Premium Essay

English Profeciency

In: English and Literature

Submitted By joshella
Words 115272
Pages 462
English Language Proficiency
Assessment in the Nation:

Edited by Jamal Abedi

U N I V E R S I T Y O F C A L I F O R N I A , D AV I S • S C H O O L O F E D U C A T I O N

Copyright © 2007 The Regents of the University of California
The work reported herein was supported in part by the National Research and Development Centers, PR/Award
Number R305A050004, as administered by the U.S. Department of Education’s Institute of Education Sciences (IES).
The findings and opinions expressed in this report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the positions or policies of the Institute of Education Sciences, or the U.S. Department of Education.


his study required the participation of all fifty states, their assessment directors, particularly those involved with the NCLB Title III assessments. Their cooperation and patience is much appreciated, and their dedication to educating young people is greatly admired.
We cannot thank the states enough for their collaboration with this project.
Many people generously contributed to the development of this report. We are especially indebted to the chapter authors for their invaluable contributions and for their patience throughout this process. Sue Rigney from the
U.S. Department of Education contributed greatly to the quality of this work by providing excellent comments and suggestions. We are so grateful for her support, advice and contribution to this report. Kathleen Leos of the U.S.
Department of Education also provided useful comments.
We appreciate her support as well. We are also so grateful to Dean Harold Levine for his support, Veena Nambiar,
Susan Porter, Jisel Vega, and Lisa Sullivan for their contributions to this work.
Veena Nambiar (a UC Davis doctoral student) helped in this study by reading the initial version of some of the chapters of this report and by

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Effects of Jeje Language to English Profeciency

...Jejemons don't want this so they made their words longer.[3] Most Jejemons are poor.[1][2][5] People who are Jejemons are described based on levels. These are "mild," "moderate", "severe", or "terminal."[6] Jejenese and Jejebet Jejenese jEJ3n3Se Native to Philippines Ethnicity Jejemon Language family Creole Taglish and Englog Jejenese Writing system Jejebet Language codes ISO 639-2 cpe ISO 639-3 – Jejemons speak Jejenese based on Taglish and Englog.[2][1] Their alphabet, Jejebet, is based on Leet. Words are created by mixing letters in a word, mixed large and small letters, using the letters H, X or Z many times, and mixing of numbers in words.[2] The spelling is the same as Leetspeak. Examples English Tagalog Jejenese I would like to know more about you, care to tell me your name? Hehehehe! Nais kitang makilala, maaari mo bang masabi sa akin ang iyong pangalan? Hahaha! i wuD LLyK tO knOw moR3 bOut u. crE 2 t3ll mE yur N@me? jejejejeje! Hello, how are you? Maligayang bati po, kamusta na? 3ow ph0w, mUsZtAh nA? I miss you! Sabik na kitang makita! iMiszqcKyuH! Hello. Maligayang bati po. eEoWpFhUeEhsxz. I love you. Mahal kita. lAbqCkyOuHh. How are you? Kamusta? uZtaH? I ako aQcKuHh you (sg.) ikaw yuHh you (pl.) kayo kEo po (for politeness) pfHoE po (same as above) ph0w hahaha (laughter) jAjaJa hehehe (smart laughter) jeJejE Reactions Facebook fan pages were made in support and against the group...

Words: 429 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Social Networking- a Menace to Student's English Language Profeciency

...language. This word abbreviated Morse Code like grammar sweeps from computer to phone on social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace and Twitter. “Written communication in instant messaging, text messaging, chat and other forms of electronic communication have generated a “new language” of abbreviations, acronyms, word combinations, and punctuation.” (Varnhagen et al., 2009, p. 1) According to media sources participating on social networking sites and instant messaging is having a negative impact on the use of the English language. Most at risk according to these sources are our younger generations. It threatens youth literacy because it creates and compounds undesirable reading and writing habits and because it’s particular lowbrow vernacular damages students’ abilities to employ regular formal literary skills.” (Craig, 2003, p. 118) This study aimed at determining whether networking sites has a positive or negative impact on young people’s English Language Literacy. I. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM With even more technological advances and the growth of Social Networking sites, people are communicating more by Internet using different sites, and also via their mobile phones, which also have Internet access. With people now being able to do banking online, it could be said that letters will cease to exists, and then the same with text messaging, now that Instant Messaging is available on mobile telephones. Teenagers and young adults in recent years are normally constantly...

