish. Tagalog is the largest native language.

9. One of the interesting aspects of Tagalog is there are no sounds for F, V, W, or Z. This can create some problems for Filipino-Americans during their language orientations, since their native language do not have these sounds.


1. One of the concepts you need to understand of Chinese religion is that the basic religious beliefs are non-Christian. For some people in the United States that is a problem. The are four basic Chinese-American religious influences and they are Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, and Chinese Christianity.

2. Confucianism comes from the teachings of Kung Fu Tze who lived from 551-478
BC. His philosophy survived from the great age of philosophy back in Chinese ancient history. In Confucianism there is no deity, e.g., God, and there is no life after death. It stresses moral ideas.

3. The central theme of Confucianism is the art of living. A person is an individual who lives in five basic relationships. These relationships are in order from the most important to least important. The most important societal relationship is husband to wife. The second most important is parent to child. The third most important is elder to younger. The fourth is ruler to subject. And the fifth most important is friend to friend.

4. Confucianism says that if you keep these five basic relationships in harmony you will do well. There is a Confucian analect which says “what you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others.” Another analect says “A person is judged by what they do and are, rather than what they believe and say.”

5. One of the most important philosophies of Confucianism is a reverence for ancestors and virtue of education. That is why the educational value and family reverence ties throughout the family structure.

6. Taoism is the second largest religious influence in China. Taoism consists of two parts and they are “The truth” and “The deed.” The two goals of Taoism are happiness and immortality. Taoism is a “return to nature” kind of religion. Lead a simple life, all life is one. Taoism is probably one of the most superstitious religions. They have more Deities than any other religion. They deal with astrology, fortune telling, witch craft and communication with the spirits of the dead.

7. One of the more minor religious influences in China is Buddhism. Buddhism began in China about 67 A.D. Buddha offered “The Way.” “The Way” of Buddha is a middle path between the excesses of extreme severe self-denial and uncontrolled passion. You are searching for Nirvana or “perfect peace,” which is a release from the suffering of all of the world. In other words the road to perfect peace is through self-enlightenment.

8. Chinese Christian churches are not indigenous to China. Chinese Christian churches are something that happened in America after they arrived here. Chinese are eclectic in religious beliefs and have a detached attitude towards it. In other words, it is not uncommon for someone to be part Tao, part Confucian, and part Christian. However, there are some people in the United States who believe either you are or are not Christian. If you are a Christian you can’t be anything else. Most Chinese people joined the Christian churches early, initially to learn the language and group affiliation. This doesn’t mean they weren’t believers.

9. The three major religions of Japan are Buddhism, Shinto, and Christianity. The majority of Japanese are Buddhists.

10. The Shinto religion is a term coined in the 6th century. It was the traditional religion in Japan before Buddhism came there. Shinto is the largest religion in the world that has a female Deity. One of the tenets of the Shinto religion is to worship things of nature. It involves all of nature’s resources such as lakes, mountains, rivers, and animals. The Shinto religion believes there is no salvation or life after death. They also believe the world we have is good and beautiful. Individuals who practice Shintoism look at the world as heaven versus the Christian belief of heaven being some place else other than earth. The Shinto religion believe evil exists only as a perverseness of spirit.

11. Japanese Christianity was introduced to Japan in 1549. By the year 1600 there were approximately 300,000 Christians in Japan. However in 1612, there was a religious war and the Christians were persecuted and almost eliminated in Japan.

12. Japanese-Americans joined Christian churches for basically the same reasons as the Chinese. Initially, it was to learn the language and group affiliation.

13. The Korean religious influences include Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism. Taoism and Buddhism became the national religions during the 4th century A.D. Confucianism became popular in the 14 century. Christianity was imported to Korea during the late 19th Century.

14. The Ch’ondo-Gyo religion is the only truly Korean unique religion. It was developed in the mid 1800s during a period of high nationalistic spirit. The basic tenet of Ch’ondo-Gyo is a belief that God exists in everyone, and that it is self-perfection. It is “doing what you are supposed to do” is the path to salvation versus the ritual and ceremony.

15. The Filipino religion is predominantly Catholicism. The Catholic religion is the most prominent due to their previous Spanish influence. Approximately 80% of Filipinos are Catholics. The other predominant religion is Islam (7%). The religious values and ceremonies of the Filipinos are not significantly different from other Americans. However, they are significantly different from other Asian -Americans.


1. Asians have other values that don’t fit into family, language or religion. To fully understand their culture we need to discuss these other considerations.

2. An important value the Chinese practice is known as the concept of “face.” The concept of face is an extremely important and means “I am not going to do anything to embarrass anyone else.” In the concept of “face,” individuals who disagree with someone will not argue face to face. They will get an intermediary, who will intermediate between two people, so the disagreement can be resolved to avoid direct conflict.

3. Japanese-Americans have a very important value of visibility. It may be more accurate to say invisibility. For example, they do not want to draw attention to themselves. Which means they would refrain from playing loud music, driving luxury cars, live in a big house in Beverly Hills. They will work hard and fit in with everyone else. Basically becoming unnoticeable.

4. Very important to the Japanese culture is the concept of “generation of character.” What this means is that depending on where you were born determines your generation. The first generation of Japanese are the people who were born in Japan. These are known as the ISSEI. The second generation are NISSEI, and are born in the U.S. of ISSEI parents. The third generation are the SANSEI. The SANSEI traditionally reject ISSEI traditions and values, which causes some conflict within the family. They are the second generation born in The U.S.. The fourth generation are known as the YONSEI. They’re re basically assimilated into the U.S. culture, but retain some elements of the Japanese culture.

5. A Korean value is the concept of “Kibun.” “Kibun” is based on a Korean word which means “to feel.” This concept is very similar the Chinese value of “face.” It’s basically they will not do or say anything to make another person upset.

6. The Filipino-Americans have a value of loyalty and one of identity and belonging to a group. It is tremendously important.


1. Asian-Americans tend to be better educated than all other groups. Education is a Confucius religious and family value. While they comprise 2.9 percent of the U.S. population, Asian-American representation at prestigious colleges and universities is much greater. In 1990 at Harvard, they represented 12 percent of the students; at Stanford, 20 percent; at the University of California at Berkeley, 30 percent. Two of five Asian-Americans have completed four years of college or more, twice the rate for the entire country.

2. Many Asians who immigrate to the U.S. today come with professional degrees. However, there are some organizations that don’t honor those degrees.

3. Bi-lingual education does not only apply to the Hispanic culture, but to the Asian culture as well.

4. Asian-Americans have seen successful military service for many years. In 1898, aboard the Battleship Maine, seven ISSEI (first generation Japanese) sailors died when it was blown up in the Havana harbor.

5. The Selective Service initially classified the NISSEI “4F” ( unfit for service) during W.W.II and they were not allowed to volunteer for Army service even though they were born in the U.S. and were citizens of the U.S.. However, in 1943, the U.S. formed the 100th Battalion and the 442nd Regimental Combat Team. Many of the members of the unit volunteered from the interment camps. The 100th Battalion, which was the Hawaiian National Guard, was an all Japanese unit from Hawaii. After that the Army formed the 442 Regimental Combat team, both units saw extensive combat service in Italy.

6. The 100th Battalion and the 442nd Regimental Combat Team were the most highly decorated units of W.W.I. There were 18,143 individual decorations for valor in less than two years. One soldier earned the Medal of Honor. 52 received Distinguished Service Crosses, One Distinguished Service Medal, 560 Silver Stars with 28 Oak Leaf Clusters, 22 Legions of Merit, 15 Soldier’s Medals, 4000 Bronze Stars plus 1200 Oak Leaf Clusters representing second Bronze Stars, 9486 Purple Hearts, seven Presidential Unit Citations, two Meritorious Unit Citations, 36 Army Commendation Medals, 87 Division Commendations, and 18 decorations from allied nations. Even with their outstanding service, upon return to the U.S. they were still unwelcome in many areas.

7. President Harry S. Truman pinned the final Presidential Citation to the 442nd colors and said “I can tell you how much I appreciate the privilege of being able to show you just how much the United States thinks of what you have done...You fought not only the enemy, but you fought prejudice and you won.”

8. Other contributions include the formation of the 4th Army Intelligence School responsible for taking ISSEI and NISSEI soldiers, increasing their language fluency, to be part of the code network throughout the Pacific and gathering intelligence from the Imperial Japanese, during the later part of the war. The NISSEI contribution was for us to understand the Japanese, while the Navajo contribution was to prevent people from understanding us.

9. So, there has been significant contributions of Asian-Americans in keeping our country free.


1. Many individuals think Asian-Americans are a minority that we don’t have to worry about very much, because they are doing very well. Asian-Americans, like other minority groups and cultures, have problems and concerns that need to be addressed. Of primary concern is the negative stereotype the Japanese are buying up America.

2. Other problems include the family and maintaining their old culture e.g., language, religion etc.

3. The following is an extract of comments from a 1986 U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. While it talks about Asian-Americans, it is unfortunately applicable to other groups and cultures.

“The root causes of bigotry and violence against Asian-Americans are complex. Racial prejudice; misplaced anger caused by wars or economic competition with Asian countries; resentment of the real of perceived success of Asian-Americans; and a lack of understanding of the histories, customs, and religions of Asian-Americans all play a role in triggering incidents of bigotry and violence. The media have contributed to the prejudice by promoting stereotypes of Asian-Americans, especially the model minority stereotype; by sometimes highlighting the criminal activities of Asian gangs; and by failing to provide in-depth and balanced coverage that would help the public to understand the diverse Asian-American population. Furthermore, the media gives little attention to hate crimes against Asian-Americans, thereby hindering the formation of a national sense of outrage about bigotry and violence against Asian-Americans, a critical ingredient for social change.......”

4. While data is difficult to obtain, incomplete when available, and limited by widespread underreporting of anti-Asian violence, it nonetheless clearly establishes that the problem is extensive and severe.



Doris Matsui and Shirley Sagawa - First Asian-American members of President Clinton’s sub-cabinet.
Dennis Yao - One of five Federal Trade Commissioners selected by President Bush in 1991.
Hiram L. Fong, Spark M. Matsunga, and Daniel Ken Inouye - U.S. Senators.
Robert Matsui, Daniel K. Akaka and Patsy Takemoto Mink - U.S. Representatives.
Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa - U.S. Senator, college president, and author.


Jokichi Takamine - Chemist, first to isolate adrenaline.
Hideyo Murayama - Isolated syphilis germ.
Dr. An Wang - Computer wizard.
Satori Kato - Chemist, invented instant powdered coffee.
Dr. May Stone - First Chinese woman to graduate from an American medical school.
Ananda Chakrabarty - Pioneer in genetic engineering.
Dr. Yuan Lee - Professor at the University of California, Berkeley, who won the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1986.
Dr. Samuel Ting - Nobel prize winner in physics in 1976.
LTC Ellison Onizuka - Flew aboard the first Defense Department shuttle mission in January 1985 and later died aboard the Challenger in 1986.


Lea Salonga - Star on Broadway play “Miss Saigon.”
Joan Chen - Actress.
Bruce Lee - Actor in marital arts films.
Kam Fong - Actor in “Hawaii 50.”
Sessue Hayakawa - Actor in “Bridge on the River Kwai.”
George Takei - Actor in “Star Trek.”
Dr. Haing S. Ngor - Oscar winning actor in “The Killing Fields.”
Connie Chung - First Asian-American to report nationally for a television network.
Jon Yune - Comedian.
Seiji Ozawa - Conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra.
Kyung-Wha Chung - World famous violinist.


George Haaheo “Chad” Rowan aka “Akebono.” - The only American ever to win the title of “Yokozuna,” Japan’s top Sumo wrestler.
Kristi Yamaguchi - 1992 Olympic Gold Medalist in women’s figure skating.
Charlie Pung, Richard Tanabe, Sandra Nitta, Linda Jezek, Evelyn Kawamoto, Ford Konno, and Yoshinaba Oyakawa - Swimmers and Olympic medalists.
Vicki Manalo Draves - In 1948, was first woman in Olympic history to win two gold medals in diving.
Dr. Sammy Lee - Diving champion.
Tiffany Chin - Youngest ice skater ever to win the Junior World Figure Skating Title.
Harold Sakata and Tommy Kono - Olympic weight lifters.
James Yoshinori - Boxer.
Patrick Mitsugi Burris, Nicki Yonezuki, Craig Agena, and LTC Paul K. Maruyama, USAF - Judo champions.
Michael Chang - Youngest male winner of the French Open tennis tournament in 1989.


Rocky Aoki - Founder of Benihana of Tokyo restaurant chain.
Joe Shoong - Founder of National Dollar Stores chain.
Rick Inatome - Founded Inacomp Computer Corp.
Gerald Tsai, Jr. - Chairman of American Can Co., first Chinese-born American citizen to head a major, old-line U.S. corporation.


Japanese cherry blossom trees were planted in Potomac Park in Washington, D.C., in 1912 as a gift from the people of Tokyo.

Cherries were cultivated in China approximately 4,000 years ago, but a Chinese immigrant named Bing developed the Bing Cherry in 1875.

