Premium Essay

Card Money In New France

Submitted By
Words 991
Pages 4
The introduction of playing cards as a currency in New France is simply due to a lack of a consistent currency within the colony. These playing cards issued by the Intendent of New France were used as currency in New France and is often referred to as “card money”. French coins being used a currency within the colony failed because of a shortage within of the coins with the colony (Heaton, 1928, pp.650-651). This failure of French coins to suffice as a currency within the colony and the commercial structure necessary for consumers led to card money becoming legal tender within New France. Therefore, if it were 1686 and I were in New France I believe I would accept a quarter of a king of spades if it were offered as payment for many reasons. …show more content…
This investment by King Louis XIV (king of France at the time) would lead New France to rely on France but leave citizens of the colony to believe in the authorities in charge of the ruling of the colony. In 1686 in Quebec City card money was considered legal tender. Card money was first issued by Jacques de Meulles (who was the Intendent of Justice, Police and Finance in New France) on June 8, 1685 after all other methods to pay the soldiers of the colony were exhausted; so by 1686 card money had already successfully been distributed and refunded for French coin by the Intendent (Powell, p.5). The Intendent’s job in the colony of New France was to develop economic development (Emery, et al., p.37). In accordance “de Meulles spent his own money [and] borrowed from his colleagues,” (Heaton, 1928, p.62) to pay the soldiers of the colony, therefore showing the lengths to which de Meulles went to pay the soldiers of the …show more content…
The king of France (king Louie XIV) believed that counterfeiting of card money would be simple, stating in a letter to de Meulles according to Shorrtt, (1925a) “He [His Majesty] strongly disapproved of . . . circulating . . . card notes . . . [because of them being] being extremely dangerous, nothing being easier to counterfeit than this sort of money” (Powell, p.5). This issue could have been quite problematic because the method in which card money was created was quite simple. To create card money in 1685 de Meulles got a pack of cards, cut the cards into quarters and proceeded to write the value of the cards with which he added his initials and finally his seal (Heaton, 1928, p.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Business Customs in France

...Business Customs in France When conducting business in a country other than our own, there are many obvious considerations that must be made to be successful, including how negotiations are made, how business meetings are conducted, acceptable business attire, etiquette and decision styles. Other less obvious, yet equally important, considerations that must be made include normal business hours in the host country, accepted cultural norms regarding gift giving, handshakes and business cards, and how women are regarded in the business world. This paper will address the cultural considerations that an American professional would need to make when conducting business in France, as well as a summary of Hofstede’s Dimensions of Culture for both countries. Negotiations Business negotiations in France tend to be very centralized and bureaucratic. Tradition is respected and given precedence over new ideas and formality is expected in all stages of business. During business negotiations, the French tend to ask very direct, detailed questions and expect adequate responses from their American colleagues. It is expected that all risks be identified early in the process and that they are all well-managed to avoid unnecessary complications. The French are also likely to repeat their main points when they have reached their conclusion, at which point changing their opinion or decision is very unlikely. Additionally, the business structure in France often requires initial negotiations...

Words: 2607 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Tastecard - International Market Feasibility Study

...Foodservice Operators 9-11 5.7. Mobile Technology Advancements 11 5.0. Current Supply Side (Market Gap) 12-13 6.8. La Four Chette 12 6.9. Groupon – France 12-13 6.0. Market Entry Strategy 14-15 7.10. Entry Strategy 14 7.11. The Value Chain Framework 14-15 7.0. Product Adaptation 16-18 8.0. Pricing Strategy 19-20 9.0. Distribution Options 21 10.0. Promotion and Communications 22 11.12. Social Media Websites 22 11.13. Pay Per Click Advertising 22 11.14. Partnerships with established brands 22 11.0. References 23-26 12.0. Appendices 27-30 * List of Figures Figure 1.0 – Strength of Economic and Technological Factors in France 6 Figure 2.0 – Consumer Foodservice by Independent Vs Chained Outlets 9 Figure 3.0 – Leading Chained Consumer Foodservice Brands by 10 Number of Units Figure 4.0 – The Value Chain Framework 15 Figure 5.0 – French translation of the tastecard brand name 17 Figure 6.0 – River Thames outline on tastecard and map of London 17 Figure 7.0 – River Seine outline in France 18 Figure 8.0 – Pricing Strategy Matrix 19 Figure 9.0 –...

