Premium Essay

Cold War Disarmament Talks


Submitted By Ironhide
Words 2069
Pages 9
Cold War Disarmament Talks

Impact of Disarmament Talks on Cold War Tensions from 1963 to 1991
Disarmament talks between the two powers during the period of 1963 to 1991 improved the relationship between Soviet Union and United States by providing the necessary spirit of cooperation. The two most significant examples of arms control talks positively impacting the superpower relationship are the SALT I and INF treaties. Negotiations for SALT I played a part in bringing the two countries from the nuclear 'brinkmanship' of the Cuban missile crisis to détente. Gorbachev realising the importance of arms control in mutual political accommodation, initiated INF. INF and NST alleviated secrecy and suspicion and began a spirit of cooperation that could not have been achieved without successful talks. The interactions also helped the two sides to understand each other better. Through the frequent summit-meetings between Gorbachev and Reagan and Gorbachev and Bush the American public got to know the face of their enemy. This encouraged greater tolerance between the two nations which was necessary if the cold war was to end.

The Cuban missile crisis led to the end of a period of nuclear 'brinkmanship' as both sides became very aware of how close they came to nuclear war. In 1963 the US and the USSR made important agreements that contributed to arms control. In June a direct 'hot line' was established between Washington and Moscow. This communication link between the head of states was established to reduce the risk of a nuclear war arising from accident, misunderstanding, miscalculation, or surprise attack. And in August, after an offer made by Kennedy to come to terms with the USSR about testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, the United States, Soviet Union and Great Britain signed a Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. This treaty prohibited tests in the atmosphere,

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Impact of Disarmament on Development

...Forum: Issue: General Assembly First Committee (GA1) The impact of disarmament on development Student Officer: Namit Mehta Position: Deputy Chair Introduction Disarmament and development have a complex yet definite relationship, wherein the implementation of one is favourable for the progress of the other. Disarmament, when not threatening the security of the concerned nation, results in a decrease in military expenditure, reduced global tensions, increased safety and in turn, greater international cooperation and stability. Development, by means of achieving social and economic progress and reducing poverty, increases the wellbeing and stability of nations, hence reducing the need for armaments. Hence, this combination of stability and security provides the basis for the relationship between disarmament and development. This relationship has long since been determined; yet, there are many obstacles, political and non-political, which have deterred the progress of these processes. The reason disarmament has a positive effect on development is the ill effects of armaments or weapons. Weapons can have detrimental effects on development of a country. They can lead to destruction of land, unemployment, increased health care costs, crime, costs of damage, environmental degradation, resource depletion, reduced efficiency of people, increased poverty and class distinctions in society. Hence, through disarmament, these ill effects can be prevented, leading to the possibility of...

Words: 2710 - Pages: 11

Free Essay


...made, confused by war and paranoia made the transition from theoretical possibility into actuality inevitable. We are very fortunate that these weapons have not been used, although in some cases we have come very close. We are also fortunate that the powers involved see that we need control practices and have had conferences on disarmament for some time. The question of disarmament has been discussed at the international level ever since the end of the First World War. Between 1918 and the outbreak of the Second World War two attempts towards disarmament were the Geneva protocol of 1925, prohibiting the use in war of gases and of bacteriological methods of warfare and the Briand - Kellog Pact of 1928 which outlawed war. With the coming of nuclear weapons and the terrible destruction which they could bring about, the whole issue of disarmament became considerably more important. The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks or SALT Talks was a start to arms control in early 1980’s with the Ronald Reagan administration and has survived but under different names, till today. What was the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks? What came about from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks? What did the talks lead into and what are the results of the TALKS today? The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, in a brief description, refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Union. Both of which are the Cold War superpowers with an...

Words: 2638 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Roles of United Nations in Maintenance of Peace and Security

...the establishment of new peace operation including: i. whether there is a ceasefire in place and the parties have committed themselves to a peace process intended to reach a political settlement ii. Whether a clear political goal exists and whether it can be reflected in the mandate iii. Whether a precise mandate for a UN operation can be formulated iv. Whether the safety and security of UN personnel can be reasonably ensured, including in particular whether reasonable guarantees can be obtained from the main parties or factions regarding the safety and security of UN personnel The changing role of the United Nations includes the following. Conflict resolution, conflict prevention, women peace security Collective security, disarmament, peace building, and The development of new international arrangement to promote peace stability and the general welfare among others. ROLES OF UNITED NATIONS IN MAINTENANCE OF PEACE AND SECURITY CONFLICT RESOLUTION Many international controversies do not even come before the UN because the parties directly involved prefer to handle their differences by other means, including force or direct negotiations. The conflicts that are considered by the Security Council are usually serious and potentially dangerous to peace. A country may turn to the UN in the hope that its claim will receive international recognition and its case will be strengthened or because direct contact with the...