Some Asian words which have become part of the American language: tea, typhoon, tong, kumquat, kowtow, and honcho (from han-cho meaning squad leader).

Chop Suey was developed in the U.S. in an attempt to recreate authentic Chinese food without proper cooking utensils, ingredients, or seasonings.

Chow Mein is also an American dish, first prepared by Chinese railroad workers in San Francisco.


TASK: Jewish-American Experience

CONDITION: Classroom environment

STANDARD: 1. Describe the historical perspective. 2. Describe the Jewish identity. 3. Describe the concepts of Judaism. 4. Describe the Jewish culture. 5. Explain Anti-Semitism. 6. Explain the current relationships. 7. Define the contemporary issues.

We will discuss the culture of Jewish-Americans. It has been said that the image of America as a melting pot is a bankrupt one. The greatness and strength of this country is not that its citizens lose their individual characteristics and culture and melt into nondescript beings, but rather that a citizen maintain their uniqueness and that one group’s strength enforces another group’s weakness. It has been suggested that a more vivid and realistic image for America is a quilt. This home-spun quilt called the United States of America can only be examined by the individual patches of the quilt. Only when one studies the intricacies of each individual patch can one understand the difficulty, conflict, and blood that went into sewing those fibers of nationhood together. The Jewish-American Experience is a patch in that quilt, one that has contributed both its talent and blood in making this nation what it is today.


1. Historical Perspective. Although the focus of this lesson will be on the experience of Jews in America, it is important you understand some of the history and events of Jewish people. The participation of Jewish-Americans in the American experience has been, and promises to continue, to be as exciting and glorious as all other American groups. One studies the Jewish-American experience, not to take away from the experience of other ethnic groups, but rather to add to their understanding.

NOTE: As of 1980, the Jewish population is the United States was approximately 6 million. There are approximately twice as many Jews living in America than in the entire state of Israel.

2. Concept of Judaism. Judaism is one of the oldest world religions, and is the forerunner of both Christianity and Islam. Though the number of its adherents is small, they greatly impacted Western thought and civilization. As noted by Martha Morrison and Stephen Brown in the book Judaism: World Religions. This ancient religion arose in the Near East some 3,500 years ago. Among monotheistic religions, or those whose followers believe in only one true god, it is one of the oldest.

3. Though this religion has always had a relatively small number of believers, Judaism has played an extremely important role in the development of Western civilization. Christianity was built on the foundation of Judaism, and Islam. Moreover, the Jews have risen to great heights in every area of cultural achievement. It is important to know the Jews have made their contributions in the face of enormous difficulties, for survival in an often hostile world. Only a tenacious adherence to their beliefs, their customs, and their identity accounts for their continued existence.

4. Early Jewish History. “In the beginning, God created the universe.” (Gen,
1:1). That is the start of Jewish history. The Old Testament is the story of the Jewish people. The first five books of the Old Testament are the foundation of the Jewish faith, the document called the Torah. In those books are some of the key events which help explain the reactions of the Jewish people to the situations which have affected them throughout history.

5. The first critical concept is from Genesis (17: 1-2, 5,8). When Abraham was ninety years old the Lord appeared to him and said, “I am the Almighty God, obey me, and always do what is right and I will make a covenant with you and give you many descendants...I will give to you and to your descendants this Land in which you are now a foreigner. The whole land of Canaan will belong to your descendants forever, and I will be their God.”

6. Many generations of wandering passed and the Israelites came to the Sinai with Moses as their leader. The next important concept came through Moses. This is from Exodus (19:2-8). After they had left Egypt, they came to the desert of Sinai. There, they set up camp at the foot of Mount Sinai, and Moses went up to the mountain to meet God. The Lord called to him from the mountain and told him to say to the Israelites ”if you will obey me and keep my will be my chosen people and you will serve me as priests.” The people answered ”we will do everything the Lord has said.”

7. The guidance received by Moses and written in the Torah describes for the Jewish people a way of life. This is supplemented by interpretations and discussions of the Torah by Jewish scholars known as Rabbis. These discussions form the basis for the body of law called the Talmud, which was originally completed about 500 AD. From the Talmud, comes the concept of Mitzvah, the way the Jewish people affirm their faith. Through Mitzvah the people prove their commitment to God by performing good deeds.

8. Understanding these foundations of the Jewish faith helps you understand how the Jewish people have survived for thousands of years and their reactions to situations they have faced.

9. For as long as history has been recorded, it tells a continuous story of exile, resettlement, and conquest of the Jewish people of their lands. Throughout this time the Jewish people were able to overcome prejudice, hate, and discrimination making significant developments in their religion and culture by keeping in mind God’s covenant. If they kept His commandments and performed good deeds, they would be given Israel as their home.

10. After the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus in 70 CE, the Jewish people were expelled from their land and tried to plant new roots throughout the entire known world following on the coattails of the Romans. Eventually, through centuries of dispersion, the Jewish people evolved into two general distinct subgroups, the Ashkenazim (Germanic) and the Sephardim (Spanish). The Hebrews word that signified the land of Germany, Ashkenaz, was used to describe all Jews living in Germany, parts of France, Eastern Europe, and Russia. The Hebrew word that signified the lands of Spain and Portugal on the Iberian peninsula, Sephard, was used to describe those Jews living on the Iberian peninsula, North Africa, and parts of Middle East. These two Jewish groups were linked by a common faith and history, but separated by distance, had different historical experiences, which were to affect their entry into America. One will quickly see that the effect the Jews had on America began even before the existence of America was known in Europe.

11. The Sephardim, or Spanish Jews, lived primarily under Islamic rule, either in the Middle East, North Africa, or Moorish Spain. While technically the Muslims viewed them as inferior, because they did not accept the Islamic faith, in practice they were allowed to make great contributions in art, science, literature, and politics. As Leo Trepp notes in Judaism, Development and Life, “Living under Islamic rule, the Jews developed a flourishing Jewish culture and produced outstanding thinkers and leaders.”

12. Spain eventually was united under the reign of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in 1492. One of the first tasks of the Queen, under the guidance of her religious adviser Tomas de Torquemada, was to make Spain a land united under one faith. After converting or expelling the Moors, the Crown issued a decree that all Jews must either convert or leave the country. This order was announced on April 20, 1492. It is interesting to note that Columbus set his sailing date for August 2 but was postponed a day due to the heavy port traffic caused by the exiles leaving Spain. The Spanish Monarchs then forced the hand of King Manuel of Portugal, who in 1497 expelled from that country all Jews who would not convert. This expulsion marked the end of Spanish and Portuguese Jewry, but also begun the history of Jews in America.

13. The Jews come to America. By the 13th century Jewish life in Spain began to decline as Christianity became dominant throughout Europe. By the 14th century, increasing competition developed between Christians and Jewish merchants in the cities. Christians instituted local laws restricting the religious liberty of Jews. Anti-Jewish violence, common in other parts of Europe, began to erupt in Spain. Jews became targets of suspicion and prejudice. For example, they were blamed for the Black Plague and accused of performing the Blood Libel, a sacrificial ritual to obtain Christian blood for the Passover Feast. Mobs invaded Jewish neighborhoods and synagogues. The government offered the Jews death or baptism. Many were baptized and were known as conversos; however, many conversos continued to practice Judaism in private.

14. Christians, doubting the Jews’ sincerity, labeled them “marrano” (deceiver or pig). Many Jews became prominent in society and politics, causing further concern among Christians. This led to the establishment of the Spanish Inquisition in 1478 to ensure the sincerity of converts. As a result, many Spanish Jews were imprisoned or put to death. Finally, to rid itself of the Jews, Spain expelled them beginning in 1492. The last boatloads of exiles left on August 2, 1492, bound for Italy, the Turkish Empire, and North Africa. On August 3, 1492, Christopher Columbus, who had been delayed one day because of all the harbor traffic, set sail for the western route to India.

15. Columbus had five conversos on his ships, including two physicians and his interpreter Luis de Torres. On October 12, 1492, de Torres went ashore with Columbus and led a scouting party. When Columbus returned to Spain, de Torres volunteered to remain in San Salvador to govern it as a Spanish colony. He spent the rest of his life there. Ironically, the door to the “New World” opened just as the door to the old slammed shut.

16. The first wave of Jewish immigration was during the period of 1654-1829 and consisted of 23 people. These Jewish people sailed up the coast to the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, which is now New York City. They developed the first Jewish colony on North American soil. The primary reason for immigrating was for religious freedom. The population grew from 23 to about 5,000 by 1829. They were considered wealthy and skilled professionals. One of this group’s major accomplishments was to win the right to become citizens, own real estate, to travel and trade and the right to bear arms. However, they were still required to worship in private. When Great Britain defeated the Dutch and renamed the area New York City, Jews were allowed more freedom to practice religion. They established “model” communities similar to what they had in Europe.

17. The second wave of Jewish immigration to America was from 1820-1880. They mainly arrived from Germany and Central Europe. As a result, the Jewish population grew to approximately 300,000. The primary reason for immigration during this period was to escape political strife and economic suffering. The majority of immigrants were traders, peddlers, or merchants. These Jews spread across the country and tended to assimilate more into American society than the first group of Jews.

18. The third wave of Jewish immigration took place between 1880-1924, and consisted of Jewish people from Eastern Europe. They were poor, unskilled and immigrated because little work was available and to escape extreme religious persecution. During this period approximately 2.5 million Jewish people came to the U.S.. They mainly settled in the industrial cities. Their primary accomplishments made during this period included the formation of unions and groups to fight for laws, including child labor laws. This was during the Industrial Revolution and there was a need for laborers. They settled mostly in New York City in crowded, substandard housing. Many worked in the grocery, dry goods, and garment industry.

19. As a result of the substandard conditions they lived and worked in, Jewish organizations emerged to improve conditions. These conditions and organizations were catalysts for major changes in the U.S.. The factory working conditions in most parts of the U.S. were unsafe and miserable. The conditions were crowded, unsanitary, hazardous and because of this there were many problems and deaths in factories. The Jewish organizations took the forefront in lobbying against the unsafe conditions. It all came to head in an incident known as the 1911 Triangle Shirt Waist Company fire. There was a movie made on this incident years back. It was a typical “sweat shop” factory and about 95 percent of the young people employed were young Jewish women and the other five percent were other minority women immigrants. The owners would lock the doors of the factory to keep the women from escaping and loosing productivity. One day a fire started in the factory and no one was able to get out. A few of the women jumped of three or four story windows to their deaths and the other 143 women burned to death in the factory. The press reported the incident, which caused labor reform to come to the forefront in the U.S.. This was due in large part to the lobbying by some of the Jewish welfare and aid organizations. The ultimate result were changes in safety and child labor laws.

20. In 1924, due to an outcry on the large volume of Jewish immigrants, quotas in immigration were established. Before the Immigration Act of 1924 there were 140,000 Jewish people immigrating to America each year. After the Act was enacted and quotas established, the rate dropped to 10,000.

21. During the period 1935-1945, in an attempt to respond to Nazism, the American public did not want America to be a haven for Jews. After concentration camps in Europe were destroyed, Americans had more tolerance for Jews.

22. Legislation. Although many Jews originally came to America to practice religious freedom, they still did not have equal religious rights. One of the longest battles was trying to get separation of church and state. Originally in the U.S. much of the civic privilege was tied to taking a Christian oath of office. Thus, Jewish people were excluded from many civic privileges. A number of states established state religions and many were Christian religions. There was an ongoing battle from the time of Thomas Jefferson until 1947 to overturn the link between church and state. Thomas Jefferson persuaded Virginia to separate church and state and many other states followed. However, in 1845 the Federal government set back the whole movement by ruling that the 1st Amendment to the Constitution, pertaining to separation of church and state, did not apply to the States, but just to the Federal Government. In 1947 the Supreme Court overturned the 1845 ruling and that the separation of church and state did apply to States. They used the 14th amendment to apply the 1st amendment to the states. It was decided that “neither the state or the Federal Government can set up a church and that they could not pass laws to aid one religion, aid all religions, or prefer one religion over another. They could not force or influence a person to go to or remain away from church or to profess a belief or disbelief in any religion.”

23. State of Israel. The next legislation the Jewish people were involved in was the Zionist movement. Zionism is a biblical term for Israel. Zionism is a plan or movement of the Jewish people to return to Palestine. It was a movement originally aimed at the re-establishment of a Jewish national homeland and state in Palestine and now concerned with the development and support of Israel.

24. In 1917, the British who controlled the lands of Palestine supported the Balfer Declaration, which was the idea of Palestine as the Jewish state. Bowing to the pressure of the Arab nations who did not want the Jewish people to immigrate in 1939 they closed off Palestine to immigration. In 1947 the United Nations finally voted to open Palestine again as a Jewish state. On May 14, 1948 the British left Palestine and the state of Israel was proclaimed. Unfortunately most of the Arab nations have not recognized the existence of Israel as a separate political entity.

