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Submitted By bstrijdom
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Question 1
- We accept ordinary learners as well as disabled learners, learners with behavioural problems and learners with learning difficulties.
- All children, regardless of their differences should have the opportunity to learn with and from each other and that all need some form of support in learning
- We attempt to change attitudes, behaviour, teaching methods curricula and environments to meet the needs of all children
- Inclusive education is broader as it includes the home, the community and other opportunities for education outside of schools
- It is a dynamic process which is constantly evolving according to local cultures and contexts and is part of the wider strategy to promote an inclusive society WHAT TYPES OF ADAPTIONS ARE NECESSARY TO REMOVE BARRIERS TO LEARNING AND TO MAKE IT POSSIBLE FOR ALL LEARNERS TO PARTICIPATE?
- The classroom and school environment – making changes in the classroom and in the school building and environment that could make it easier for the learners to come to school and to learn and also by using assistive aids that may be needed
- The learner – find out how the barriers to learning of the learners in your class affect their learning – find out from specialists and experts what you can do
- School subjects – make changes to subjects you teach in terms of level and expected outcomes including the level at which you teach the subject to the learners as well as the range of subjects
- Teaching strategies –make changes to your teaching methods to suit the learners needs
- Participation in other school activities – make changes in order to ensure the learner’s active participation
- Tests, exams and assessments – make changes in order to assess the learner’s learning more accurately

- It refers to anything which stands in the way of a learner being able to learn effectively
- A learner may experience one or more barriers to learning
- It requires support to accommodate him in order to reach his full academic potential
- Barriers can be present in: o The learner – when a physical/physiological impairment becomes a disability o The learning centre – the school o The system of education o The broader social, economic and political context (including the environment)
- Physical and physiological impairments in learners can be identified at an early stage and can be treated by implementing effective methods and processes.
- Barriers on the other hand, can occur at anytime during the learning process if these learners do not get the necessary support
- Intrinsic factors o Are usually born with the problem or acquired them later o These are the learners with physical/physiological impairments o Are sometimes obvious – blindness and sometimes not so obvious – hard of hearing o These physical or physiological impairments can occur in different measures – total loss of hearing or partial loss of hearing o These impairments may become disabilities if society and the system of education do not make provision for these learners
- Sensory impairments = one of the person’s senses is affected - visual or aural
- Physical impairments = a person whose external physical appearance or functioning is affected has a physical impairment.
- Mental or intellectual impairments = refers to persons who are mentally less capable than the average - they find it more difficult to comprehend and to learn.
- Multiple impairments – Some people have more than 1impairment – they may for eg have physical & intellectual impairments, or visual &hearing impairments
- Physiological impairments refer to impairment in the functions of the body - chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, Aids etc
- Developmental problems – refer to learners whose development does not correspond more or less to that of other learners his age.
- Genetic factors – these are hereditary factors

- Prenatal, Perinatal and Postnatal brain damage – Some physical and/or physiological impairment arise in children as a result of brain damage incurred before, during or after birth.

 Personality problems – some learners have specific personality characteristics that have a negative impact on their achievement at school and give rise to barriers to their learning.

- Learning problems – when they find it difficult to master learning tasks which most other learners in the class can manage eg. In maths or languages etc
- Underachievement – the learner does not do as well as one would expect of someone with his intellectual ability.
- Extrinsic factors

o Are not born with the barriers – because of other factors that affect their ability to learn such as their environment in which they are growing up or the school that does not encourage a learning culture

o Some examples are:

 Environment – unfavourable socioeconomic circumstances, urban areas (apartments, little supervision), rural environments (poor school attendance), prosperous areas (bored, drugs, pressure)
 Education – poor teaching (lack of qualifications, unmotivated or lazy), incomplete participation on the part of learners, inappropriate study material, inefficient school organisation, crowded classrooms
 Language – many learners taught in Eng (not home language), often the teachers can’t speak proper English either. They perform poorly due to a lack of understanding
 Culture – need to accommodate diff cultures, we learn, think and do things differently – keep that in mind (religion, language, food, sense of humour)
 Job prospects – many learners leave schools but there are no jobs available so they get depressed and discouraged = underachieve at school
- Emotional problems – this is reflected in the following ways: nervousness, tension, anxiety, depression, suicidal tendencies, etc.
- Behavioural problems – refers to those learners who show unacceptable conduct.