Words: 5548 - Pages: 23

Premium Essay


...children go abroad, HSBC will set up overseas account, credit and debit cards for students and family members in 10 days. That is faster about 5 days than other international banks. Then bank will send cards to customers by express. In addition bank will arrange a premier relationship manager for children. HSBC also offer free education consultation services, special fee discount for their education cooperation company, and free professional lectures of overseas study. These supports save customers’ more time to do other things, so parents do not need to worry about preparation works for children. During students study abroad, parents can view their children’s accounts in different countries. Also they transfer money to students online, and students draw cash from all HSBC ATMs, those both are free. Compare with other banks, same service project, parents can save approximately £20 service fee in every finance trade. Also over 17,000 HSBC ATMs in whole world, further more they support 24-hour service of phone and Internet. One concern of this product is efficiency service of personal manager to each customer. So students do not need wait for long time, and also enjoy more patient and professional service. HSBC also has a special service project that is used to solve the emergency situation of students. For instance, when students lost their property, bank will support $2,000 in one hour, then students can get a new card after one day. Because of emergency service, students’...

Words: 403 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Barclays Report

...largest bank with total assets around 1.49 billion pound. * Scale of Barclays Bank * Centering on the UK,Barclays Bank provides financial service,which mainly focus on the investment and banking industry.Also, the bank has branches in other countries with its strong influence.The scope of Barclays Bank has covered more than 60 countries,containing all financial centers.It has more than 139,200 employees worldwide,with 55,300 employees work in the UK. * Main business * Global retailing * The business of GRCB contains the business of the UK retailing bank, commercial bank of Barclays Bank, credit card and international retailing of Barclays Bank.The business of credit card of Barclays Bank provides credit cards and the business of consuming loans,which could help retailers deal with the payment service and issue the credit card to corporate clients and UK government. * Banking management * The IBIM including the business of capital,global investment and wealth management. Barclays Investment is a global investment bank which provide solutions for clients of corporates, institutions and government in order to satisfy their needs of finance and risk management. Presides,Barclays...

Words: 1893 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Spain Economic Issues

...did Spain get into this predicament? The history of Spain is a big factor that contributes to their economic troubles even today. Spain began its momentum towards becoming an empire after the expulsion of the Moors in 1492. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella funded Cristobal Colon’s expedition which found the “New World”, where Spain would reap the riches of gold and silver. These riches helped Spain build up its navy for its many wars with England. This wealth also paid for more expeditions of discovery and Spain’s overall improvement in their standard of living. Like many great empires, this prosperity did not last and through financial decline this prosperity died, as did the empire. Most of Spain's civilization remained poor until after Francisco Franco, who came to power during the Spanish Civil War, died in 1975 and the exiled King Juan Carlos returned. Juan Carlos began the transition to a democratic state and ensured that Spain would prosper from a democracy and a capitalist system. Spain began crawling its way up but still remained one of the poorest nations in Europe. The dominant powerhouse economies of Europe have always been those of Germany and France. As a result, the bloodiest conflicts of the twentieth century have centered on these countries dragging down with them the other European nations aligned with each side respectively. The European Union was conceived, in the...

Words: 1428 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...------------------------------------------------- Debit card A debit card (also known as a bank card or check card) is a plastic card that provides the cardholder electronic access to his or her bank account/s at a financial institution. Some cards have a stored value against which a payment is made, while most relay a message to the cardholder's bank to withdraw funds from a designated account in favor of the payee's designated bank account. The card can be used as an alternative payment method to cash when making purchases. In some cases, the cards are designed exclusively for use on the Internet, and so there is no physical card.[1][2] In many countries the use of debit cards has become so widespread that their volume of use has overtaken or entirely replaced the check and, in some instances, cash transactions. Like credit cards, debit cards are used widely for telephone and Internet purchases. However, unlike credit cards, the funds paid using a debit card are transferred immediately from the bearer's bank account, instead of having the bearer pay back the money at a later date. Debit cards usually also allow for instant withdrawal of cash, acting as the ATM card for withdrawing cash and as a check guarantee card. Merchants may also offer cashback facilities to customers, where a customer can withdraw cash along with their purchase. ------------------------------------------------- Types of debit card systems There are currently three ways that debit card transactions are processed: online...