Words: 4071 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

The Outline of English Literature

...Министерство образования и науки Республики Казахстан Кокшетауский государственный университет им. Ш. Уалиханова An Outline of British Literature (from tradition to post modernism) Кокшетау 2011 УДК 802.0 – 5:20 ББК 81:432.1-923 № 39 Рекомендовано к печати кафедрой английского языка и МП КГУ им. Ш. Уалиханова, Ученым Советом филологического факультета КГУ им. Ш. Уалиханова, УМС КГУ им. Ш. Уалиханова. Рецензенты: Баяндина С.Ж. доктор филологических наук, профессор, декан филологического факультета КГУ им. Ш. Уалиханова Батаева Ф.А. кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры «Переводческое дело» Кокшетауского университета им. А. Мырзахметова Кожанова К.Т. преподаватель английского языка кафедры гуманитарного цикла ИПК и ПРО Акмолинской области An Outline of British Literature from tradition to post modernism (on specialties 050119 – “Foreign Language: Two Foreign Languages”, 050205 – “Foreign Philology” and 050207 – “Translation”): Учебное пособие / Сост. Немченко Н.Ф. – Кокшетау: Типография КГУ им. Ш. Уалиханова, 2010 – 170 с. ISBN 9965-19-350-9 Пособие представляет собой краткие очерки, характеризующие английскую литературу Великобритании, ее основные направления и тенденции. Все известные направления в литературе иллюстрированы примерами жизни и творчества авторов, вошедших в мировую литературу благодаря...

Words: 82733 - Pages: 331

Free Essay

What Is the Value of Exhibits in the Geffrye Museum to Interior Design Students

...bibliography page appends four sources in Harvard format Outline I . Introduction II . Analysis III . Conclusion Introduction The Geffrye Museum located in East London puts forward a breathtaking imminent interested in the way people of London used to live all the way through the past . Basically the museum under consideration is of English household interiors and has space sets from the year 1600 till just about up to these days . Every single period room that is present in the Geffrye Museum is a superior illustration of how English people belonging to the middle-class in those times , with astonishing innovative furnishings , materials , works of art and accessories used to live . In every single room that you look into one would find something that has never been seen before , for example , the chess set that is arranged and exhibited in the Regency room or the string for calling upon the maids and house workers in the Victorian room are just examples (Porter , 2008 Analysis Perhaps the most welcoming and appealing museums of the United Kingdom the Geffrye puts forward the times gone by of the English household internal from the year 1600 to the contemporary times . A succession of epoch rooms restraining excellent compilations of fixtures , works of art and ornamental arts replicate the altering feels and approaches of the inner-city middle classes . The museum is developed in wonderful 18th-century almshouse constructions with good-looking private...

Words: 507 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Watching the English

...WATCHING THE ENGLISH The Hidden Rules of English Behaviour Kate Fox Awkwardness Rules As it is, our introductions and greetings tend to be uncomfortable, clumsy and inelegant. Among established friends, there is less awkwardness, although we are often still not quite sure what to do with our hands, or whether to hug or kiss. The French custom of a kiss on each cheek has become popular among the chattering classes and some other middle- and upper-middle-class groups, but is regarded as silly and pretentious by many other sections of society, particularly when it takes the form of the ‘air-kiss’. Women who use this variant (and it is only women; men do not air-kiss, unless they are very camp gays, and even then it is done ‘ironically’) are disparagingly referred to as ‘Mwah-Mwahs’. Even in the social circles where cheek-kissing is acceptable, one can still never be entirely sure whether one kiss or two is required, resulting in much awkward hesitation and bumping as the parties try to second-guess each other. Handshakes are now the norm in business introductions – or rather, they are the norm when people in business are introduced to each other for the first time. Ironically, the first introduction, where a degree of formality is expected, is the easiest. (Note, though, that the English handshake is always somewhat awkward, very brief, performed ‘at arm’s length’, and without any of the spare-hand involvement – clasping, forearm patting, etc. – found in less inhibited cultures...