Question 2
2.1 Educators can support learners with hearing impairments in the following ways:
• Overhead projectors should be used as it allows the learner to view a visual presentation of material and watch the teachers lips simultaneously
• Assign a peer to take notes using carbon paper for the hearing impaired learner and to point to speakers during group discussions.
• Speak clearly in a normal voice and at a moderate pace
• Use visual signals to gain the learners attention
• Ask questions to check if the learner understands the orally presented directions and content
• Rephrase content or questions to make it more understandable to hearing impaired learners
• Supplement oral information with visual aids
• Give outlines for tests, assignments add lectures in writing
• Cue learners visually to indicate someone talking over the intercom and explain the message to hearing impaired learners
• Establish a visual signal to alert learners to dangerous situations
• Repeat and summarise main points of orally presented information
• Provide written models to aid hearing impaired learners when checking the accuracy of assignments
• Encourage parents of learners with hearing impairments to review work with their children
2.2 Educators can support learners with visual impairments in the following ways:
• Learners should be allowed to sit closer to the chalkboard
• Repeat what is written on the board so learners can check on their own written work
• A magnifying glass may be used if large print textbooks are unavailable
• Instead of using ordinary classwork books with dull lines, one can use A-4 paper and draw line with a black marker which is more visible for learners
• Printed material should be clear, attractive and meaningful. Black print on white paper with relatively large print and good spacing is best
• Learners with hyperopia would prefer sitting in the back of the class and might prefer play more than schoolwork.
• Textbooks can be recorded on tape for learners who find it difficult to read their textbooks
• Learners need tape recorders and they need to know how to manage and use them
• Doors should be kept either open or closed as doors can be a potential safety hazard
• Passages between desks should be kept clear to prevent learners from stumbling over stray objects on the floor
2.3 Educators can support learners with Cerebral palsy in the following ways:
• Arrange the furniture in a way that they are able to move around freely

• The washbasin and toilet must be easily accessible.
• Store classroom apparatus away & position activities in places where the learners will be able to reach for it themselves.
• Encourage learners to become independent - organise the floor & table games which are easy to manage and which will encourage participation.
• Encourage them to use disabled limbs
• Give them chores & responsibilities and they will feel just as important as the others
• Encourage learners 2 join in group activities - to feel as a participant in group situations
• Help him to feel physically & emotionally secure-may explore with confidence
• Explain to the rest of the class to obtain & maintain understanding and cooperation
• Comfortable with orthopaedic aids & try to make the class & other areas easily accessible – so they can move around freely in the class while using their aids
• With medication – make sure that they take their medication regularly.
• Keep close contact with parents to keep up to date of any changes or developments.
• Try to find a typewriter, tablet or a notebook for learners who have difficulty with their handwriting and allow them to do tests or exams orally if and when necessary.

• Restrict incidents that might distract attention – to focus on the work to complete.
• Make provision for periods of absences & assist with catching up of missed work.
• Be creative in your teaching - improvise when necessary and provide whatever assistance you can in order to assist learners.

Question 3
- With slight seizures:

o Be alert at all times o Look out for signs of a seizure and then keep an accurate record of the incidences o Make sure that no one opposes the child or tries to force him/her to act differently o Simply guide the learner to a place of safety o Provide comfort & allow the child to rest as some learners may feel nauseous, have a headache or be confused or upset afterwards

- With tonic-clonic seizures: o Prevent the learner from falling o Move any objects away so that he/she does not sustain an injury. o Do not allow anyone else to try hold on to the learner or prevent the body movements of the learner as this may also lead to an injury. o Turn the learner on one side so that excess saliva may run out and not cause the learner to choke. o Do not insert any objects into the learner’s mouth. o Make sure learner’s clothes are loose, especially around the neck & the waist o Wait for the seizure to pass & ensure that other learners remain calm. o Call for medical assistance if the learner:
 has seizures at frequent intervals,
 is at a loss for oxygen,
 if the learner chokes or
 if the learner sustains injuries which require medical attention. o If a learner is has a seizure for the first time inform the parents as soon as possible, or call for a doctor or both.
Report all seizures to the parents & if necessary send the learner home

