Free Essay

Dom & a&C

In: English and Literature

Submitted By gabrielpreston
Words 3036
Pages 13
Compare and contrast the presentation of John Webster’s The Duchess of Malfi and Shakespeare’s Cleopatra. Your study should refer to relevant contextual material and also include appropriate readings of the plays by other critics: The Duchess of Malfi (Main Text)

In Jacobean England (1603-25) the theatre enjoyed enthusiastic royal support and the period was notable for some of the greatest plays ever written. Webster was already part of the ‘second generation’ and Shakespeare was already one of the most revered dramatists of his time. Both Webster and Shakespeare produced remarkable plays in this period, which gave dramatic prominence to complex tragic women. The Duchess of Malfi (1612) and Antony and Cleopatra (1607) are two plays that explore the contradictions of social and sexual relations in a patriarchal and misogynistic period of England as seen through the presentation of there two heroines The Duchess and Cleopatra, and also through the different forms of linguistical and structural methods employed by both writers that ultimately highlight the two women’s similar yet opposing natures. Essentially both plays are Jacobean tragedies of gender politics where the Duchess and Cleopatra seek freedom of action and desire but are defined and shaped by patriarchal oppression and thereby doomed for their perceived subversive sexuality.

Through language both writers present their two heroines’ as powerful women who challenge the traditional male restrictions. The Duchess is representative of purity and goodness throughout the play and immediately her virtue is seen through Antonio’s commentary in Act 1 Scene 1 “Her days are practiced in such noble virtue that sure her nights, nay more her very sleeps,” Antonio is admirable of her in contrast to her Machiavellian and corrupt brothers. His register is almost saintly and using adjectives ‘noble virtue’ personifies The Duchess’s integrity. Such words spoken so early on in the text invites the audience to admire her for all her morality and later her courage which will also demand respect. Queen Elizabeth’s 45 year reign had a limited impact on the inequality of women of any social position and this was due to the patriarchal values ingrained into the political and legal systems. In Jacobean England Women had restricted political power and finical independence, and were often subject to the concept that they were the property of men. The Duchess of Malfi reflects the social contexts when Webster’s heroine who is deemed the property of her Machiavellian brothers (The Cardinal and Ferdinand) states to Bosola “I am Duchess of Malfi still.” The Duchess’s statement is important. She believes that her dukedom has been stripped of her and her family is dead yet her tone is assertive and her insistence that she is still the Duchess presents her as prideful. Webster maintains that The Duchess is representative of female vitality and Independence but also as resilient to the male oppressor in light of the patriarchal conformities that women faced during the period. Barbara Todd explains; “The remarriage of a widow confronted every man with the threating prospect of his own death and entry into his own place.” The Duchess assertion of female independence with complete disregard for her brother coercive advice depicts her to be imperious and defiant as she states “Shall this move me I’d make them my low footsteps.” The Duchess is demonized as a ‘lusty widow’ as her statement is contrary to her brother’s plight for her to marry within her social class thus enabling the approved circulation of assets. Marrying a man below her does not surrender her position but represents an instance of women’s disruptive behavior and a reversal of her expected role within her family and society. By comparison Shakespeare characterizes Cleopatra as powerful and disruptive to male control through her expressions of passion and desire. Cleopatra’s mercurial emotions are seen to lead to chaos and unrestrained natural forces when Enobarbus remarks “Age cannot wither her, nor custom stale Her infinite variety Other women cloy I The appetites they feed, but she makes hungry I Where most she satisfies; for vildest things I Become themselves in her, that the holy priests I Bless her when she is riggish” Enobarbus’s proclamation refers to citations of maternal creation taking place and Cleopatra’s ‘infinite variety’. His description of Cleopatra refers the concept that she gives birth to those ‘vildest things’ through her infinite variety alluding to her sexual passions and her tendency to evoke chaos that grow and form from inside of her. Cleopatra’s infinite variety is testament to her contradictory behavior and is often subject to racial condemnation from Roman males. The Roman soldier Philo states in Act 1 scene 1 “His captain’s heart, Which in the scuffles of great fights hath burst The buckles on his breast, reneges all temper And is become the bellows and the fan To cool a gypsy’s lust.” Although Philo talks about Antony’s love to Cleopatra She is described as a ‘gypsy’ and this reoccurring racial imagery adheres to the emergence of British global empiricism in the 17th century as does the pre conceptual attitudes to races of the new world. For Jacobean audience’s Cleopatra embodied historical conceptions of the Egyptian Queen and Philo’s use of crude sexual innuendos is contemptuous of Roman attitudes towards Egypt but also further characterizes Cleopatra in a intriguing and exotic way from the opening lines of the play contrasting to the positive view shed upon the Duchess. A.C Bradley’s Edwardian view criticizes Cleopatra’s influence over the relationship with Antony “she destroys him” was typical of the Edwardian gender prejudice. The modern critical interpretation from feminist Linda Fitz argues that many “male critics have felt threatened by Cleopatra.” Essentially feminist readings of the text have questioned and argued whether Shakespeare intended to submit masculine values to dramatic critique. Cleopatra’s threatening nature and prime example of her social superiority and unforeseeable behavior would have excited the predominantly male audience’s of the time despite yet shocked them because of her gender as she castigates the male messenger “strike him!” Having found out about Antony’s relationship with Octavia her sudden rage suggests that she is jealous and additionally Neil Norman concludes that this is part of her battle for sexual dominance over Antony, which has “more excessive power and excitement.”
Webster and Shakespeare use some very dramatic imagery to reveal both positive and negative male attitudes towards their two heroines. Regal Imagery is used by Webster to convey the Duchess’s sovereignty by comparing her to diamonds when her dying brother suggests “Whether we fall by ambition blood or lust: like diamonds we are all cut with our own dust.” The representation associated with a diamond connotes both resilience and beauty yet emphasizes The Duchess’s devotion to female liberty from the plight of patriarchal values in the Jacobean period. To the contrary the words ‘fall’ and ‘diamonds pass through many hands’ explores the complexity of the nature of the Duchess. Additionally the objectification of the Duchess through the diamond imagery is imbedded into the cultural perceptions of Renaissance gender relations. Igna Stina Ekelab observes that the Duchess is presented as an “exemplum horrendum to all women contemplating second marriage” as she is imprisoned by the social contradictions of Jacobean society she is also figuratively confined by the enclosing definitions of womanhood and by Webster’s use of animal imagery when she states “The robin-redbreast and the nightingale never live long in cages.” The bird is representative of freedom and resonates with the fragility of the animal just like The Duchess. Moreover Linda Woodbridge argues that in The Duchess of Malfi the images of the characters as prey and predators is seen through The Duchess’s allegory “a salmon as she swam unto the sea met with a dog fish.” The Duchess is characterized through the image of the salmon and is presented as the prey to the male. The repetitive nature of presenting The Duchess as a helpless captive or as Frank Whigam argues a ‘tragic’ heroine who is doomed by desire emphasizes her disruptive behavior and reversal to the traditional female archetypical roles.

