Premium Essay

Black Report 1980

In: Historical Events

Submitted By Coolchic100
Words 252
Pages 2
The Skadon Mavron Report was a 1980 document published [1] by the Department of Health and Social Security (now the Department of Health) in the United Kingdom, which was the report of the expert committee into health inequality chaired by Sir Douglas Black. It was demonstrated that although overall health had improved since the introduction of the welfare state, there were widespread health inequalities. It also found that the main cause of these inequalities was economic inequality. The report showed that the death rate for men in social class V was twice that for men in social class I and that gap between the two was increasing, not reducing as was expected. The Black report was commissioned in March 1977 by David Ennals, Labour Secretary of State, following publication of a two-page article by Richard G. Wilkinson in New Society, on 16 December 1976, entitled Dear David Ennals. The report was nearly ready for publication in early 1979.

However, in the General Election on 3 May 1979, the Conservatives were elected. The Black Report was not issued until 1980 by the Conservative Government. The Black report was published on August Bank Holiday with only 260 copies made available on the day for the media. However, the report had a huge impact on political thought in the United Kingdom and overseas. It led to an assessment by the Office for Economic Co-Operation and Development and the World Health Organization of health inequalities in 13 countries—though not on UK government...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Helt Promotion

...Please print notes prior to attending lectures ICON COLLEGE (LO1) = TASK 1 2 1 08/10/2014 Learning Outcomes (LO) On successful completion of this lecture a learner will: LO1: Understand the socio-economic influences on health 1.1 explain the effects of socio-economic influences on health. 1.2 assess the relevance of government sources in reporting on inequalities in health. 1.3 discuss reasons for barriers to accessing healthcare. ICON COLLEGE (LO1) = TASK 1 3 Unit Content (LO1) Influences: social e.g. disposable income, unemployment, lifestyle choices, environment, access to healthcare facilities, access to information, citizenship status, discrimination. Sources of information: reports and enquiries e.g. Black Report DHSS 1980, Acheson Report ‘Independent Inquiry in ‘Inequalities in Health’ 1998, Health and Lifestyle Surveys (HALS), Health Survey for England (HSFE), census data ICON COLLEGE (LO1) = TASK 1 4 2 08/10/2014 Definitions (Class participation Review) • What is health promotion? • What is public health? • What do we mean by determinant of health? • What do we mean by environmental factors? ICON COLLEGE (LO1) = TASK 1 5 The main determinants of health Dahlgren and Whitehead's model, 1992 Figure 1: adapted from Dahlgren and Whitehead ICON COLLEGE (LO1) = TASK 1 6 3 08/10/2014 Health Promotion “The process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health.” - Ottawa......

Words: 5645 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay

Fashion Business -

...INDIVIDUAL MARKET REPORT The Fashion Business - MC4005 Module Tutor: Michael Kourtoubelides Virginia Brocchin 09/12/2013 Abstract Image 1: Givenchy Fall 2013 RTW. Available at:: http://www.annexmagazine.com/review-givenchy-fall-2013-rtw/#sthash.ZnOusNMX.dpbs. COVER IMAGE: Vivienne Westwood. Available at: http://thewildmagazine.com/blog/style-icon-vivienne-westwood. “London is the new capital of fashion, darling. Move there and you will find out the reasons why”. My grandmother was right when she quoted this truthful sentence. London’s energy is stunning, it gives many opportunities to anyone who wants to make a change; creativity and innovation are on the agenda. These are the reasons why it is so special. The US-based analytics company Global Language Monitor awarded London as the capital of fashion for the second consecutive year in 2012 (Vogue news, sept 2012) and London deserved it all for sure. People feel good in expressing themselves, no matter which kind of style they fit in, no matter whether they follow minimal total black or eccentric and colourful trends. London’s peculiarity involves the different shopping areas offered to the fashion world, where customers can find their own personal space and keep always up to date with their favourite trends. From the high street middle market fashion to the haute couture, from the punk that will never die to the new special trends. Fashion changes quickly. “It is important for past......

Words: 3467 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Juvenile Crime Statistics Paper

...trends in juvenile crime. In 2001 the juvenile violent crime index arrest rate declined for the seventh consecutive year. The rate increased dramatically from the late 1980’s through 1994 and then began its steady downward trend. By 2001 the rate had fallen 44% from its 1994 peak reaching the lowest level since 1983. Moving on to the increase in drug offences and simple assaults, arrests of juveniles accounted for 12% of all violent crimes cleared by arrest in 2001 specially, 5% of murders, 12% of forcible rapes, 14% of robberies, and 12% of aggravated assaults. The drug offences in juvenile arrests have increased. In 2001 the estimated arrests for drug violations were 202,500 this is one of the highest numbers in the estimates for 2001. Moving on from drug offences and simple assaults to implications for juvenile females and minorities this is also an issue that seems to be growing by the year. Law enforcement agencies made 645,000 estimated arrests of females under the age of 18 in 2001, between 1992 and 2001 the arrests of juvenile females generally increased more than the male category. The racial composition of the juvenile population in 2001 was 78% white, 17% black, 4% Asian/ Pacific Islander, and 1% American Indian. Most Hispanics were classified as white in contrast to their representation in the population, black youth were overrepresented in juvenile arrests for violent crimes, and to a lesser extent, property crimes of all juvenile for...

