Premium Essay

Cross National Integration & Co-Operation for Economic Development


Submitted By bappy2129
Words 9610
Pages 39
Cross National Integration & co-operation for Economic Development

Course Title: Development Economics

Date of Submission: 03/12/2011


01 MD. Sarwar Alam (L) ID: 08302123
02 MD. Salah Uddin ID: 08302110
03 Mohammad Istiaque Bin kalam ID: 08302122
04 MD. Yeasin Bin Faruque Bhuyan ID: 08302129
05 Hasan Bin Hider ID: 08302031
06 Nilima Sabnam ID: 08302006
07 MD. Fida Hasan Bhuyan ID: 08302056
08 Jewel Aich ID: 08302077
09 Sakib Rahman ID: 08302045
10 Sharmin Sultana ID: 08302060
11 MD. kamrul Hossen ID: 08302094

Letter of Submission

November 22, 2011

Mr. Md. Abul Basar
Assistant Professor
Department of Management Studies
University of Chittagong.

Subject: Submission of report.

Dear Sir,

We are submitting to you the Term study report titled “Cross National Integration & Co-Operation for Economic Development” in the context of different countries socio economic co-operation and integration that we requested. The report has been prepared as fulfillment of the partial requirement of our course “Development Economics (304)”. In preparing our report, the relevant information is collected and integrated accordingly. It is a matter of pleasure for us to have you as a supervisor of our theoretical with pragmatic experience, which is an integral part of our B.B.A Program. We believe that without your proper assistance, we could not complete this report.

In preparing this report perhaps some mistakes are there. We hope, you will consider these mistakes. I sincerely hope this report will receive your approval.

Thanking You

Group: Time Management
B.B.A Program (3rd year)
Session 2007-08
Department of Management

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Lawlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll L an international organization whose final aim is to develop a complete integration of its members into an East African Federation. The EAC is an integral part of the African Economic Community. The EAC is a potential precursor to the establishment of the East African Federation, a proposed federation of its members into a single sovereign state. In 2010, the EAC launched its own common market for goods, labour, and capital within the region, with the goal of creating a common currency and eventually a full political federation. The geographical region encompassed by the EAC covers an area of 1,820,664 sq-km with a combined population of about 149,959,317(2013 est.) The drive for the transformation of the East African region, particularly Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, into a functioning entity with rights and duties in International Relations is not new. It dates back to the time when the three East African colonies were still objects of International Law. However, the aspirations for regional cooperation in East Africa acquired individual sovereignty and legitimacy in the post colonial state in the 1960s driven largely by the Pan-Africanist East African leaders, Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya), Julius K. Nyerere (Tanzania) and Milton A. Obote (Uganda). More specifically, the three East African leaders were, initially at least, interested in ushering in political federation as a springboard for regional integration. This desire was reinforced with their 1963 Nairobi Declaration in which...

Words: 2770 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

South-South Cooperation and Triangular Cooperation

...South-South cooperation for development 1. Introduction South-South Cooperation (SSC) and Triangular Cooperation (TC) are emerging forms of aid architecture far from the traditional “North-South” model. SSC, based on the attainment of internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals, is meant to strengthen developing countries’ voice and their bargaining power in multilateral negotiations. It also gives them the opportunity to promote self-sufficiency among them and strengthen their economic ties. South-South cooperation has existed for at least sixty years. It has become much more prominent in the past decade. Many Southern countries have emerged as important actors in the global economy. Their exact contribution to development is hard to quantify. Yet, they have provided ample support, in terms of financial assistance, capacity building, skill and personnel exchange, and technology transfer. However, despite the fact that SSC can be more sustainable than traditional North-South cooperation allowing better adaptation to the country situation, in practice there is still no shared understanding on the very nature and goals of SSC. This is true on the basis of the various and sometimes divergent “interpretations” on SSC given by both emerging economies and developed countries. Some argue that South-South Cooperation should not be seen as a substitute for, rather a complement to North-South cooperation, while others argue that the two models...

Words: 3037 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay


...history, there were hardly any formal barriers, such as tariffs or non-tariff restrictions, for the movement of goods or visa requirements for the people. The concept of globalization can be traced back to the phenomenon of a nation-state. Globalization & International Business Chapter 1: Globalization and International Business Prof. Madan Survase Concept of Globalization The process of integration and convergence of economic, financial, cultural and political systems across the world. Globalization & International Business Chapter 1: Globalization and International Business Prof. Madan Survase Definition of Globalization Dictionary of Trade Policy Terms, WTO: “The increasing integration of national economic systems through growth in international trade, investment and capital flows.” OECD: “A dynamic & multinational process of economic integration whereby national resources become more and more internationally mobile while national economies become increasingly interdependent.” Jagdish Bhagwati: “Economic globalization constitutes integration of national economies into international...