In contrast Shakespeare uses some striking imagery to link Cleopatra to her sexual nature and to her role as Queen of Egypt. Shakespeare’s use of the imagery of the serpent reinforces the symbolisms of fertility and seduction when Cleopatra describes herself as “serpent of the old Nile” the serpent represents both vitality and fertility however there is also a dark undercurrent to an association with such a reptile as it contrives images of Cleopatra as evil and cunning as Shakespeare was writing this play for Christian England would affiliate Cleopatra with Eve and the serpent paradigm. Similarly regal imagery is also used by Shakespeare in Antony and Cleopatra as seen in The Duchess of Malfi. Shakespeare use’s stark visual metaphors when Enorbabus through his hyperbole vividly describes Cleopatra using colors “poop was beaten gold; purple the sails.” Rich colors such as purple and gold encapsulate Cleopatra’s opulence and grandeur and affiliate Cleopatra with royalty and wealth. Enorbarbus continues to dignify Cleopatra’s character by suggesting that “she over pictured Venus” personifying her as even more beautiful than the God of love and beauty Venus. Edith Hamilton recounts: “The Goddess of Love and Beauty who beguiled all gods and men alike; the laughter loving goddess who laughed sweetly or mockingly at those her wiles had conquered; the irresistible goddess who stole away even the wits of the wise.” Like Venus, Cleopatra is beguiled.

The structure of both plays allows for the texts to be set in exotic and strange foreign locations. This allows both writers greater dramatic freedom to challenge the issues of the perversion of inequality aimed at females and present both heroines as political and influential figures. Webster sets his play in Malfi, which was a politically important Italian city essentially, ruled by the kingdom of Naples. Leah Marcus contends, “Early seventeenth century audiences would have remained patriarchal.” As seen Webster’s male characters exhibit contemporary attitudes to women in act 1 scene 1 when Ferdinand remark’s to the Duchess “This was my fathers poniard do you see?/I’d be loath to see’t look rusty cause twas his.” Ferdinand is representative of the levels of corruption existing within the court of Malfi and conforms to the view that Jacobeans had of Italy. The plays treatment of women is potentially subversive as Webster’s spirited and independent portrayal of the Duchess who is a woman of high social ranking was still chastised for her objections to traditional feminine virtues. Further more Bosola states to the Duchess that she faces her “last presence chamber.” Catherine Belsey observes, “Webster often differentiates between the political and domestic spheres.” The confinements of the indoor environment politically isolates and domestic and diminish the Duchess’s character. This is consequent of her rebellious attitude and abdication of her responsibility as ruler. The male oppressions of the world of Malfi destroys her and confines her to the claustrophobic settings presenting the consequences of being rebellious and abdicating from her duties and responsibilities as both a leader and as being conventional to her feminine virtues.