Words: 940 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

English Paradoxes

...No wonder the English language is so very difficult to learn: We polish the Polish furniture. He could lead if he would get the lead out. A farm can produce produce. The dump was so full it had to refuse refuse. The soldier decided to desert in the desert. The present is a good time to present the present to the President. At the Army base, a bass was painted on the head of a bass drum. The dove dove into the bushes. I did not object to the object. The insurance for the invalid was invalid. The bandage was wound around the wound. There was a row among the oarsmen about how to row. They were too close to the door to close it. The buck does funny things when the does are present. They sent a sewer down to stitch the tear in the sewer line. To help with planting, the farmer taught his sow to sow. The wind was too strong to wind the sail. After a number of Novocaine injections, my jaw got number. I shed a tear when I saw the tear in my clothes. I had to subject the subject to a series of tests. How can I intimate this to my most intimate friend? I spent last evening evening out a pile of dirt. Also: There is no egg in eggplant, nor ham in hamburger; neither apple or pine in pineapple. And while no one knows what is in a hotdog, you can be pretty sure it isn't canine. English muffins were not invented in England nor French fries in France. Sweetmeats are candies, while sweetbreads, which aren't sweet, are meat. We take English for granted. But if we explore...

Words: 577 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

The Relationship Between the English Language Exposures and Common Grammatical Errors in Writing Skills

...The Future of English? A guide to forecasting the popularity of the English language in the 21st century David Graddol First published 1997 © The British Council 1997, 2000 All Rights Reserved This digital edition created by The English Company (UK) Ltd David Graddol hereby asserts and gives notice of his right under section 77 of the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 to be identified as the author of this work. What is this book about? This book is about the English language in of the English language and concludes that forecasting, identifies the patterns which the 21st century: about who will speak it and for what purposes. It is a practical the future is more complex and less predictable than has usually been assumed. underlie typical linguistic change and describes the way large corporations have briefing document, written for educationists, politicians, managers – indeed any decision maker or planning team with a professional interest in the development of English worldwide. The book has been commissioned by the British Council to complement the many texts already available about the teaching and learning of English, the history and used ‘scenario planning’ as a strategy for coping with unpredictable futures. Section three outlines significant global trends which will shape the social and economic world in the 21st century. Section four discusses the impacts these trends are The Future of English? takes stock...

Words: 62119 - Pages: 249

Premium Essay


...According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary reparations are “the act of making amends, offering expiation, or giving satisfaction for a wrong or injury; it is something done or given as amends or satisfaction; the payment of damages compensation in money or materials payable by a defeated nation for damages to or expenditures sustained by another nation as a result of hostilities with the defeated nation” ( “The paying of descendants of enslaved Africans for free labor of their ancestors. Supporters argue that the government of the United States at one time sanctioned enslavement and now it should try to remedy the effects of it by paying the descendants of the enslaved for their work” (Asante, Molefi Kete 486). I interviewed a diverse group and asked if they felt that due to the long stretch of years of oppression and torture African Americans have gone through in this country should they be given reparations and if so how. The group I interviewed included family, friends and co-workers: my son a seventeen year old African American male who is Baptist, a co-worker a twenty-five year old Caucasian female who is Catholic, a co-worker a forty-four year old Latin American male who is Catholic, and a good friend a thirty-five year old African American female who is Muslim. The twenty-five year old Caucasian female believes that there is no price for compensation applicable to those today that had their enslaved ancestors suffer. Even if compensation were...

Words: 804 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Cause & Effect: Teaching Efl in Korea

...Cause & Effect Assignment Teaching English as a Foreign Language in South Korea has been my dream job ever since I was a sophomore in high school and discovered my love for the Korean culture. I knew at the time that wanting to acquire a career such as this one would be quite an undertaking, but I didn’t recognize the fact that a good amount of issues would arise in this field. Within the vast amount of issues that my career offers, there are two issues that I am going to cover: creating respectable environments for English as a Second Language students to learn in, and dealing with the issue of how to teach politeness values or leave them out of the mix while they are learning English. I believe that my strengths of achiever, adaptability, positivity, and self-assurance can help me overcome these issues because they are strengths that directly apply to these specific issues that I am going to have to deal with. The first issue I am going to come in contact with is finding a way to create an environment that is ideal for the Korean students to learn English to the best of their ability. When this career opportunity first started off in the country of Korea, it was taught by American missionaries that only taught it ‘as an avenue for [their] missionary work.’ (Jeong, 2004, p. 1) While they were teaching it for this particular reason, under the impression that the Koreans could then be converted into their faith, they didn’t exactly teach it in a way that is considered right...