25. The establishment of Israel ended a debate amongst Jewish-Americans, which had split the Jewish communities for many years on whether to support the state of Israel or not. Unfortunately, it raised anti-Semitic sentiment, because people thought that with the establishment of a Jewish homeland the Jews in America would desert in droves to Israel. This did not happen, because being Jewish does not tie a person to a nationality. Jewish-Americans stayed in America, but supported Israel with money, skills and philanthropic support. There were disagreements within the Jewish community on the legitimacy of the state of Israel. These disagreements ranged from the unconcerned to rejection, moderate to extreme concern, and positive to negative. Some reject it, because they do not want to be associated with political Zionism and the possibility of being discriminated against and harassed. Devout Orthodox Jews reject the state of Israel, because it was promised to them as a religious homeland to established by God as a result of keeping the covenant and the return of the Messiah. They do not see the political formation of the state as Israel as fulfilling that portion of the covenant.

26. The third area of legislation which affected the Jewish-Americans was the quotas established in the 1924 immigration law. Through lobbying with Congress and joining with other Civil Rights groups Congress passed the Immigration and Naturalization Act in 1965, which is the one the U.S. basis its immigration on today. Some of the quotas the Jewish-Americans had to deal with were not so blatant and obvious as law. The Jewish-Americans have had problems with institutions of higher learning.

27. Many of the colleges and universities in the 1920s, during the anti-immigrant sentiment, had some unwritten discriminatory policies involving quotas that affected a large number minorities in the U.S.. For some reason it was emphatically enforced on the Jewish-Americans. Jewish-Americans place a great deal of value on education, which will be discussed later. Jewish-Americans tend to take advanced education and get into professions such as lawyers and doctors to move up into society.

28. Many universities used the reasoning of not admitting Jews, because they wanted a cross section of Americans attending. In 1922, the President of Harvard University stated that the reason for limiting the number of Jewish people attending Harvard was to reduce anti-Semitic tension at the university. Due to his comments, Jewish organizations were able to fight the quota system more openly. The problem with the quota system even today is that the quotas are not really written down and identified.

29. In 1948, President Truman’s Commission on Higher Education reported on the discrimination in college admission. It specifically addressed the obstacles of Jewish candidates. It recommended that application forms remove all questions pertaining to religion, color, and national or racial origin. Eventually reform happened, but colleges were rather slow in doing so. The recommendations could not be mandated, except for government supported schools.

30. In 1973, the quota issued was raised again in almost the opposite way, because the quota system which was used to deny equal opportunity was invoked in an attempt to correct past discrimination as a response to government supported affirmative action. Allen Baake, a Jewish person, sued to get into the UC Davis Medical Center. He was allegedly kept out of medical school, because of quotas that were established to allow underprivileged minorities and in this case a Black medical student admission. As a result, it created a rift between Jewish Civil Rights organizations and Black Civil Rights organization. On the one hand you have a quota system to ensure certain groups get into college and on the other people are denied admissions, because of the quota system. In 1978, the Supreme Court declared the quota system an unlawful measure for affirmative action.


1. The traditional definition of a Jew is if you were born of a Jewish mother. The concept of having the Jewish religion passed through the mother stems from their long history of conquest. Because of the number of battles and struggles that the Jewish people went through, many men died in wars as their lands were conquered or they separated from their families. The Jewish people realized that the best way to keep track of who was of the family was through the mother. However, in 1983 the Reform Jews recognized that it can be passed through either parent as long as the child is raised in the Jewish tradition. People can convert to Judaism, but it must be approved by an Orthodox Rabbi.

2. Being Jewish goes beyond a religious belief and doesn’t rest in theology. It is a state of mind and emotion that crosses religious and secular lines and crosses cultural, national, and racial differences. There are Jewish people of all cultures of all nations of all races and you find them practicing their culture in a variety of ways all of which are religious. There are many Jewish sects. So being Jewish does not mean you have the same lineage, nationality , ethnicity, or race.

3. Judaism can be defined as the religion of the Jewish people, tracing its origins to Abraham and having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied in the Bible and the Talmud. It is conformity to the traditional rites and ceremonies of the Jewish religion. There are three major Jewish groups and their identity can be traced to the area from which they immigrated from.

4. The first group is Orthodox Judaism. It is also known as the traditional Jewish religion. To be an Orthodox, you must have been born of a Jewish mother or converted to Judaism by an approved Orthodox Rabbi. Orthodoxy believes in God as the divine and absolute Creator who revealed His work and His plan for humanity through the Torah given to Moses and the Jewish people at Mt. Sinai. The Torah is binding. The Rabbis (teachers), or spiritual leaders, strictly and literally interpret the teachings of the Torah and the laws, or Talmud. Because the teachings and law come from God, there is never a need to change. Tradition is preserved and passed from generation to generation. Children are schooled in religious traditions. Synagogue or congregational worship and prayers are central to the practice of Orthodox Judaism and are practiced according to traditional ritual. The laws and rituals of the Sabbath, Holy days, and diet are followed strictly. Orthodox Jews observe the Commandments precisely.

5. The second group is Reform Judaism (modern). As a reaction to Orthodoxy, the Reform movement developed in Germany in the middle 1800s. Abraham Geiger is often identified as the founder of the Reform movement. They challenged the concept of revelation and as a consequence the need to follow precedents in interpreting the law or the need to follow the law itself. Reform Judaism teaches that the Jewish religion is an evolving religion that must continue to change to meet the needs of our time. Reform Judaism can have lineage from either parent. The ethical and moral teachings of the Torah were revealed by God and are binding. The ritual laws were developed by people to satisfy the needs of the times. These can be changed as needed to unify the Jewish people. Reform Jews believe that following the laws is a matter of individual choice and each person must rely on conscience and experience to determine the validity of the laws. Reform Jews believe in general revelations and directions of the Torah, and so it is still meaningful, although they will be more liberal in applying the specific rules to their daily lives. Reform Jews believe social action and concern for others are the heart of Judaism’s message and that their followers can deal with secular challenges and problems and be a part of the larger community and still remain Jews. They believe working with other faiths is the best way to wipe out religious prejudice. Reform Judaism is always willing to experiment with new practices, ceremonies, and rituals to strengthen Jewish life.

6. The third group is Conservative Judaism (middle of the road, based on the congregation). The Conservative movement, having roots also in Germany, developed out of a reaction to some of the radical positions of the Reform movement. They saw Jewish law and its precedents as important, but not necessarily binding on the present. The essentials of the law, or its spirit, were binding, not necessarily a past ruling. To be considered a Conservative, you can identify lineage from either parent as long as the child is raised in a Jewish tradition, according to the reformed Jewish community. They can also be converted by any Rabbi. Conservatism views Judaism as a changing religious civilization with the main purpose of preserving the Jewish people. Conservative Jews accept the Torah as the revealed word of God, but they also believe revelation is progressive. People have interpreted the Torah and must continually reinterpret in light of changing ethical, social, and economic situations. Change is carefully considered. Conservatism favors tradition, but will adjust ritual laws. The synagogue and the home are basic institutions and maximum Jewish education is encouraged. Conservative Jews believe the differences are often a matter of degree rather than disagreement. There is no strict cut-off and there is a great deal of crossover. There are more similarities than differences between traditional and modern Jews.

7. There are other more extreme Jewish movements. There is Hasidic (or folk) and mystic followers. There are the Black Hebrew and Falashism whose movement members consider themselves true descendants of the original Jewish tribes. There are more radical movements; such as reconstructionists, who reject traditional Jewish concepts about God and the Torah. There are Evangelical Jews, and even Jews who believe Jesus was the Messiah. There are also secular movements; such as Zionism.

8. The language of Jewish-Americans is predominantly English, which comes from their desire to assimilate into the U.S. rather quickly and to progress. Hebrew is a traditional language and spoken in many synagogues and during rituals. Yiddish, a combination of Hebrew and German is slowly dying out along with Ladino, which is a Sephardic mixture of Hebrew and Spanish.

9. Religion. Religion is the cornerstone of the Jewish culture. The Torah is the first five books of the Bible which contain all of the basic tenets and laws of the Jewish religion. These books are supplemented by the Prophets and writings and some of the old testament books. The Torah is kept on scrolls and the scrolls are kept in a container called an Ark. The Torah contains the covenant. The term “Ark of the Covenant” refers to the case which hold the scrolls. In the movie Indiana Jones: Raiders of the Lost Ark, the ark that they are looking for is the ark of the covenant. The case that held the original Torah or Commandments scrolls that Moses received on Mount Sinai. It’s required in Jewish synagogues that a lamp be burning at all times over the ark that holds the Torah that holds the covenant. The Torah scrolls are considered sacred and can not touch the ground. When the Torah is read you are not to touch the scroll itself, but it’s read using a pointer. The Torah was given by God, and because of that the Jews have to obey all of the laws within the Torah and must pass it from generation to generation. The passing on of Jewish culture and faith is extremely critical to Jews, because that is the only way the Jewish people are going to be able to fulfill their part of the covenant and eventually obtain the land of Israel.

10. Along with the Torah is an interpretation of it that was finalized around 500 AD and it’s called the Talmud. The Talmud is the interpretation that the Rabbis made of what the Bible means and how they should apply it to their lives. The Talmud can be changed meeting changing needs through interpretation by the Rabbis, but never the Bible. Rabbi means “teacher,” and is not a religious leader in a sense that a priest is in the Catholic faith or a minister in some of the other faiths.

11. The term Mitzvah in the Jewish religion means a deed which fuses actions and values. This is the way the Jewish people affirm their faith and prove that they are willing to keep God’s covenant and obey his laws so they will eventually be given the land of Caanan. The term Mitzvah technically means Commandment. The term Bat Mitzvah and Bar Mitzvah is a ceremony in which a young Jewish boy or girl comes to be a keeper of the Commandments. It is similar to Confirmation in the Christian faith. A Bar Mitzvah refers to a Jewish boy ceremony and Bat Mitzvah refers to Jewish girl ceremony.

12. The concept of God in the Jewish faith is that they believe in one God and he is the Creator. It is similar to the way Christians believe in God. They believe God is a loving merciful and just God and not a vengeful God. They believe God is a helper and someone they can talk to, but that God requires them to follow His law. Jews have a very congenial relationship with their God. It does not require, like other Christian faiths, a priest in which the priest is the interpreter of God’s law and is sort of a liaison between the people and God. The Jewish people don’t have that same type of relationship, because the Rabbi is not that kind of a spiritual leader. It is a very personal relationship between the Jew and his or her God. What the Jewish faith does stress is the idea of the covenant and being the chosen people. However, the concept of being the chosen people has often been the target for a great deal of anti-Semitism. The Jewish people believe that they were chosen by God to follow His laws and Commandments and to pass that on to other people. The Jewish people do not interpret this to mean that they are elite or better than others. The Jewish people feel they have a duty to honor and obey God and to imitate God in their ethical and moral behavior.

13. Judaism. Its values and ethics. Jewish law embodies basic values common to all humanity. In this respect it can be viewed as applicable both to Jews and non-Jews alike. An attempt has been made by Rabbi David Saperstien, Associate Director of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, to abstract the values embedded in Jewish law. He lists the following:

a. The inherent dignity and importance of all of humankind, derived from the belief that we are all made in the image of God;

b. The equality of all people rooted in our common descent from Eve and Adam;

c. The capacity of all people, given the will and the right educational tools, to improve themselves;

d. The concept of wealth as representing that which is God’s and which is given to human owners in a trust relationship, a trust which requires sharing of the wealth with the less fortunate;

e. The attendant special concern which God has mandated for the poor, the widow, the hungry, and the orphan;

f. The belief that a society or state is created to serve the needs of its citizens, not vice versa;

g. The existence of certain laws (the seven Noachide laws) which were regarded as essential to any civilized society. They included bans on murder, robbery, blasphemy, idolatry, sexual crimes, eating of living flesh, and required that every community establish courts of justice;

h. The rule of law to which even the highest human ruler is accountable;

i. Freedom of choice and accompanying responsibility of each person for his or her actions;

j. The paramount obligation of individuals and societies to pursue justice, righteousness and “darkei shalom” or the ways of peace, e.g., to be involved in the work of social justice.

14. The very nature of Jewish religious practice demonstrates a heightened belief in the sanctity and holiness of the family. Most of the customs of Sabbath and the Holy Days are centered around strengthening and enhancing family life. For example, the chief purpose in telling the story of the exodus during the Passover is to get the children involved in the story and the Holy Day. Also, every Friday evening, before the Sabbath meal, the parents gather their children around them and give them an ancient biblical blessing while holding them.

15. Jewish culture has always placed a strong value on education and the work ethic. Education for its own sake is not enough, however, it must be used to enhance and strengthen the community. If it is used for less than that, it is wasted. This is best epitomized by Rabbi Hillel, a Rabbi in the Talmud, when he says, “If I am not for myself, who will be for me. But if I am only for myself, what good am I?” This brings us to their contributions to the American adventure.


