Free Essay

Cell Phone

In: Other Topics

Submitted By lokifrost
Words 3111
Pages 13
1. When Christopher Columbus reached the New World in 1492, he found

a. cultures so primitive that Spain thought the area could not be developed. b. hundreds of cultures with nearly 400 different languages. c. one large, common native culture with basically one language. d. only barren landscape without humans.

2. Spain and Portugal were among the first European nations that

e. abandoned the feudal system and adopted democracy. f. accepted the authority of a single hereditary monarch for the entire country. g. adopted an established religion that everyone must honor. h. converted their monetary system to the euro.

3. When Christopher Columbus sailed westward seeking Asia, his goal was to

i. carry the Gospel to unsaved peoples throughout the world. j. find new lands for Spain to conquer and exploit. k. locate an all-water route to Lilliputia. l. reestablish trade routes interrupted by the bubonic plague.

4. Traders sought new trading opportunities primarily to have access to

m. better medicines to help Europeans conquer the Black Death. n. expanded power and influence in case of the need for additional crusades. o. luxuries such as sugar and spices demanded by the elite. p. staple foods to sustain Europe’s large peasant population.

5. At the time of Christopher Columbus’s first voyage, most Europeans

q. acknowledged that the world was round but did not understand its dimensions. r. believed the Earth was flat and that those who ventured too far to sea would fall off its edge. s. doubted that the vast amount of money the voyage cost would ever be returned. t. knew enough geography to support Columbus’s belief that he could reach the West by sailing eastward.

6. Before Christopher Columbus sailed from Spain in 1492, he

u. asked for permission and financial assistance from several monarchs before Isabel and Fernando agreed to support him. v. bought insurance from the bankers in Barcelona so he could repay Isabel and Fernando in case he failed to find anything. w. made sure his sailors were well trained and prepared for the voyage. x. obtained the blessing of Pope Benedict for his safety and that of all travelers on the voyage.

7. Had Columbus’s voyage acquired wealth for Spain, he was supposed to keep what amount?

y. 50 percent z. 75 percent {. 10 percent

|. 25 percent

8. Columbus and other early explorers typically described the New World as

}. an earthly paradise. ~. hardly worth the time, effort, and expense of getting there. . having little value because it remained undeveloped. . a place to send unproductive people to get them out of Europe.

9. Under Spanish authority, an encomienda was a . legal code devised by Fernando to provide order for Spanish colonists in their new surroundings. . long struggle to eliminate the Muslim threat to Spain. . management plan for land seized from Native Americans to enable the New World to produce wealth for the Crown. . purging and punishing of non-Christians living in Spain.

10. In 1513 the Spanish Crown issued the Requerimiento, which

a. divided Spain’s claims in the New World among those who had conquered it. b. formally enslaved Indians living in territory claimed by Spain in the New World. c. promised Indians who accepted Christianity and the authority of Spain that they would be left in peace. d. required priests in Spanish colonies to be approved by the Inquisition.

1. What was the status of most slaves when Europeans traded for them in Africa? a. captives of war b. criminals c. religious outcasts d. volunteers 2. Time that Africans spent aboard ship en route to enslavement in America was called e. hell on earth. f. middle passage. g. purgatory. h. the good old days. 3. English men and women from the lowest ranks of society who agreed to work in exchange for passage money to the colonies were known as i. contract labor. j. indentured servants. k. undocumented workers. l. wage slaves. 4. Perhaps 90 percent of those who migrated to the Chesapeake region in the 17th century came as m. company employees. n. freeholders under English common law. o. indentured servants. p. slaves. 5. The experience of the average indentured servant in the Chesapeake area was q. much better than the lives of servants in England. r. no different from the experiences of free laborers. s. often brutal, with too much work and too little food.