Words: 1382 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Nixon's Politics

...the 1950’s and 1960’s, the Cold War was about strength. The United States and Communist nations, mainly the Soviet Union, were about flexing their muscle with military strength and the “space race”; all about being technologically and economically superior to one another. Then Richard Nixon becomes our 37th President of the United States, and initializes many changes on foreign policy. When Nixon takes office, he also takes on the responsibilities of the ongoing Vietnam War. At first, he takes a strong military stance and escalates military actions, but soon starts withdrawing troops. Finally, in 1973 negotiates a ceasefire between North and South Vietnam; ending the war for good. Some believe the war couldn’t be won, and others disagreed, but the public consensus believed we needed to get out; Nixon listened to the people (Simkin, 2008). President Nixon believed in diplomacy over military might, and he proved this with two acts in 1972; opening communications with China and a visit to Moscow that opened up disarmament talks. Of course these diplomatic attempts of peace did not go without scrutiny of the American public; it did lead the way for future talks for others that would follow Nixon. Even with an energy crisis and economic hardships, the country found Richard Nixon popular, and he easily won a second term in office. If it were not for the Watergate Scandal, I believe Richard Nixon would of made more progress in peace talks with Communist nations. He...

Words: 289 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Should We Support the International Anti-Nuclear Movement? New York city`s Central Park (Schell). Their cry was rather unique for a political demonstration; end the US nuclear arms race with Soviet Union. Similar rallies and protests occurred in most of the developed countries such as France, Germany and Spain in the 80`s and early 90s (Westcott). However more recently in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear disaster and the growing threat of global terrorism the debates and the protests have been reignited. Spearheaded by anti-nuclear groups such as Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and Greenpeace, the international social movement, called The Anti-Nuclear Movement aims for a much more comprehensive goal: the complete dissolution of all nuclear technologies. This essay aims to convince the reader that this is not an impractical movement championed by hot headed environmentalists but a very important endeavour which will have lasting consequences for humanity. The most important aim is of course that of nuclear weapon disarmament. “The death of a man becomes a tragedy. The death of a million however becomes a statistic.” (Goodreads).A grave quote by Stalin (one of history’s most ruthless dictators) is strikingly true in the case of nuclear weapons. The detonations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed nearly 150,000 Japanese, reducing people into rounded numbers. Harnessing the inner forces of radioactive atoms, the atomic bomb carries a potentially limitless destructive power; the vaporising initial blast however is just the beginning (Atomic...

Words: 1839 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Disarmament and Nuclear Non-Proliferation

...Department Disarmament and nuclear non-proliferation Dmitry M. Kuritsyn group 429 MOSCOW 2013 Contents Introduction…………………………………………………………………3 1. Historical background ……………………………………………….5 1. Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I)…………………5 2. New non-proliferation agreement……………………………………6 1. New START ………………………………………………….7 2. The future of disarmament ……………………………………10 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………..11 References…………………………………………………………………...13 Introduction The complexities in implementation of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime, which includes nuclear disarmament as one of the principle integral parts, have always been the issue in difficult and controversial discussions attended by all members of international community. Nuclear disarmament, which has eventually become the safeguard and a key condition of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime’s successful performance, have always been an effective factor reducing the risk of unleashing a nuclear war and reinforcing the confidence of nuclear-free countries that the threat to their security is contained. The logic of nuclear disarmament is to curtail the lethal nuclear arms race and to provide for better predictability and transparency in this field. The aforementioned factors altogether enable defining the nuclear disarmament as the process crucial to global...

Words: 3354 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

How World War 1 Changed The Economy Essay

...My first topic I will be discussing is World War One. This war changed the economy of the also left many countries all over the world in great amounts of debt. During this war, over 1 million people in both sides died. It also affected many countries including America in very high inflation. Because of the war and our troops traveling all over influenza then affected a lot of people, 25 million around the world to be exact. This affected us because so many people died. Our next topic is the Great Depression. America’s economy fell down in shambles. The rate of unemployment rose to 25 % of all the Americans. This left so many people and families homeless and no way to have food or water. The price of homes plummeted to 30% down then it was before. Along with hear terrible things it...