1. What is the Jewish Culture? What binds Jews together? The answer to this is their basic beliefs of Judaism. There are seven areas that tie Jewish culture together. They are:

a. The Torah (Bible). The Torah is a handwritten document containing the original first five books of the Bible and is the foundation of the following Jewish beliefs:

b. The Talmud (Law). Written by Rabbi’s in 500 AD and is used to keep Jewish traditions alive. It meets changing needs through interpretation.

c. Mitzvah. It means affirm commitment to God through good deeds. Individuals that go through the ceremony are considered to have entered adulthood.

d. One God. Judaism has only one God: the creator, the lawgiver, the helper. Judaism is the oldest known Monotheistic religion.

e. Covenant. The Covenant is the contract between God and the Jewish people.

f. Dietary Laws (Kashrut). Jewish Rabbi’s inspect slaughter houses and other food industries to affirm if the food is properly prepared to be “Kosher.” The animals must be slaughtered humanely. These laws were not imposed for any reason except for health. The law states “do not eat anything that the Lord has declared unclean. You may eat these animals: cattle, sheep, goats, deer, wild sheep, wild goat, or antelopes. Any animals that have divided hooves and that also chew the cud, but no animals may be eaten unless they have divided hooves and also chew the cud. You may not eat camels, rabbits or rock badgers. They must be considered unclean. They chew the cud, but do not have divided hooves. Do not eat pigs. They must be considered unclean. They have divided hooves, but do not chew the cud. Do not eat any of these animals or even touch their dead bodies. You may eat any kind of fish that has fins and scales, but anything living in the water that does not have fins and scales may not be eaten. It must be considered unclean. You may eat any clean bird, but these are the kinds of birds you are not to eat: eagles, owls, hawks, falcons, buzzards, vultures, crows, ostriches, seagulls, etc. Do not eat any animals that dies a natural death. Do not cook a young sheep or goat in its mothers’ milk.” This law of not cooking a sheep or goat in it’s mother’s milk has been interpreted as a prohibition of mixing meat and dairy foods. In an Orthodox Jewish household they maintain separate sets of cooking utensils, so they do not even cook meat foods and dairy foods in the same pot or pan. Jews may not eat shell fish, since they do not have fins and scales. Again, these laws are based on the sanitary habits of the animals. Many of the animals they are forbidden from eating are scavengers. The laws not only direct what types of food the may or may not eat, but the way in which the food is prepared.

g. Other. Jewish people value the 10 commandments. They believe the Golden Rule is strengthened through customs and observances.

2. Celebration and Holidays. The Jewish people observe several holy days. It should be noted that the reasons the Jewish holidays fall on different days each year is because the Jewish calendar is lunar versus a solar calendar. It is based on the phases of the moon. The primary holy days are:

a. Sabbath. The Sabbath starts at sunset the day before, and ends at sunset the next day. Each week the seventh day, Saturday, is observed as day of holiness, rest and rejoicing. During this period they do not cook or drive automobiles.

b. Rosh Hashanah (Rosh-sha-nah), Jewish New Year. The first of the High Holy Days which marks the beginning of a ten-day period of penitence and spiritual renewal. Work is forbidden for 1 or 2 days, it is a time for prayer and spiritual renewal.

c. Yom Kippur (Yom Kee-poor), Day of Atonement. This, the most holy day in Jewish year, is marked by fasting and prayer, as the Jew seeks forgiveness from both God and man. During this period work is forbidden.

d. Sukkot (Soo-kot), Feast of Booths (Tabernacles). Commemorates the 40-year wandering of Israelites in the desert on the way to the Promised Land, and expressed thanksgiving for the fall harvest. The Pilgrim Fathers used it as a model for the American observing of Thanksgiving.

e. Simchat Torah (Som-chat Torah). The rejoicing in the Torah which celebrates the conclusion of the public reading of the Pentateuch and its beginning anew, thus affirming that the study of God’s word is an unending process. This concludes the Sukkot festival.

f. Chanukah (Hon-i-ka), Festival of Lights. Eight-day festival celebrates the rededication of the temple to the service of God (165 BCE) and commemorates the Maccabean victory over Antiochus who sought to suppress freedom of worship. It is closed to Christians.

g. Purim (Poo-rim), Feast of Lots. Marks the salvation of the Jews of ancient Persia from Haman’s plot to exterminate them through the intervention of Queen Esther.

h. Pesach (Peh-sach), Passover. Celebrates Israel’s deliverance from Egyptian bondage. During this eight day festival, matsch (unleavened bread) is eaten. It marks the Exodus of Jews from Egypt.

i. Shavuot (Week of Weeks) Festival of the Weeks. Occurs seven weeks or 50 days after the first day Passover seder. It commemorates the revelation of the Ten Commandments at Mt. Sinai. It is also called the Feast of the First Fruits to celebrate the success of the spring crops after seven weeks of laboring and waiting. This is the reason Easter dates change each year.

3. Education. Religious education is a duty and a way of life. Secular education is important for them for the education to improve themselves and to integrate better into society and help overcome the effects of anti-Semitism. Many attend a Jewish day school to learn the Jewish religion. Females are thought to be more spiritual, therefore, are not required to attend the synagogue. Men earn the living.

4. Jewish families are nuclear families. Most believe Jewish lineage is through the mother. Males are religious, obligated and the provider. Females raise the children. The roles of the Jewish women are reflected below:

|Separate Worship |Congregational Choice |Full Participation, Family Seating |
|Minyan-male (Quorum or 10 males) |Minyan-choice Congregation |Minyan men and women (any number) |
|Bris (Circumcision) |Bris Naming Ceremony |Naming Ceremony |
|Bar Mitzvah |Bat Mitzvah |Bat Mitzvah |
|Lineage (religious/tradition) |Lineage Contemporary |Contemporary Definition |
|Rabbis-men |Women Rabbis Since 1983 |Women Rabbis Since 1972 (Sally Priesland was |
| | |the first) |

5. Anti-Semitism. According to Webster, Anti-Semitism is defined as discrimination or prejudice against Jews; hostility towards Jews. Unfortunately, anti-Semitism, like other forms of discrimination is still present in society.

6. The Jewish response to anti-Semitism and its strategy to change others are acculturation/assimilation (assimilated and not to be different). To eliminate discrimination in the work place, many have become lawyers and doctors. They feared others and relied on themselves for mutual aid and help. Some of the mutual help associations include:

a. B’nai B’rith (1843). To care for the poor and orphans.

b. Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society (1881). Helped make new immigrants arrival to America as easy as possible.

c. American Jewish Committee (1906). Human Relations Committee who supports “rights for Jews is best secured by rights for all.”

d. Anti-defamation League of B’nai B’rith (1913). Purpose is to highlight incidents of Anti-Semitism, teach, and try to fight by making it well known.

7. While the Jewish people believe Judaism is the source of Christianity, they continue the interaction between other cultures and religious groups.

a. One of the major turning points in combating anti-Semitism was during the Second Vatican Council in 1965 with Pope John Paul XXIII. Up until this time there was a common held belief that the Jewish people were held responsible for the death of Jesus Christ. During this council the Catholic church condemned anti-Semitism and the Pope announced that the Catholic church could not blame people for incidents that happened 2000 years ago and there needed to be more acceptance and better working relationships with the Jewish people. Since both the Christian and Jewish religions have the same source of their faith, the Catholic church stressed looking more at the similarities in the two religions.

b. There is a close relationship between Hispanic-Americans and Jewish-Americans. Jewish American organizations provide monetary support to civil rights causes, and assistance when the Hispanic-Americans were forming groups. Many Jewish programs are listed in Spanish.

c. The Jewish people have a long history of support to Black-Americans and the NAACP. Both groups have parallel views and have the same vision. Early in the 20th century Blacks and Jewish Americans joined forces against discrimination, bigotry and for civil rights. Their collaboration changed American politics and culture. The only major difference was the desire of the Black-Americans to keep the quota system, while Jewish people did not. In the late 1960s the relationship may be defined by a public ritual of mutual blame. Each accused the other of insensitivity and betrayal. In August, 1991, the relations between the Black and Jewish communities hit bottom when a riot between the two groups in the community of Crown Heights in Brooklyn, New York. The riots began after an Hasidic Jewish driver lost control of his car and ran over an killed a seven year old Black child. Hours later a young Black youth stabbed to death an Hasidic man visiting from Australia as he walked down the street.

NOTE: This riot, which has become a symbol for Black/Jewish relations in the U.S. involved a neighborhood heavily populated with Hasidic Jews and Caribbean-born Blacks. Yet the mainstream Jews and mainstream Blacks are the one’s who are taking the riot and who are reacting to it. The tensions had been in the community for a long time. Crown Heights is a poor community where poor Blacks and poor Jews live together competing for the scarce resources and each group was convinced the other was getting preferential treatment.

8. There are still many contemporary issues that are a concern of the Jewish people. They are:

a. Social/Political. Jewish communities continue the fight against anti-Semitism. They have concerns about the fate of Israel and U.S. foreign policy towards Israel. Many feel that what goes on in Israel will impact the American Jews. There is also concern about the treatment of Jews in repressive countries.

b. Cultural. Many Jewish-American feel there is a threat to cultural survival of Judaism. This is due to the low Jewish population growth, assimilation into other cultures, and intermarriage. While intermarriage is not prohibited, it is a concern.

c. Military service. Considering the historical experience with war, the Jewish people have a concern about war. During W.W.I, approximately 250,000 Jewish individuals served in the military. In W.W.II, over 500,000 Jewish individuals served in uniform. Today, there are very few Jewish individuals on active duty. This is mainly attributed to the following:

(1) The scarcity of Jewish Chaplains.

(2) Dietary constraints.

(3) Sabbath being on a Saturday and not always easy to attend. In the Reserve Component drills are held on weekends.

(4) Requirement to wear of the yarmulke. A Jewish male will always cover his head to acknowledge there is someone greater above him. The yarmulke is always worn in the synagogue, but normally only the Orthodox Jews wear it outside of the synagogue.

(5) The requirement to serve in certain overseas areas, such as Germany.

(6) Traditions of family and home rituals.


Jewish-Americans have participated in all aspects of American life. They have made notable contributions in the fields of medicine, science, law, education, literature, music, and art. Like any other minority, to ignore their influence and impact from the American experience is not only to change it but to diminish what America is today. There are many books written on their contributions. Here we will highlight some of these contributions.


Senator Jacob Javits - U.S. Senator from New York.
Admiral Hyman Rickover - Father of the U.S. Navy nuclear submarine program.
Erick Formm - Psychoanalyst and social philosopher.
Louis D. Brandies, Benjamin Cardozo, Arthur Golberg, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, and Felix Frankfurter - U.S. Supreme Court Justice.
Henry Kissinger - Secretary of State.
Alan M. Dershowitz - Harvard law professor and attorney.
Samuel Gompers - Founder of the American Labor Movement and the American Federation of Labor.


Isaac Bashevis Singer - Yiddish writer who won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1978.
Arthur Miller - Playwright and author Received the Pulitzer Prize for “Death of a Salesman,” and a “View from the Bridge.”
Bernard Malamud - Writer who won the Pulitzer in 1966 for “The Fixer.”
Saul Bellow - Writer who won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1976.
Allen Ginsburg, and Emma Lazarus - Poets.
Herman Wouk Leon Uris, J.D. Salinger, Philip Roth, Irving Wallace, Art Buchwald, Norman Mailer, and Elie Wiesel - Writers.
Joseph Pulitzer - Journalist and publisher who established the “Pulitzer Prize.”


Irving Berlin, Aaron Copeland, George Gershwin, Marvin Hamlisch, Stephen Sondheim, and Art Garfunkel - Musical composers.
Leonard Bernstein - Musical composer and Director of the New York Philharmonic.
Iassc Stern - Violin virtuoso.
Danny Kaye, George Burns Harry Houdini, Al Johnson, Milton Berle, Zero Mostel and the Marx Brothers - Actors.
Bob Dylan - Musician, composer, and singer.
Isaac Stern, Beverly Sills and Valdimir Horowitz - Classical musicians.
Gilda Radner - Actress.
Phil Slivers, Kirk Douglas, Dustin Hoffman, Richard Dreyfuss and Henry Winkler - Actors.
Barbara Streisand - Actress, singer, film director.
Lenny Bruce - Comedian.
Sammy Davis, Jr. - Comedian, actor, singer.
Bette Midler - Actress, singer.
Mel Brooks - Comedian, film director, writer.
Woody Allen - Actor, film director, writer.
Arthur Fiedler - Conductor of the Boston Pops.
Andre Previn - Conductor, composer, pianist.
Louise Nevelson - Sculptor.
Bob Dylan and Neil Diamond - Singers.
Louis B. Mayer, David Selznik, Otto Preminger, Mike Nichols and Steven Spielberg - Movie producers.


Casimir Funk - Physician who discovered vitamins.
Jonas Salk - Epidemiologist who developed a vaccine against polio.
Albert Einstein - Physicist who changed our perception of the universe with his development of the theory of relatively. Won Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922.
Judith Resnick - The first Jewish-American woman astronaut. She was killed in the explosion of the space shuttle, Challenger.
Harold E. Vermus - Microbiologist and educator who won the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1989 for his work in genetic research.
Jerome I. Friedman - Physicist who won the Nobel Prize in physics in 2990 for showing that protons and neutrons were composed of quarks.
Harry M. Markowitz - Economist who won the Nobel Prize in 1990 for the work in investment strategies.
J. Robert Oppenheimer - Physicist who managed the “Manhattan Project” that developed the Atomic Bomb during World War II.
Isaac Asimov - Scientist and Author.
Jonas Salk - Polio
Selman Waksman - Antibiotics, Nobel Prize Winner.