t. usually pleasant if the servantʼs master was a Christian. 6. What is true of the first Africans who reached Virginia in 1619? u. They were brought by Spanish traders from Cuba. v. They were indentured servants, not slaves. w. It is not clear whether they were indentured servants or slaves. x. They sought sanctuary from religious persecution. 7. Economically, it made more sense to contract for indentured servants than to purchase slaves because y. indentured servants spoke English, slaves did not. z. indentured servants were more easily caught if they escaped. {. insurance rates on indentured servants were lower. |. life expectancy rates for both were low. 8. Primary factors dictating how quickly English colonists adopted African slavery included }. geography, as only southern colonists owned slaves, and how long the colony had been in existence. ~. government policy and the attitude of the clergy. . the need for plantation laborers and availability of slaves at a good price. . the size of families and distance from slave markets. 9. African slavery, because it was based on race, was . beneficial to Africans. . beneficial to slaves because it allowed some parental rights for the welfare of their children. . perpetual. . profitable because so few Africans were available for enslavement. 10. Under slave codes prevailing in colonial America a. ownership was hereditary and passed from mother to child. b. slave fathers and mothers were equally responsible for rearing their children. c. slave fathers were responsible for the support of their children. d. slaves were protected from violence by owners or other slaves.

1. Most English settlers believed

a. in religious toleration for everyone, including Indians. b. that Indians were incapable of conversion to the English way of life. c. that North America belonged to England, and they would not rest until all Indians, Spaniards, and French were eliminated. d. that Spaniards and Frenchmen were better at understanding Indians.

2. The Swiss Protestant Reformer John Calvin

e. advocated a benevolent theology that offered salvation to everyone. f. believed God ordained who would be saved even before they were born. g. encouraged Henry VIII to abandon the Church of England. h. nailed a copy of his disagreements with the pope on the door of the cathedral in Geneva.

3. The survival of the Plymouth colony was made possible by

i. assistance from friendly Indians. j. careful planning by company officials. k. the leadership of Miles Standish and Jonathan Winthrop. l. mild winters and summers and the absence of malaria.

4. New England towns were usually governed by

m. adult male property owners at a town meeting. n. officials appointed by the English government. o. representatives elected by the people. p. stockholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company.

5. When Indians sold land to New England settlers, they

q. looked forward to helping in developing the area. r. moved on to acquire additional land themselves. s. usually thought they were only giving permission to share the land. t. were happy to receive compensation for a commodity on which they placed little value.

6. The Pequot War was the result of all of the following except

u. conflicts between Europeans about who would govern the Connecticut River valley. v. conflicts among native Americans about who would trade with the Europeans. w. the unregulated and aggressive expansion on to Pequot land by Puritan settlers. x. the Narragansetts who first promised aid to the Pequots but were paid by the Puritans to remain neutral in the war.

7. What was the primary impetus behind the Massachusetts (New England) settlements?

y. blocking the French z. commerce {. getting rid of excess population in England |. religion 8. The Pequot War ended with a treaty of

}. Boston ~. Hartford . Connecticut . Washington

9. One of the bloodiest battles of the Pequot War ended with a one-sided victory in which the Indian to English casualties stood in a ratio of

. 700 to 2
b. 20,000 to 100 c. 5 to 1 d. Not many died so it couldn’t be quantified

10. As a result of the war, the Pequot Nation

a. was forced to move to Oklahoma (trail of tears) b. settled in Canada

c. was dissolved and forbidden to exist d. was expelled to Washington

1. Prior to George Whitefield’s itinerant preaching,

a. few questioned the authority of the Church of England. b. ministers mainly addressed only their own congregations. c. Quakers were accepted warmly in every English colony. d. tent revivalism was condemned by Catholics.

2. Colonists accumulated most of their wealth from

e. shipping and agriculture. f. the fur trade. g. timber and ship construction. h. working as commission agents in the slave trade.

3. Most colonial men whose wives died

i. lived in communities to save living expenses. j. remained unmarried until they could afford another family. k. remarried quickly to have someone to care for the household and children. l. returned to their families or moved in with their in-laws.

4. The Great Awakening in the 1740s was a m. medical breakthrough in the care of encephalitis. n. realization that Parliament took unfair advantage of colonial commerce. o. revival movement with an emotional appeal. p. triumph of reason over emotion.

5. Those who founded the Plymouth colony in 1620 were the only colonists who should be called

q. Anabaptists. r. Nonconformists. s. Pilgrims. t. Puritans.

6. The founding of the Church of England during the reign of Henry VIII was related to

u. a dispute between the king and the pope over a divorce. v. England’s distant location from Rome. w. rivalry among English nobles. x. the king’s desire to expand his influence in Europe.

