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Computer Input/ Output


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What is the meaning behind Computer Input / Output Architecture and Organization? Input is the entering of data into a computer system, whereas output is the transferring of data to an external item, such as printer. “The input /output modules are the third critical element of a computer system. The CPU and Memory are the first and second most critical elements.” (C.A.O).
“The computer system’s Input /Output architecture is its interface to the outside world. This architecture is designed to provide a systematic means of controlling interaction with the outside world and to provide the operating system with the information it needs to manage I/O activity effectively.” (C.O.A.L). There are three main techniques for I/O, which are Programmed, Interrupt-Driven, and Direct Memory Access (DMA). These three techniques are essential for I/O. The Programmed I/O happens under direct and continuous control of a program requesting the operation. The Interrupt-Driven is when a program issues a command and continues to execute, until it’s interrupted by the hardware to signal the end of the operations. Finally, the DMA is when a specialized processor takes over control of an operation to move a large block of data. All three play significant roles in the architecture of the I/O in a Computer. An organization will have to have a large inventory of assets for just the basic Input Devices, Output devices, and both Input/ Output Devices related to the architecture of a company. A company will need to know the amount of systems needed to accomplish their requirements. Each system will need its own required input/output devices. For example not all systems will need a Web-cam or a printer at each desk therefore they could do one printer for every five systems per say. A good networked printer connected and printer server could eliminate multiple printers by centralizing it. Furthermore, a system only has so many inputs such as USB, monitor (VGA, HDMI, DVI, etc.), PS2, audio and microphone, network, etc. so there needs to be other options if the inputs are limited. Some organization do not allow USB or other external items and will disable the inputs for security reasons. This is how it is at the Pentagon, for security reasons no outside inputs are allowed.
A system may have three to five USB ports, so having a mouse, keyboard, camera, scanner, and a printer will take all 5 USB ports and you still need to add a Common Access Card (CAC) reader. As an administrator you will need to have two CAC card readers one for regular profile and the second for administrator profile. Therefore your necessary USB number needed is up to seven. An organization will need to view a list of input devices and output devices or both for systems to use. Some examples of Input devices can be: Keyboard (Wired or wireless), mouse (wired or wireless), camera (webcam or digital camera), CAC readers, Barcode readers, Microphone (USB or microphone input), scanner, touchpad, trackball, joystick, or Electronic Whiteboard. Output devices: monitors, printers, plotters, projectors, speakers, etc. There are some device that can be both input and output such as: modems, network cards, touch screens, KVM, etc.
There are ways to consolidate input and output device by using hybrid like devices like a keyboard that has a mouse pad embedded below it like a laptop, a touchscreen can be utilized in replacement of a mouse, touchpad, trackball or joystick, furthermore, an on-screen keyboard can be use on the touchscreen like a smartphone or tablet. Bluetooth can be used to eliminate physical input/output device like Bluetooth mouse, keyboards, speakers, etc. A KVM could be used so only one mouse, keyboard, and monitor is needed for multiple matches. Servers consolidate storage and other devices like printer, scanners, etc. Servers and system could be consolidated via virtualization. An organization could virtualize multiple servers and purchase less input output hardware for physical servers. You could do the same with networking. You can use VLANs to consolidate network devices.
Input and output could work with programs or systems that require input to produce output responses. A server will request status of a system. An output of a request of information will be sent and a system will receive the input and send an output of its status. A server that updates system works this way. Microsoft created Windows System Update Service (WSUS) that updates Microsoft programs and patches such as Microsoft Office and service packs. The network card is the main input/output device that is used. The network card could be a PCI card or USB card. The network uses ports for input and output.
These ports are numbered and in either TCP or UDP. For example when using the internet (Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)) by default uses port number 80. Transferring files over the network using File Transfer Protocol (FTP) port number 20 for data transfer and port 21 for FTP control. Last example is TCP 143, it is Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) this protocol is the management of email messages. The protocols are usually default unless they are manually set. Some programs may require them to be different. An organization will have a network team to manage such requirements.
Below is Input/ Output Modules that will explain external devices, functions, process, and communications:
The External Device – I/O Module • Control signals: determine the function that will be performed • Data: set of bits to be sent of received • Status signals: indicate the state of the device • Control logic: controls the device’s operations • Transducer: converts data from electrical to other forms of energy • Buffer: temporarily holds data being transferred. (C.O.A.L). I/O Modules. Module Function • Control and timing • Processor communication • Device communication • Data buffering • Error detection I/O control steps • Processor checks I/O module for external device status • I/O module returns status • If device ready, processor gives I/O module command to request data transfer • I/O module gets a unit of data from device • Data transferred from the I/O module to the processor. (C.O.A.L).
Processor communication • Command decoding: I/O module accepts commands from the processor sent as signals on the control bus • Data: data exchanged between the processor and I/O module over the data bus • Status reporting: common status signals BUSY and READY are used because peripherals are slow • Address recognition: I/O module must recognize a unique address for each peripheral that it controls. (C.O.A.L).
I/O module communication • Device communication: commands, status information, and data • Data buffering: data comes from main memory in rapid burst and must be buffered by the I/O module and then sent to the device at the device’s rate • Error detection: responsible for reporting errors to the processor. (C.O.A.L).
There are so many things needed to run a successful computer that has the necessary inputs and outputs. Described above are the much needed information to understand the architecture and organizations of a computer.

Works Cited

(n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2015, from

(n.d.). Retrieved November 20, 2015, from

Computer Architecture and Organization. (2010, July 21). Retrieved November 21, 2015, from

Computer Organization & Architecture Lecture #19. (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2015, from

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