Words: 1388 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...The Development of the Theory of World Englishes In our modern world there are more non-native speakers of English than native speakers. This is because there is a growing necessity of people to acquire English as a second language for different purposes. As a result of this growing spread of English, new English varieties have risen all over the world. These are commonly called ‘World Englishes’ which suggests the several variations of English spoken in different countries (Seargeant, 2012) As new ‘Englishes’ develop new theories about their formation, similarities and differences arise around the world. English is no longer seen as a unique structure but as a multicultural and plural concept. Hence, the Theory of World Englishes has been developed. According to Seargeant (2012: 6) the theory of World Englishes is “…used to refer to the general discipline that examines the nature and use of English worldwide or of English in globalised contexts”. Thus, it is vital to consider the cultural issues that influence the contexts of those who want to acquire English as a second language. This helps to understand English variations and improves communication in the world. Therefore, this assignment will firstly explain the development of the Theory of World Englishes, then describe its present and future applications and finally evaluate the cultural impacts on speakers of world Englishes. Firstly, it is relevant to provide a clear explanation of the development of the theory of...

Words: 2172 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Different Strokes for Different Folks

...Russell Lytle Professor Jordan History 440 December 13th, 2011 Different Strokes for Different Folks The hunter has now become the hunted. For centuries during the age of the Roman Republic and Empire, citizens of Rome knew that north of the Alps resided longhaired, thick-bearded, untamed races of Germanic peoples that Romans, both pleb and aristocrat eloquently referred to as barbarians. These naked savages to the north had shown they could defeat the mighty Roman Empire repeatedly by using tactics the Roman legions were not accustomed to, and superior knowledge of their home terrain. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forrest and the failed conquest of Briton perfectly illustrate the capability of these so-called barbarians. In addition, as the empire declined, the Germanic tribes to the north made a habit of brutaly raiding and pillaging Italian towns and cities. However, after the Western Roman Empire collapsed the people of Gaul and Germania, once enemies of Rome, became its heirs. Over three centuries following the fall of Rome, the once “barbaric” tribes that had occupied Western Europe now seemed domesticated. The Carolingian dynasty, predominantly under Charlemagne, formed a new Holy Roman Empire, and the modern states of France and Germany were begging to take shape. This along with a widespread devotion to the religion of Christianity, intermarrying of Romans and Franks, an increase of literacy rates, and an improving climate saw the Western Europeans become as civilized...

Words: 1481 - Pages: 6

Free Essay


...Wilson, Emily McPeake ENG 1A September 21, 2013 How Is Evolution Killing the English Language? Texting has become one of the most common forms of communication in modern times, especially with the younger generations. As the times and definitions of “modern” continues to change, many people are having troubles coping with this concept and the fact we are and will always continue to evolve. Just as growing up is the human body’s way of changing, language is societies way of changing. There is no set definition of what the English language is supposed to be composed of, forever. The English language is not negatively impacted by texting; it is simply evolving through new forms of communication, entertainment, and learning. Our way of communicating with each other has been transformed with the help or “txtspeak.” It is a very common way of talking, whether it’s in person or through SMS. If we compare what we considered to be the language of English from a few hundred years ago to now, there is an obvious change. As we evolve as a society, everything around us does as well. Abbreviations are being entered into the dictionary and many people are going crazy over it. One of the most common complaints about our overuse of abbreviations is the multiple meaning of them. Humphrys claims that, “as it has developed, its users have sought out increasingly obscure ways of expressing themselves.”(Humphrys, 187) Even though this seems to be true, the trick to figuring out the meaning...