7. The Swiss Protestant Reformer John Calvin

y. advocated a benevolent theology that offered salvation to everyone. z. believed God ordained who would be saved even before they were born. {. encouraged Henry VIII to abandon the Church of England. |. nailed a copy of his disagreements with the pope on the door of the cathedral in Geneva.

8. Puritans wanted to

}. eliminate aspects of Roman Catholicism from the Church of England. ~. increase the sale of wholesome foods and fabrics. . preserve chastity until marriage. . prevent the sale of selected items on Sunday.

9. The founding of the Great Awakening could also be attributed to

. loose behavior of the younger generations whose frolicking shocked the God-fearing elders. . Roman-Catholic influence. . Pope’s demands of new taxes in American Colonies. . the king’s desire to expand his influence in New England.

10. Some of the appeal of the early 1740s evangelization could also be attributed to

a. Revival of the Blessed Mary figure and the sacrament of confession among New Englanders. b. Roman-Catholic influence. c. Church of England influence. d. The uplifting message of hope that one can change his destiny (salvation) rather than to seek God’s signs of predestination (possibly salvation).

1. Ben Franklin was the child of his father (including his first marriage).

a. seventh. b. 8th. c. 17th. d. 15th.

2. Ben Franklin’s father grew up in .

e. Boston while dealing with shipping and agriculture. f. Philadelphia and working in the fur trade. g. New York and employed at timber and ship construction. h. England while working as a dyer.

3. One of the first brilliant ideas that borne wealth to Ben Franklin was his

i. reading manual for the public of Philadelphia. j. fishing and shooting manual. k. his first publication titled Poor Richard’s Almanac. l. naturalist encyclopedia printed at his brother’s printing business .

4. Country that initially assisted and aided Ben Franklin’s scientific experiments the most was

m. England and Scotland. n. The Netherlands. o. Canada. p. France.

5. One of the famous experiments performed live for the public was one involving

q. prisoners.

r. a kite and a key. s. a company of soldiers in a foreign European country. t. Pigeons.

6. Ben Franklin assisted in the capacity of the ‘communications’ officer to the English in this 1750s conflict

u. French and Indian War. v. Revolutionary War. w. Anglo-Dutch War. x. Anglo-American War.

7. Although the article points to the Indian and French origination of the word “Yankee, ” most likely the origin involves

y. Polish and Irish mispronunciation of the name, which stuck in our language. z. New Amsterdam circumstance and origin of the word that mimicked common Dutch names of Jan and Keys. {. uneducated New Yorkers who couldn’t figure out a good nickname for themselves. |. early NYC street game bearing the same name.

8. Ben Franklin was born in

}. London, England. ~. Boston, MA. . New York. . Philadelphia.

9. When one considers Ben Franklin’s life and personality it is important to remember

. that he was a stubborn old man. . die-hard Roman-Catholic. . too American in England, and too British in America. . a Boston fan.

10. Most importantly, and due to Franklin’s achievements it is quite natural to call him

a. a rebel. b. a Puritan workaholic. c. a man of the Enlightenment. d. a true English gentleman who devoted himself to England and never once thought of acting against a king.

1. The aim of the article titled The Navigation Acts revisited by Larry Sawers is to show

a. that England was always in charge. b. that taxation burden levied by the English on American colonies was unjust. c. that taxation worked and needed to be imposed by the British in America.

d. that the Navigation Acts imposed a substantial burdens on key actors of the Revolutionary War.

2. Larry Sawer’s thesis establishes an argument of as the main culprit of the American Revolution.

e. economics. f. patriotism. g. independence and political struggle. h. political jurisdiction.

3. The Navigation Acts reserved that all commerce between the colonies and the mother country had to be enumerated (landed) first in British ports. This was also part of the greater commercial and colonial mechanism known as

i. colonization. j. mercantilism. k. neocolonialism. l. free capitalism.

4. Progressive School’s argument on the relationship between Britain and her American colonies

m. was that of pure exploitation. n. was that of balance and justice. o. was that of political pride, liberty, and drive towards American independence. p. was that of commerce.