Words: 10775 - Pages: 44

Premium Essay

Computer Crime

...Cyber Crime Research Presentation by the Australian Institute of Criminology Dr Russell G Smith Principal Criminologist The Australian Institute of Criminology • Australia's national research and knowledge centre on crime and justice • Core funding from the Australian Government, with income for contract research from public and private sectors • Criminology Research Advisory Council representing all jurisdictions • Staff of 30 academic researchers and 25 support staff – total 55 Cyber crime research Research questions • • • • • • • • • • How are cyber crimes committed (e.g. credit cards, internet)? How many crimes are committed and what are the crime trends? Who commits them and why do people commit them? How much money is at stake, lost and recovered? How can such crime be reduced – by prevention or punishment? Online and desk-based reviews of books, reports and articles Legislative and case-law analysis, including sentencing research Consultations with business, government and the community Surveys of households, businesses, offenders and victims Analysis of media reporting of crime Research methods Dissemination of findings • Reports, books, articles, conference papers, roundtables, online, media Cyber crime concepts Organised Crime e.g. OMCGs Identity Crime Cyber Crime e.g. off-line crimes e.g. ID theft Internet Crime e.g. Offensive Content Phishing Financial Crime e.g. Home renovation scams A chronology of cyber crime Cloud...

Words: 1301 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

The Seven Years War

...In North America the war pitted France, French colonist and their Native allies against Great Britain, the Anglo-American colonists and the Iroquois Confederacy. Prior to the war Great Britain controlled the 13 colonies up to the Appalachian Mountains. Beyond the mountains lay New France a large sparsely settled colony that stretched from Louisiana through the Mississippi Valley and Great Lakes to Canada. The French and British border was not well defined and one territory that was disputed was the upper Ohio River Valley. The French built forts in the area to try and bolster their claim of the land. The British had other plans. They sent in British forces led by colonel George Washington in an attempt to get rid of the French. The British were outnumbered and defeated by the French. This was the start of a very rough war for the British. The British Government sent General Edward Braddock to the new colonies as commander of the British North American forces, but things did not go well for him he alienated the Indian allies and colonial leaders failed to cooperate with him. He died on July 13th 1755 on a failed expedition to capture Fort Duquesne. In 1757 things started to change for Britain. They defeated French forces in India and in 1759 they invaded and conquered Canada. Realizing defeat the French Government tried to negotiate peace with Great Britain. After negotiations failed Spanish King Charles III offered to help France. They signed what was known as...

Words: 1265 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Skimming Devices in Gas Pumps Ais Breach

...fraud, and problems with prosecuting criminals. Skimming Devices in Gas Pumps In March 2013, four men Garegin Spartalyan, Aram Martirosian, Hayk Dzhandzhapanyn, and Davit Kudugulyan were charged with 426 counts of money laundering, criminal possession of stolen property, grand larceny, criminal possession of a forgery device, and criminal possession of forged instruments (Vance, 2014). The men are from Las Vegas, Nevada except Hayk who hails from California (Vance, 2014). The four along with nine other accomplices were accused of stealing victims banking information and PINS by using skimming machines at gas stations in Texas, Georgia, and Tennessee. The skimming device is put inside the pump with a universal to open the front and only takes between 5 – 10 minutes to install/remove (biggs, 2014). The skimmers that were used connect into the line between the card reader and pump computer to read the PIN input and the magnetic strip and store the information locally (biggs, 2014). The fraudsters can then drive by and pull the data off wirelessly using Bluetooth-equipped phones. Using the stolen data, the quad created bogus banks card to steal $2.1M from unknowing victims utilizing ATMs and then depositing stolen money in bank accounts in New York (Vance, 2014). The other members of the scheme would then withdraw the funds from banks in California and Nevada (Vance,...

Words: 1768 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Research Article

...going nuclear. A man who had gained control of the 1/5 of the World's oil overnight. However in reality he was merely a pawn in amongst many pawns. Just a puppet in a grand master plan with the Gulf War as a well orchestrated stepping stone. The orchestrates of the War were by no means strangers to controlling major World events. In fact they have done so for centuries.  From the shadows they have engineered every major war, revolution and recession. They control everything you read, everything you hear and everything you see. They have managed to indoctrinate an entire populace to their way of thinking and have infiltrated key positions in places of authority and it is from the shadows they have created a new political order, a new economic order and most sinister a new religious order. Their ultimate aim is total global domination and they will stop at nothing to reach their goal. The goal that was outlined in a speech given by a former President of the United...