In comparison through the representations of Egypt as the setting Cleopatra is unconventionally seen as the dominant ruler reflecting the influence she has over the East. In contrast to the Duchess, Cleopatra does not marry her lover. As a dramatic device Shakespeare creates a binary opposition of Rome Vs. Egypt. Set when Rome was the centre of an expanding military and economic empire it represented the values of restraint, duty and bravery at war. Cleopatra is characterized as both a sensual lover and political figure through the hedonistic luxury and erotic pleasure of Egypt. Antony states “Let Rome in Tiber melt, and the wide arch Of the rang'd empire fall! Here is my space, Kingdoms are clay; our dungy earth alike Feeds beast as man” reflects his decline through melting imagery and emphasizes Cleopatra’s influence over her him. Antony’s past versus his present also defines Cleopatra’s as an enchantress who has weakened and debauched a symbol of the Jacobean conception of honour. This idea of ‘patriarchal gender ideology’ is criticised by Coppelia Kahn who argues that Cleopatra is ‘demonised’ and that “such male prejudice results in the idea that the woman who hold or try to hold political power will end by robbing the male of both political and sexual power.” Similarly to the Duchess Cleopatra is also a disruptive figure to the political ideologies of the West. At the battle of Actium Cleopatra boast’s “A charge we bear I’th war and As the president of my kingdom will appear there for a man speak not against it. I will not stay behind.” Cleopatra’s demonstration of masculinity through her strength and dominance is unconventional of feminine virtuousness and would have reminded Shakespeare’s contemporaries of Queen Elizabeth 1st and the political threat that both women imposed. Through Webster and Shakespeare’s use of structure in terms of staging, both the Duchess and Cleopatra die as tragic heroines. Death in both plays holds great significance for obvious reasons. Webster subverts the conventions of the 5-act structure when he kills his heroine in act 4; her execution is a grand affair when the Duchess embraces death and rises to tragic when she state’s to her executioner “pull down heaven upon me. Yet stay heaven gates are not so highly arched as princes palaces they enter there must go on their knees.” The Duchess is presented as humble and holy and as the antidote to her brothers’ evil through the imagery of heaven and light. The Victorian view of Alegorno Charles Swimburne is testament to the changing perceptions of women in Renaissance drama when he describes such heroines as “shining in the darkness.” The Duchess exemplifies classic stoic courage in the face of death and is representative of the heavenly light for her grace and morality when addressing her executioner who makes heaven as her destination clear when she dies. Additionally in acts 4 and 5 Webster explores the after effects of the Duchess’s death on other characters. Her death seems to have a profound effect on Bosola and Webster embeds the dramatic technique of the ‘echo’ to explore the theme of retribution and vengeance and incorporates the concepts of supernatural phenomena, which interested 17th century audiences when he state’s “the weakest arm is strong enough that strikes the sword of justice now my revenge is perfect.” By foregrounding the male characters, it attempts to contain all of the subversive aspects of the Duchess's rule and restore patriarchal order.

In contrast Shakespeare’s narrowing of focus, stages Cleopatra’s death in the final act as opposed to act 4 as seen in The Duchess of Malfi concentrating particularly on Cleopatra’s nobility and her social position as Queen of Egypt. Cleopatra’s death takes place in Act 5 of the play leaving a lasting impression on the audience. Similarly in The Duchess of Malfi the death of Shakespeare’s heroine is also a grand affair as she dies wearing a ‘robe, crown, sceptre and other regalia’ however it is responsive to her love and devotion to Antony when she says “to excuse their after wrath: husband, I come: Now to that name my courage prove my title!” Christina Luckyj observes, “True love seems only achievable in death.” Cleopatra adheres to Luckyj’s point when she refers to Antony as ‘husband’, and despite the fact that she is not married show’s her permanent love for him in her final moments as well as canceling out previous perceptions of her being a ‘strumpet,’ as in-turn she is presented as a noble Queen. Shakespeare ensures that Cleopatra achieves full tragic status. Comparatively to the Duchess Cleopatra accepts death with unqualified bravery “separate me from life with your sharp teeth poor poisonous fool be angry and bite” her death adds depth to the character and deepens her dramatic impact in the play. Cleopatra’s manner of death represents triumph and conquest over Roman values, prompting Caesar to comment, “She shall be buried by her Antony. No grave upon the earth shall clip in it a pair so famous.” Additionally her death retains a different kind of nobility and integrity in comparison to the death of the Duchess leading to the ‘restitution’ of the social and political order albeit with a ‘Jacobean bloodbath.’

To conclude both playwrights used women to explore the harsh cultural and gender inequalities that existed in Jacobean England. Through Webster and Shakespeare’s different use of techniques presents their two heroines as ‘tragic figures’ but in very different ways. Cleopatra ‘punished’ for her sexuality and sensuality and the influence she exerted on a ‘noble Roman “the triple pillar of the world transformed
Into a strumpet's fool” and the Duchess as a tragic victim of patriarchal conventions of the 17th century.