5. Neo-Whigs’ argument focuses more on the

q. struggles/benefits of commerce. r. unfair taxation system. s. on ideals of liberty and political independence. t. whigs and other new hair products.

6. A great majority of American colonists (living in the British North American colonies) wanted

u. independence. v. decisive end of taxation and war as a result. w. neither war nor independence. x. restored New Amsterdam as means of peaceful arbitration with the British Crown.

7. Without the Navigation Acts the colonial traders (Americans) would

y. struggle in the world commerce. z. dominate Atlantic trade of commodities and raw materials. {. rival Dutch and French commercial interests. |. do just as before since these Acts neither impeded nor advanced their commercial odds.

8. Tobacco trade was dominated and controlled by

}. Spanish traders in North America. ~. Virginians. . New Yorkers. . English and Scottish merchants.

9. A great example of the Navigation Acts’ defiance by the American colonials was

. buying goods, luxuries, and food from the French. . buying commodities from the Dutch. . manufacturing their own hats, clothes, and substitute products. . refusing to pay taxes to the French.

10. A clear violation (double standard) of the mercantile rules included in the Navigational Acts and created by England herself resulted

a. in an explosion of home brewers in places like Boston, Philadelphia, and New York. b. in Boston Tea Party. c. increased trade with Australia. d. Indian Wars over navigation issues on Mississippi River and Boston Harbor. 1. The aim of the article titled The American Revolution as a Colonial War for Independence by Thomas Barrow is to show

a. that England was always in charge. b. that taxation burden levied by the English on American colonies was unjust. c. that taxation worked and needed to be imposed by the British in America. d. that perhaps the American Revolution was not as revolutionary as most think.

2. Thomas Barrow’s thesis establishes a definition of as the main argument testing of his notion of the American Revolution.

e. revolution as radical change. f. revolution as patriotism. g. revolution as independence and political struggle. h. revolution as the communist revolt.

3. The definition of the revolution used by Barrow reserved that all true revolutions occurred in countries like

i. France and Russia. j. The United States and Canada. k. Germany and Britain. l. Mexico and England.

4. Thomas Hutchinson’s (Tory) argument and opinion of American independence

m. was that of pure excitement and no other way. n. was that of balance and justice built already in American institutions. o. was that of American immaturity to stand alone as an independent nation. p. was that of American commerce and its wealth once American stands independent.

5. John Adam’s (Whig) argument focused more on the

q. American experiment and pureness of its ideals and leaders. r. unfair taxation system. s. on commerce and American domination, less politics. t. on his whigs and proper court looks.

6. John Adams and Thomas Hutchinson

u. were the exceptions in the colonial society along with their discussions concerning independence. v. were both decisive to end taxation and go to war if necessary. w. were exemplifying the differences among colonial society before the revolution. x. failed to use common sense and their common factor.

7. According to the article American colonial society

y. was unified in struggle for independence. z. was homogeneous and politically alike to form a catalyst of a new independent society. {. was heterogeneous with problems of unity. |. was privileged and educated to take its independence stand.

8. Mercantilism and its connections provided the colonies with

}. enough money and supplies to fight the English. ~. British ideology and philosophy of freedom creating Colonial self-determination. . fresh recruits who will turn invaluable later in war. . English and Scottish merchant ideas on how to succeed.

9. Because of the nature of colonial society, James Madison in his essay #10 explored the idea that the democratic approach to citizens may

. harm the minority. . harm the majority. . benefit all. . benefit the English so what is the point of democracy.

10. Two political parties that evolved from the early political debates among American statesmen were

a. Republicans and Democrats. b. Tory and Whig party. c. Progressives and Neo-Whigs. d. Federalists and Anti-Federalists.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Cell Phones

...Ariana Galindo Mrs. Sgarioto English 1100-400 9 December 2009 The Invisible Killer What if one were to tell you that your cell phone is slowly killing you every time you use it? Cell phones are a part of everyday life for many people across the world. To many their cell phone is considered the most important item they own. People use cell phones everyday for simple tasks. One example is going to the grocery store, when a person forgets what they were supposed to get for mom they simply call her and ask. Imagine thirty years ago? People could never do something like that. Society today relies a great deal on cell phones and their features, but do not realize the potential danger they are putting their health in. Many people around the world use cell phones every day but are unaware of the fatal outcomes linked to them. To understand how potentially harmful cell phones are society must consider the many people using them. There are three billion cell phone users worldwide and more than 260 million in the United States alone (Mead 422). It is shocking that so many people around the world and U.S are cell phone users and they all may not know how harmful cell phones can be. It is important to discover how this technology of cell phones was created and developed in order to look into how it is affecting humans. In 1974, in response to growing demand for a communication system that was more convenient than two- way radios, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated...