Words: 730 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Sublimial Messages

...The media as a whole has many hidden messages or ideas that the entertainment world wants to get across. The media uses subliminal messages through radio, television, and advertisement. “A subliminal message is a signal in the form of a picture or sound that is designed to pass the normal limits of perception,” which means when people receive images or ideas consciously they also receive it subconsciously in their mind (Subliminal Messages in Movies and Media). There have been many controversial issues concerning the usage of this technique (Subliminal Messages in Movies and Media). There were rumors stating that Bush has used subliminal messages in some of his campaign speeches in order to deliver hidden messages to the world (Subliminal Messages in Movies and Media). One example of this would have been when; “A similar accusation was made against a promotional film of the Liberal party of Canada, where after dissecting their ad, one could clearly see a gun being fired at the viewer” (Subliminal Messages in Movies and Media). The Bush promo is rumored to be filled to the brim with subliminal images of a disturbing nature: fire, explosions, terrified children, mutilation, ghost-like figures and several acts of violence” (Subliminal Messages in Movies and Media). In the manipulation of many viewers, it was first to be just a tested experiment that could determine the facts of subliminal messages (Subliminal Messages in Movies and Media). A movie theatre in New Jersey did an......

Words: 2948 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Black Economy

...INTRODUCTION The Estimates committee (1980-81) in 7th Lok Sabha, Ministry of Finance had recommended that government should attempt an estimate of black economy to formulate appropriate policies. The study of unaccounted income thereafter was entrusted to the National Institute Of Public Finance And Policy in July 1982 to: identify sectors generating black money, causes of such, studying the methods employed to generate black money and channels through which concealed income is invested and spent in other ways, methods employed to convert black money into white, broad estimate of money generated and to take regional or sectoral surveys required in connection with the above. The Institute submitted its report in March 1985. The focus of the paper is on methods and measurements of estimating black economy and therefore, other aspects of the report like distinguishing between black income and black wealth, giving an explanation for the causes of black economy and remedial measures etc. are not explicitly dealt with, yet these issues are kept in mind and the methods and measurements are discussed at the level best. This paper has tried to do some justification to the NIPFP REPORT (1985) and the comments by various known scholars. METHODS FOR ESTIMATING BLACK INCOME The first approach is the fiscal approach: Variants of this approach attempt to arrive at independent estimates of incomes subject to tax and compare these with the income actually assessed for taxation and call......

Words: 4684 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

The Meaning of Development

...Arianne Cerize A. Aman The Meaning of Development: Brazil and Costa Rica Economic development is the presumed solution to absolute poverty and to many of the world's other most pressing problems. But what is development, and how do we know it when we see it? The term, development, has been used in several ways. Traditionally, it was equated with growth of per capita income. Since the 1970s, other indicators of development have become widely used by development scholars and development agencies such as the World Bank. The meeting of basic needs (or, equivalently, reduction in absolute poverty), the creation of modern employment opportunities, and the achievement of a less unequal distribution of income and farmland have all become important criteria in determining the level of development. Traditional measures of growth, especially in developing countries, may be misleading in that they fail to account for the environmental destruction that often accompanies spurts in temporary and unsustainable economic growth; and economists are devising measures of the national capital stock that includes environmental wealth. The United Nations has placed both educational attainment and health standards on equal footings with per capita income as development criteria, in the widely followed United Nations Development Program human development index (HDI). Some leading development scholars, such as Amartya Sen, Denis Goulet, and Dudley Seers, have gone further. They argue that more......

Words: 4391 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Jdlasdj

...KIANA MITCHELL MRS. JENKINS Wednesday, March 20, 2013 1ST PERIOD It was during the mid-1980s that the emergence of a new smokable form of cocaine, called crack, had been introduced to the United States just about everyone was doing it. Some did it when they were pregnant, which had effects on the child and their learning abilities. The effect on the crack epidemic in the 80s helped the youth of today, to make better choices in life concerning this addictive drug. Crack, was highly-addictive and swept through plenty areas of cities such as New York, Los Angeles, Oakland, and Miami. In the end it caused devastating effects for black and Latino Americans. As crack cocaine was becoming popular and rising epidemic, hip hop was evolving alongside it. It was in the 1980s that crack cocaine and hip hop became the two leading fundamentals of urban street culture. It is not suggested that hip hop caused the crack epidemic, or vice versa. But, it can be argued that both fed off each other, particularly hip hop off the crack culture itself. Crack cocaine quickly gained popularity among users in the 1980s due to its cheap cost, and the quick, intense high it left. Compared to freebase cocaine, which involved a complicated ritual involving Ether, crack cocaine had become simplistic and easier to manage. The drug was “made from powder cocaine, it was safer to make than freebase cocaine”. As crack and dope became parts of our neighborhoods, they started to have an impression on......