Words: 750 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Country Road

...Simply defined, linguistics is the scientific study of language. Though various types of language studies (including grammar and rhetoric) can be traced back over 2,500 years, the era of modern linguistics is barely two centuries old. Kicked off by the late-18th-century discovery that many European and Asian languages descended from a common tongue (Proto-Indo-European), modern linguistics was reshaped, first, by Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) and more recently by Noam Chomsky (born 1928). The systematic study of the nature, structure, and variation of language. Major subfields of linguistics include phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and discourse analysis. The founder of modern structural linguistics was Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913), whose most influential work, Course in General Linguistics, was edited by his students and published in 1916. Source:  An Introduction to Language by Victoria Fromkin and Robert Rodman, 6th Ed.) Part One: Introduction to Linguistics Every human knows at least one language, spoken or signed. Linguistics is the science of language, including the sounds, words, and grammar rules. Words in languages are finite, but sentences are not. It is this creative aspect of human language that sets it apart from animal languages, which are essentially responses to stimuli. The rules of a language, also called grammar, are learned as one acquires a language. These rules include phonology, the sound system, morphology, the...

Words: 10632 - Pages: 43

Free Essay

Comparison Between Singapore and China Primary Chinese Text Book

... 庄 庭 兰 学 院: 国 际 交 流 学 院 1 2012年5月18日 目录 中国与新加坡小学语文教材比较研究 2 摘要 2 1中国与新加坡小学语文课程比较研究概述 3 2对新加坡小学语文教材的简介 4 3中国小学语文教材与新加坡华文教材口语教学内容的比较 4 3.1中国小学语文教材口语课程 5 3.2新加坡小学华文教材口语课程教学 5 4中国小学语文教材与新加坡小学华文教材表面价值的比较 6 4.1研究对象与方法 6 4.2教材内容的比较分析 6 5中国小学语文教材与新加坡小学华文教材深层价值的比较 8 结语 9 参考文献 9 中国与新加坡小学语文教材比较研究 摘要:对于新加坡而言,英语是其共同语与主要教学语言,同时也是很多华族的主要家庭语言。因此,新加坡是华语为大部分华族第二语言的地区,因此新加坡小学语文课程也应与中国的小学语文课程有所区别。但在经过作者的反复比较之后发现,新加坡的小学语文课程总目标与中国小学语文课程总目标如出一辙,除了比较注重普通的语言训练之外,也强调思维技能、品德情意、语文素养与中华文化。因此,本论文将以新加坡小学语文教材中的部分语言现象以及教材的编排为出发点,将其与中国小学语文教材进行了相应比较,并且对二者之间的异同之处进行了浅要分析。 关键词:中国;新加坡;小学语文教材;比较 Abstract: For Singapore, the main teaching medium and its common language are English. In the meanwhile it is also the family language. So Singapore is the district that most of its Chinese residents that use Chinese language as a second language. And there must be some differences between the two Country’s Chinese Curriculum. But after several comparisons, the author found that there is no much difference between the two Countries of its general objective of Chinese Curriculum. They not only put more attentions on the language basic skills training but also lay stress on critical thinking/moral values/Chinese quality and Chinese culture. Therefore, in this dissertation I will analyze part of the language phenomenon in the Singapore Chinese textbook and its arrangement as the starting point. And put them in comparison to...

Words: 773 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Change of the English Language

...Psychology Project 1 The Change of The English Language Dmitry Shkolnik Tesst College of Technology In the course of human language, it becomes necessary for people to create or redefine, words or phrases to express an object or an action; and to assume, among society, the acceptance and usage of these words and their definitions, in one’s own language, or idiolect. A decent respect to the opinions of mankind, requires that Americans should recognize slang adopted into language. We hold these truths to be self-evident: that language is expression of thought, in the form of speech or written symbols, that have agreed-upon meanings. That, many large speaking languages contain dialects, or other versions of languages within a community, that are different in some aspects of grammar, pronunciation, or vocabulary. That, because language is a form of one’s own ideas and expression, everyone possesses his or her own individual language, or idiolect. That, not only does perception change language, but that language changes perception. That, through the course of history, idiolects have shaped dialects, which have shaped language, which in turn, have shaped concepts. Conservatives, indeed, will dictate that languages will follow a narrow path toward a standard language. And accordingly, expression will follow the rules and guidelines that limit thought, rather than the ability to rethink old vocabulary and enrich new ones. When we speak, write...

Words: 743 - Pages: 3