Words: 1699 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Cell Phones

...CELL PHONES AND SOCIALIZATION Shawn Powell Strayer University ABSTRACT Cellular phones have come a long way from the exclusive use for important people. Now, the use of cell phones has gone global. People across the global can be seen using cell phones in many ways that fit their life style. This wireless device is used by both the young and the old. The use is a combination of fashion, work and social outlet. Socialization has linked its existence to the invention of the cell phone. CELL PHONES AND SOCIALIZATION The world as we know it has become technology depended on a hand held device called the cellular phone. Martin Cooper was the person who invented the first handheld cellular device in April, 1973. Ever since, the cellular device now commonly known as a cell phone has taken off to a level no one knew it could reach. Today, cell phones have grown to be a new way of everyday life. Additionally, cell phone usage has fallen into the number one category on the charts in the area of mobile communication and/or social interaction as it has multiple uses such as text messaging and surfing the internet. Cell phone conversations take place in public places causing people to interact whether it is for business or pleasure therefore maintaining the balance of social support (Khattab, 2009). However, questions have also been raised as to whether it is proper behavior depending on where a cell phone is being used (Khattab, 2009). Not only are people highly depended on...

Words: 1568 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Cell Phones in It

...Cell Phones Technology in the country and around the world is expanding at an exponential pace. The last 10-15 years has seen a large increase for technology in everyday life. In the United States the biggest technological change is the use of cell phones in our lives for both personal and business use. Since the late 90’s cell phones have grown at a tremendous pace. Today there are very few people in the country that do not have one. Personal use of needing a cell phone has increased. Today we need to always have access to our phone for text messages, email or the old but common actual phone call. Before cell phones if you wanted to know where someone was you had to call a land line phone at their house or actually go to where they lived or worked, and this would take a lot of time out of your day either waiting or actually trying to track someone down. If you only needed to tell your spouse something simple like “pick up some milk.” Today people can just send a text message with that information and it is something you receive instantly. This has increased our connection with each other for personal use since we can talk or communicate with someone when and where we want. Cell phones in the business world have evolved even greater than personal use possibly over the same time period. When someone used to work before phones they could only receive calls or email while they were in the office. That could be a good thing, but if something needed to be done urgently or information...

Words: 471 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Cell Phones

...use cell phones while driving, or speaking to someone in another country. Society can also use cell phones in the business world also, for example, people use them to set up meeting, send co-workers information or even trade with other businesses. In this country having a cell phone is one of the things that people rely heavily on. Cell phones are more than the latest electronics in the market. It’s also one of the major parts of businesses and personal lives. All states make reckless and careless driving illegal. However some states have restrictions on using a cell phone while driving a vehicle. According to Monash University drivers who have a hand- held device is more likely to get into crashes serious enough to injure themselves. In California, drivers are required to use a hands free set while talking on the cell phone. If you are caught for the first time it’s a fee of 20 dollars. According to the safety laws in California it will be on your driving records and no points will be added on. In Florida cell phone are permitted, but only as long as you can hear the sounds in one ear and hear you’re surrounding sounds in the other ear. Communication is one of the necessities to a successful business in today’s world. With a cell phone it makes employees at a company easier to communicate with each other. It also makes it easier for a business executive to take calls, instead of him sitting at a desk waiting on a call, he can take calls from anywhere with a cell phone. In...