Words: 1033 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Nuclear Race Effects

...Therefore, the countries involved with the Nuclear Arms Race led to the creation of prestige weapons that were more destructive than "Little Boy" and "Fat Man" (Yass 112). Furthermore, the Nuclear Arms Race took a toll on Americans' personal lives, fearful about the potential bombings that may occur at any given moment. Ultimately, Americans created bomb shelters and practiced drills in public places, such as schools. For example, the "Duck and Cover" strategy arose from those fears and it was practiced in preparation for any possible bombing (“The Effects”). In addition, the topic about atomic bombs were portrayed through films, therefore, Americans were constantly reminded and were living their lives around the Nuclear Arms Race (“The Cold”). The outcome from the mass production of nuclear weapons introduced numerous treaties that would prevent the accumulation and the use of nuclear weapons all across the world. It was clear to President Truman that there was a need to improve the security and information of every atomic weapon that the United States possessed. Therefore, to resolve the concern about the security and the information about the nuclear weapons, the United States Atomic energy Commission was created. This Commission regulated everything that took part in all of the United States’ atomic work (Yass 103). With the conflicts that came along with promising to protect the public health and controlling the dangers of nuclear weapons the Atomic Energy Commission...

Words: 1454 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Current Events and U.S. Diplomacy

...How Did John F. Kennedy Deal With Cuba? Leslie Doughty Professor Nettles Augusta POL 300 July 29, 2013 Strayer University John F. Kennedy was the first American president born in the 20th century. The Cold War and the nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union were vital international issues throughout his political career. His inaugural address stressed the contest between the free world and the communist world, and he pledged that the American people would "pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, and oppose any foe to assure the survival and success of liberty." (Roskin, 2010). Cold War rhetoric dominated the 1960 presidential campaign. Senator John F. Kennedy and Vice President Richard M. Nixon both pledged to strengthen American military forces and promised a tough stance against the Soviet Union and international communism. Kennedy warned of the Soviet's growing arsenal of intercontinental ballistic missiles and pledged to revitalize American nuclear forces. He also criticized the Eisenhower administration for permitting the establishment of a pro-Soviet government in Cuba. (Roskin, 2010). Before his inauguration, JFK was briefed on a plan drafted during the Eisenhower administration to train Cuban exiles for an invasion of their homeland. The plan anticipated that support from the Cuban people and perhaps even elements of the Cuban military would lead to the overthrow of Castro and the...

Words: 1266 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Causes and Dynamics of Conflict in Central Africa

...SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL DEFENCE COLLEGE THABA TSHWANE THE CAUSES AND DYNAMICS OF CONFLICT IN CENTRAL AFRICA By Ms C. Auret November 2009 This research paper was written by a programme member attending the South African National Defence College in fulfilment of one of the requirements of the Executive National Security Programme 20/09. The paper is a scholastic document and this contains facts and opinions which the author alone considered appropriate and correct for subject. It does not necessarily reflect the opinion of any agency, including the South African Government or Department of Defence. This paper may not be released, quoted or copied except with the express permission of the Department of Defence. INDEX |HEADING |PAGE | | | | | | | |Abstract……………………………………………………………………………… |3 | |Introduction………………………………………………………………………….. |3 | |Historical Review of Conflict in Central Africa ……………………………...

Words: 7988 - Pages: 32

Free Essay

Global Peace and Justice - an Islamic Prospective

...Secularist thinkers peace has been a major concern, though, their basic assumptions and the motivating force behind it may be totally different. The post-capitalism mind set, with its deep commitment to economic development, individualism and ethical relativism, gradually developed a belief that war, can not help, in the long run, in achieving the social and economic targets of the industrialized world. Pacifism, in due course, as an individual commitment to non-violence was projected further and extended to other areas of concern. The strategic use of armed conflicts and wars, directly related with the capitalist urge to control sources of raw material and to create markets for its products, was reconsidered. A new strategic thinking put forward the thesis that peace and pacifism can also pave the way for free trade movement and help the capitalist powers in achieving their objectives, for which, conventionally, bloody wars were waged. In the post-world wars era, a functional approach of trade, travel, and democracy was considered as basis for internationalism. In an era of search for peace, efforts were made to avoid physical wars, considered enemy of free trade and travel. The age of cold war offered new opportunities for development of regional economies, mutual understanding, and nuclear deterrence. Emergence of the institution of United Nations, theoretically, was materialization of pacifism at a global international level. Leaving aside the success or failure of this international...