Words: 1109 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Media History

...policies and existence (Fourie, 2002). Regardless of the South African government's persistent claims that the media in South Africa was free, the independent media in South Africa was still prohibited by law not to report any issues of violence and hostility against black people especially the state of Emergency that happened during that time in the country. This state of affairs led to a development and growth of progressive publications known as the alternative press which were the organisations that helped in reaction to the blanket on information. Even though government suppressed media reporting, citizens were kept informed by these alternative presses regardless of the state of emergency. This essay will look at the portrayal of the liberal, independent English-speaking Press as pioneering noble entities in the battle against apartheid and its exploitations. It will further discuss issues that could obscure this outlook and also look at what the possibilities of the rise in alternative press of the 1980’s brought about, by using examples of the commencement of M-Net, the shutting down of the Rand Daily Mail and the history of black press. The South African press tried to be, “the principal voice of liberal moderation and a bridge between white and black” (Harber, 1999:2). It played an essential role in the liberation endeavor in South Africa although...

Words: 1984 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Appendix E

...University of Phoenix Material Lorus Lynn Pratt Appendix E Part I Define the following terms: |Term |Definition | |Racial formation |An analytical tool in sociology developed by Michael Omi and Howard Winant, which is used to look | | |at race as a socially constructed identity, where the content and importance of racial categories | | |is determined by social, economic, and political forces. | |Segregation |The physical and social separation of categories of people. | |De jure segregation |Segregation that is imposed by law. | |Pluralism |A state in which people of all racial and ethnic categories have about the same overall social | | |standing. | |Assimilation |The process by which minorities gradually adopt cultural patterns from the dominant majority | | |population. | Part II Answer the following questions in......

Words: 1132 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Black and Decker

...A report of Team D-1’s Analysis Of The Black & Decker Corporation in 2000 Executive Summary Black & Decker had always been a market leader in the power tools industry. Many changes took place that helped out in the company in the short run, but hurt in the long run. In 2000 Black and Decker Corporation was still reeling from the financial and strategic problems stemming from the company's acquisition of Emhart Corporation in 1989. In late 1998 Black & Decker management celebrated the completion of an almost decade-long effort to divest nonstrategic business gained through its 1989 acquisition of Emhart Corporation and expected the company to enter a long-awaited period of growth as its entire management refocused its attention on its core power tools, plumbing, and security hardware business. Archibald believed that "This portfolio restructuring will allow us to focus on core operations that can deliver dependable and superior operating and financial results." However the portfolio restructuring did little to improve the market performance of the company's securities. Yet Archibald and the management continued to express confidence that the company's streamline portfolio would allow Black & Decker to achieve revenue and earnings growth that the market would find impressive. So far the 1998 divestitures have not produced steady increases in the company's stock price, but look promising for the future due to the efforts to refocus efforts on the successful power......

Words: 1575 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Rasicm in the Media

...among African-Americans, the media have fostered a distorted and pernicious public perception of African-Americans. 1 The history of African-Americans is a centuries old struggle against oppression and discrimination. The media have played a key role in perpetuating the effects of this historical oppression and in contributing to African-Americans' continuing status as second-class citizens. As a result, white America has suffered from a deep uncertainty as to who African-Americans really are. Despite this racial divide, something indisputably American about African-Americans has raised doubts about the white man's value system. Indeed, it has also aroused the troubling suspicion that whatever else the true American is, he is also somehow black. 2 Racism Before attempting to understand racism and mass media, one must understand the history of racism. Race has become an institutional part of American society. From the Founding on, race has played an integral part in shaping the American consciousness. David Goldberg's Racist Culture argues that racial discourse may be interpreted as aversive, academic, scientific, legalistic, bureaucratic, economic, cultural, linguistic, religion, mythical, or ideological. 3 He also stresses that racialized discourse and racist expressions towards African-American have been widespread. Race matters exist in different places and at different times under widely varying conditions. American race relations provides a case study in......