WC: 1,996

Bibliography

The Duchess of Malfi

Christina Luckyj - The Duchess of Malfi a Critical Guide
Phillip Allan Literature Guide - The Duchess of Malfi
Oxford Student Text - The Duchess of Malfi
John Eric Marriot - Challenging cultural stereotypes: Women Tragic Protagonists In Jacobean Drama
Rex Gibson- Shakespearean and Jacobean Tragedy
Paul Masters - Rebellion of Identity
Joseph Walls- Webster and Women
Carol Leach - Elizabethan and Jacobean Drama 1590-1640 (In Context)
Antony & Cleopatra
Rex Gibson - Shakespearean and Jacobean Tragedy
Cambridge Student Guide - Antony and Cleopatra
Keith Sagar - Antony and Cleopatra
John Eric Marriot - Challenging Cultural Stereotypes: Women Tragic Protagonists
Enotes Study Guide - Antony and Cleopatra
Eva Scholar - Manipulative Seductress or Skilled leader
Michael J Cummings - Cummings study guide
Hui-Pin Kuo - Binary Oppositions in Antony and Cleopatra
Carol Leach - Elizabethan and Jacobean Drama 1590-1640 (In Context)

--------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. Barbra Todd- The Duchess of Malfi: A Critical Guide
WC: 347
[ 2 ]. Bradley - A&C Cambridge Student Guide
[ 3 ]. Fitz - The Shakespeare Handbook
[ 4 ]. Norman - The Omnivore: A&C Theatre review 2011
WC: 731
[ 5 ]. Ekelab - The Impore Art of John Webster
[ 6 ]. Woodbridge - DoM A Critical Guide: Christina Luckyj
[ 7 ]. Whigam - DoM A Critical Guide: Christina Luckyj
[ 8 ]. Hamilton - The Olympians: Aphrodite Venus
WC: 1,136
[ 9 ]. Marcus - DoM A Critical Guide: Christina Luckyj
[ 10 ]. Belsey - The Subject of Tragedy: Identity in Renaissance Drama
[ 11 ]. Kahn - A&C Cambridge Student Guide
WC: 1,542
[ 12 ]. Swimburne - A Study of Shakespeare
[ 13 ]. Luckyj - DoM A Critical Guide: Christina Luckyj
WC: 1,857

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Software Quality Assurance

...values, event sequences, and assertions, in the human-written test suites, (2) combine that inferred knowledge with the power of automated crawling, and (3) extend the test suite for uncovered/unchecked portions of the web application under test. Our approach is implemented in a tool called Testilizer. An evaluation of our approach indicates that Testilizer (1) outperforms a random test generator, and (2) on average, can generate test suites with improvements of up to 150% in fault detection rate and up to 30% in code coverage, compared to the original test suite. these interactions at runtime is manifested through the Document Object Model (DOM) and presented to the end-user in the browser. To avoid dealing with all these complex interactions separately, many developers treat the web application as a black-box and test it via its manifested DOM, using testing frameworks such as Selenium [6]. These DOMbased test cases are written manually, which is a tedious process with an incomplete result. On the other hand, many automated testing techniques [13, 19, 28, 31] are...

Words: 10932 - Pages: 44

Free Essay

Poem

...[C]Skyll dig sj?lv, inget h?n[G]der h?r Men det g?[Am]r ingenting, om dina h?nder ?r h?[F]r [C]Och skyll dig sj?lv, f?r folk vill g?rna l?ra k?n[G]na dig Men ne[Am]j!, f?r jag har inte se[F]tt n?n som dig, ?n Vi ?r f?r[C]lorare Vi tv[G]? Sen vi var sju[Am]tton ?[F]r Och dom s?ger: Bl[C]a, bla, bla, bla - du fattar ingen[G]ting Och du svarar: Ch[Am]a, cha, cha, cha - ni f?r mig vart ni vi[F]ll Och dom s?ger: Bl[C]a, bla, bla, bla - du fattar ingen[G]ting Och du svarar: Ch[Am]a, cha, cha, cha - dom f?r dig vart dom vi[F]ll Vi ?r f?r[C]lorare (skyll dig sj?lv) Vi tv[G]? (inget h?nder h?r) Sen vi var sju[Am]tton, sjutton ?[F]r [C] [G] [Am] [F] Vi ?r f?r[C]lorare Vi tv[G]? Sen vi var sju[Am]tton ?[F]r [C]Skyll dig sj?lv, inget h?n[G]der h?r Men det g?[Am]r ingenting, om dina h?nder ?r h?[F]r [C]Och skyll dig sj?lv, f?r folk vill g?rna l?ra k?n[G]na dig Men ne[Am]j!, f?r jag har inte se[F]tt n?n som dig, ?n Vi ?r f?r[C]lorare Vi tv[G]? Sen vi var sju[Am]tton ?[F]r ...