Question 4.2
The need for love and affection
If learners emotional needs remain unmet, the learner might exhibit behavioural problems and he won’t be able to actualise his potential to the fullest. Teachers therefore have to pay attention to the quality of teacher/learner relationships in terms of satisfying the unmet emotional needs of learners.
This need can be met only via the child’s meaningful, continuous, dependable and loving relationships with parents or their substitute. Parents also need to experience such a relationship with each other. These initial relationships pave the way for all subsequent relationships and lead to healthy development of personality, an ability to respond well to affection and to become a loving parent. The more love learners receive, the more love they will be able to give and receive themselves. The parental love must be unconditional -–without expectations and demand of gratitude. A child must not be made feel guilty about constraints he imposes upon parents´ freedom of movement, time spent with him or the use of finances. The teacher and parents need to separate the deeds of the child from the child as a person, by indicating to the child that his behaviour isn’t acceptable although he as a person is still acceptable. Manifestations of lack of love and affection: often want to sit next to teacher, demand love and affection, often lie and exhibit delinquent behaviour, unusual affection towards animals and toys, cry easily and be frequently sick, feeling of being unwanted and rejected, have violent crashes on learners of the same/opposite sex, frequently offer to babysit younger learners, like to watch love stories, feelings of anger, hate and lack of concern for others. Learners who are experiencing too much love may be scared to venture into unknown and have problems becoming independent. His parents don’t want to let go of the child. Marital conflict has damaging impact on the child, who may become emotionally disturbed or antisocial and unable to render unselfish laving care in a future parental relationship with his child. The child’s school performance may be affected and his relationships with adults may be harmed. In cases where the father is absent most of the time, boys may become delinquents and girls in search of father figure may get involved with older men.

The need for security
The child derives feelings of security from stable relationships with the family. Other factors that give the child a sense of security are familiar places, a known routines, familiar objects or cherished possessions, stable marital relationship. Child should know what is expected from him (define what is reasonable and acceptable). Consistent discipline makes children feel secure. Children also feel more secure if they are aware of their past and have an idea of their future destiny. If young learners seem disobedient, it could be because they are testing the limits to which they may go or because they have forgotten the rules. Irrational fears are often the cause of insecurity and anxiety. The results of need to feel secure are often obsessive compulsive neurotic behaviour patterns. Insecure people will follow a leader figure in crisis situation. The more the child feels secure, the less disciplinary problems will be experienced
As a child gains insight into his behaviour, the moral insight is laid. Love oriented method focuses on a temporary withdrawal of affection as a means of indicating disapproval and uses the warm and loving relationship as a means of controlling behaviour. A child can detect when mother is displeased with him and hence becomes anxious and will try to please the mother to prevent anxiety. Teachers can assist learners to understand what is expected of them by providing a caring environment. Parents should not discuss finances in the presence of learners, because children may become insecure and uncertain about the future. Economically insecure learners may verbalise their concerns about finances and might have problems sleeping. Economic insecurity may affect the child’s relationships
The need to belong
Learners who experience a need to belong haven’t got as many friends as they would like to have or are unable to befriend learners they wish to make friends with. Manifestations:
• They will verbalise the need to belong
• They will feel rejected – remain observer
• May act aggressively when trying to force his way into a specific group; when finally invited, they may decline invitation.
• They tend to remain on the fringe of any group activity, linger behind others when walking back home
• They feel lonely, insecure and depressed. They want to be accepted unconditionally and often feel different.
The need for new experiences
A child needs new experiences in order for mental growth to take place.
• If stimulated too much, a young child may feel uncontrollable excitement, tenseness, exhaustion and disturbed sleep. In classroom overstimulation will manifest itself in confusion, mistakes, tenseness and frustration.
• A child who hasn’t been sufficiently stimulated will experience boredom, aimlessness and apathy. His attention will wander and his performance at school will deteriorate. A desire for adventure can lead to vandalism and delinquency. A young child who doesn’t receive sufficient stimulation can suffer from impaired development, including intellectual growth and limited language skills (to help, discuss issues, concepts and ideas with the child.) A child who is discouraged from exploring the world is inclined to be passive, frustrated, experiencing little joy or satisfaction.
The need to be free from feelings of fear
Young learners usually express their fears verbally to teachers. They may be afraid of anything. A fearful child is often nervous and it is more difficult to teach fearful child. Such child may suffer from nausea, inability to sleep, fatigue and involuntary excretion. They are often reluctant to participate is sports or visit the school nurse. Change causes anxiety. Adults shouldn’t threaten children with policeman, devil etc.

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