Words: 2127 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Juvenile Crime Statistics

...the years 2005 and 2006. In the later two years there was approximately a 3% decrease in arrests concerning juvenile crimes (Puzzanchera, 2009). Property crimes saw a large increase whereas violent crimes were proportionately smaller in percentage; arson and vandalism are at the top of the list. The number of arrests made was larger than the number of cases cleared by arrests, this may be because juveniles are easier to apprehend than adult offenders (Puzzanchera, 2009). Arrests for simple assaults increased substantially from 1980 to 1997, a rate increase of 156%. While there has been a slight decline in the last two years the rate for arrests of simple assaults is still substantially higher than it was beginning in 1980 (Puzzanchera, 2009). Drug offense arrests have mirrored closely that of simple assaults, the main difference between the two is simple assault arrests has been slightly higher. Arrests for drug offenses stayed fairly stable from 1980 to 1990 after which a dramatic increase occurred in this area until 1997. A 28% decline began after 1997 but arrests are still 78% higher than in 1990 when the increase in arrest began (Puzzanchera, 2009). Arrests for juvenile females have increased in some...

Words: 823 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Healthcare

...Health September 26, 2011 Jean Ha Health Campaign According to (Dolinsky, Siega-Riz, Perrin & Armstrong, 2011). Childhood obesity is one of the most challenging problems facing pediatricians today. The increasing incidence of childhood obesity raised concern in 1990, when it was claimed that obesity had reached epidemic proportions. It was estimated that 18 million children under the age of five, worldwide were classified as being overweight (Lawrence, 2005). Obesity occurs when there is an abnormal amount of fat (adipose tissue) accumulated around the body, caused when people eat in excess of their energy requirements (Lawrence, 2005). Approximately 17% (or 12.5 million) of children and adolescents aged 2-19 years are obese. Since 1980, obesity prevalence among children and adolescents has almost tripled (www.cdc.gov). Let’s Move! Is a comprehensive initiative, launched by the First Lady, Michelle Obama dedicated to solving the challenge of childhood obesity within a generation, so that children born today will grow up healthier and able to pursue their dreams. Combining comprehensive strategies with common sense, Let’s Move! Is about putting children on the path for a healthy future during their earliest months and years. Giving parents helpful information and fostering environments that support healthy choices. Providing healthier foods in our schools. Ensuring that every family has access to healthy, affordable food. And, helping kids become more......

Words: 1423 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Juvenile Crime Statistics

...Juvenile Crime Statistics Juan Ramirez CJA/374 April 15, 2012 Jerry Kilgo Abstract In this paper I will address juvenile crime statistics, from the Juvenile Justice Bulletin show a growing trend, in that juvenile crime actually appears to be declining according to the Juvenile Arrests 2001 Report. Even though there is a decline in juvenile offenses but the juvenile drugs and juvenile aggravated assault has increased. About 50% of the juvenile crimes be committed by female juveniles. Also I will be covering Minority and female juveniles and the tracking the juvenile crimes. Juvenile Arrests Juvenile crime has been an issue throughout the 1800s. Dealing with juvenile crime committed and examine the juvenile arrests, and criminal activity, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention a study of juvenile arrest statistics (FindLaw, 2011). In Juvenile Justice Bulletin there was a decrease in arrest in juveniles. According, to the Juvenile Justice Bulletin it shows that it was the lowest since 1988 of juvenile arrests being arrested (Flores, 2003). In 1994 juveniles peaked over and also in 1995 and around 2001 juveniles being arrested dropped. In Juvenile Justice Bulletin it breaks down the juvenile crimes committed from aggravated assaults committed by juveniles. It was lower 2001 and down in 1991 but aggravated assaults were lower in 2001 than any other year from 1991. Juveniles that committed murders were low from 1984. ......

Words: 788 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Crime in Context

...------------------------------------------------- Crime in context Discuss the role of the media in the construction of the general public`s perceptions of crime and the implications of this for the development of safety policies. The primary source of information on crime and safety policies is the mass media. Mass media has a primary aim to inform and entertain and therefore the coverage of crime may be inaccurate, biased and may promote inappropriate policies of crime control. However, the influence that the media imposes upon the public about crime will ultimately be dependent upon how the content of the media is interpreted by specific audiences. In relation to crime statistics and the public’s perceptions, the Government's British Crime Survey (BCS) of 2008/9, results showed that UK public felt crime had increased locally from 36 per cent in 2007/08 to 38 per cent in 2008/09 and an increase in the proportion of people who think crime has increased nationally from 65 per cent in 2007/08 to 75 per cent in 2008/09 when in fact the figures had decreased. On the other hand, some categories of crime did show an increase, such as theft from the person which increased by 7 per cent. Two main categories of mass media are print media and electronic media. Both categories differ in the way that print media is mainly factual and electronic media tends to provide visual imaging to relay information. At present visual media coverage is the most predominant in conveying the......

Words: 2719 - Pages: 11