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Test 1 Review 1. The atmosphere one a newly discovered planet has the following mixture of gases.
37 % O2 , 20 % CO2, 15 % H2 10% Ar, 18% N2

Given a Patm of 450 mmHg (assume 0% humidity) what is the partial pressure of O2 and Co2.

2. Marco tries to hide at the bottom of a swimming pool by breathing in and out through a 6 ft garden hose. What happens to following parameters? Ignore chemoreceptors compensation and be sure to provide a brief rationale for the changes you identify.

Systemic arterial PO2

Systemic arterial PCO2

[HCO3-] plasma

Plasma pH

Total pulmonary ventilation

% saturation of hemoglobin

3. An individual has the following measured respiratory elements. All units has to be in L and min
VT= 200 ml/breath
IRV =3 L
ERV= 2 L
Anatomic dead space = 150 ml
Residual volume= 1 L
Respiration rate = 5 breaths/ 7 seconds
What is pulmonary ventilation?

What is alveolar ventilation?

What is her vital capacity?

What is her inspiratory capacity?

What is her expiratory capacity?

What is her total lung volume?

What is the function of the conduction portion of the respiratory tract? Describe the anatomical structures that accomplish this.

What is the function of the respiratory portion? Describe the anatomical structures that accomplish this.

Draw the HB saturation curve. Be sure to identify the X and Y axis and labels where the systemic and pulmonary blood sits and where the normal systemic venous blood sits.

What is the significance of the shape of the curve?

Briefly describe pH, T, PCO2, and [DPG]

Provide a mechanistic and teleogical explanation for the changes you described above.

a. A b. B c. C d. A & B e. A & C f. B & C g. All of them h. None of them

A. Normal surface area B. May have an increase in dead space C. Increase in diffusion distance D. Lower than normal hemoglobin saturation E. Which may be suffering from asthma F. Normal VA

You are given the following about your patient.
Blood volume = 4.9 L
Hematocrit = 45%
Hemoglobin concentration = 15 gHb/dL whole blood
Total amount of O2 in blood = 675 ml O2
PaO2 = 60 mmHg
Maximum O2 carrying capacity of hemoglobin = 1.5 ml O2/g Hb
At PaO2 = 60 mmHg the hemoglobin is 60 % saturated.
How much O2 is dissolved in the plasma of the patient (ml O2/dl?)

Draw the flowchart that outlines the central chemoreceptors reflex.

a. Aorta b. Central chemoreceptors c. Compliance d. DRG e. Elastance f. Endothelium g. Forced expiration h. Inspiration i. Macrophages j. Mesothelium k. Parietal pleura l. Passive expiration m. Peripheral chemoreceptors n. Pulmonary arteries o. Pulmonary trunk p. Pulmonary veins q. Respiratory epithelium r. Respiratory membrane s. Septal cells t. Type I Cells u. Vena Cava v. Visceral pleura w. VRG x. Aorta y. Central chemoreceptors z. Compliance {. DRG |. Elastance }. Endothelium ~. Forced expiration . Inspiration . Macrophages . Mesothelium . Parietal pleura . Passive expiration . Peripheral chemoreceptors . Pulmonary arteries . Pulmonary trunk . Pulmonary veins . Respiratory epithelium . Respiratory membrane . Septal cells . Type I Cells . Vena Cava . Visceral pleura . VRG
1.______ Function of how easily a lung stretches
2. ______Uses internal intercostal muscles
3.______Produces surfactant
4.______Membrane covering of lung that includes a fibrous CT layer
5.______Delivers blood the right atrium
6.______Activated by changes in both PCO2 and PO2

What is compliance?

What is Elastance?

What are some diseases states that are due to compliance?

What are some diseases that are due to Elastance?

What factors affect the Oxygen binding to Hb?

What ways is carbon dioxide transported?

Draw the flow chart on how carbon dioxide transport in the blood with Carbonic anhydrase.

Draw a flow chart on how Peripheral chemoreceptors how it works.

Exam 2
List three processes of this structure, define each function each and describe where along this structures takes place. (Referring to nephron)

List all three pressure governing bulk flow in the glomerular capillaries.

Provide the average value for each pressure you listed

Define the direction of fluid movement through these capillaries. Provide rationale.

Provide a mechanistic explanation for the information contained on the graph. (Map and glomerular filtration)

What is normal MAP?

1. IF renal blood flow is 30 % of the cardiac output. What is the GFR of an individual given?
HR = 50 bpm
SV= 70 ml /beat

2. [creatine}plasma =2.5 mg/100 ml
[Creatine] urine = 2 g/L
[x] Plasma = 50 mg /100 ml
[x] Urine = 86 g/L
[z] Plasma = 150mg /100ml
[z] Urine= 119.6 g/L
Urine volume = 2.48 L /24 hr.
Describe each renal handling. Be sure to provide a rational for your answers.
Substance x

Substance Z

A new hydrophilic substance called Ugo has shown up in the drinking water. It has been found that in the kidney, this substance is reabsorbed and not secreted. Give GFR = 200 ml/min and TM = 30 mg / min.
Calculate the renal threshold.

Draw graph representing Ugo filtration rate.

Calculate the secretion rate.
[Inulin] plasma= 02 g/ 100 ml
[Inulin] urine =150 g/l
[Ohno] plasma= 50 mg/100 ml
[Ohno] urine= 200 g/l
Urine volume = 3 L/24 hr.

Reabsorption transport process. Tubular reabsorption of solutes and water. (figure 19.11)

Sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule (19-12)

Sodium linked glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubule.