Words: 915 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay


...INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS Definition of international business International business involves commercial activities that cross national frontiers. It concerns the international movement of goods, capital, services, employees and technology; importing and exporting; cross-border transactions in intellectual property (patents, trademarks, know-how, copyright materials, etc.) via licensing and franchising; investments in physical and financial assets in foreign countries; contract manufacture or assembly of goods abroad for local sale or for export to other nations; buying and selling in foreign countries; the establishment of foreign warehousing and distribution systems; and the import to one foreign country of goods from a second foreign country for subsequent local sale. All the basic tools and concepts of domestic business management are relevant to international business (for information on these see the M & E text Management). However, special problems arise in international business not normally experienced when trading or manufacturing at home. In particular: * Deals might have to be transacted in foreign languages and under foreign laws, customs and regulations. * Information on foreign countries needed by a particular firm may be difficult (perhaps impossible) to obtain. * Foreign currency transactions will be necessary. Exchange rate variations can be very wide and create many problems for international business. * Numerous cultural...

Words: 6932 - Pages: 28

Premium Essay

Global Opposition to Neoliberalism

...Through the Internet, a movement began to develop in opposition to the doctrines of neoliberalism which were widely manifested in the 1990s when the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) proposed liberalisation of cross-border investment and trade restrictions through its Multilateral Agreement on Investment (MAI). This treaty was prematurely exposed to public scrutiny and subsequently abandoned in November 1998 in the face of strenuous protest and criticism by national and international civil society representatives. Neoliberal doctrine argued that untrammeled free trade and reduction of public-sector regulation would bring benefits to poor countries and to disadvantaged people in rich countries. Anti-globalization advocates urge that preservation of the natural environment, human rights (especially workplace rights and conditions) and democratic institutions are likely to be placed at undue risk by globalization unless mandatory standards are attached to liberalisation. Noam Chomsky stated in 2002 that The term "globalization" has been appropriated by the powerful to refer to a specific form of international economic integration, one based on investor rights, with the interests of people incidental. That is why the business press, in its more honest moments, refers to the "free trade agreements" as "free investment agreements" (Wall St. Journal). Accordingly, advocates of other forms of globalization are described as "anti-globalization"; and...

Words: 277 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

European Integration

...CREATION OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION The process of European integration was launched soon after the end of the World War II. It relies on tragic experiences connected with the largest and also most tragic armed conflict in human history, caused by Nazi Germany. After the war, in Europe, and more specifically in its western part, there arose conditions favourable for the start of a new, planned integration of the countries of the Old Continent. Western European countries, though very weakened after the war (destroyed economy, infrastructure, human resources), were, however, as never before agreeable to the necessity of defending basic human rights and democratic values. Western European leaders decided to undertake coordinated actions aiming at the reconstruction of European countries and their economies and introduction of a new political order, which could guarantee the security of nations and give a chance for their successful development in the future. The genesis of the integration process in Europe after the World War II: In the process of planning the introduction of a new political order in post-war Europe, it was acknowledged that the key task was the reconstruction of European economies. Western European leaders realised that only efficient and effective European economy would be a foundation on which new safety and development structures could be built. The American aid plan for Europe - the European Recovery Plan, called the Marshall Plan, was a great support for...

Words: 4137 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

From the Asian Miracle to an Asian Century

...Asian Miracle to an Asian Century? Economic Transformation in the 2000s and prospects for the 2010s: Review Essay The chosen article, “From the Asian Miracle to an Asian Century? Economic Transformation in the 2000’s and prospects for the 2010s” by Dr. Yiping Huang and Bijun Wang was published by the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) as part of proceedings of their annual conference “The Australian Economy in the 2000s” held by Bank's Economic Group. 1.Introduction The article examines Asian economies key transformation during the 2000s and provides prospects for the next decade. In this review essay, I will summarise the article consistent with sections provided by the article and offer appraisal from the economic and political perspective of the proposed prospects. Post significant transformation of Asian economic during the 2000s, the Asian markets is now major contenders in the global market. Their participation in the global market has reached a point where their actions bring global economic impacts of great consequence for the financial, commodities and goods markets. This rapid expansion into the global market brings concerns of potential global economic crisis. 2. Integrated Supply Chains and Dominant Commodity Consumers Past decade reveals integration of supply chains, industrial restructuring and labour allocation contributed to overall Asia market’s GDP growth with major acceleration from China and India. Vertical integration of supply chains with China becoming...