Samuel Gompers - Founder and president of the American Federation of Labor.
David Dubinsky -Helped to establish the International Ladies Garment Workers’ Union.
David Sarnoff - Started as a messenger boy and rose to the head of RCA, Radio Corporation of America.

Max Baer, and Maxie Rosenblum - Boxing
Hank Greenburg, and Sandy Koufax - Baseball
Nat Holman, and Red Auerbach - Basketball
Mark Spitz - Swimming
Sid Luckman - Football


One of the claims anti-Semites, or those not well informed, have made what was that Jewish-Americans do not serve in the military. The record shows quite a different picture. During the last two World Wars, Jewish-Americans have not only served with distinction but in numbers exceeding their percentage of the population. When the new Jewish immigrants came to this country over a century ago, many were fearful that perhaps this new land would make them at best only second class citizens. When the wars came, however, they joined the ranks like all other ethno-Americans and laid their blood on the field of battle as if they were first class citizens. If participation in battle is considered a test of one’s loyalty, then Jewish-Americans are very loyal citizens.

They stories that can be told about Jewish-American participation and heroism in battle are many. These were achieved despite the anti-Semitism that many service members experienced while serving their country. There are many books on the subject; however, we will only highlight some of the Jewish-American contributions.


Revolutionary and Pre-Civil War: There were about 2,000 Jews living in America during the time of the Revolutionary War. Beginning a trend that was to continue to modern times, the majority of eligible Jewish males participated in the war. they left an interesting history behind them.

There was a predominantly Jewish company form South Carolina. This happened quite by accident. It appears that the region from which this company originated was mostly populated by Jews.

Some famous Jewish combatants of the Revolutionary War are Captain Richard Lushington, Lieutenant Colonel David S. Franks, Lieutenant Colonel Solomon Bush, and Ensign Mordecai Davis.

The first South Carolinian to fall in the Revolutionary War was Francis Salvador, a Jewish-American. He is often called the “Paul Revere” of the South.

After independence was secured, Jewish-Americans continued to participate in the new Army of the United States. Simon M. Levy from Baltimore, Maryland, was appointed a cadet to the first class at the Military Academy of West Point in 1802. The first Jewish-American captain in the United States Navy was Uriah P. Levy. He served with distinction in the War of 1812 and was instrumental in abolishing corporal punishment in the Navy. He experienced much anti-Semitism during his service, and as a consequence reflective of the time, had to fight many duels. Many of those serving with him thought that, as a Jew, he was unfit to hold such a high rank. Other Jewish-Americans that served during the War of 1812 were Commodore John Ordroneux and Captain Mordecai Myers.

Some highlights of the Jewish-American participation in the United States War with Mexico are:

Surgeon general David de Leon from South Carolina, twice took command of combat soldiers on the battlefield who lost their own commanders. He received a special citation from Congress for this heroic action.

Other combatants of this war include Colonel Leon Dyer, Israel Moses, and General David Emanuel Twiggs.

The Civil War and After: All wars are sad, but perhaps the Civil War was the saddest war in which Americans have fought. This war literally was brother fight against brother. The losses on both sides were tremendous, as both sides fought valiantly for the causes they believed in. Jewish-Americans, like all other Americans, shared in that tragedy on both sides of the field, both Americans fought in the Civil War, 8,400 for the Union and 10,000 for the Confederacy. Some highlights are:

Seven Jewish-Americans were awarded the Medal of Honor in the Union Army.

Several Jewish-Americans rose to the rank of general. Frederick Knefler, a volunteer private at the beginning of the war, was the first Jewish brevet major general.

Edward S. Salomon, who became governor of the Washington Territory after the war, was famous for his courage in the Battles of Fredrickson, Mainfordville, and Gettysburg

Philip J. Joachimson was a New York District Attorney who secured the first anti-slavery conviction. He was instrumental in organizing the 59th New York Volunteer Regiment. He served as a lieutenant colonel in the Regiment and was later promoted to brigadier general.

The banking firm of Seligman Brothers provided financial support to the Union Army during the war.

The same Surgeon General David de Leon that fought valiantly in the United States war against Mexico earlier was the first Surgeon General of the Confederacy. Judah Philip Benjamin served both as Secretary of War and Secretary of State for the Confederacy.

The Army of the Confederate States of America (CSA) had at least 23 Jewish-American staff officers.

Captain Levi Myers Harby, Navy-CSA, distinguished himself in the defense of Galveston.

The first Jewish chaplain, Jacob Frankel, was appointed by Presidential order on September 10, 1862. Up to this time, the military only appointed Christian clergy as chaplains.

After the war the nation proceeded to heal its wounds. Unfortunately there were those that refused to recognize the contributions Jewish-Americans made on both sides of that war. As a response to unfounded statements that Jewish-Americans do not fight for their country, the Hebrew Union Veterans Organization was founded on March 15, 1896. This organization was a forerunner to the Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America. The latter is recognized as the oldest veteran’s organization in America.

The Spanish-American War saw a total of 300, 000 Americans fighting. This was approximately 0.4 percent of the general population. About 5,000 Jewish-Americans saw service in this war, representing 0.5 percent of the Jewish population of the country. Among those Jewish-Americans who participated, there were 30 Army officers and 20 Naval officers. The 2 percent casualty rate of the war was similar to the Jewish casualty rate. Adolph Marix commanded the U.S. battleship Maine shortly before it was sunk. Jewish-Americans were also to be found among the “Rough Riders.” Jacob Wilbusky was the first to be killed in an early skirmish.

World War I. A summary of the war record of Jewish-Americans in World War I:
Total population of the United States in 1917 103,690,473
Jewish population in the United States in 1917 3,389,000
Total number in the Armed Forces of the United States 4,355,000
Jews serving in the Armed Forces of the U.S. (approximate) 250,000
Percentage of Jews in the total population 3.27%
Percentage of Jews in the Armed Forces 5.73%

Infantry 35.7%
Artillery 11.6%
Cavalry 1.5%
Engineers 4.2%
Signal and Aviation 6.5%
Ordnance 2.4%
Quartermaster 8.9%
Other Branches .6%


Dead (approximate) 3,500
Wounded (approximate) 12,000


Generals 1
Colonels and Lieutenant Colonels 94
Majors 404
Captains 1,504
Lieutenants 6,000

Miscellaneous (including one Admiral) 1,013

Miscellaneous (including one General) 161

Total 9,177


Congressional Medal of Honor 3
Distinguished Service Medals and Crosses 147
Other decorations, citations, and awards 982

Total 1,132

SOURCE: Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America

World War II. A summary of the war record of Jewish-Americans participants in World War II.

Total Population of the United States 135,000,000
Total Jewish population of the United States 4,500,000
Total number in the Armed Forces of the United States 13,000,000
Jews serving in the Armed Forces of the United States 550,000
Percentage of Jews in the total population 3.33%
Percentage of Jews in the Armed Forces 4.23%


Army 80%
Infantry .7%
Other Ground Forces 8.5%
Air Corps 33.5%
Navy 17%
Marine Corps 2%
Coast Guard 1%


Dead (approximate) 11,000
Wounded (approximate) 40,000


Medal of Honor 2
Distinguished service Medals and Crosses and Navy Crosses 157
Silver Star 1,600
Other decorations, citations and awards 50,242

Total 52,000

About 60% of all Jewish physicians in the United States under 45 years of age were in the Service.

Multiple Family Contributions:

4 Jewish families contributed 8 members each
12 Jewish families contributed 7 members each
19 Jewish families contributed 6 members each
(These figures are approximate)

SOURCE: Jewish War Veterans of the United States of America

The saga of Jewish-Americans fighters continues to the present. Approximately 150,000 Jewish-Americans saw service during the Korean War. In Vietnam, about 30,000 Jewish-Americans served. Among them was Major General Ben Sternberg. Colonel Jack H. Jacobs won the Medal of Honor for heroism in Vietnam. According to early figures complied by the National Museum of Americans served in the Gulf War. Out of an overall force of about 500,000, this represents approximately 2 percent of the force.


TASK: Women in the Military

CONDITION: Classroom environment

STANDARD: 1. History of contributions of women in the military. 2. Women’s Armed Services Integration Act of 1948 (WASIA). 3. Contemporary issues. 4. Strategies to affect the full integration of women.

Women and their role in the military are an issue under seemingly constant discussion. Women, in one capacity or another, have participated in every conflict in the establishment and defense of our nation. Traditional attitudes and values towards women’s “proper place” are slowly evolving into an attitude of acceptance and recognition, but there is a long way to go. As an Equal Opportunity Representative (EOR) it is important to have an understanding of the history of women in the military and their contributions and importance to the defense of our nation, in order to effectively combat negative stereotypes about women in uniform.


1. During the Revolutionary War, women often followed their husbands, sons, and brothers to battle. Some cooked, sewed, and washed clothes for the men. Some also worked as nurses. Even though the Army would not enlist women, some served by disguising themselves as men. The exact number who did this is unknown.

2. From the Revolutionary War to the period when the military implemented the requirement to undergo a physical examination prior to enlistment, women have disguised themselves as men in order to serve in the military. For example, a lady named Lucy Brewer disguised herself as a man and fought on the Frigate Constitution during the War of 1812. Another lady named Loreta Velasquez, alias Harry T. Buford, disguised herself as a man and invested her personal fortune to raise troops during the Civil War and became an officer in the Confederate Army. She led men into battle at Bull Run and several other campaigns. During the Civil War, if you had money, you could buy a commission and buy people to serve under you.

3. One of the more celebrated stories of the Revolutionary War was that of Molly Pitcher. While the story may differ on exactly who she was, it is thought to be Mary Hayes, the wife of an artillery soldier of the 7th Pennsylvania Regiment. The story goes that while she was providing water to the wounded soldiers on the battlefield, she dropped her water pitcher, picked up a rifle and began firing. Replacements eventually took her position, but she remained as a rammer until an artilleryman relieved her. An eyewitness of the account reported that when an enemy cannon shot at her it tore off part of her petticoat, she remarked nonchalantly, that she was lucky and continued to assist the wounded.

4. Another incident is the women known as Deborah Sampson, who actually served in the 4th Massachusetts Regiment as Robert Shirtliffe. She fought in many battles and often, like many of the men, had only rawhide strips to bind about her feet. During one scouting mission in the winter, she was wounded in the head and thigh. Taken to a hospital, she only allowed the doctor to bandage her head, fearing her discovery if the rifle ball was removed from her thigh. Deborah Sampson served three years in the Army. When Paul Revere met her in 1804, he was so impressed that he asked the Massachusetts legislature to award her a pension. In 1805, she received $4.00 a month as a disabled veteran. In 1818, her pension was increased to $8.00.

5. During the Civil War it is estimated that about 400 women served in both Armies as soldiers. Others, followed their husbands, sons, or fathers to the front lines. Some women worked as spies, messengers, and nurses. Some women disguised as men went undetected throughout the war. Six women soldiers were discovered when they had babies.

6. One of the more notable female soldiers was Jennie Hodgers, known as Albert Cashier. She served three years in the 95th Illinois Volunteer Infantry. After the war she farmed and it wasn’t until 1911, when hospitalized, was it discovered she was not a man. During a pension hearing, one former member of the unit reported his failure to identify Cashier as a women, but remarked that the unit had often discussed the fact that he had no beard. Cashier was also described by men in the unit as the shortest man in the company, but was a brave little soldier.

NOTE: It was only during W.W.I when the military implemented the physical examination. With the physical examination requirement, this was the first time women could not enter disguised as a man.

7. The first women’s component in the military was established by the Army in 1901. This component was the Army Nurse Corps. In 1908 the Navy Nurse Corps was authorized. Initially, the Navy Nurse Corps was comprised of only 20 White women. Black women were not admitted into nursing organizations at this time. Laws which set up the Nursing Corps did not designate its members as officers or enlisted and it was not resolved until 1947 when the Army Nurse Act authorized their permanent commission rank. When the Army Nurse Corps was first organized, nurses were in the auxiliary status, or reserve status and only activated in times of emergency.

8. The demands of W.W.I made it necessary for the military to utilize women in areas other than nursing in order to release men for combat duty. It seemed that the same perspective used in assessing minorities into systems applied to women, e.g., reject in times of peace and recruit in times of emergency. Rejection meant sending the women back into reserve status.

9. Laws covering the Army at this time restricted enlistment to men, so women could not be recruited. The Navy began to employ civilian women under contract as telephone operators. These women were basically serving as civil servants. Congressional legislation passed in 1978 recognized these telephone operators as serving in a military status.

NOTE: Notice it took until 1978 to recognize these women in the status that they deserved for serving during war time.

10. The Navy Reserve Act of 1916 was a little different from other services in that it referred solely to enlistment of “persons” in the Navy. As a result, about 13,000 women joined the Navy as reservists. 30 of the women reservists were Black and were employed in a segregated office in Washington D.C.. In August of 1918 approximately 300 female Marine reservists were enlisted. There were also a few Coast Guard reservists, and their status closely paralleled the women in the Navy.