Words: 505 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Cell Phones

...Consider the possible that one day you get a phone call from someone telling you that there was an accident and that your child is dead because a person using their cell phone wasn’t paying attention to the road. Would you be devastated? I sure would. Here are three main reasons why we should ban driving while use of cell phones. Using cell phones while driving is distracting, cell phones while driving impairs you as much as drinking, You can be charged with homicide. Why Using cell phones while driving is distracting. Distracted driving is a dangerous epidemic on America's roadways. In 2012 alone, 3,328 were killed in distracted driving crashes. The number of people killed in distraction-affected crashes decreased slightly from 3,360 in 2011 to 3,328 in 2012. An estimated 421,000 people were injured in motor vehicle crashes involving a distracted driver, this was a nine percent increase from the estimated 387,000 people injured in 2011. 11% of all drivers under the age of 20 involved in fatal crashes were reported as distracted at the time of the crash. This age group has the largest proportion of drivers who were distracted. Driving while using a cell phone reduces the amount of brain activity associated with driving by thirty seven percent Using cell phones while driving impairs you as much as drinking! Distraction from cell phone use while driving extends a drivers reaction time as much as having a blood alcohol concentration level as much as the legal limit...

Words: 708 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Cell Phones

...attached to our phones. We would hardly communicate with each other, because we were so consumed in our phones. Being in a generation that has grown up on technology I get excited not frustrated with advances in technology. Older generations cannot seem to understand why “those young kids are attached to those things”. I honestly don’t know much different. I have always had a colored T.V a VCR, a CD player and a computer. Sure all of those have morphed into newer and better things, but I don’t know much else but technology. I think that even though I have always had technology around as I have gotten a little bit older I have become more aware of the damages it can do to our society. The video assigned to watch says it all. People can’t even go to the bathroom without using their phones! I loved the video, because although a couple of them were a little extreme, most of them I am guilty of! Because of my Iphone craze, I talked both my parents into upgrading there “bricks” into iphone. I have noticed that when we go out to dinner all three of us are on our phones until our food arrives. We do not talk as much as we used to because of the phones. It actually saddens me. As far as friends go, I have realized that I get really annoyed at one of my friends that is constantly on her phone. I don’t ever feel like she is listening to me and I often have to repeat myself because she indeed wasn’t listening. I have learned to appreciate the time that she puts her phone down for more...

Words: 561 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Cell Phone

...Air touch and Bell Atlantic with a $90 billion merger. Verizon is leader in 4G LTE technology in the cell phone industry dominating the market amongst the monopolistic market with companies such as, Sprint, T-Mobile and AT&T. The drive for technological advances goes beyond thinking for today advancements; it goes beyond the concept and looks for ways in the future to build a better technology. Verizon has diversified their workforce by employee ethnicities from different nationalities on their executive board. Verizon also has a diversity of 73,800 over the nation. The revenue margin for Verizon has increased over the year in 2012 the gross profit of $75.9 million. Verizon has won many awards for technology, innovation, leadership. Corporate citizenship, diversity, and customer care. Verizon customer experience has been proved and tested to be of the best in the technology industry. Verizon provides 24/7 customer service and over 1900 kiosk and employees are trained for a minimum of 37 days of extensive training to provide the best customer service. Market Mobile phones seem to be a necessity for the new and old generation. Mobile phone customers are using this technology for various means of communications and experiences; such as photo uploading, social media, music, browsing, and networking for a more effective business. Some top competitors in the phone market with nationwide coverage are Verizon, AT&T, and T-Mobile. Tessler (2013), “Wireless companies are...

Words: 1546 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Cell Phone

...Cell phone The world of technology has been moving faster and faster. Now, instead of waiting any hours to cook a meal, we can put it in the microwave for a few minutes and the taste will be the same. Similarly, as time goes on, cell phones have been continuously developing from simple device which can just make a call too much more complicated many options such as text messaging, internet processing and sending e-mail. Now, people have chance to contact each other anywhere and at any time. As with any technology that rapidly changes our lives, cell phones have brought both advantages and disadvantages. Cell phones have some negative effects for example, some teenagers become addicted to them and they can cause accidents if used while driving. On the other hand, cell phones also have positive effects such as saving lives in dangerous situations. Some teenagers become addicted to cell phone. The main purpose that we used cell phones in the past was to communicate with someone else who was far away. Because technology has arisen, teenagers now have many choices of ways to contact her relatives and friends both far and near. Texting messages have become a specially popular and some teenagers spend many hours texting. For example, Julie Zingeser, a teen in Rock land has become addicted to text messaging. She sends text all the time when she is at home, school, doing homework and even in bed. The only time she doesn’t text is while she takes showers and plays sports. The total of...