Words: 1952 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay


...Reaction Paper on CECON’s annual forum First , I want thanks to Dr. Nayve's .Because he introduce us to invited this a big and meaningful meeting . This meeting respectively at Adamson University, San Marcelino, Manila. . The theme is “Power of Taxation Amidst ASEAN Economic Integration” . Though this meeting ,I know that The Council of Economics Educators, Inc. (CECON), in collaboration with its student arm, In an attempt to re-affirm its commitment as a national organization of Economics educators, as well as to respond to recent challenges among others such as the K12 and the ASEAN 2015, CECON will be conducting a Seminar-Workshop on Organizational Development. During the workshop CECON will re-draw its position as a professional organization, and hopefully strategize programs and projects towards development of Economics education, in order for it to become more relevant. The Philippine Council of Deans and Educators in Business (PCDEB) is a professional organization of deans, directors, chairpersons, administrators, and professors teaching business courses such as Accountancy, Business Administration, Marketing, Economics, Travel and Hotel Management, Entrepreneurship, Commerce, Management, and Office Administration in various colleges and universities nationwide. For the past 12 years since its inception, PCDEB has been preoccupied in organizing regional associations and sponsoring fora, seminars, and conventions in Manila and in different regions...

Words: 687 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Analysis of International Marketing

...3122-prelims.qxd 10/29/03 2:20 PM Page i International Human Resource Management 3122-prelims.qxd 10/29/03 2:20 PM Page ii 3122-prelims.qxd 10/29/03 2:20 PM Page iii second edition International Human Resource Management edited by A n n e - Wi l H a r z i n g J o r i s Va n R u y s s e v e l d t SAGE Publications London l Thousand Oaks l New Delhi 3122-prelims.qxd 10/29/03 2:20 PM Page iv © Anne-Wil Harzing and Joris van Ruysseveldt, 2004 First published 2004 Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers. SAGE Publications Ltd 1 Olivers Yard London EC1Y 1SP SAGE Publications Inc 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd B-42, Panchsheel Enclave Post Box 4109 New Delhi 100 017 British Library Cataloguing in Publication data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0 7619 4039 1 ISBN 0 7619 4040 5 (pbk) Library of Congress Control Number...

Words: 205529 - Pages: 823

Free Essay

International Management

...The economic and social consequences of trade agreements have become a major area of research in recent years. Much of this has to do with regional economic integration, where countries in a geographic region, reduce and remove tariff and non-tariff barriers to the free flow of goods, services and production between each other (Hill, 2005). On the 1 January, 1994, such a trade agreement came into affect between America, Mexico and Canada. This was known as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This removed all barriers to the trade of goods and services within the member countries, the protection of intellectual property rights, application of national environmental standards and the establishment of two commissions with power to impose fines and remove trade privileges when such standards are ignored involving the environment, health and safety, wages and child labour (Hill, 2005). There is a belief that agreements designed to promote free trade within regions will benefit trade for all the countries involved, and also the rest of the world (Abbott and Moran, 2002). While regional economic integration, or foreign direct investment, is seen as a good thing, some observers worry that it could lead to a world in which regional trade blocs compete against each other. We are seeing the formation of many trading blocs continuing today as the need for it has become essential for countries and their firms to compete in the global market place (Seid, 2002). Although...

Words: 2280 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

International Human Resource Management

...are in Britain where it has the largest market share of ‘ecologically and ethically friendly’ cleansing products. The Board of Directors is considering a proposal to move 50% of the company’s production process from Britain to China. You have been asked to advise the board on the implications for the company of making such a move. In your essay, critically evaluate the various industrial, economic employment relations and ethical factors, which the board will need to consider before deciding whether to move part of their manufacturing operation to China. | | Name & ID: Sharmin Sarna Word count: 2194 | 3/30/2012 | | International Human resource management (IHRM) describes as human resource management issues and problems arising from the internationalisation of business, and the HRM strategies, policies and practices that global firms pursue in response to the internationalisation process. The process of globalisation - the integration of markets, new markets (e.g. China) increased foreign direct investment by many multinational companies (MNCs), and cross-border integration of production and services. MNCs with distinctive competencies can potentially realise higher profits by applying those competencies in foreign markets, where local competitors lack similar competencies (Bratton & Gold, 2007). As firms increasingly seek to leverage human resource to compete in global markets, academics and practitioners alike have increasingly begun to explore the international...