11. The Army and Navy Nurse Corps also grew in response to the war. There were approximately 22,000 Army nurses and 1,400 Navy nurses serving in the U.S. and overseas at this time. These nurses worked in what are known as Casualty Clearing Stations, Surgical Field Teams, Mobile Evacuation and Base Hospitals, and on hospital trains and transport ships where the fighting was taking place or in close proximity. With the exception of actual combat, these nurses fully participated in wartime duties.

12. In 1918, Francis Elliott Davis was the first Black nurse admitted to the Red Cross Nursing Service. In December 1918, a flue epidemic caused a huge demand for nurses. As a result 18 Black nurses were finally appointed to the Army Nurse Corps approximately one month after Armistice Day.

NOTE: Armistice Day is November 11 each year. Now called Veterans Day.

13. At the end of the war, demobilization of women was the rule. By July of 1919 the Navy, Marine and Coast Guard women reservists were transferred to an inactive status and eventually were all discharged. The number of Army and Navy nurses retained on duty was minimal.

14. During W.W.II 360,000 women joined the military in response to the recruiting call, “Free a man to fight.” The first women’s group to be organized by Congress in May 1942 was the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAACs). They were hired under civilian contract with no military benefits. As the Army had no separate structure, many management difficulties were encountered. As a result, in 1943 Congress passed a Bill establishing the Women’s Army Corps (WACs) as a branch of the Army. This also forced the administration to reconsider policies and attitudes. Under the WAAC, the women were not entitled to the same pay, benefits for dependents, or military rank as their male counterparts. When the other services had established the women’s components as more than auxiliary branches, the WAACs started to resent it.

15. The second women’s organization was the acceptance of women into the Navy Women’s Reserve. It was established in July 1942 and named the WAVES for Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service. Four months later the Coast Guard established the Coast Guard Women’s Reserve. Its members nicknamed the organization as SPARS which is an acronym taken from the Coast Guard’s motto. “Semper Paratus” meaning “always ready.” The Marine Corps established the Marine Corps Women’s Reserve in February 1943. Various acronyms and nicknames were suggested. However, with the decision to accept women in the Marine Corps Reserve and as the Marine Corps Reserve was part of the Corps, they therefore would simply be called “Marines.”

16. To release male pilots for combat flying, the Army Air Force in August 1943 authorized a civilian Women Air Service Pilots (WASP) organization. Although under civil service, it was subject to a number of military procedures. The WASPs handled a variety of flying and aviation administrative duties. Approximately 1,000 WASPS flew 60 million miles on operational assignments in 77 different types of aircraft before the organization was deactivated in December 1944. They ferried aircraft, towed targets for practice with live ammunitions, flew reconnaissance missions, and in general performed all types of flying missions except direct combat missions. Repeated attempts to militarize this group failed. It was not until 1977 that Congress passed a bill giving the Department of Defense (DoD) authority to do so. There were thousands of WACs who served in the Army Air Force as administrative personnel. These women were predecessors of today’s Women in the Air Force (WAFs) which was established in 1948.

17. The Army and Navy Nurse Corps was also expanded to meet the demands of the war. From Iceland to the Pacific and in Europe, Africa, and North and South America, Army and Navy nurses supported U.S. fighting forces. They faced risk and lost lives while serving in field medical facilities and aboard hospital ships and air transports. 83 military nurses were interned as prisoners of war on Guam and in the Philippine Islands. Nearly 2,000 women received military decorations for bravery and meritorious service.

18. Units were segregated by color throughout the war. Black women were affected severely by segregation. The 4,000 Black women who served as WACs served in disproportionate numbers as cooks, bakers, laundry workers, hospital orderlies, and waitresses. A few Black women did enter skilled fields such as medical stenographer, physical therapy, aircraft maintenance, teletype operating, and photography. After the struggle by Eta Thomas to open the Army Nurse Corps, only 500 of the 57,000 Army nurses that served in W.W.II were Black. They were assigned to segregated hospitals. There were only four Black nurses in the Navy. The WAVES and SPARS refused to accept Black women until 1944 and then only in token numbers. Opportunity for Black women was virtually nonexistent in the other branches. The Marine Corps Women’s Reserve did not accept Black women during the war. None of the WASPs were Black. Black female officers were allowed to command only Black units. Only one Black WAC unit went overseas (the 6888th Central Post Office Battalion with 800 Black women). A small number of Chinese-American, Japanese-American, and Native-American women were enlisted in the WAC and assigned to White WAC units. A group of Puerto Rican woman were enlisted, trained, and assigned as a separate unit mainly because of language difficulties. Some 500 NISSEI recruits were wanted for employment as translators. However, only 13 were initially obtained.

19. Overall, the value of military women’s contribution to the war effort was well summed up in the words of Albert Speer, Hitler’s Weapons Production Chief, in a 1975 interview who said “How wise you were to bring your women into your military and into your labor force. Had we done that initially as you did, it could well have affected the whole course of the war. We would have found out, as you did, that women are equally effective and for some skills, superior to males.”

20. Through all of the fighting women served only in a Reserve status and as a temporary part of the military. Their organizations were not integrated into the male official military and were culturally and legally accepted only as temporary helpers and very similar to other minorities.


1. After W.W.II the largest and most rapid demobilization in U.S. history occurred. Military strength was reduced from 12.1 million in 1945 to about 1.4 million in 1947. The strength of military women went from 360,000 to 14,000. In 1948 Congress passed The Women’s Armed Integration Act (WASIA). The purpose of WASIA was to determine the status women would have in the Armed Forces and how they would be accepted. The following are some of the provisions:

a. Women under 18 years of age could not enlist and, if less than 21, were required to have consent of their parent or guardian. Men, on the other hand, could enlist with parental consent at the age of 17 and on their own after 18.

b. Husbands of military women had to prove dependency. Wives of men did not. Women are automatically discharged upon pregnancy or if they acquired children under 18 years of age by either marriage or adoption.

c. Enlisted women could not exceed two percent of the total enlisted strength. Female officers, excluding nurses, could not exceed 10 percent of the total enlisted female strength.

d. Officers could not progress beyond 0-5 unless they were appointed to be Director of Women in their service. Then, they attained the grade of 0-6. If reassigned, women were reverted to the former lower grade. However, if they retired from the Director position, they were permitted to retire as an 0-6.

e. No women could serve in command positions. They could not enter aviation training, ROTC, or the military academies. Very few career fields were open. Those that were open were mainly in the administration and medical areas. Women could hold supervisory positions over other women only.

2. Combat restrictions for women varied amongst the services. Women’s role in combat was outlined in the law and modified in the U.S. code. The following restrictions applied.

a. The Air Force code is Title 10, Sec 8549 which states that women cannot be assigned to duty in aircraft engaged in combat missions.

b. The Navy code is Title 10, Sec 6015 which states that women cannot be assigned to duty in aircraft engaged in combat missions nor to duty on vessels of the Navy except hospital ships and naval transports.

c. The Army had no statutory provisions prohibiting combat. Successful lobbying by supporters of the Army structure as it was, with a separate and distinct WAC branch apart from the combat elements of the Army, convinced the Congress that no law was needed to prohibit women in the Army from being assigned to combat zones. The Secretary of the Army was given authority to assign troops as needed.

d. WASIA did not apply to the Coast Guard. In July 1949, Title 14, Sec 762 was passed to establish the Coast Guard Women’s Reserve again. It limited women to authority over female reservists and to duty only in the U.S..

3. Other services operated under WASIA for years without any changes. In the civilian world, however, women participation in the labor market expanded and continued to rise to over 38 percent. Women in business moved into previously all male jobs. In general, the role of women in society had changed even though in the next two wars the number of women in the military never went above 1.5 percent in force.

4. When the Korean War started, the only women sent were nurses. The decade of the 1950’s was a status quo period for military women. Recruiting women was deemed of little importance because the draft was supplying the necessary manpower. At the peak of the Korean War, women in the Army numbered approximately 12,000, the Navy 8,000, the Air Force 13,000, and the Marine Corps 2,400.

5. In 1951, the Secretary of Defense George C. Marshall appointed a committee called the Defense Advisory Committee on Women In The Service (DACOWITS) with the following charter:

a. To advise him on all matters pertaining to women in the military.

b. To interpret to the public the need for and the roles of women in the services and to promote public acceptance of the military as a career for women.

6. DACOWITS is a civilian advisory committee comprised of prominent citizens with approximately 30 people serving three years of unpaid terms. Each member of the committee serves as an individual and not as a representative of the group. DACOWITS meets twice a year and has four separate executive committee meetings annually.

7. Under pressures from the expanding role of women in the labor force and the large personnel drain of Vietnam, DoD established a task force in 1966 to reassess the role of women in the armed forces. The study group established the expansion that was to occur later. As a result of that study, the first change did not come until 1967 when Public Law 90-130 was passed. It allowed each of the services to set up its own number quotas, and struck down grade ceilings. Policies were changed in the following areas.

a. Men and women can enlist at the age of 18 without parental consent.

b. An Air Force female officer named Lieutenant Sharon Frontiero took her case to the Supreme Court challenging her need to prove her husband a dependent, while male military members did not have to provide such proof. In 1973 the Supreme Court decided in her favor and the service policy was then changed.

c. Until the beginning of 1972, women who became pregnant while serving in the Navy or Marine Corps were involuntarily separated. In 1972, the policy was changed to allow women to request waivers to stay in the Service. In 1975, DoD reversed its pregnancy policy. Pregnant women were allowed to remain in service unless they asked to get out. Women can now remain in service after giving birth, adopting or becoming a step parent by marriage. Both male and female sole parents must sign a statement regarding deployment provisions or dependent care plan.

d. The two percent ceiling was removed for women and they can now be appointed as generals and flag officers. e. Women can participate in ROTC programs and the military academies, including the Coast Guard. f. Women can serve aboard some Navy ships and all ships in the Coast Guard.

g. Women can participate in aviation training in all services.

h. Women can serve in all but direct combat-related MOSs.

i. In the Navy, women cannot be assigned to duty in aircraft engaged in combat missions nor to duty on vessels of the Navy except hospital ships and naval transport.

8. The situation in the military during the Vietnam War was similar to the Korean War in that the women in the services were ready and anxious to go overseas with the fighting forces, but the services were reluctant to send them. Approximately 7,500 women served in Vietnam, Thailand, and the Philippines. Another approximately 600 to 700 Air Force women served in Southeast Asia.

9. At the height of the Vietnam War in 1968, the strength of women in the Armed Forces reached 33,000, which was still under the two percent ceiling. Of the 7,500 women who served in Vietnam, most were Army, Air Force, and Navy nurses. As before, some heroic women gave their lives and hundreds received decorations for courageous and meritorious service by both the U. S. and Vietnam governments.

10. The largest group of women to serve in Vietnam were nurses and constituted another chapter in women’s heroism during the war. They were exposed to combat conditions and fighting forces. The nurses in Vietnam served in 18 hospitals, nine dispensaries, and naval ships. While most were in areas that were strongly defended, there were some close behind fighting troops, which treated casualties brought in by medics and helicopters. Even with the relative security of medical positions it did not keep all nurses from physical danger. In 1964, four nurses were awarded Purple Hearts for injuries sustained during a Viet Cong bombing of Saigon. Even though they were wounded themselves they provided first aid and assistance to others who were more seriously injured. On the Vietnam memorial in Washington, DC there are eight names of women. Typical of somewhat super human emotional and physical feats expected of these nurses was the expectations that they would not suffer any of the physical and emotional disorders that male veterans of the Vietnam era complained about. It took years before the Veteran’s Administration recognized that the women nurses who served would exhibit Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PYSD) symptoms. Even the Readjustment Counseling Program enacted in 1979 specifically to address these problems ignored women veterans who served in Vietnam. With the establishment of the Women’s Working Group under the Readjustment Counseling Program in 1982 attention was finally paid to special forms of stress and disturbances that war time experience had on the women who had been in Vietnam. Women counselors were assigned to outreach centers and sensitivity training given to staff so that centers can respond to emotional problems and other needs of the women Vietnam veterans.

11. It was suggested that the performance of nurses in Vietnam as well as Korea and W.W.II, demonstrated the physical and emotional endurance of women under the most trying and dangerous circumstances. Women with little or no indoctrination in military thinking have shown their ability to not only accept military discipline, but also to create their own corps of compatible standards of military demeanor.

12. While nurses were suffering and dying under combat conditions, the media image of wartime nurses created highly romanticized and sanitized realities. Even in the combat zone, the few women who were there, were expected to uphold the feminine image. The Pentagon’s official attitude was one of not employing women in any position that didn’t meet with society’s approval. A policy forbade WACs to be photographed on, near, or with weapons, and they received no training. One nurse, Monica Schwinn, was held for four years as a prisoner of war in the famed Hanoi Hilton.

13. With the end of the draft in June 1973, and the charge to an all volunteer force, the services turned to women to help supply the needed volunteers. At the same time the Army initiated a major expansion of the WACs, which increased the strength from 12,072 women to 53,000 in 1978. A new personnel management system for officers was also inaugurated by the Army in July of 1974. This meant that WAC officers had to be assigned to the branch of their career specialty. The WAC branch, which consisted of WAC officers, essentially ceased to exist from that time. In October of 1978, under Public Law 95-485 the WAC Corps was officially eliminated. At this time women were on the road to integration with men in the services.

