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Civil War

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Gke Task 1

Geographic and environmental factors have a momentous impact on the development

of trade and migration systems. Those systems and migration patterns lead to correlations

among diverse people and their cultures. Therefore, geography and resources have an

influence on the growth and relations between societies. Two of the most significant

geographical and environmental factors that have led to the development and expansion of the

United States is the growth of industry after the Civil War, and the abundance of agriculture.

After the Civil War, the population in the United Sates more than doubled and industrial

growth was also rapid because of the large quantity of natural resources. The United States had

enormous assets such as coal, copper, petroleum, iron, water power and timber. Due to this

immense supply of natural resources, many immigrants came to the States for work and many

rural workers traveled many miles to flourish as well. There were many jobs like coal mining,

constructing railroads, and silver and gold mining that promised wealth, like in the California

Gold Rush. When gold was discovered in 1849 in California, people came from all over the

world and with such an influx of people and the following development, California became an

official state in 1850. Gold wasn’t the only abundant resource in the U.S. With the production of

coal and other minerals, exporting to other countries was in high demand and expanded the

trade industry for the States. Copper was also an important factor because of its electrical

productivity and petroleum was used as a lubricant and cleaning solvent. These natural

resources, amongst many, had a huge impact on the development of trade and migration

networks in the United States.

With the huge population growth in the United States and the Gold Rush coming to an

end, the need for resources developed the need for produce and expanded agriculture. With

the recognition of fertile ground and rich soil in the States, farmers then formed irrigation

systems. The Homestead Act in 1862 allowed 160 acres in the western territories free to

anyone who settled on it for 5 years and pronounced to become a citizen. The effects on

American agriculture were tremendous. Once the products were abundant, the Railroad Act of

1862 paved the way for a transcontinental rail way and generated prospects for settlers by

allowing them to transport goods. The railroads were also used for the transportation of people

and by 1869, a railroad system stretched across the continent. After the Railroad Act and the

Homestead Act, the geography of the nation had changed. With only 21 states declared to the

union by 1861, the Homestead Act promoted development in the West. Farms generated the

need for labor and railroads generated the opportunity for farmers to both buy and sell their

goods, which changed the shape of America.

Mesopotamia had a significant impact on the development of human societies.

Mesopotamia is the word for “land between rivers”. The two rivers are the Tigris and the

Euphrates and this physical geographic factor contributed to the development of the

Mesopotamian society. The availability of plant life and animals on this land were due to the

fertile soils and the easy access to irrigation. Herds of animals were drawn to the rivers for

drinking and grazing and these animals were easily domesticated. The people of Mesopotamia

were hunter-gatherers and these conditions allowed the society a rapid development of

farming, which facilitated the growth of human population and then generated civilization.

Mesopotamia had an enormous influence on the diffusion of societies. The cultural

achievements symbolized autonomous modernization and were passed on to other river valley

civilizations in Egypt. Because the Tigris and Euphrates rivers were renowned for erratic

flooding, irrigation systems to channel the water for agriculture entailed the collaboration of

Mesopotamia’s settlements and encouraged the need for government. Early Mesopotamian

government was in the structure of city-states, with a city government managing the bordering

territories. Egypt also had irrigation projects with the Nile River to channel flood waters. This

concept led to the organization of the society and eventually to the growth of political

structures. Egyptian society incorporated a number of defined social groups and the pharaoh

(the king) exerted substantial power over the hierarchy.

Civilization manifested along the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates as well as the

Nile. These civilizations were differentiated by the cooperation of their societies that was

essential to manage irrigation and flood control systems. These exertions were later organized

to shape the early stages of political societies, and laid the foundation for government over the

centuries to follow.

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