Words: 387 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Ssss

...Tutorial: XML programming in Java Doug Tidwell Cyber Evangelist, developerWorks XML Team September 1999 About this tutorial Our first tutorial, “Introduction to XML,” discussed the basics of XML and demonstrated its potential to revolutionize the Web. This tutorial shows you how to use an XML parser and other tools to create, process, and manipulate XML documents. Best of all, every tool discussed here is freely available at IBM’s alphaWorks site (www.alphaworks.ibm.com) and other places on the Web. About the author Doug Tidwell is a Senior Programmer at IBM. He has well over a seventh of a century of programming experience and has been working with XML-like applications for several years. His job as a Cyber Evangelist is basically to look busy, and to help customers evaluate and implement XML technology. Using a specially designed pair of zircon-encrusted tweezers, he holds a Masters Degree in Computer Science from Vanderbilt University and a Bachelors Degree in English from the University of Georgia. 1 Section 1 – Introduction Tutorial – XML Programming in Java Section 1 – Introduction About this tutorial Our previous tutorial discussed the basics of XML and demonstrated its potential to revolutionize the Web. In this tutorial, we’ll discuss how to use an XML parser to: • • • Process an XML document Create an XML document Manipulate an XML document We’ll also talk about some useful, lesser-known features of XML parsers. Best of all, every tool discussed here is freely...

Words: 13605 - Pages: 55

Free Essay

Kojl

...Snapdragons red dominant to white heteroz pink. Green leaves dom to purple. Pink purple x pink heteroz what would be pink purple? ¼ Tomatoes red dom to white dark green incompletely dom to light green fruit and leaf color loci not linked. Red tomato medium green leaves x white tomato and out of progeny 100 plants two white. Plant then crossed to dithered. What fraction of progeny have white fruit and leaves not dark green? 3/16 Ferrets sing. Rec allele g sing G snort. Incompletely dominant alleles for dark rown and blond are also found in the species. Two loci segregate independently of each other. Singing light brown ferrets mate with snorting dark brown with singing mothers (gg Brbr x Gg BrBr. Expected phenotypic ratio? 9/16 sidabr:3/16silibr:3/16sndabr:1/16 snlibr Lucy int in butterflies X vulgaris. Rip rec lethal to relative to the wild type allele. Esp phen ratio of cross btw X vulgaris gen +rip X +rip if the alleles segregate independently? 3:1 Spotted rabbit x with a solid colored rabbit produced all spotted offspring. F1 generation rabbits x among themselves, they produced 32 spotted and 10 solid. What were the gen of F1? SS x ss Horses black dependant upon dom gene B chesnut upon rec b. trotting gait due to dom gene T pacing gait to rec allele t. Homozygous black pacer x chesnut trotter what is appearance of F1? Black trotters Located on X chrom of a cat is a gene that codes for deafness. This gene rec. Fem cat heteroz for deafness x male not deaf....

Words: 1597 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Homework

...guarantee that malicious code are not downloaded by users. Reflected: mostly on output sanitation, make sure that website doesn't reveal any user input. Besides, input validation is also important to reject malicious inputs. B) Input sanitation is used to validate user inputs, all user inputs must be checked before execution or stored in database. Output sanitation is used to detect and reject malicious code from being downloaded by users or user information being revealed. 5. PK system is too costly and complicated to use. It is much more efficient (in terms of time and space) to use it to exchange symmetric key secretly. 6. A) (C, {P}) !dom (C,{R}) so Jill can’t read the document. (C, {R}) !dom (C,{P}) so Jill can’t write the document. B) (T, {Q, P}) !dom (S,{R,P}) so Paul can’t read the document. (S, {R, P}) !dom (S,{Q,P}) so Paul can’t write the document. 7. Complete mediation. Access to the signal tower must be checked for authority. 第二个不确定 Least common mechanism. Base station is a common mechanism to connect to the mobile network, it must but trustworthy, otherwise others are affected. 8. Since it says that multiple sessions can open at the same time. Harry can any how send a possible nonce to Bob at first, then Bob will reply his nonce with the encrypted version of Harry’s nonce. Then Harry can open a new connection with Bob and use the nonce Bob returned to him as his nonce, then Bob...