14. In 1975 the separate promotion list for women officers was eliminated and women began competing with men. In 1976 the Army created a new source of women officers. Women now graduated from West Point. On 30 December, 1976 the Army deactivated the Officers School at Fort McClellan, AL. where the WAC officers had been trained since W.W.II.

15. Weapons training for women was reactivated in 1975. Before then, for over ten years women had no weapons training even if they wanted it. After 1 July, 1975 women had no choice but to take the weapons training. In 1977, women began taking the same basic training as men, although the training took place at separate camps. A year later in October, 1978 women were integrated with men into basic training. While the women and men had their own separate platoons, i.e., companies consisting of several platoons, became coed. There were other changes that took place. With the influx of women beginning in 1972, existing barracks could not accommodate the increased number of women. On the other hand the influx of men had decreased, so some barracks were half empty. So the unoccupied barracks were given to women instead of building new barracks. After a while it became a standard procedure to have men and women living in the same barracks, but in separate rooms.

16. Integrated basic training continued until 1982 when the Army announced it was ending the practice. Women found the integrated training challenging and generally supportive of it, therefore there was considerable resentment at what seemed to be an arbitrary policy decision. The Army after four years of what seemed to be a successful adventure of integrated basic training, decided that women were slowing men down. It did not offer any evidence, but cited the dissatisfaction of field commanders of the troops’ performance.

17. In 1973, the United States embarked on a venture to maintain a fighting force of over two million strong, relying solely on volunteers. DoD had to admit with some apprehension that they had to expand the role of women in the military.

18. During the early part of 1972, a task force established by the Secretary of Defense, set out to prepare contingency plans for increased use of women to offset possible shortages of male recruits. With the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) clearing Congress, the military did not wait for the states to ratify the ERA before it instituted changes.

19. Many changes were initiated by the services, either because they perceived a need or because they saw the handwriting on the wall. A number of military women used the legal system charging the military with discrimination.

20. The gender composition of the armed forces is shaped by the prohibition on the assignment of women to so-called combat occupations or to units whose main function is closely related to combat.

21. Two powerful forces were now on a collision course. The push for women’s equal rights is in conflict with deeply rooted American traditions that question the need for women in combat. The political arena supports equal opportunity in principle is indisputable; many public opinion pools agree. However, the extent to which people will accept equality in practice, including women in combat, is less clear.

22. It is also well understood that if women were to constitute a larger proportion of the military establishment, personnel quality as measured by educational level, general intelligence, and aptitude would improve. However, no one knows what the overall implications for military achievements would be.
23. If the women soldiers who participated in the intervention into Grenada was any example of the quality of soldiers we have serving in the armed forces, they more than passed the test. Of the 7,500 U.S. military personnel, 170 women soldiers were highly visible in a number of MOSs. Some of the positions that women served in were:

a. Two of the four military police platoon leaders were women. They were responsible for the security of outlying regions of Grenada.

b. One female ordnance Captain was in charge of detonating unexploded bombs, grenades, and other unserviceable ammunition left in Grenada by the U.S. and Cuban forces.

c. Women served as helicopter crew chiefs and maintenance personnel.

d. 26 women served as stevedores and were responsible for the loading of aircraft and shipment of Soviet/Cuban made weapons back to the U.S..

e. Women served as intelligence specialists and prisoner of war interrogators. They were responsible for interrogating Cuban military personnel and Cuban construction workers.

f. 47 women served as truck drivers, personnel and postal clerks, laundry and bath personnel, and protocol and administrative specialists.

g. The Air Force women served as flight engineers, load masters, and crew members. One of the pilots of a C141 that flew into Point Salinas Airfield was a woman.

24. During the attack on Libya in April of 1986 six Air Force females served aboard KC-19s and KC-135s involved in the attack.

25. In 1989, during Operation Just Cause (Panama) Captain Linda Bray led 30 soldiers to take control of a kennel for Panamanian Defense Force attack dogs. What was thought to be a routine mission became a three-hour infantry firefight. The mission was a success.

26. In Desert Storm, the issue of women in combat was heightened even more than in W.W.II, as the advanced technology used in the war obscured the areas of combat and noncombat for the approximately 41,000 female troops who participated. MAJ Rhonda Cornum, a flight surgeon, and SPC Melissa Rathbun- Nealy, a truck driver, were taken prisoner of war.

27. From December of 1996 through today in the Former Republic of Yugoslavia women are serving proudly in a variety of positions. Women military police officers are riding in convoys protruding from the turret with MARK 19, 40mm grenade launchers to protect the soldiers and civilians, serving as intelligence analysts and interpreters, performing guard duty protecting base camps, and a variety of other positions.

28. Contemporary issues. Congress eliminated the combat exclusion law in 1993. This law had been instituted by the Supreme Court in 1981 to forestall a test of the male-only draft. The Supreme Court stated the draft would be implemented solely for recruiting soldiers for combat and women were prevented from serving in combat areas. Consequently, no cause existed to make woman a part of the draft. With the repeal of the exclusion law, any draft registration could potentially include women.

29. With the repeal of the laws prohibiting women from becoming combat pilots, Secretary of Defense, Les Aspin, directed the military services to initiate the training of women for these positions. In January 1994, additional “group combat jobs” were opened when the Pentagon eliminated the “risk rule” that had identified jobs too dangerous for women. Women are now only prevented from serving in units directly engaging the enemy in ground combat and areas with a high potential for direct engagement with the enemy.

30. On October 1, 1994, the Army opened 32,000 ground jobs to women and 48,000 were opened in the Marine Corps. This decision opened 33 new fields in the Marine Corps but still barred women from infantry, armor, and field artillery units. Women can now be Cobra and Apache helicopter pilots but they cannot fly helicopters for special operations units or operate the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), a primary weapon system in the artillery. 91 percent of all Army career fields and 67 percent of all Army positions became open to women. Women are now authorized in 87 percent of the enlisted MOSs, 97 percent of the warrant officer specialties, and 97 percent of the officer specialties.

31. In the Army Times of August 8, 1994, Sean D. Naylor and
Paulette V. Walker noted that even with the opening of thousands of more positions to women, the exclusion from the Army’s combat arms branch--infantry, armor, and field artillery--prevents them from advancing as far as men. They wrote, “The Army’s most senior leaders traditionally are drawn from these branches.”

32. The majority of jobs in the Navy and Air Force are already open to women. Major Chris Geisel, an Air Force spokesperson at the Pentagon, says that 99.7 percent of jobs in the Air Force are open to women. Despite these advantages, resistance remain, as evidenced by the story of Kara Hultgreen. Hultgreen became the first woman to qualify in a combat-ready F-14 Tomcat, the illustrious Top Gun carrier fighter jet. She became a part of the Black Lions of VF-213 which were preparing to deploy to the Persian Gulf. As she was approaching the flight deck of the USS Abraham Lincoln on October 25, 1994, her aircraft began losing altitude. Her radar intercept officer ejected successfully. Hultgreen ejected immediately after, but the jet had already rolled. After an exhaustive search, her body and plane were not recovered. She received full military honors upon her death and no special attention was drawn to the fact that she was the first female Tomcat pilot. However, unsigned faxes began to circulate, maligning her record, and suggested that the Navy in its rush to integrate women into the ranks, was placing unqualified people on aircraft. Jean Zimmerman says, “It was an unheard of breach of naval aviation etiquette to question the flight record of a pilot who had gone down. It was just not done. Except with Kara Hultgreen.” (Tailspin: Women at War in the Wake of Tailhook. 1995)

33. Whether women were motivated by a desire to earn money on a par with men, a sense of adventure, or patriotism, their record of serving faithfully for years, sometimes without even being identified as women, tells us that when given the opportunity, women are equal to men in their abilities and can succeed in the military.

34. Chief Admiral Elmo Zumwalt who served in Vietnam states “I have fought against women in combat and when I had commanded the naval forces in Vietnam some of the most cunning and boldest and best trained power we went up against were the Viet Cong women. Highly dedicated, highly intelligent, extremely well trained women who fought every good as well as their men.”

35. Today we continue to focus on integrated training as a problem causing a lack of readiness and indiscipline of new male recruits. Research shows that while some physical capabilities of men are greater than women, it is proper training, not gender, that is the important factor. In 1977 a survey was conducted amongst soldiers in the combat arms branches reference women in combat arms. One of the questions asked “Can women work effectively under stress in war time?” 72 percent of the soldiers in the combat arms branches said “Yes.”

36. As leaders and EORs, you must learn and understand about medical issues that are unique to women and convey a positive attitude to the unit in managing short-term absences for medical treatment or pregnancy. All soldiers must recognize that when all reasons are considered, men are absent about as much as women.

37. Some men feel that a women’s job is in the home or to be barefoot and pregnant. Women are soft and you have to take care of them. I assure you that there are many women that can take the stress, have the strength, and the ability to perform in any situation, including combat.

38. Because of how the Army is organized and the policy on women, many women feel that the Army still discriminates. An example may be that command and certain leadership positions are closed and yet they must still compete with others where command can be an edge in promotions and assignments.
39. As part of your responsibility as an EORs you must continue the training of soldiers and leaders on overcoming the negative stereotypes of female soldiers. As leaders, it is your responsibility to create and maintain the kind of organization where all can contribute their best without suffering discrimination and sexual harassment. This is what equal opportunity is about. It is also the right thing to do, morally and legally.


1775 American Revolution: Women served on the battlefield as nurses, water bearers, cooks, laundresses and saboteurs. Deborah Sampson Gannett, alias Robert Shirtleff, disguised herself as a man and served in the Continental Army.

War of 1812: Mary Marshall and Mary Allen served as nurses aboard Commodore Stephen Decatur's ship United States.

1861-1865 Civil War: Courageous women including Dorothea Dix, Clara Barton and Harriet Tubinan provided casualty care to Union and Confederate troops. Convent nuns nursed the wounded at field hospitals and on the Union hospital ship Red Rover.

Women like Confederate soldier Loreta Velasquez, alias Harry T. Buford, served as soldiers on both sides. Belie Boyd was among the women who were spies.

Dr. Mary Walker received the Congressional Medal of Honor, the first and only woman to receive the nation's highest military honor.

1898 Spanish American War: Dr. Anita Newcomb McGee, then Vice President of the National Society of the DAR, was placed in charge of selecting the more than 1,500 contract nurses who served with the Army in Hawaii, Cuba, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, hospitals stateside, and on the hospital ship Relief. Twenty nurses died during the war.

1901: Army Nurse Corps established; Dita H. Kinney served as First Superintendent.

1908: Navy Nurse Corps established; Esther Voorhees Hasson served as First Superintendent.

1917-1918 World War 1: The Navy enlisted 11,880 Yeomen (F) and Marine Corps enlisted 305 Marine Reservists (F) to "free men to fight" by filling positions such as clerks and telephone operators. 2 women served with the Coast Guard. 21,480 Army nurses and 1,476 Navy nurses served in hospitals.

1941-1945 World War II: Thirteen Army nurses on a medical evacuation flight to Bari, Italy, crashed in the Albanian mountains far behind enemy lines in 1944. They and the plane's crew walked 800 miles across the mountains to freedom. At Anzio, Italy, six Army nurses died from two separate German bombardments. Nurse Deloris Buckley was one of several nurses wounded in these attacks. 1941, Army and Navy nurses were taken prisoner-of-war. Five Navy nurses were captured when the island of Guam fell to Japanese forces. They were transferred to a prison camp in Japan and held for five months. Eleven Navy nurses captured in the Philippines endured 37 months as prisoners of the Japanese at Los Banos prison camp, and 66 Army nurses were imprisoned for 33 months at Santo Tomas prison camp in the Philippines.

1949: Air Force established its Nurse Corps. Army and Air Force established the Medical Specialist Corps.

1950-53 Korean War: Army nurses arrived in Pusan to help set up a hospital - the first of about 540 to serve in the combat zone. Navy nurses served on hospital ships and Air Force nurses with Air Evacuation units. Major Genevieve Smith, ANC, died in a plane crash on 27 July 1950.

Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services (DACOWITS) created to advise on recruitment of military women.

1953: Dr. Fae Margaret Adams, an Army Reserve officer, became-the first woman physician to be commissioned a medical officer in the regular U.S. Army.

1955: Men accepted into the Army and Air Force Nurse Corps. 1965: Men accepted into the Navy Nurse Corps.

1965-75 Vietnam War: Some 7,500 American military women served in Southeast Asia. The majority in-country were Army nurses. 1969: Lieutenant Sharon Lane died of shrapnel wounds. 1975: Air Force flight nurse Captain Mary T. Klinker died in Vietnam when the C-5A Galaxy transport evacuating Vietnamese orphans crashed on takeoff. Six other American military women died in the fine of duty.

1967: Legal ceilings on women's promotions repealed.

1969: Air Force Reserve Officers' Training Corps (AFROTC) became coeducational.

1970: Army promoted first women to brigadier general, Anna Mae Hays, Chief, Army Nurse Corps, and Elizabeth P. Hoisington, WAC Director.