Identify the structures and then explain their significance to the renal physiology a. Juxtaglomerular apparatus b. Macula densa c. Mesangial cell d. Podocyte e. Sphincters in the bladder f. Renal cortex

Define, compare, and contrast the items

1. Filtration , secretion , and excretion

2. Saturation, transport maximum, and renal threshold

3. Clearance , excretion, and glomerular filtration rate

Test 3 1. Why does the K+ -H+ transporter of the collecting duct requires ATP in order to secrete H+ but the Na+ -H+ exchanger of the proximal tubule does not.

2. In hypokalemia the collecting duct reabsorbs K+ from the tubule lumen.

Which collecting duct cell carries out this function?

What happens to pH of the body fluids in hypokalemia as result?

3. Mr. Gregory comes to the doctor with high blood pressure. Tests show that he also has elevated levels of renin in his blood and atherosclerotic plaques that have nearly blocked blood flow through the renal arteries. Mr. Gregory is puzzled.
Provide a mechanistic explanation for how a decrease in blood flow in his renal arteries causes renin secretion to increase.

Map the pathways through renin causes high blood pressure.

Map flow chart for aldosterone.

Map flow chart for ADH

Map flowchart for ANP.

Map flow chart for Thirst.

Gossip an undergraduate has normal PCO2 and high H+, low level pH and bicarbonate levels/
What type of disturbance is he suffering from?

What are three possible causes of this condition?

Draw how bulk reabsorption of HCO3- occurs in the proximal tubule. Be sure to label all types of transport that is occurring.

Lumen ECF

a. ACE b. Aorta and carotid arteries c. Ascending limb of henle d. Atria e. Baroreceptors f. Carbonic anhydrase g. Collecting duct h. Descending limb of henle i. Hypothalamus j. Osmoreceptors k. Principal cells l. Proximal tubule m. Stretch receptors n. Α intercalated cells o. Β intercalated cells p. ACE q. Aorta and carotid arteries r. Ascending limb of henle s. Atria t. Baroreceptors u. Carbonic anhydrase v. Collecting duct w. Descending limb of henle x. Hypothalamus y. Osmoreceptors z. Principal cells {. Proximal tubule |. Stretch receptors }. Α intercalated cells ~. Β intercalated cells
1.____ Activated by a change in blood volume
2. ______ Where osmoreceptors are located
3. ______ Where stretch receptors are located
4. _______Permeable to water only
5._______Secrete HCO3- and reabsorb H+
6. ______ permeable to solute only
7. ______Activated by a change in ECF OSM
8. ______Activated by a change in blood pressure
9. ______Found in endothelial cell membranes
10.______ site of bulk reabsorption

When venous return is increased, stretch receptors in the atria of the heart are activated. This trigger a. Secretion ADH b. Inhibition of ADH secretion c. Increased glomerular filtration d. Decreased in urine production e. Increased in thirst
When baroreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies register increased in blood pressure, this triggers a. Secretion ADH b. Inhibition of ADH secretion c. Increased glomerular filtration d. Decreased in urine production e. Increased in thirst
ACE inhibitors a. Block he conversion of angiotensin 1 to 11 b. Lower blood pressure c. Reduce Na+ reabsorption and decrease extracellular fluid volume d. A and b e. A, B, C
Atrial Natriuretic peptide a. Reduces thirst b. Blocks the release of ADH c. Blocks the release of aldosterone d. Promotes diuresis e. All the above
Hypoventilation causes a. Respiratory acidosis b. Respiratory alkalosis c. Metabolic acidosis d. Metabolic alkalosis e. None of the above
As a result of respiratory alkalosis a. The respiratory rate increases b. The tidal volume increases c. The kidneys conserve bicarbonate d. The kidneys secret more hydrogen ions e. The body retains less carbon dioxide
Prolonged vomiting of the stomach’s content can result in a. Respiratory acidosis b. Respiratory alkalosis c. Metabolic acidosis d. Metabolic alkalosis e. None of the above
A person who suffers from emphysema will exhibit signs of a. Respiratory acidosis b. Respiratory alkalosis c. Metabolic acidosis d. Metabolic alkalosis e. None of the above

A mountain climber at high altitude may develop a. Respiratory acidosis b. Respiratory alkalosis c. Metabolic acidosis d. Metabolic alkalosis e. None of the above
Secretion of potassium into the urine a. A decrease by aldosterone b. Is associated with reabsorption of sodium from the distal tubules and collecting duct c. Is minimal because humans ingest very little potassium d. Is increased by decreased levels of ang 11 e. Is increased in the presence of ANP
Dehydration causes a. Fluid to shift from ECF to ICF b. Decreased secretion of ADH c. Increased thirst d. Increased levels of aldosterone e. All the above
Desert Dan has been lost in the desert for 2 days with very little water. As a result you expect to observe a. elevated ADH b. decreased blood osmolality c. normal urine production d. increased blood volume e. cells enlarged with fluid
In response to a rapid increase of organic acid in the body, you would expect to observe a. increased alveolar ventilation b. decreased blood pressure c. decreased heart rate d. decreased blood pH e. A & D

Which of the following are true about aldosterone mechanism of action? a. Receptors for aldosterone are found inside principals cells b. Aldosterone receptors complex changes gene expression in principal cells c. In the end cells stimulated by aldosterone express higher levels of cation channels and sodium/potassium ATPase d. All the above e. A & C only

Draw the transport process for ADH.
Lumen ICF

Explain the countercurrent exchange in the medulla of the kidney.

Draw the transport process on aldosterone acts on Principal cells
Lumen Interstitial fluid

Draw the overview of renal compensation for acidosis.

Draw the process for intercalated cell function in acidosis.

Draw type B intercalated cell function in alkalosis

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