Words: 3614 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Major Historical Traditions of China

...This article is devoted to the analysis major historical traditions of China’s international relations. Chinese specialists have long been urged to establish a distinctive school of international relations , rejecting the hegemony of “Western” social science theory and turning back to China’s history. Under the leadership of propaganda officials, Chinese authors increasingly invoke the premodern, sinocentric model of international relations in Asia, reviving the label “tianxia” (all under heaven). Reflecting Hu Jintao’s “harmonious world,” imperial China’s tribute system is now often cited as a model. These developments have thrown the spotlight on views of China’s traditions in international relations, not only inside China but across all of East Asia, where China’s rise evokes memories of a long history of interaction. Although Chinese foreign policy since 1949 has had distinctive characteristics, the forces that shape Beijing's foreign policy and many of its overall goals have been similar to those of other nations. China has sought to protect its (sovereignty) and (territorial integrity) and to achieve independence of action, while interacting with both more powerful and less powerful countries. As with most other nations, Beijing's foreign relations have been conditioned by its historical experiences, nationalism and ideology, and the worldview of its leaders, as well as by the governmental structure and decision-making process. At times China's domestic policies have had...

Words: 3297 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay


...destruction and deterioration on human health. |emitted in a nuclear explosion and what effect do they have on human | |Not a thesis statement but a statement of fact. |beings? | |Try: Why is it best for nuclear attack victims to be right at Ground || |Zero? |/living_future/4_nuclear_radiation1.shtml | |Working Thesis Statement: Countries may use the nuclear weapons in |Oral Presentation Thesis Statement (must be based on PART of the | |future because of the possibility of religious war and the other |research project): The time between 1946 and 2012, no atomic bomb had| |reasons. |been used even as an overt thread threat in any warpolitical crisis, | |I will argue that there is a strong possibility that nuclear weapons |the reasons … (I will find by researching.) | |will be used in the near future. | | |Will the Bomb Be Used in the Future? | | |Keep it...

Words: 4481 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

The Relevance of the United Nations in the Post-Cold War Era: Iraqi Invasion as a Case Study

...THE RELEVANCE OF THE UNITED NATIONS IN THE POST-COLD WAR ERA: IRAQI INVASION AS A CASE STUDY BY ALADENIYI, EMMANUEL ABIODUN APRIL 2005 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND 1. The basic concepts and assumptions that led to the formation of the United Nations (UN) dates back to the beginning of statecraft and humanity’s first efforts to foster international cooperation. The treaty of the peace of Westphalia of 1648 is regarded at humanity’s first effort in statehood and fostering international cooperation. The formation of the UN is predicated on the evolution of diplomacy, alliances, conferences, rules of warfare, means of peaceful settlement of conflicts and the development of international law. The overriding purpose of the UN is war prevention. This purpose was earlier pursued by ancient Greek Philosophers, Plato and Aristotle, who wrote on the conditions necessary for peace.1 The church in the Middle Ages also enunciated a doctrine of “Just War” to limit violence and destruction by sanctioning only wars fought for justifiable courses. The pacifists and internationalists, like Desiderius Erasmus, condemned war in its entirety as “immoral and wasteful”. 2. The need to institute mechanics for peaceful settlement of disputes and prevent war encouraged the formation of various international organizations over time. These include the Congress of Vienna and Concert of Europe in 1815. The Hague System worked towards the codification...

Words: 11211 - Pages: 45

Free Essay


...Foreign policy of india. When India became independent on August 15, 1947, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru became her first Prime Minister. For long seventeen years (1947-1964), he remained in power and during this long period he was the central figure of India’s foreign policy making. It was Nehruji who framed and guided the Foreign Policy of India. To Pandit Nehru non-alignment was the corner stone of India’s foreign policy. He adopted this policy for various reasons, which may be divided into material and immaterial or spiritual reasons. The geographical and economic condition of India just after independence served as the material reasons for his favoring the policy of non-alignment. India’s next door neighbour on one side is People’s Republic of China and on the other is Pakistan, the arch enemy of India since her very emancipation from the British yoke. Nehru could easily realize that if India joins any of these two blocks, she would bring the rage of the other on her. It was indeed a crucial problem for the newly independent India and so he had chosen the path of non-alignment. Moreover, in order to guard her saturated post-independent economic condition India seriously needed the co-operation of both the big powers, U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. and their satellites the developed countries of Europe. Her entry into one bloc would not only make the members of the other bloc hostile to her interest but also might jeopardize her very independence. For this economic consideration India...

Words: 4269 - Pages: 18