Words: 2690 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

The Ec-Philippines Strategy Paper

........ iii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY............................................................................................... 7 1. COUNTRY ANALYSIS ............................................................................................ 9 1.1. Analysis of the political situation...................................................................... 9 1.2. Analysis of the economic situation.................................................................. 11 1.3. Trade structure ................................................................................................ 13 1.4. Analysis of social developments...................................................................... 14 1.5. Analysis of the environmental situation......................................................... 16 2. THE PHILIPPINES’ POLICY AGENDA ............................................................ 17 2.1. The Medium Term Philippine Development Plan ........................................ 17 2.2. Assessing the reform process .......................................................................... 17 2.3. Cross-cutting issues: human rights, gender, governance ............................. 19 3. OVERVIEW OF PAST AND ONGOING EC COOPERATION, COORDINATION AND COHERENCE ...................................................................... 20 3.1. Overview of past and ongoing EC cooperation............................................. 20 3.2. Lessons learned from past EC cooperation...

Words: 26770 - Pages: 108

Premium Essay


...SOUTHERN AFRICA REGIONAL INTEGRATION STRATEGY PAPER 2011-2015 Copyright © 2011 African Development Bank Group Angle de l’Avenue du Ghana et des Rues Pierre de Coubertin et Hédi Nouira BP 323 -1002 TUNIS Belvédère (Tunisia) Tél: +216 71 333 511 / 71 103 450 Fax: +216 71 351 933 E-mail: Rights and Permissions This document may be ordered from: The Knowledge & Information Center (KVRC), African Development Bank Address: BP 323 -1002 TUNIS Belvédère (Tunisia) Telephone: +216 71103402 Telefax: +216 71833248 E-mail: The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed in this report are those of the author/s and are not necessarily those of the African Development Bank. In the preparation of this document, every effort has been made to offer the most current, correct and clearly expressed information possible. Nonetheless, inadvertent errors can occur, and applicable laws, rules and regulations may change. The African Development Bank makes its documentation available without warranty of any kind and accepts no responsibility for its accuracy or for any consequences of its use. All rights reserved. The text and data in this publication may be reproduced as long as the source is cited. Reproduction for commercial purposes is forbidden. Legal Disclaimer For more information about this report and other information on Southern African countries, please visit en/countries/southern-africa/ ii  Strategy Report FOREWORD...

Words: 24580 - Pages: 99

Premium Essay

European Union Issues and Policies

...European Union: Issues and Policies Name: Course Name: Course Instructor: Date of Submission: Executive Summary The current policies of the European Union continues to play an important role in the development of member states both in the political, economical, social, and agricultural sectors of the economy. Many succession countries are trying their lack in the otherwise difficult procedures of becoming member to the union. The union continues to offer adverse marketing fields for its members as trade free zone create and increase coverage and economic growth. The aftermath of the war that shuttered continents has led to succession countries joining the union out of free will. Succession countries by far benefit from the European union membership as the membership comes with a lot of advantages that influence economic growth for the member country. Contents Introduction 4 Succession Countries on Joining the European Monetary Union 4 CAP Reforms 8 The arguments in favor of the enlargement of the European Union 10 The Arguments against the Enlargement of the Union 11 Global Competitors 13 China and the Option to Leave the Eurozone 14 Conclusion 16 References 17 European Union: Issues and Policies Introduction The European Union is a group of 27 states primarily located in Europe with a de-facto capital in Brussels and operates using a supranational independent institutions and decisions negotiated intergovernmental by the member states. It...

Words: 3948 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

My Work

...I: Introduction I. A: Rationale/Motivation​​ Over the past two decades, cross-border or international mergers and acquisitions (IM&As) have become the favored method of foreign direct investment (FDI). The form shows that IM&As go both ways: toward developing countries and from them, reshaping the world’s economic boundaries. Trends notwithstanding, researchers suggest that, overall, the expected financial benefits of M&As are often not recognized. The highest rate of failures has been linked mainly to the fact that “M&As are still designed with business organization and financial fit as primary conditions, leaving psychological and cultural issues as secondary concerns”. While as new countries start out into the free-market economic system, paying attention to cultural factors in IM&As is becoming essential. The wider cultural gap and the current trend of IM&Asbetween developed and developing countries increases the urgency of understanding the effects of civilization on the dynamics of IM&As and on issues such as corporate organization and local adaptation strategy. The present research is designed in response to this shortcoming. It examines the effects of culture on the outcome of IM&As and the variability of these effects during the different phases of an IM&A. The research focuses on the international aspect of cultural conflicts—the differentiating factor between domestic mergers and acquisitions (M&As) and IM&As. It measures success from an organization’s internal...

Words: 3556 - Pages: 15