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Submitted By rehnu
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Q 14 b photosensitization, the process of initiating a reaction through the use of a substance capable of absorbing light and transferring the energy to the desired reactants. The technique is commonly employed in photochemical work, particularly for reactions requiring light sources of certain wavelengths that are not readily available. A commonly used sensitizer is mercury, which absorbs radiation at 1849 and 2537 angstroms; these are the wavelengths of light produced in high-intensity mercury lamps. Also used as sensitizers are cadmium; some of the noble gases, particularly xenon; zinc; benzophenone; and a large number of organic dyes.
In a typical photosensitized reaction, as in the photodecomposition of ethylene to acetylene and hydrogen, a mixture of mercury vapour and ethylene is irradiated with a mercury lamp. The mercury atoms absorb the light energy, there being a suitable electronic transition in the atom that corresponds to the energy of the incident light. In colliding with ethylene molecules, the mercury atoms transfer the energy and are in turn deactivated to their initial energy state. The excited ethylene molecules subsequently undergo decomposition. Another mode of photosensitization observed in many reactions involves direct participation of the sensitizer in the reaction itself.

Q 15 b Polarization (also polarisation) is a property that describes the orientation of oscillation of certain types of waves. Electromagnetic waves, such as light, and gravitational waves exhibit polarization; acoustic waves (soundwaves) in a fluid such as a gas or liquid do not have polarization because the direction of vibration and direction of propagation are the same.
By convention, the polarization of light is described by specifying the orientation...

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