Words: 453 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Hmrc Confirms Reporting Obligations for Recruiters

...“mental health” or “learning disability”) and (NVQ4 or “NVQ 4” or “NVQ level 4” or “NVQ IV” or NVQ3 or “NVQ 3” or “NVQ level 3” or “NVQ III” or QCF4 or “QCF 4” or “QCF level 4” or “QCF IV” or QCF3 or “QCF 3” or “QCF level 3” or “QCF III” or “Registered manager award” or RMA) (“care manager” or “home manager” or “registered manager” or “branch manager” or “home care manager” or “service manager” or “domiciliary manager” or “dom manager”) and (domiciliary or “dom care” or “homecare” or “home care” or “care agency” or “community care”) and (NVQ4 or “NVQ 4” or “NVQ level 4” or “NVQ IV” or NVQ5 or “NVQ 5” or “NVQ level 5” or “NVQ V” or QCF4 or “QCF 4” or “QCF level 4” or “QCF IV” or QCF5 or “QCF 5” or “QCF level 5” or “QCF V” or “Registered manager award” or RMA) (“live in carer” or “live in manager” or “live-in manager” or “registered manager” or “care manager” or “community manager”) and NVQ “Kitchen Assistant” and (“health care” or “extra care” or “scheme care” or “assisted living” or “supported living”) (Developer or programmer or “software engineer”) and C# and “.NET” and MVC (“security advisor” or “security consultant”) and process ("unit manager" or "process manager" or manager or...

Words: 2489 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

It 238 Complete Class

...SUPPORT@ACTIVITYMODE.COM IT 238 COMPLETE CLASS IT 238 Week 1 CheckPoint # 2: Project 2–8 IT 238 Week 1 DQs IT 238 Week 2 Assignment: Case Project 3–1 IT 238 Week 3 CheckPoint: JavaScript™ Code for Error Handling- Appendix C IT 238 Week 3 DQs IT 238 Week 4 CheckPoint: JavaScript™ Objects- Appendix D IT 238 Week 4 Assignment: DOM IT 238 Week 5 Assignment: Case Project 5–3 IT 238 Week 5 DQs IT 238 Week 6 CheckPoint: Project 6–3 IT 238 Week 6 Assignment: Project 7–3 IT 238 Week 7 DQs IT 238 Week 7 CheckPoint: Final Project Design Document- Appendix B IT 238 Week 8 CheckPoint: Java™ Applet IT 238 Week 8 Assignment: Case Project 11–4 IT 238 Capstone Activity mode aims to provide quality study notes and tutorials to the students of IT 238 COMPLETE CLASS in order to ace their studies. IT 238 COMPLETE CLASS To purchase this visit here: http://www.activitymode.com/product/it-238-complete-class/ Contact us at: SUPPORT@ACTIVITYMODE.COM IT 238 COMPLETE CLASS IT 238 Week 1 CheckPoint # 2: Project 2–8 IT 238 Week 1 DQs IT 238 Week 2 Assignment: Case Project 3–1 IT 238 Week 3 CheckPoint: JavaScript™ Code for Error Handling- Appendix C IT 238 Week 3 DQs IT 238 Week 4 CheckPoint: JavaScript™ Objects- Appendix D IT 238 Week 4 Assignment: DOM IT 238 Week 5 Assignment: Case Project 5–3 IT 238 Week 5 DQs IT 238 Week 6 CheckPoint: Project 6–3 IT 238 Week 6 Assignment: Project 7–3 IT 238 Week 7 DQs IT 238 Week 7 CheckPoint: Final Project Design Document- Appendix...

Words: 517 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Sppech

...An Effective Keyword Extraction Method for Videos in Web Pages by Analyzing their Layout Structures Jongwon Lee Chungkang College 162 Chungkang-ro Majang-myun Ichon-si, Gyunggi-do 467-744, Korea Abstract- This paper proposes an effective keyword extraction method for the Web videos by analyzing the structure of the Web pages. The proposed scheme calculates the relative importance (or weights) of the text blocks to a video by analyzing the distances of the text blocks to the video. This distance, called the layout distance, indicates a degree of relevance of text block to video, and could be estimated by analyzing the layout structure of Web pages. Since the Web pages with several videos such as Web pages posting UCC videos have a special layout structure, this layout analysis helps to precisely estimate the relevance of text block to the video. This weight of text block is used to compute the final weights of keywords extracted from that text block by analyzing their HTML tags and other well-known techniques such as TF/IDF. Some experiments with 1,087 Web pages that have total 2,462 videos show that the precision of the proposed extraction scheme is 17% higher than ImageRover[1]. Giseok Choi, Juyeon Jang, and Jongho Nang Sogang University 1 Sinsu-dong Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742, Korea weights are inverse proportional to the layout distances to the video, however, they are adjusted by reflecting the structural characteristics of Web pages with videos. After assigning the weights...