Words: 9724 - Pages: 39

Premium Essay

Iran Economic Swot 3 “Public economic warfare”  Japan JETRO, Japan External Trade Organization ( Created in 1958 to promote Japanese exports From the 80s it expands to developing countries. 21st century: To promote FDI into Japan To help small & medium sized companies to export. 4  USA (1992, 1993): Bill Clinton Policy  "Putting People First, A National Economic Strategy For America" Governor Bill Clinton June 21, 1992  Opening up world markets. […] we will move aggressively to open foreign markets to quality American goods and services (for instance, NAFTA)  Economic security council / Advocacy Center / CIA / FBI –Economic Counterintelligence Program The stakes in this game are high! 5 FRANCE: UBIFRANCE -Offices in France (partnership with chambers of trade) -80 offices in 60 different countries (156 in 120 countries if Economic Missions considered) -More than 1,400 collaborators MISSION: to make French exports easier, to support and to monitor French companies abroad. 6 7 “Private economic war”  International competition   Is it replacing military conflicts? Competitive intelligence and/or industrial spying?   Information is a weapon (by/for/against) Law could also be a weapon Macro: norms (protect innovation/advantage)  Micro: lawsuit as guerrilla wars  Economic/ industrial spying increases each year (30% in the U.S.). 8 Geopolitics, International Environment and Business Risks identification...

Words: 1787 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Axholme's Argumentative Analysis

...At the front, and at home, another New Year dawned bleak. There were many who wondered if their lives would ever be normal again. After the destruction that had gone before, and in a year that would bring victory and peace, ironically, Britain would lose more men than in any other year of the war. 1916 had seen the government tighten its control of land with the very nature of rural life undergoing profound and far-reaching change. The government had asked famers to increase their yield and were pushing the use of tractors and steam ploughs. Mechanisation was the order of the day and, as with most new ideas, some were keen to embrace these ‘new fangled machines’ while others railed over the passing of traditional practices. Whatever an individual’s...

Words: 1350 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Business Plan Anur

...Table of contents 2 1. Case study of Anur 3 2. Choosing the most suitable country for Anur to expand in 4 3. In depth market analysis 8 4. Company, sales and marketing goals 13 5. How does Anur have to enter the foreign market? 14 6. Account Plan 19 7. Choosing the most suitable fair for Anur to exhibit on 23 8. Trade Fair Concept 29 9. Return on investment 46 List of resources 47 Annexes 49 Interview with a person in the Muslim community 50 Observations Anuga Food Tec, Cologne 51 Interviews Anuga Food Tec, Cologne 61 Observations Ethnic Foods Europe, Brussels 79   1. Case study of Anur Anur is a Dutch food company, specialized in frozen food products which focus on Muslim consumers. In the Netherlands, Anur has become one of the market leaders in Halal snacks. Anur has decided to internationalise their activities. The primary goal is to achieve a higher market share in one European country. Anur has selected a consulting firm to help them make two major choices: 1. The selection of a European country in which they can reach a growing market-share, including strategic advice of how to set up international activities. 2. Which trade fair should be visited to prepare and support their international activities. This advice should be included with a worked out and detailed Trade Fair plan for the fair to be visited.   2. Choosing the most suitable country for Anur to expand in To advice Anur on which countries they have to expand in, we drew...

Words: 15036 - Pages: 61

Premium Essay

Seven Years War Dbq

...also known as The French and Indian War. The war officially ended in 1763, in the Americas, with the Treaty of Paris. France gave up land east of the Mississippi to Britain, Spain gave Florida to Britain, and France gave Louisiana to Spain. Afterwards, colonists were most affected by Britain. Following the Seven Years’ War, American colonists became outraged with Parliament because of unfair laws. The Sugar Act came after the Proclamation of 1763 in 1764. This act taxed molasses and rum entering the colonies (Boyer 132). It also became harder to ship goods. Merchants had to fill out documents confirming that their commerce was legal (Boyer 132). Lastly, in court the defendant was presumed guilty until proven innocent and a British judge is appointed rather than colonial jury (Boyer 132). This made most cases...

Words: 671 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Causes of Revolution

...|Description |Contribution to the Revolutionary War | | |(1754–1763) is the American name, British name is the 7 year war. The war was |Debt from French and Indian war was a big contribution to Revolutionary War | |French and Indian War|fought primarily between the colonies of British America and New France, with | | | |both sides supported by military units from their parent countries of Great | | | |Britain and France, who declared war on each other in 1756 | | | |Act that reduced taxes on molasses and sugar, laid |Money made from the Sugar Act was used to keep British Troops present. | |Sugar Act |taxes on indigo, pimento (allspice), some wines, and coffee, and increased | | | |enforcement of tax collection; signaled the end of the era of salutary neglect | ...

Words: 806 - Pages: 4