Words: 847 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Cell Phones

...Today, cell phones have become a necessity rather than a luxury. The history of the cell phone can be traced back to the early ’40s. It was then that police, taxi cabs and other vehicle services began to use two way radios to communicate with one another or a central base. The first “mobile phone” was used by Swedish police in 1947. The technology was limited and drained the car battery after only 6 calls. The technology that we use today, that is towers that send signals in three directions instead of two like a bi-directional antennae, was developed in the 1960s; however, it took decades to mature into the system that we now know and use every day. AT&T petitioned the FCC for a license to use “Cellular Service,” but it was not until 10 years later in 1982 that the request was granted. The “First Generation” cell phones were bulky, weighed several pounds and had a short battery life. This meant they could only be used with any practicality in cars. The first true mobile cell phone was introduced by Motorola in 1983. Weighing in at only 28 ounces, it was light weight. The phone became known as “The Brick Phone” because of its square dimensions. Throughout the ’80s mobile phones grew in popularity, largely due to the fast improvements that were being invented which allowed the phones to become smaller and more powerful. Throughout the ’90s and into the new millennium, cell phones quickly became so common that now almost every adult and most teenagers have one. While most...

Words: 869 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Cell Phones

...Cell phones have been around for quite a few years now. The cell phone came out back in 1983. The first design that came out was the Motorola DynaTAC 8000X (2009). Since then we have seen the cell phone evolve from a huge block to what we have today. One of the major problems with cell phones is cell phone waste. When a new phone comes out or we break our phones we usually just throw them away. This causes a lot of waste in the dumps. There is a cell phone though in the works that I feel will help shape the way we build cell phones and other devices, if it can ever get off the drawing board. Every day we throw away millions of cell phone. The reason we throw them away is because they are out of date or they are broken. The problem with the broken cell phones is that usually it is one piece that is broken that is near impossible to fix. So when the average person finds out just how much it is to fix the phone they usually just buy a new one. That’s where Dave Hakkens comes in. Dave’s idea is simple in theory. Build a phone made up of several exchangeable blocks that connect to the base (the middle of the phone) and the base connects everything together.( Mcnicoll & Article, 2013) The blocks have two pins on one side that allows them to be connected to the base. All this is held together by two screws at the bottom of the phone. By doing this you can extend the life of the cell phone by upgrading the specific block on the phone you want. For example let’s say...

Words: 568 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Are Cell Phone

...Are Cell Phones Dangerous? Reading For advanced learners Is talking on a cell phone hazardous to your health? It is difficult to know for sure. Some research suggests that heavy users of mobile phones are at a greater risk of developing brain tumours. However, many other studies suggest there are no links between cancer and cell phone use. The main problem with the current research is that mobile phones have only been popular since the 1990s. As a result, it is impossible to study the long term exposure of cell phone use. This concerns many health professionals who point out that many cancers take at least 10 years to develop. Another concern about these studies is that many have been funded by those who benefit financially from the cell phone industry. Many cancers take ten years to develop. Over three billion people use cell phones on a daily basis, and many talk for more than an hour a day. Cell phone antennas are similar to microwave ovens. While both rely on electromagnetic radiation, the radio waves in cell phones are lower in radio frequency (RF). Microwave ovens have enough RF to cook food and are therefore known to be dangerous to human tissues. However, the concern is that the lower frequency radio waves that cell phones rely on may also be dangerous. It seems logical that holding a heat source near your brain for a long period of time is a potential health hazard. Cell phones get hot when they are used for a long period of time. Some researchers believe...