Words: 4016 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Chemistry

...Lab13: *Evolution: change in allele frequencies in a population over time * The population does not occur if: A. The breeding population is large. The effect of a change in allele frequencies is reduced. B. Mating is random. Organisms show no mating preference for a particular genotype. C. There is no net mutation of the alleles. D. There is no migration or emigration of organisms. E. There is no natural selection. Every organism has an equal chance for passing on their genotypes. Dom allele (A)= p Rec allele (a)=q P+q=1 If no evolution there are expected: + freq of dom (AA)= p x p =P2 +freq of rec (aa)= q x q= q2 +freq of heterozygote (Aa or aA) = 2pq p2 + 2pq +q2 = 1 Ex1: If 98 out of 200 in a population express a recessive phenotype, what % of the population will be homozygous dominant? Q2 = 98/200 = 0.49 Q= 0.7 P+q=1 => p=0.3 => p2 = 0.09=9% Ex2: Brown hair (B) is dom to blond hair (b). If there are 168 with brown hair in a population of 200. What is the predicted freq of heterozygotes? P2 + 2pq = 168/200 P2 +2pq = 0.84 P2 +2pq + q2 =1 => q= 0.4 2pq =? 1-q= 1-o.4=0.6p => 2 x 0.4 x 0.6 = 0.48=> 48% Lab 12 GTE: + glucose: creates isotonic environment + Tris: pH buffer ( pH=8) ideal pH for DNA not RNA + EDTA: binds divalent cations inhibits Dnase: requires cations factor +SDS: denatures proteins ( irreversible) dissolves membranes +NAOH: degrades cell wall, denatures DNA ( reversibly) ...

Words: 471 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Family

...You’veou’vegiv Thoughliv rulesby seethe œ broughtto broughtto œ hasbeen hasbeen beenbrought beenbrought ## &# œ œ œ J fillthe fillthe theearth. theearth. earth.fill earth.F ‰ tobirth; tobirth; Chorus(See œ Forornow GD AE œ œ œ œ œ va- -tion tionand andking king- -dom domand andmight. EmmAm F♯ mB & ### Lm ˙™ place.W AmD BmmE œ Weepray: -cree. -seen. cree.The seen.The œ œ Thetress, TheKing œ œ™ SalDD EE j œ œ™ œ™ TheKing œ passSal GD AE œ willKing willfill ˙™ topass DG EA œ GA AC œ J havecome cometo ˙™ œ ru- -ler ler- -ship shipwill ru- -ler ler- -ship shipwill DG EA might.The œ DB EG Hisru Hisru j œ nowhave œ toyour yourknow ofdis dis- -Son; ˙™ deun- birth;His birth;His œ™ œ thethrone throneto intimes timesof œ j ‰ œ GD AE œ DE EAm byyour yourde thethings thingsun œ Lm œ giv- -en enthe liv- -ing ingin œ AmD BmmE œ œ GD AE j œ œ™ Heerules Weesee Son;H tress,W ## &# œ œ œ œ œ AndThe Weeal BmmF C♯ mD Lm youwill thiswill CG DA been,And short;W EmmB F♯ mC œ ## & # n˙ ™ King- -dom domhas King- -dom domhas ˙™ havebeen, isshort; al- -ways wayshave Dev- -il ilis AmG BmmA œ œ œ GE AF DmmAm EmmB ## &# œ GA AE KingD77G E77A -dom domis isin -va œ J inplace. GF A œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙™136 pray:“Let “Letit itcome, come,Let Letit itcome!” come!”snsmn snsmnw-E-ENo. No.136 1369/14 9/14© w ˘2014 2014W WatcatchhT TowowererBible Bibleand andT TractractS So oc cietyof ofPenns PennsylylvvaniaaniaC...

Words: 1339 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Programming

...word count (sys, os, path) (python sqlite) print Google (phrase, domain, use reader to follow tech blogs) 2 ( Vim / Emacs / Notepad++ Source Insight ( ctag) Cool IDE) / / 3 Unix/Linux Shell windows man ls/chmod/chown/rm/find/ln/cat/mount/mkdir/tar/gzip … sed/awk/grep/tail/less/more … ps/top/lsof/netstat/kill/tcpdump/iptables/dd… /etc /var/log /proc linux vmware player Ubuntu 1 6 9/6/13 1:36 PM - -[ ] http://blog.renren.com/blog/73603/740437492 /Linux 4 Web Web HTML CSS HTML Firefox + Firebug Javascript HTML DOM Firefox + Firebug Apache PHP PHP PHP chrome Nginx HTML MySQL MySQL SQL http://www.stanford.edu/~ouster/cgi-bin/cs142-fall10/index.php ) javascript HTTP: The Definite Guide browsers) Cookie/Session jQuery 4 3-5 ExtJS + Ajax ( +JSON (proxy, gateway, Javascript box model chrome DOM http://oreilly.com/catalog/9780596527402) HTML/CSS/JS) + WEB (LAMP) W3School 1 C C C C Unix/Linux fork/wait/waitpid signal/kill/raise/alarm/pause/sigprocmask gcc gdb makefile IPC Socket Windows SDK Windows WinMain/WinProcedure Windows SDK MSDN SDK GUI 2 Java Java Java JDK Java IDE Eclipse Tomcat JSP Servlet 3 Web HTML5 Web HTTP Server Web Web HTML5 canvas Web Web 4 SVN JUnit Git Java rewrite Nginx Cache Web SQL JS...