1971: Air Force promoted Jeanne M. Holm, WAF Director, to brigadier general.

Military draft ended. More women recruited. Army and Navy women entered ROTC.

Navy Chief Admiral Zumwalt published Z-116 declaring Navy's commitment to equal rights and opportunities for women.

1979: Hazel W. Johnson, Army Nurse Corps, became the first black woman brigadier general and first black Chief of the Army Nurse Corps.

Lieutenant (junior grade) Beverly G. Kelley assumed command of the Coast Guard Cutter Cape Newagen, the first woman to command a military vessel.

1980: First women graduated from the service academies.

1981: Congress upheld decision excluding women from the draft.

1983: Lieutenant Colleen Nevius became the first Navy woman test pilot upon completing Test Pilot School.
170 women among forces deployed to Grenada on Operation Urgent Fury. 1984: Kristin Holdereid graduated top of her class at the Naval Academy.

1986: Air Force women served as pilots, copilots, and boom operators on the KC-135 and KC-10 tankers that refueled FB-llls during the raid on Libya.

1989: 770 women deployed to Panama in Operation Just Cause.

Army Captain Linda L. Bray, commander of the 988th Military Police Company, led her soldiers in an infantry-style firelight against Panamanian
Defense Forces.

Three female Army pilots nominated for Air Medals after their helicopters encountered heavy enemy fire.

Kristin M. Baker named brigade commander of the West Point Corps of Cadets.

1990-91 War in the Persian Gulf: Some 40,000 American military women deployed on Operation Desert Shield/Storm.

Two Army women, Specialist Melissa Rathbun-Nealy, a truck driver, and Major Rhonda Cornum, a flight surgeon, were taken prisoner by the Iraqis.

1991: Congress repealed laws banning women from flying in combat.

Servicewomen deployed to Honduras.

1992: Secretary of Defense Memo "Zero Tolerance of Sexual Harassment."

1993: Air Force Lieutenant Jeannie Flynn entered combat pilot training.

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...Disclaimer: The material included in this Study Guide is to focus your studying and hopefully provide you with a better understanding of the materials covered in my lectures and the book. It is not meant to be a complete and definitive outline of all the material that may or will asked in exam questions. It is a “Guide” and is not intended in any way to replace reading of the text, attending class and taking comprehensive notes on the material presented in class. Captain Anderson Introduction: History and Evolution of the Earth and its Oceans Match the term or person with the appropriate phrase. You may use each answer once, more than once or not at all. A) first European explorer to see the Pacific Ocean B) led voyage that first circumnavigated the globe C) used ecological approach to solve fisheries problem D) mapped world with Roman knowledge showing latitude and longitude E) first determination of Earth's circumference F) led voyage that first used the marine chronometer G) made important observations about drift of sea ice H) mapped the Mediterranean Sea for the Greeks I) established impermanent settlement in North America and the first Europeans to explore Iceland and Greenland J) incorrectly concluded that no life exists in deep ocean 1) Balboa 2) Eratosthenes 3) Magellan 4) Ptolemy 5) Vikings Match the term with the appropriate phrase. You may use each answer once, more than once or not at all. A) the Sun and the eight major planets...

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...Snag List for new website Page ID | Problem | Change Expected | Overall | Alignment of boxes and text at 75% and 100% zoom. The boxes are off and the text is off within boxes | I trust this is just an issue on my big screens. This is a fairly annoying issue so needs to be checked across other computers before go live | Overall | Yellow Text/Linda and I both have said we have difficulty in reading the yellow text. I showed to a few people and again it’s the first thing they said as comments | We need that yellow text deepened in colour, it’s just too hard to read. | Our Services main page | Success at Interview (Lady going up stairs +28, Dave said it had no context, is it 28 out of 100 coached? | 2014 Success at Interview coaching 33 candidates 28 promoted. I know it’s a bit long but we do need context. See how you can get it to fit. | Choice Programme | Pricing | Choice 1: £800 (Change the points part to correspondChoice 2: £1800Choice 3: £3200 | Online Master class | The pictures and next programme isn’t working for me, it’s too busy and repetitive. Also as you scroll down the page the webinars appear on this page which is confusing | Need to discuss this. A lot of changes neededThis area on website needs the most work | Webinar page | Webinar: just need to talk about the layout of this page, a little tweak required | Need to discuss | Speaking and Training Page | Need to complete | I think we go straight to video talking, too much introduction...

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...Unit6: Business Decision Making Executive summary We will use techniques to draw any correlation of sales with expenses in order to project turnover. So we are required to use project and decision techniques to create plan for business development. Introduction TASK1 TASK2 PCMM of the Luxury price product Let x bethe number of items sold, y be the pronotion expenses. x | 24 | 34 | 18 | 13 | y | 25,000 | 30,000 | 18,000 | 12,000 | i | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | Sum(Σ) | x²  | 576 | 1,156 | 324 | 169 | 2225 | x | 24 | 34 | 18 | 13 | 89 | xy | 600,000 | 1,020,000 | 324,000 | 156,000 | 2,100,000 | y | 25,000 | 30,000 | 18,000 | 12,000 | 85,000 | y²  | 625,000,000 | 900,000,000 | 324,000,000 | 144,000,000 | 1,993,000,000 | r=4×2,100,000-89×850004×2225-892×4×1,993,000,000-850002=0.976415868 Such as 0.976415868 is ready close to +1, it mean this is a perfect uphill linear relationship between product and promotion expenses. So the promotion expenses is a correlated. We set HK$300,000 of the total promotion expenses budget for the whole year that plan it in the remaining months (May to November). Also we will be increased to HK$80,000 for the promotion expenses that elevate sales of this product. May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December | HK$30,000 | HK$28000 | HK$55,000 | HK$69,000 | HK$17,000 | HK$49,000 | HK$52,000 | HK$80,000 | In May there will be a large number of visitors to Hong Kong consumption. But not too long...

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...No matter whether the discourse is of corporate social responsibility or of sustainability there exists a high degree of scepticism about the reality of corporate activity. Accusations of greenwashing – presenting a false picture – abound. We argue that this is a legacy of past behaviour when such an accusation could reasonably be made about many organisations. Our argument is the CSR is a developmental process and changes as organisations mature in their behaviour and attitude towards both their stakeholders and their ideas concerning social responsibility. Of course we also acknowledge that there is a growing body of evidence to show that social responsibility behaviour becomes reflected positively in the financial performance of a company, thereby providing a financial imperative for changing behaviour. Moreover, we argue that there are stages of growth as far as CSR is concerned which become reflected in corporate behaviour. These can be seen as increasing levels of maturity. CSR theories Those theories generally include a certain vision of the human being and society within a social philosophy framework, although sometimes in an implicit manner. Three key approaches to CSR: 1, ethical responsibility theory, which presents strong corporate self-restraint and altruistic duties and expansive public policy to strengthen stakeholders’ rights. 伦理责任理论,提出了强大的公司涵养和利他主义的职责和广阔的公共政策,加强各利益相关者的权利。 2, economic responsibility theory, which advocates market wealth creation...

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...THE ELEMENTARY OF A PROPOSAL 1. Introduction The introduction is the part of the paper that provides readers with the background information for the research reported in the paper. Its purpose is to establish a framework for the research, so that readers can understand how it is related to other research. In an introduction, the writer should create reader interest in the topic, lay the board foundation for the problem that leads to the study, place the study within the larger context of the scholarly literature, and reach out to a specific audience. 2. Statement of the Problem State the problem in terms intelligible to someone who is generally sophisticated but who is relatively uninformed in the area of your investigation. A problem statement should be presented within a context, and that context should be provided and briefly explained, including a discussion of the conceptual or theoretical framework in which it is embedded. Clearly and succinctly identify and explain the theoretical framework that guides your study. This is of major importance in nearly all proposals and requires careful attention. 3. Purpose of the Study The purpose statement should provide a specific and accurate synopsis of the overall purpose of the study. If the purpose is not clear to the writer, it cannot be clear to the reader. Briefly define and delimit the specific area of the research. Foreshadow the hypotheses to be tested or the questions to be raised, as...

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...Problems for February 23, 2000 Problem 2. Microwaves in a microwave oven are produced by electrons circling in a magnetic field at a frequency of 2.4 GHz. a) What is the magnetic field strength? b) The electrons’ motion takes place inside a special tube called a magnetron. If the magnetron can accommodate electron orbits with a maximum diameter of 2.5 mm, what is the maximum electron energy? Problem 3. An electron moves in a circular path perpendicular to a constant magnetic field of magnitude 1.00 mT. If the angular momentum of the electron about the center of the circle is 4.00(10-25 J(s, determine a) the radius of the path, and b) the speed of the electron. Problem 4. A cyclotron designed to accelerate protons has a magnetic field of magnitude 0.45 T over a region of radius 1.2 m. What are a) the cyclotron frequency, and b) the maximum speed acquired by the protons? Problem 5. A cyclotron is designed to accelerate deuterium nuclei. (Deuterium has one proton and one neutron in its nucleus.) a) If the cyclotron uses a 2.0 T magnetic field, at what frequency should the dee voltage be alternated? b) If the vacuum chamber has a diameter of 0.90 m, what is the maximum kinetic energy of the deuterons? c) If the magnitude of the potential difference between the dees is 1500 V, how many orbits do the deuterons complete before achieving the energy of part (b)? Here's a picture of the cyclotron. You can also...

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...Chapter 3: The International Criminal Court By: Robel Tesfai History: The International Criminal Court and Darfur On July 1st 2002, the International Criminal Court was created by the implementation of a Roman Statute. As of May 2013, the ICC had 122 state parties to the Statute of the Court. This large number of states included all of South America, most of Oceania, about 50% of Africa, and almost all of Europe. A paper published by the Political Science Department of Columbia University describes the statute as having the following obligations and limitations: “The statute empowers the Court to exercise jurisdiction with respect to these crimes under three conditions: 1) where a State Party refers a situation to the Prosecutor, 2) where the Prosecutor initiates an investigation proprio motu, and 3) where the UN Security Council refers a situation to the Court. Under the first two conditions, the Court may exercise. 25 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Part 2. Jurisdiction only over nationals of a State Party or over crimes alleged to have occurred on the territory of a State Party; however, where the Security Council has referred a situation, the Court may exercise jurisdiction over any individual alleged to have perpetrated a crime within its competence, regardless of the nationality of the person or the location of the crime” (Broache, 11). On March 31, 2005, the UN Security Council passed the referral of the situation to the ICC with a unanimous...

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...Joel Chang PROGAP2 Ang dokumentong ito ay nagpapakita ng paraan nang paggawa ng “sessions” gamit ang HTTP “request” at “respond” objects. Ang isang “session” ay tumutukoy sa pagrespond ng isang tanging HTTP server sa bawat request ng client,samantalang wala nang kinalaman ang mga request na naganap at tapos na dito. “Cookie” ang tawag natin sa impormasyon na naipagpapasahan ng isang server at ng isang client. Ang isang fully-qualified host name (FQHN) naman ay maaring isang fully qualified domain name (FQDN) o ay isang Internet Protocol (IP address) ng host. Sa pagkumpara ng dalawang tanging hosts, magtugma ang host A sa host B kapag magkaparehas na IP address o magkaparehas na FQDN strings ang kanilang host name at magtugma din ang kanilang host name strings. Ang dalawang state management headers (Set-Cookie at Cookie)ay parehas mayroong attribute-value pairs, at ang attribute ay case insensitive. Ang ginagawa ng origin server ay nag-iinitiate ito ng isang “session” na gawa sa HTTP requests at responses. Ito ang nagbibigay ng extra response header sa client at ito ang tinatawag na (Set-Cookie), at ang user naman ang nagbibigay ng Cookie request header sa origin server kung ito ay magpapatuloy. Ang origin server ang mamamahala kung ito ay irerespond o ay iignore na lamang. “Max-Age=0” ang ginagamit ng origin server sa pagtigil ng session. Sa Set-Cookie response header, NAME=VALUE ang nauuna sa bawat cookie at ito ay required. Isa pang required na attribute ay ang...

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...NOTE PRO Parliament has a plan to socialize the new Parliament building, which according to its development worth Rp 1.6 trillion. Development budget will be in use state budget 2011. New building standards are more than just a work space but is equipped with luxurious facilities like swimming pool, spa, fitness center, and other luxury amenities. These facilities are provided to support the work of the board members of the DPR, it is because the members of Parliament wanted to add an expert staff and facilities such as meeting rooms, break room, bathroom, and living room which was considered quite luxurious because when the Tunjang with good vasilitan thenperformance at the House of Representatives members will increase and the maximum. When the construction is completed, its many positive effects, such as opening new employment opportunities for Indonesian community, because the care of a luxury building requires many workers. Development is done for many reasons, The first, based on changes in the number of board members who each period increases, as well as inadequate Nusantara I Building to accommodate activities of members of Parliament. The second, based on new requirements, the calculation for the space of each member to 7 people, including a member of the board, 5 specialist staff, and a personal assistant, this requiring a large office space. Third, the term of office Members of the period 2009 -2014, there is a desire additional expert staff which consist of...

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