Words: 467 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Cell Phones

...I studied was how much students use and rely on their cellular phones. I chose to analyze this topic mainly because cell phones are constantly growing in the number of users and has become a prime mode of communication for college students. I am hoping to find out how much cell phones are used according to their prices and monthly plans. I would also like to see how much cell phones are being used now in comparison to a home telephone. As cell phones become more and more popular, it is almost odd to see a college student without their trusty cell phone by their side. Survey The survey I created included ten questions related to cell phone usage. I asked questions such as, "Which phone method do you use" and "does this differ from the method used in the summer?" These two questions are the foundation of my survey. I also touched on how frequently students use their phones on a daily basis and how long an average conversation usually lasts for. This will tell me how much college students rely on their cell phones and their need for this mode of communication. I also asked which phone plans the students have and how much they pay monthly to have their cellular phone. I can compare these two variables to find the best plan based on how much someone uses their phone. In conducting my research, I came across a few problems regarding the use of a cell phone in comparison to a home phone. Being an avid cell phone user myself, I know that I use a regular telephone when I am home...

Words: 442 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Cell Phones

...& Sprint When we think of the number 3 and 4 cell phone carriers, only two come to mind, T-Mobile and Sprint. Both are known for being the most cost friendly companies, with a close amount of customer base and cell coverage. T-Mobile and Sprint both run their companies in many different ways, Sprint launched the I-Phone were T-Mobile chose to become a Samsung Champion, both have different approaches to deploying their LTE service and both use very different cell phone frequencies. While both companies struggle to get as many customers as possible, Sprint decided to follow in the steps of AT&T and Verizon and launch the Apple I-Phone. With the I-Phone being the “must have” device, Sprint felt it would be their saving grace to close a deal with apple and sell the most wanted phone on the planet. By doing this, it almost bankrupted the company with a massive $20 billion dollar deal to secure the phone. Even though they had one of their strongest sales quarters in history with the i-phone, the company still lost $1.5 billion dollars in net profit. As T-Mobile watched the third largest carrier reap the benefits of gaining more customers, the fourth largest carrier choose a different path. T-Mobile decided to become a Samsung champion carrier. By doing that they carried the most Samsung phone models of any carrier, since Samsung is the largest cell phone manufacturer and the biggest Android phone supplier, which is the i-phones biggest competitor. By being a Samsung champion...

Words: 1030 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Cell Phones

...Smartphone Innovations The cell phone has only been available to the consumer for a little over 30 years now. The invention was credited to a Dr. Martin Cooper. Dr. Cooper led the DynaTAC team at Motorola and placed the first cell phone call on April 3, 1973. The first phone was put on the market in October of 1983 and cost about $3,900 plus 50 cents a minute to talk. The phone was about 10 or 11 inches long, about 1 1/2 inches across, and about 4 inches deep. It weighed about 2 1/2 pounds. (Tas Anjarwalla). Cell phones are the most widely accepted consumer technology in the history of the world. According to a report published by Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, 91% of all adults living in the United States use a mobile phone. The acceptance of this technology is on the rise in the smartphone area as well. The same survey found that 56% of American adults have made the transition to a smartphones (Lee Rainie). Cell phones have made people’s lives easier, safer and more productive. The advantages related to this technology seem to be limitless. With the explosion into the smartphone era, the power of the computer has been placed into the palm of our hand. Access to the internet is now capable from almost from almost anywhere on earth. As the technology advances and the smartphone revolution continues to accelerate, the future innovations look to be impressive. With so many companies competing in the the fast paced development of high tech electronics...

Words: 786 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Cell Phone

...Cell Phone use While Driving In today society we as people use cell phone for communicate. They play an important role in communicating in our modern society. Even though a cell phone is the most convenient and fast way for getting in touch with people, they should not be used while operating a vehicle. Cell phone use while driving has dramatically increased over the past years in the U.S., and studies show that the risk of having an automobile accident or near accident significantly increases when a person is talking on their cell phone. Although, not everybody who uses their cell phone while driving has been or will be in an accident, but an alarming number of people who were involved in automobile accidents have been reported to have been using a cell phone while driving. Because of the increased number of traffic accidents caused by cell phones, it can be show that cell phone use should be banned while driving do to the risk of getting a ticket, people get distracted while they are texting and dialing a phone number and maybe hands free headset should be banned as well. Individual that uses their phone while driving is taking the risk of getting a ticket or even an accident. It’s easy to get distracted while driving, but don’t the reason you get distracted is because you are on your cell phone. People who look away from the road while because they are looking for their phone or while they texting and evening dial the number. When you are messing with your...

Words: 770 - Pages: 4