Words: 807 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Editing and Management of Educational Metadata

...Educational Technology & Society 5 (4) 2002 ISSN 1436-4522 EM2: An Environment for Editing and Management of Educational Metadata Demetrios Sampson Informatics and Telematics Institute (I.T.I.) Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) 42, Arkadias Street, Athens, GR-15234 Greece Tel: +30-10-6839916/17 Fax: +30-10-6839917 sampson@iti.gr http://www.iti.gr Vicky Papaioannou Informatics and Telematics Institute (I.T.I.) Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) 42, Arkadias Street, Athens, GR-15234 Greece Tel: +30-10-6839916/17 Fax: +30-10-6839917 vickyp@iti.gr http://www.iti.gr Panayiota Karadimitriou Informatics and Telematics Institute (I.T.I.) Centre for Research and Technology – Hellas (CE.R.T.H.) 42, Arkadias Street, Athens, GR-15234 Greece Tel: +30-10-6839916/17 Fax: +30-10-6839917 karadim@iti.gr http://www.iti.gr ABSTRACT Educational metadata are attracting increasing attention, since they can facilitate the description, indexing, searching and retrieving on-line learning objects and educational resources. This paper describes the difficulties raised in retrieving educational resources from the Web, and discusses the current state-of-the-art in educational metadata technologies and the advantages of their use. The most popular software tools for editing and/or managing XML metadata files are presented, and their limitations in the e-learning context are discussed. The paper outlines the design considerations...

Words: 7478 - Pages: 30

Free Essay

Information Security

...Interested in learning more about security? SANS Institute InfoSec Reading Room This paper is from the SANS Institute Reading Room site. Reposting is not permitted without express written permission. Analyzing Man-in-the-Browser (MITB) Attacks The Matrix is real and living inside your browser. How do you ask? In the form of malware that is targeting your financial institutions. Though, the machines creating this malware do not have to target the institution, rather your Internet browser. By changing what you see in the browser, the attackers now have the ability to steal any information that you enter and display whatever they choose. This has become known as the Man-in-the-Browser (MITB) attack. AD Copyright SANS Institute Author Retains Full Rights Analyzing Man in the Browser Attacks | 1 Analyzing Man-in-the-Browser (MITB) Attacks GIAC (GCFA) Gold Certification Author: Chris Cain, cicain08@gmail.com Advisor: Dominicus Adriyanto Accepted: December 22nd 2014 Abstract The Matrix is real and living inside your browser. How do you ask? In the form of malware that is targeting your financial institutions. Though, the machines creating this malware don’t have to target the institution, rather your Internet browser. By changing what you see in the browser, the attackers now have the ability to steal any information that you enter and display whatever they choose. This has become known as the Man-in-the-Browser (MITB) attack. No one is safe from ...

Words: 5973 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

Asp.Net and Ajax

...Library of Congress Control Number: 2008940527 Printed and bound in the United States of America. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 QWT 4 3 2 1 0 9 Distributed in Canada by H.B. Fenn and Company Ltd. A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Microsoft Press books are available through booksellers and distributors worldwide. For further infor mation about international editions, contact your local Microsoft Corporation office or contact Microsoft Press International directly at fax (425) 936-7329. Visit our Web site at www.microsoft.com/mspress. Send comments to msinput@microsoft.com. Microsoft, Microsoft Press, ActiveX, Expression, IntelliSense, Internet Explorer, MS, MSDN, Natural, Silverlight, SQL Server, Visual Basic, Visual C#, Visual InterDev, Visual Studio, Windows, Windows Media, Windows Server and Windows Vista are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Other product and company names mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners. The example companies, organizations, products, domain names, e-mail addresses, logos, people, places, and events depicted herein are fictitious. No association with any real company, organization, product, domain name, e-mail address, logo, person, place, or event is intended or should be inferred. This book expresses the author’s views and opinions. The information contained in this book is provided without...

Words: 91822 - Pages: 368

Free Essay

Html 5

...înlăturarea a bugurilor din HTML 4.0. XHTML 1.0 reformulare a lui HTML 4.01 în XML. XHTML 1.0 a devenit o Recomandare W3C pe 20. Ianuarie 2000. HTML 5 devine public la data de 22 ianuarie 2008, cand W3C a publicat un proiect de lucru pentru HTML 5. HTML 5 imbunatateste interoperabilitatea, şi reduce costurile de dezvoltare, prin norme precise privind modul în care să se ocupe de toate elementele HTML, si de a recupera/trarata/evita erori. Unele dintre noile caracteristici din HTML 5 sunt funcţii pentru încorporarea audio, video, grafica, stocarea datelor pe parte de client, precum şi documente interactive. HTML 5 conţine, de asemenea, elemente noi, cum ar , , , şi . Obs: HTML5 nu este încă o recomandare W3C HTML5 1. se bazeaza pe HTML, CSS, DOM, şi JavaScript 2. reduce nevoia de...

Words: 3523 - Pages: 15